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  2. 2. What is Learning? <ul><li>… as the process of acquiring , assimilating , and internalizing cognitive , motor , or behavioural inputs for their effective and varied use when required, leading to an enhanced capability for further self – monitored learning . </li></ul>
  3. 3. POINTS TO PONDER <ul><li>Is it a change in behaviour? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it an understanding? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it a process? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS IT ? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Carl Rogers on Learning… <ul><li>I want to talk about learning. But not the lifeless, sterile, futile, quickly forgotten stuff that is crammed in to the mind of the poor helpless individual tied into his seat by ironclad bonds of conformity . I am talking about LEARNING – the insatiable curiosity that drives the adolescent boy to absorb everything he can see or hear or read about gasoline engines in order to improve the efficiency and speed of his ‘cruiser’. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Continued… <ul><li>I am talking about the student who says, “ I am discovering , drawing in from the outside , and making that which is drawn in a real part of me .” I am talking about any learning in which the experience of the learner progresses along this line : “No, no, that’s not what I want.” “Wait! This is closer to what I am interested in, what I need”; Ah, here it is! Now I ‘m grasping and comprehending what I need and what I want to know!” </li></ul>
  6. 6. WAIT A MINUTE <ul><li>WHAT IS LEARNING? </li></ul><ul><li>A Product : Learning As A Change in Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>A Process : Task Conscious or Acquisition Learning and Learning – Conscious or Formalized Learning. </li></ul>
  7. 7. LEARNING AS A PROCESS – <ul><li>LEARNING THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>The Behaviourist Orientation to Learning </li></ul><ul><li>The Cognitive Orientation to Learning </li></ul><ul><li>The Humanistic Orientation to Learning </li></ul><ul><li>The Social / Situational Orientation to Learning </li></ul>
  8. 8. Aspect Behaviourist Cognitivist Humanist Social & Situational Learning Theories Thorndike, Pavlov, Watson, Guthrie, Hull, Tollman, Skinner Koffka, Kohler, Lewin, Piaget, Ausubel, Bruner, Gagne Maslow, Rogers Bandura, Lave & Wenger, Salomon View of The Learning Process Change in Behaviour Internal Mental Process A personal act to fulfil potential. Interaction / observation in social contexts. Locus of Learning Stimuli in External Environment Internal Cognitive Structuring Affective and Cognitive Needs Learning is in relationship between people and environment. Purpose in Education Produce behavioural change in desired direction Develop capacity and skills to learn better Become self – actualized autonomous Full participation in communities of practice and utilization of reasources
  9. 9. CONTINUED… Aspect Behaviourist Cognitivist Humanist Social and Situational Educator’s Role Arranges environment to elicit desired response Structures Content of learning activity Facilitates development of the whole person Works to establish communities of practice in which conversation and participation can occur Manifestations in Adult Learning Behavioural objectives Competency based education Skill Development and Training Cognitive development Intelligence, learning and memory as functions of age Learning how to learn Andragogy Self – directed learning Socialization Social participation Associationalism Conversation
  10. 10. Steps Involved in Learning: <ul><li>Acquiring of new inputs in terms of knowledge and understanding (cognition), some physical or motor activity, or a new behaviour (including attitudes and values). </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation of new input. </li></ul><ul><li>Internalizatio n of new inputs. </li></ul><ul><li>Available to individual . </li></ul><ul><li>Effective use of learning involves creativity . </li></ul><ul><li>Learning should increase a person’s capability for learning . </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Learning Cycle <ul><li>Kolb (1976) has proposed the cycle of experiential learning in adults. </li></ul><ul><li>It has four components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiencing : A learner has some concrete experience or is helped to have experience during a training programme. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing : Reflecting on and analysing the experience individually or in a group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalizing : Abstract conceptualization based on the experience and formation of a tentative theory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying : Active experimentation, i.e, trying out the new behaviour or using it in day – to-day work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Again a new experience takes place. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle Processing Generalizing Experiencing Applying
  13. 13. Kolb’s Four Learning Styles <ul><li>Concrete experiencers being excited by new experience share it with others – combining experiencing and generalizing. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective observers learn from objective observation, reflect on it, discuss it, and then generalize; they benefit from the processing and generalizing parts of the cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract conceptualizers rely mainly on logic and rational analysis; they tend to generalize from their exposure to logical material. </li></ul><ul><li>Active experimenters are pragmatic and rely on trying things out in familiar situations; the applying part of the learning cycle is more appealing to them. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Management Process of Learning <ul><li>The Endosystem : The training / teaching organization, including the training / teaching group, can be called endosystem . </li></ul><ul><li>The Mechanics of Learning: Methodology. </li></ul><ul><li>The Process : The main function of this system is to help assimilation and stabilization of learning through practice and application. </li></ul><ul><li>The trainer/ facilitator : The way facilitator influences the learner may determine the effectiveness of learning. </li></ul>
  15. 15. TRAINING <ul><li>Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills. ... </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Endosystem <ul><ul><li>The main function of this system is to maximize the motivation for learning by creating the culture and climate conducive to such motivation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOW? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Various Aspects of Endosystem <ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational culture : The general atmosphere of the training institute communicates much more and with greater impact than what is taught in the class room. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A non-threatening climate : One of the advantages of programmed learning is that a learner does not feel threatened in communicating mistakes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge in learning : If learning cannot provide challenge, it ceases to motivate. One way to produce challenge is to encourage new learning. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graduated challenging success : Failure to achieve a goal, however challenging it may be, does not motivate. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Adult Learning: The Principle <ul><li>Training of intellectual performance must be socioculturally relevant to the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>A training programme should provide links between training and real – world behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>A training programme should provide explicit instruction in strategies for coping with novel tasks / situations. </li></ul><ul><li>A training programme should actively encourage individuals to manifest their differences in strategies and styles. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Exploring Human Potential <ul><li>What I see in the mirror is not my full self. </li></ul><ul><li>“… Only once have I been made mute. It was when a man asked me, ‘Who are you?’