Livestock Agriculture and Its effect on the environment Michael Morris Bay of Plenty Polytechnic [email_address]
Livestock agriculture <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce livestock agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ove...
Farming is intensifying world wide <ul><li>What is intensive farming? </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of inputs (fertiliser, ir...
Examples of intensive livestock farming <ul><li>Cattle feedlots (USA) </li></ul><ul><li>Alfalfa production (USA) </li></ul...
Increase of inputs leads to … <ul><li>Increase of waste </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of waste leads to… </li></ul><ul><li>En...
Waste in farming <ul><li>Effluent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 16,000 pig factory farm produces as much sewerage as a city of 2...
<ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factory farms produce more food than we need.  The excess is poured into streams (ie mi...
 
Dairying (Waikato, NZ) Photo: David Hamilton, Waikato University
Photo: David Hamilton, Waikato University
Pig farming (Levin, NZ) Photos: MAF inspector, 2006
 
 
Layer hens (Porirua, NZ) Photo: Wellington Animal Rights Network
Foxton, NZ Photo: Open Rescue Coalition
Broiler chickens (NZ) Photo: Auckland Animal Action
Environmental issues with livestock farming worldwide
Habitat destruction <ul><li>Livestock takes up 30% of land surface and 70% of agricultural land </li></ul>Photo NZEescape....
Habitat destruction (cont.) <ul><li>70% of previously forested land in the Amazon is pasture of soybeans </li></ul>Center ...
 
 
Global warming <ul><li>18% of greenhouse gases worldwide caused by livestock farming </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon diox...
Conclusions of recent US study <ul><li>Switching from a Standard American diet (SAD) to a plant based diet, would have mor...
 
Livestock accounts for… <ul><li>55% of soil erosion </li></ul><ul><li>37% of pesticide use </li></ul><ul><li>50% of antibi...
Other issues <ul><li>Degradation of coral reefs </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotic resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Largest source o...
New Zealand issues
Fertiliser use Pinnacles on Nauru:  Photo, Republic of Nauru
Fertiliser from Western Sahara being unloaded in Tauranga  Photo: Norwegian support committee for Western Sahara
 
Water use
Photo: David Hamilton, Waikato University
Water pollution <ul><li>Human health risks from effluent (eg  Cryptosporidium  outbreak in Masterton, 2003) </li></ul><ul>...
Soil erosion <ul><li>New Zealand rate is 10 times world average </li></ul><ul><li>Clearing of stream vegetation erodes str...
Greenhouse gases <ul><li>50% of greenhouse gases in New Zealand caused by livestock </li></ul>
Social concerns <ul><li>Odour </li></ul><ul><li>Animal welfare </li></ul>
 
Mitigation – the clean stream accord
Clean stream accord <ul><li>Agreement between Fonterra, Ministry for the Environment and Regional Authorities to </li></ul...
Regional plans restrict nutrient loads <ul><li>Otago:  75kg/ha/year </li></ul><ul><li>Waikato, Hawkes Bay, Northland, Sout...
Regional plans (cont.) <ul><li>West Coast:  275kg/ha/year </li></ul><ul><li>Wellington : Nothing in plan, but generally re...
References <ul><li>New Zealand </li></ul><ul><li>Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment (2004),  Growing for Good ...
Federated Farmers’ response <ul><li>Farmers take the environment very seriously. We have no choice. Our livelihoods depend...
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Factory Farming Part1 For Zero Waste Recommended

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  • Use OHPs for each of the above
  • Mention attempted prosecution of Colin Kaye for undersized stalls, and how MAF just changed the rules. Complaint of undue influence of MAF officials is presently in front of the State Services Commission.
  • Picture of Canterbury plains illustrates the extent to which native forest has disappeared. The only native bush in Canterbury is a small reserve in Christchurch city. This can be related to waste. More food Also mention Nga uruora for discussion on destruction of lowland Kahikatea.
  • Ask students which of these could also be caused by horticulture or forestry. Livestock is not the only culprit but is the major one
  • Also add that a diet of 50% (by calories) raw meat, when compared with a plant based diet, has the same effect as driving a SUV, compared with a Prius.
  • I like to say to people guilty about having a big car, give up meat instead and drive your car as much as you like!
  • Again point out livestock is not the sole contributor, but is a major one.
  • Also mention Fonterra’s dumping of milk product waste into the Manuwatu river.
  • Under the RMA, “environment” includes the social environment, and this includes value systems of the public, most of whom are opposed to factory farming. Photo is of demo outside Wellington Egg Company
  • Lock on to Premier bacon company truck, Wellington 2005.
  • Photo of waste milk products
  • Auckland Regional Authority: Allowed load depends on soil type.
  • No restrictions in plan does not necessarily mean they will not restrict loading.
  • Factory Farming Part1 For Zero Waste Recommended

