• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Process selection for manufacturing fms
 

Process selection for manufacturing fms

on

  • 3,333 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,333
Views on SlideShare
3,333
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
103
Comments
2

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel

12 of 2 previous next

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • Yes, it's very useful material. Thanks.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • thank you for this slide it will help me a lot on my report
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Process selection for manufacturing fms Process selection for manufacturing fms Presentation Transcript

    • PROCESS SELECTIONIN MANUFACTURING
      Prof. Kaushik Paul
    • 2
      OBJECTIVES
      The Product & Process Design framework
      Types of Manufacturing Processes
      The Product-Process design matrix
      The cost perspective of operations
      A Typology of Operations using the 4V’s
      Managing Flexibility and variety in operations
      Process Flow Design
      Global Product Design and Manufacturing
    • 3
      Preliminary Design
      Product Planning & screening new ideas
      Concept Development & Business analysis
      The design methodology
      Evaluation and Improvement
      Prototyping and final design
      PRODUCT AND PROCESS DESIGN
      Processes that Design Products
      and Services
      Processes that Produce Products and Services
      Supply Network Design
      Layout
      and Flow
      Process Technology
      Job
      Design
    • 4
      TYPES OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
      Conversion (ex. Iron to steel)
      Fabrication (ex. Cloth to clothes)
      Assembly (ex. Parts to components)
      Testing (ex. For quality of products)
    • 5
      THE PRODUCT-PROCESS DESIGN MATRIX
      Job shop (ex. Copy center making a single copy of a student term paper)
      Batch shop (ex. Copy center making 10,000 copies of an ad piece for a business)
      Assembly Line (ex. Automobile manufacturer)
      Continuous Flow (ex. Petroleum manufacturer)
    • 6
      Few
      Major
      Products,
      Higher
      Volume
      High
      Volume,
      High
      Standard-
      ization
      Low
      Volume,
      One of a
      Kind
      Multiple
      Products,
      Low
      Volume
      Flexibility (High)
      Unit Cost (High)
      I.
      Job
      Shop
      Commercial
      Printer
      French Restaurant
      II.
      Batch
      Heavy
      Equipment
      III.
      Assembly
      Line
      Automobile
      Assembly
      Burger King
      IV.
      Continuous
      Flow
      Sugar
      Refinery
      Flexibility (Low)
      Unit Cost (Low)
      These are the major stages of product and process life cycles
    • 7
      PROJECT PROCESSES
      One-off, complex, large scale, high work content “products”
      Speciallymade, every one customized
      Defined start and finish: time, quality and cost objectives
      Many different skills have to be coordinated
    • 8
      THE JOB SHOP
      Very small quantities: “one-offs”, or only a few required
      Speciallymade. High variety, low repetition. “Stranger products”
      Skill requirements are usually very broad
      Skilled jobber, or team of jobbers complete whole product
    • 9
      BATCH PROCESSES
      Higher volumes and lower variety than for jobbing
      Standard products, repeating demand. But can make specials
      Specialized, narrower skills
      Set-ups (changeovers) at each stage of production
    • 10
      ASSEMBLY LINE/MASS PRODUCSTION PROCESSES
      Higher volumes than Batch
      Standard, repeat products (“runners”)
      Low and/or narrow skills
      No set-ups, or almost instantaneous ones
    • 11
      CONTINUOUS PROCESS
      Extremely high volumes and low variety: often single product
      Standard, repeat products (“runners”)
      Highly capital-intensive and automated
      Few changeovers required
      Difficult and expensive to start and stop the process
    • 12
      MANUFACTURING PROCESS TYPES
      SERVICE PROCESS TYPES
      High
      High
      Project
      Professional service
      Jobbing
      Service shop
      Batch
      Variety
      Variety
      Mass
      Mass service
      Contin-
      -uous
      Low
      Low
      High
      Volume
      Low
      High
      Volume
      Low
    • 13
      THE COST PERSPECTIVE
      The cost of producing products and services is obviously influenced by many factors such as input costs, but two important sets are…..
      The 4 V’s
      Volume
      Variety
      Variation
      Visibility
      The internal performance of the operation at
      Quality
      Speed
      Dependability
      Flexibility
    • 14
      A TYPOLOGY OF OPERATIONS
      IMPLICATIONS
      IMPLICATIONS
      High repeatability
      Specialization
      Systemization
      Capital intensive
      Low unit cost
      Low repetition
      Each staff member performs more of job
      Less systemization
      High unit costs
      Volume
      High
      Low
      Well defined
      Routine
      Standardized
      Regular
      Low unit costs
      Flexible
      Complex
      Match customer needs
      High unit cost
      Variety
      Low
      High
      Stable
      Routine
      Predictable
      High utilization