…” </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness gives clarity and the cloudy perceptions become clear. Then, one realises that he is superior to the embodiment of bones, flesh and skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Human potential is not mere physical energy. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Human energy’ is the confluence of physical, intellectual, emotional and spiritual energies. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Mechanics of Learning <ul><li>FEEDBACK </li></ul><ul><li>If the learner knows how much he/she has learned and what he or she could not learn, and why, learning will be more effective. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important that feedback is given as close to the learning event as possible. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Mechanics of Learning <ul><li>PRACTICE </li></ul><ul><li>Practice may give the learner an opportunity to test whether learning has been effective, to take steps to improve, and to gain enough confidence to use this learning in future. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice should be accompanied by feedback, so that each period of practice is followed by reinforcement of success. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Mechanics of Learning <ul><li>APPLICATION </li></ul><ul><li>The application of learning implies the development of insight in the learner and an ability to respond to a situation effectively . </li></ul><ul><li>The various mechanics of application need to be planned in a proper sequence. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Mechanics of Learning <ul><li>SELF – LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>The learner should develop both the motivation as well as the skills and capability for self –learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Programmed instruction is one device to encourage self – learning. </li></ul><ul><li>In many organizations, training can be improved enormously if the concept of training is widened to include the use of self – instructional material. </li></ul><ul><li>Face – to – face group time in a classroom should be effectively used. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Learning Process <ul><li>DISCOVERY </li></ul><ul><li>Learning can be more effective if the learner ‘ discovers’ knowledge rather than ‘getting’ it from the teacher / trainer. </li></ul><ul><li>It also emphasizes the use of the learner’s experience in learning. </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Learning Process <ul><li>EXPERIMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>Taking an active role in trying out a new thing or taking some risk. </li></ul><ul><li>If learning is to be creative and lead to creativity, experimentation is necessary . </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Learning Process <ul><li>AUTO SYSTEMS DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>The learning should help the learner to learn ‘ how to learn further’. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the learner should be helped to develop his or her own system of self – learning. </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Fulcrum <ul><li>Adult learning programs should capitalize on the experience of participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Adult learning programs should adapt to the aging limitations of the participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults should be challenged to move to increasingly advanced stages of personal development. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults should have as much choice as possible in the availability and organization of learning programs. </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Learning Process <ul><li>COLLABORATIVE LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>Learners learn not only from the teacher / trainer but also from one another. </li></ul><ul><li>It is very important dimension of growth and of building the skills to help and receive help. </li></ul>
  29. 29. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING <ul><li>Carl Rogers distinguished two types of learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive – It relates to academic knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiential – It refers to applied knowledge. It addresses the needs and wants of the learner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiential learning is equivalent to personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>change and growth. Rogers feels that all human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beings have a natural propensity to learn. The role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to teacher is to facilitate such learning. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Experiential Learning <ul><li>Experiential learning refers to (a) the involvement of learners in concrete activities that enable them to “experience” what they are learning about and (b) the opportunity to reflect on those activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging Participants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jigsaw Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action learning projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role plays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Story telling. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. INFLUENCE: THE TRAINER <ul><li>Values : Cognitive learning takes place best through enquiry, through the learner’s own motivations. </li></ul><ul><li>Style : Direct influence restricts the freedom of the learner, is prescriptive, and develops coping behaviour. Indirect influence increases the learner’s freedom, is liberating, and develops expressive behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Needs : The trainer should examine his or her motivational pattern and what needs this is creating and arousing in the learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul>
  32. 32. Conditions Conducive For Learning <ul><li>Authentic and open system at the training institution. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-threatening climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging learning tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative arrangements for mutual support of learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of graduated experiences of challenging successes . </li></ul>
  33. 33. Continued… <ul><li>Mechanisms for supportive and quick feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to practice skills learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to apply learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for and encouragement of self – learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities and support for experimentation. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Continued… <ul><li>Emphasis on learning through discovery. </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect and liberating influence of the trainer through minimum guidance. </li></ul><ul><li>Trainer’s human values and faith in humanity. </li></ul><ul><li>Trainer’s high expectations from learners and openness to examining own needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Trainer’s competence. </li></ul>
  35. 35. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Participation and OD means openness and practical utilization of the untapped human energy , creative ideas and suggestions at all levels with a view to operationalize the human values in the organization. </li></ul>
  36. 36. CONTINUED… AUTHOR & YEAR OBJECTIVE (S) AS DEFINED Beckhard (1969) Effort planned, organized, managed from the top, to increase organization effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organizations “processes” using behavioral sciences knowledge. Bennis (1969) Response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values and structure of organizations so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets and challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself. Schmuck and Miles (1971) Planned and sustained effort to apply behavioral science for system improvement, using reflexive, self-analytic methods.
