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Grammar book dos



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  • 1. Grammar Book Dos Kipa Keith
  • 2. Table of Contents• Imperfect• Preterite • Car/gar/ zar • Spock • Cucaracha • Snake/snakey• Model Verbs• Adverbs• Progressive- present/past• Future (+Irregular and conditional)• Superlatives• Formal commands• Prepositions• Demonstratives
  • 3. Imperfect Verb Formsaba ábamos ía íamosabas abais ías íaisaba aban ía ían Uses: Ongoing action (was/were) Repeated action (used to) No definite beginning or end Time/date/age/feeling/descriptions Interrupted activity (cuando)
  • 4. Imperfect Irregulares Ir Ser VerYo iba era veíaTú ibas eras veíasEl, Ella, Ud. iba era veíaNosotros íbamos éramos veíamosVosotros ibais erais veíaisEllos, Ellas, Uds. iban eran veían
  • 5. Preterite • Past tense verb • “Snapshot” back in time • The action has a beginning and an ending ar er/ir • It is a completed action -gar é í gué gamos gaste aste iste gó garon ió -car -zarqué camos cé zamos amos imoscaste zastecó caron zó zaron aron ieron
  • 6. Spock Ir o ser fui fuiste fue fuiemos fueron dar o ver i iste hacer io hice imos hiciste ieron hizo hicimos hicieron
  • 7. Cucaracha Andar  Anduv- Estar  Estuv- Poder  Pud- e Poner Querer   Pus- Quis- iste Saber  Sup- o Tener  Tuv- Venir  Vin- imos Decir  Traer  Dij- Traj- isteis Conducir  Conduj- Drop i -> ieron Producir  Produj- Traducir  Traduj-
  • 8. Snake/Snakey: Preterite Verbs with a Y Spelling ChangeSnakeStem Changers*Dormir>Dormí To write the third>Dormiste person (singular>Durmió and plural) preterite form of>Dormimos –er and –ir verbs Snakey>Dumieron with stems that Y Changers end in a vowel, *Leer change the I to y. >Leí >Leiste >Leyó >Leimos >Leyeron
  • 9. Modal Verbs*conjugate and pair the modal verb with an infinitive to get a new meaning.• Ir+a+infinitive (going to do something)• Poder+infinitive (are able to do something)• Querer+infinitive (want to do something)• Deber+infinitive (should do something)• Tenerque+infinitive (to have to do something)• Soler+infinitive (to be accustomed)
  • 10. Los Adverbios• -mente adverbs: when 2 adverbs modify the same verb, only the 2nd one uses the –mente ending, but the other still has to go feminine.• e ->e• o -> a• Constant -> constant• Ex: Juan trabajalentaycuidadosamente.
  • 11. Progressive tense• Estar + -ando / -iendo / -yendo• Present Progressive formed by combining “to be” with the present participle:Estoyhablando a ti. Estanleyendo un libro.• Past Participle is an ongoing action:Estabahablando a ti. Estabanleyendo un libro.
  • 12. uture “will”• Infinitive + é Los irregulares ás Decir Dir á HacerHar é PonerPondr emos SalirSaldr ás á án TenerTendr ending emos ValerVendr án PoderPodr QuererQuerr Saber Sabr
  • 13. ConditionalMeans would, could, must have, or probably. ía íasInfinitive + ía íamos íais ían
  • 14. Superlatives más…que menos…que•Used to say that something has the most or least of a certain quality Jose es el chicomás alto. Jose is the tallest boy. Maria es la menosalta. Maria is the least tall. El más El menos Los más Los menos La más La menos Las más Las menos
  • 15. Formal commandsUsted(es) affirmative Usted(es) negative• Put in “yo” form. • Same as affirmative• Drop the –o ending • Add “no” in front.• Change opposite vowel. • Ex: -ar verbs: -e (Ud.), -en (Uds.) • -er and -ir verbs: -a (Ud.), -an (Uds.) Irregulars: TVDISHES
  • 16. Prepositions• Abajo • Below• Arriba • Above• Debajo de • Below• Dentro de • Inside• Encima de • On top of• Fuerada • Outside
  • 17. DemonstrativesAgree in number and gender with the noun theymodifyCome in front of the noun they modifySingularEste/ esta –this (aqui)Ese/ esa –that (alli)Aquel/ aquella –that over there (alla)PluralEstos/ estas –these (aqui)Esos/ esas –those (alli)Aquellos/ aquellas –those over there (alla)