      Low unit costs
      Changing capacity
      Anticipation
      Flexibility
      In touch with demand
      High unit cost
      Variation in demand
      Low
      High
      Time lag between production and consumption
      Standardized
      Low contact skills
      High staff utilization
      Centralization
      Low unit costs
      Short waiting tolerance
      Satisfaction governed by customer perception
      Customer contact skills needed
      Received variety is high
      High unit cost
      Visibility
      High
      Low
    • 15
      FLEXIBILITY
      Flexibility has several distinct meanings but is always associated with an operation’s ability to change
      Change what ?
      The products and services it brings to the market – Product/service flexibility
      The mix of products and services it produces at any one time – Mix flexibility
      The volume of products and services it produces –Volume flexibility
      The delivery time of its products and services –Delivery flexibility
    • 16
      VARIETY
      Marketing Viewpoint
      Customer Choice 
      Competitive
      Confusion 
      Duplication 
      Training Difficulties 
      High Advertising Costs
      )
    • 17
      VARIETY
      Operations Viewpoint
      Shorter Production Runs 
      Higher Costs 
      Greater Complexity 
      More Difficulty in
      Specialising 
      Equipment 
      People 
    • 18
      REMOVAL OF ROBOTS AT IBM, GREENOCK
      In 1986 IBM at Greenock spent £6 million setting up a robotic assembly line for PC monitors. Yet by 1993, the company had decided to dispense with the robot and increase line manning. Before 1993 some 25 assembly staff, with their robots made 550 monitors per shift. Afterwards, 50 assembly workers made 700.
      The reasons for the change were the rapid pace of technological development and the different safety standards that had been imposed in different countries.
      Both factors caused the product variety to increase and the line was not flexible enough to cope. To alter the product on the line, it had to be shut down and all the tools and holding mechanisms had to be changed. The remaining robots packed the items in cartons for shipping.
    • 19
      VARIETY MANAGEMENT
      Reduce The Unnecessary
      Control The Necessary
      Identification
      Classification : Rational Grouping
      & Coding & Arrangement
      Simplification : The Reduction of
      Unnecessary Variety
      Standardisation: The Control of
      Necessary Variety
      Specialisation: The Concentration of
      Effort where Special
      Knowledge is available
      (DVP-15)
    • 20
      PROCESS FLOW DESIGN
      A process flow design can be defined as a mapping of the specific processes that raw materials, parts, and subassemblies follow as they move through a plant
      The most common tools to conduct a process flow design include assembly drawings, assembly charts, and operation and route sheets
    • 21
      Lockring
      4
      Spacer, detent spring
      5
      A-2
      SA-2
      Rivets (2)
      6
      Spring-detent
      7
      A-5
      Component/Assy Operation
      Inspection
      EXAMPLE: ASSEMBLY CHART (GOZINTO)
    • 22
      EXAMPLE: PROCESS FLOW CHART
      Material Received from Supplier
      No, Continue…
      Inspect Material for Defects
      Defects found?
      Yes
      Return to Supplier for Credit
    • 23
      BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS
      A standard approach to choosing among alternative processes or equipment
      Model seeks to determine the point in units produced (and sold) where we will start making profit on the process or equipment
      Model seeks to determine the point in units produced (and sold) where total revenue and total cost are equal
    • 24
      BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS (CONTINUED)
      Break-even Demand=
      Purchase cost of process or equipment
      Price per unit - Cost per unit
      or
      Total fixed costs of process or equipment
      Unit price to customer - Variable costs per unit
      This formula can be used to find any of its components algebraically if the other parameters are known
    • 25
      BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS (CONTINUED)
      Example: Suppose you want to purchase a new computer that will cost $5,000. It will be used to process written orders from customers who will pay $25 each for the service. The cost of labor, electricity and the form used to place the order is $5 per customer. How many customers will we need to serve to permit the total revenue to break-even with our costs?
      Break-even Demand:
      = Total fixed costs of process or equip.
      Unit price to customer – Variable costs
      =5,000/(25-5)
      =250 customers
    • 26
      VIRTUAL FACTORY
      A virtual factory can be defined as a manufacturing operation where activities are carried out not in one central plant, but in multiple locations by suppliers and partner firms as part of a strategic alliance
    • 27
      GLOBAL PRODUCT DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING STRATEGIES
      Joint Ventures
      Global Product Design Strategy
    • References: 1) ‘Operations Management’ By Nigel Slack et al. 2e2) ‘Operations Management for Competitive Advantage’ By Chase, Jacobs & Aquilano, 10e
      HOPE YOU ENJOYED THE CLASS. QUESTIONS PLEASE
      THANK YOU