The ExamQuestion 1a - Discuss your production journey in relation to one or more of the headings »25 marks »30 minutesQuestion 1b – Analyse ONE piece of work in relation to ONE key concept specified in the exam. »25 marks »30 minutes
1(b)• In this question you will be asked to apply one of the following theoretical concepts to either your AS or A2 coursework: – Representation – Audience For this question you choose ONE – Narrative piece of AS or A2 coursework to – Genre discuss. – Media Language
You need to consider (write) the following about your production• How the audience is represented in your product• How your product can be applied to audience theories• How the audience for your product was constructed and researched
Aims/Objectives• To consider the way audiences are grouped and targeted• To reinforce basic audience theory• To have an understanding of how to evaluate your coursework against a consideration of your target audience.
• mass-produced - made for the mass of people. There is a downside to this, of course, in that it can also be interpreted as commercial or trashy.• niche - a small target audience that is highly specific• alternative – outside of the mainstream. Going against dominant ideology includes minority groups, perhaps with subversive values
Gaining Feedback from your Audience• You attempted to gain feedback from your target audience in order to get their opinions.• What else did you do? Blogs – images and ideas? Polls to tailor the product better for your audience?
Message (institution)Audiencetheory isconcernedwith how Mediumaudiencesinterpretmessages Audience
PASSIVE ACTIVE•Audiences accept •Audiences aremedia messages involved in their interpretations of•Audiences easily media textsinfluenced •Audiences create•Do not make own their own meaningsuse of texts orinterpret in own way •Audiences question and respond to institutions
Ien Ang (1991) detailed thatmedia producers have animaginary entity in mind beforethe construction of a mediaproduct.What is she talking about?
Ang (1991) states that audiencehoodis becoming an ever moremultifaceted, fragmented anddiversified repertoire of practices andexperiences.You must detail the social demographicof your target audience(gender, age, ethnicity, social class).
• Dating from the 1920s• One of the first attempts to explain how audiences react to mass media• Suggests that audiences passively receive information transmitted via a media text• Suggests that audiences do not try to process or challenge the information• Developed when mass media was still fairly new
The Frankfurt School’s Hypodermic Theory (1930s) This Marxist theory, which was championed by theorists such as Theodore Adorno, assumes a direct stimulus-response relationship between audience reactions and the consumption of media texts.
• The message is entirely accepted by the audience• The audience has no role in interpreting the text• Is considered mostly obsolete today• Still quoted during moral panics (computer games, violent films etc)
• This theory can relate directly to music videos – debate at the moment concerned with rap/gangster videos, Marylin Manson etc.
"These are bad people who did this.Kids out of control. When I was youngit was all Pac-Man and board games.Now theyre playing Grand Theft Autoand want to live it for themselves." This was said about the 2011 London riotsHow much do you agree with this statement?
“If Pac-Man had affected us as kids, wed all be running around indark rooms, munching pills and listening to repetitive electronicmusic.” – Marcus Brigstocke
Criticisms Of Hypodermic Theory• Doesn’t allow for resistance or rejection of media messages.• Elitist.• Simplistic.
Look at these media textsWhat do you think consumers get from these texts?Do different texts offer different things to different people?
Uses and Gratifications Theory states thatpeople use media texts in different ways, fordifferent reasons. Blumler and Katz’s in ‘74expanded on the 60s versionUnlike the Hypodermic needle model U and Gtheory argues that it’s:“...not what does the media do to people, butwhat do people do with the media”
Entertainment/DiversionThe media text is enjoyable; an escape from routine and problems; an emotional releaseInformation/SurveillanceThe media text is a source of information; a form of educationSocial RelationshipsThe media text is part of social life or is a replacement for a social life.Personal IdentityThe media product reflects your own values, ideals and hopes or “life”
Think about which product you have made thatAudience Theory could apply too and answerthis:Which of these needs are likely to be satisfied by your product? 7 Minutes – GO!
Reception Theory• Encoding/decoding model of the relationship between text and audience - the text is encoded by the producer, and decoded by the reader• There may be major differences between two different readings of the same code created by situated culture - social class, gender, ethnicity etc.• Using recognised codes and conventions and drawing upon audience expectations relating to aspects such as genre and use of stars, the producers can position the audience and thus create a certain amount of agreement on what the code means. This is known as a preferred reading
• You must think about the meanings behind your text and how you encoded them and they are decoded according to audience’s: Situated Culture• So people from different social groups will have knowledge of the codes of different types of media text
Stuart Hall (1980) analysed the readingswithin audiences as either:• 1.Dominant or Preferred Reading: The meaning they want you to have is usually accepted.• 2.Negotiated Reading: The dominant reading is only partially recognised or accepted and audiences might disagree with some of it or find their own meanings.• 3.Oppositional Reading: The dominant reading is refused, rejected because the reader disagrees with it or is offended by it, especially for political, religious, feminist, reasons etc.
Reception Theory How might different people feel about this advert?
Preferred ReadingThe preferred reading is the reading media producershope audiences will take from the text.In this example, it’s that a Big Mac is delicious and fillsyou up
Oppositional readingAudiences outside the intended target audience may have anoppositional reading.This is where the audience reject the preferred reading andsupply their own meaning, in this example, an awareness ofadvertising and how the real burger looks different to theadverts
Negotiated Reading “I like Big Macs but I know they are unhealthy so I eat them rarely and as part of a balanced diet”Negotiated reading is when audiencesacknowledge the preferred reading, but modify it tosuit their own values and opinions.In this example, it’s that Big Mac’s aren’t healthy, butone every now and then is ok.
• What is your preferred reading?• How do you encode it through your use of technical aspects (camerawork, editing, sound, mise en scene)?• What different readings might the audience produce? 7 Minutes – GO!
• Stronger answers do 3 things well: – Outline the concept of Audience with reference to relevant x3 theorists – Apply these ideas to a range of specific elements from ONE PIECE coursework – Emphasis is on examples from your product and how they support or challenge a theory• Poor answers will lack reference to theory and specific answers.• Choice of text is important.• Don’t forget your Target Audience – Surveys, socio- cultural background
“People who watch things and read things are brainwashed by them and believe everything they say” “People watch things and read things because they get certain things out of it, like for entertainment or education”“Different people get different things out of media texts”
Web 2.0• Allows audiences to be interactive through customisation of texts and platforms to express their own opinions• Specifically refers to social networking sites and sites which rely on user generated content (blogs, web forums, YouTube…) or sharing content (torrents…)• Challenge traditional models of audience as they place the power to create and influence in the hands of the audience rather than institutions