  37. 37. CONTINUED… Burke and Hornstein (1972) Planned change – change of an organization’s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (specially decision-making, planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. Beer (1980) [The aims of OD are]… (1) enhancing congruence between organizational structure, processes, strategy, people and culture ; (2) developing new and creative organizational solutions; and (3) developing the organization’s self-renewing capacity. Vaill (1989) Organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objective.
  38. 38. CONTINUED… Porras and Robertson (1992) Set of behavioral science based theories, values, strategies and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance through the alteration of organizational members’ on-the-job behaviors. Cummings and Worley (1993) A system wide application of Behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structures and processes for improving an organization’s effectiveness. Burke (1994) Planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioral science technologies, research and theory.
  39. 39. Orientations to Organization Development Externally Oriented Practioners Internally Oriented Practitioners Technique Presence What we produce How we relate Practices and methods Vision and value Logic Intuition Behaviour Beliefs Provide answers Facilitate learning External Results void of spiritual meaning Spiritual meaning without connection to external results
  40. 40. A Thought <ul><li>You are what your deep, driving desire is. </li></ul><ul><li>As your desire is, so is your will. </li></ul><ul><li>As your will is, so is your deed. </li></ul><ul><li>As your deed is, so is your destiny. </li></ul><ul><li>- Brihadaranyaka Upanishad IV.4.5 </li></ul>
  41. 41. DISCUSSION <ul><li>Training in Indian Religio – Philosophy: The Essence </li></ul><ul><li>The Focus </li></ul><ul><li>The Behavioural Norm </li></ul><ul><li>The Outcome </li></ul>
  42. 42. TRAINING <ul><li>WHAT DO WE DO? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT DO WE GET? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW CREATIVE WE REMAIN? </li></ul><ul><li>SCOPE OF CONTINUOUS LEARNING : WHAT DIRECTS WHAT. </li></ul><ul><li>HOW SATISFIED WE REMAIN? </li></ul><ul><li>THE ROAD AHEAD… TRAINING A CHILD VS. TRAINING AN EMPLOYEE </li></ul>
  43. 43. THE FOCUS <ul><li>Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without </li></ul><ul><li>learning is perilous . Confucius , The Confucian Analects, Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>philosopher & reformer (551 BC - 479 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Much learning does not teach understanding . Heraclitus , On </li></ul><ul><li>the Universe, Greek philosopher (540 BC - 480 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>“ You have to grow from the inside out. None can teach </li></ul><ul><li>you, none can make you spiritual. There is no other </li></ul><ul><li>teacher but your own soul.” – Swami Vivekananda </li></ul>
  44. 44. The Laws of Development <ul><li>The Law of Pure Potentiality </li></ul><ul><li>The Law of Giving </li></ul><ul><li>The Law of “Karma” or Cause And Effect </li></ul><ul><li>The Law of Least Effort </li></ul><ul><li>The Law of Intention and Desire </li></ul><ul><li>The Law of Detachment </li></ul><ul><li>The Law of “Dharma” or Purpose in Life </li></ul>
  45. 45. Chitta Sudhi: The Soul of Excellence <ul><li>This mind has to be made progressively clean and pure with the conscious pursuit of thoughts which are elevating and uplifting. </li></ul><ul><li>With some self – discipline, which every manager should be capable of, for the stakes are indeed immense, this snapped link between the first powers of willing, thinking and perceiving and their first fountainhead could be revised. </li></ul>
  46. 46. The Power of Mind <ul><li>It is the greatest manifestation of power to be calm. It is easy to be active. Let the reins go, and the horses will run away with you. Anyone can do that but he who can stop the plunging horses is the strong man. Which requires the greater strength, letting go or restraining? The calm man is not the man who is dull…Activity is the manifestation of inferior strength, and calmness of the superior. </li></ul>