    1. 1. Livestock Agriculture and Its effect on the environment Michael Morris Bay of Plenty Polytechnic [email_address]
    2. 2. Livestock agriculture <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce livestock agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview state of the environment worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview state of New Zealand environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss environmental monitoring of livestock agriculture using a case study </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Farming is intensifying world wide <ul><li>What is intensive farming? </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of inputs (fertiliser, irrigation, human capital etc.) to increase production </li></ul>
    4. 4. Examples of intensive livestock farming <ul><li>Cattle feedlots (USA) </li></ul><ul><li>Alfalfa production (USA) </li></ul><ul><li>Grain production (USA) </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep farming (NZ) </li></ul><ul><li>Dairy farming (NZ) </li></ul><ul><li>Pig farming (NZ) </li></ul><ul><li>Broiler chicken farming (NZ) </li></ul><ul><li>Layer hen farming (NZ) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Increase of inputs leads to … <ul><li>Increase of waste </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of waste leads to… </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental pressures </li></ul>
    6. 6. Waste in farming <ul><li>Effluent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 16,000 pig factory farm produces as much sewerage as a city of 23,000 humans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fertilisers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen fertiliser has increased 10 fold in the last 20 years (Environment 2007). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>750 sq. m of water wasted in producing a steer (Cattlemans’ Beef Board, US) </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factory farms produce more food than we need. The excess is poured into streams (ie milk waste) or into our adipose tissue (ie obesity) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Topsoil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>55% of soil erosion in the US caused by farming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See next slide </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Dairying (Waikato, NZ) Photo: David Hamilton, Waikato University
    9. 10. Photo: David Hamilton, Waikato University
    10. 11. Pig farming (Levin, NZ) Photos: MAF inspector, 2006
    11. 14. Layer hens (Porirua, NZ) Photo: Wellington Animal Rights Network
    12. 15. Foxton, NZ Photo: Open Rescue Coalition
    13. 16. Broiler chickens (NZ) Photo: Auckland Animal Action
    14. 17. Environmental issues with livestock farming worldwide
    15. 18. Habitat destruction <ul><li>Livestock takes up 30% of land surface and 70% of agricultural land </li></ul>Photo NZEescape.com
    16. 19. Habitat destruction (cont.) <ul><li>70% of previously forested land in the Amazon is pasture of soybeans </li></ul>Center for International forestry Research publication,
    17. 22. Global warming <ul><li>18% of greenhouse gases worldwide caused by livestock farming </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide emissions through production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of carbon sinks through habitat destruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methane emissions through cow belches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methane emissions through effluent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrous oxide emissions through effluent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrous oxide emissions through fertiliser </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 23. Conclusions of recent US study <ul><li>Switching from a Standard American diet (SAD) to a plant based diet, would have more effect on reducing greenhouse gases than switching from a Camry to a Prius </li></ul>
    19. 25. Livestock accounts for… <ul><li>55% of soil erosion </li></ul><ul><li>37% of pesticide use </li></ul><ul><li>50% of antibiotic use </li></ul><ul><li>In the United States </li></ul>
    20. 26. Other issues <ul><li>Degradation of coral reefs </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotic resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Largest source of water pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Pandemics </li></ul><ul><li>Oestrogens </li></ul>
    21. 27. New Zealand issues
    22. 28. Fertiliser use Pinnacles on Nauru: Photo, Republic of Nauru
    23. 29. Fertiliser from Western Sahara being unloaded in Tauranga Photo: Norwegian support committee for Western Sahara
    24. 31. Water use
    25. 32. Photo: David Hamilton, Waikato University
    26. 33. Water pollution <ul><li>Human health risks from effluent (eg Cryptosporidium outbreak in Masterton, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Turbidity from cattle trampling </li></ul><ul><li>Eutrophication (more than 90% of Waikato streams have high N levels) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From fertiliser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From effluent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From waste milk products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From cow urine patches </li></ul></ul>
    27. 34. Soil erosion <ul><li>New Zealand rate is 10 times world average </li></ul><ul><li>Clearing of stream vegetation erodes streams </li></ul>
    28. 35. Greenhouse gases <ul><li>50% of greenhouse gases in New Zealand caused by livestock </li></ul>
    29. 36. Social concerns <ul><li>Odour </li></ul><ul><li>Animal welfare </li></ul>
    30. 38. Mitigation – the clean stream accord
    31. 39. Clean stream accord <ul><li>Agreement between Fonterra, Ministry for the Environment and Regional Authorities to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclude cows from streams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build bridges across water races where stock cross the watercourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Properly treat dairy effluent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage nutrient input and output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fence wetlands </li></ul></ul>
    32. 40. Regional plans restrict nutrient loads <ul><li>Otago: 75kg/ha/year </li></ul><ul><li>Waikato, Hawkes Bay, Northland, Southland: 150kg/ha/year </li></ul><ul><li>Horizons: 150kg/ha/year (with some exceptions) </li></ul><ul><li>Auckland, Bay of Plenty: 150-200kg/ha/year </li></ul><ul><li>Taranaki, Canterbury, Nelson: 200kg/ha/year </li></ul>
    33. 41. Regional plans (cont.) <ul><li>West Coast: 275kg/ha/year </li></ul><ul><li>Wellington : Nothing in plan, but generally restrict to 150kg/ha.year. </li></ul><ul><li>Marlborough, Gisborne : no restrictions in plan. </li></ul>
    34. 42. References <ul><li>New Zealand </li></ul><ul><li>Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment (2004), Growing for Good </li></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><li>Eshel, G. and Martin, P.A. (2005) Diet, energy and global warming. Earth Interactions 10: 1-16. </li></ul><ul><li>World </li></ul><ul><li>H. Steinfeld, P. Gerber, T. Wassenaar, V. Castel, M. Rosales, C. de Haan (2006). Livestock’s long shadow. FAO. </li></ul>
    35. 43. Federated Farmers’ response <ul><li>Farmers take the environment very seriously. We have no choice. Our livelihoods depend on it,” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Extreme measures such as stopping farmers from improving their land or stopping them from intensifying are not economically sustainable in an industry which is proudly subsidy free. Reducing agricultural productivity is not socially acceptable in a country where our citizens’ standard of living is dependent on agriculture’s continued success,” (Press release 13/9/06) </li></ul>

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