Secondary data analyzed in a quantitative as opposed to a qualitative manner
Observational and other data
Observation Methods Structured Versus Unstructured Observation
For structured observation , the researcher specifies in detail what is to be observed and how the measurements are to be recorded, e.g., an auditor performing inventory analysis in a store.
In unstructured observation , the observer monitors all aspects of the phenomenon that seem relevant to the problem at hand, e.g., observing children playing with new toys.
Observation Methods Disguised Versus Undisguised Observation
In disguised observation , the respondents are unaware that they are being observed. Disguise may be accomplished by using one-way mirrors, hidden cameras, or inconspicuous mechanical devices. Observers may be disguised as shoppers or sales clerks.
In undisguised observation , the respondents are aware that they are under observation.
History refers to specific events that are external to the experiment but occur at the same time as the experiment.
Maturation ( MA ) refers to changes in the test units themselves that occur with the passage of time.
Testing effects are caused by the process of experimentation. Typically, these are the effects on the experiment of taking a measure on the dependent variable before and after the presentation of the treatment.
Internal validity refers to whether the manipulation of the independent variables or treatments actually caused the observed effects on the dependent variables. Control of extraneous variables is a necessary condition for establishing internal validity.
External validity refers to whether the cause-and-effect relationships found in the experiment can be generalized. To what populations, settings, times, independent variables and dependent variables can the results be projected?
Identify the potential threat to internal and external validity ?
A major distributor of office equipment is considering a new sales presentation program for its salespeople. The target sales territory is selected ,the new program is implemented and the effect on sales is measured
B) P&G wants to determine if a new package design for Tide is more effective than the current design . Twelve supermarkets are randomly selected in a city . In six of them , randomly selected ,Tide is sold in New package .In other six cities the detergent is sold in old package .Sales for both groups of supermarkets are monitored for three months
You have been hired by business magazine to determine how students make purchase decision while buying business magazine. You are to use the method of personal observation .disguise yourself as shopper and observe the behavior of other students, prepare and present report about your finding