… as the process of acquiring , assimilating , and internalizing cognitive , motor , or behavioural inputs for their effective and varied use when required, leading to an enhanced capability for further self – monitored learning .
I want to talk about learning. But not the lifeless, sterile, futile, quickly forgotten stuff that is crammed in to the mind of the poor helpless individual tied into his seat by ironclad bonds of conformity . I am talking about LEARNING – the insatiable curiosity that drives the adolescent boy to absorb everything he can see or hear or read about gasoline engines in order to improve the efficiency and speed of his ‘cruiser’.
I am talking about the student who says, “ I am discovering , drawing in from the outside , and making that which is drawn in a real part of me .” I am talking about any learning in which the experience of the learner progresses along this line : “No, no, that’s not what I want.” “Wait! This is closer to what I am interested in, what I need”; Ah, here it is! Now I ‘m grasping and comprehending what I need and what I want to know!”
Aspect Behaviourist Cognitivist Humanist Social & Situational Learning Theories Thorndike, Pavlov, Watson, Guthrie, Hull, Tollman, Skinner Koffka, Kohler, Lewin, Piaget, Ausubel, Bruner, Gagne Maslow, Rogers Bandura, Lave & Wenger, Salomon View of The Learning Process Change in Behaviour Internal Mental Process A personal act to fulfil potential. Interaction / observation in social contexts. Locus of Learning Stimuli in External Environment Internal Cognitive Structuring Affective and Cognitive Needs Learning is in relationship between people and environment. Purpose in Education Produce behavioural change in desired direction Develop capacity and skills to learn better Become self – actualized autonomous Full participation in communities of practice and utilization of reasources
CONTINUED… Aspect Behaviourist Cognitivist Humanist Social and Situational Educator’s Role Arranges environment to elicit desired response Structures Content of learning activity Facilitates development of the whole person Works to establish communities of practice in which conversation and participation can occur Manifestations in Adult Learning Behavioural objectives Competency based education Skill Development and Training Cognitive development Intelligence, learning and memory as functions of age Learning how to learn Andragogy Self – directed learning Socialization Social participation Associationalism Conversation
Experiential learning refers to (a) the involvement of learners in concrete activities that enable them to “experience” what they are learning about and (b) the opportunity to reflect on those activities.
Values : Cognitive learning takes place best through enquiry, through the learner’s own motivations.
Style : Direct influence restricts the freedom of the learner, is prescriptive, and develops coping behaviour. Indirect influence increases the learner’s freedom, is liberating, and develops expressive behaviour.
Needs : The trainer should examine his or her motivational pattern and what needs this is creating and arousing in the learners.
Participation and OD means openness and practical utilization of the untapped human energy , creative ideas and suggestions at all levels with a view to operationalize the human values in the organization.
CONTINUED… AUTHOR & YEAR OBJECTIVE (S) AS DEFINED Beckhard (1969) Effort planned, organized, managed from the top, to increase organization effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organizations “processes” using behavioral sciences knowledge. Bennis (1969) Response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values and structure of organizations so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets and challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself. Schmuck and Miles (1971) Planned and sustained effort to apply behavioral science for system improvement, using reflexive, self-analytic methods.
CONTINUED… Burke and Hornstein (1972) Planned change – change of an organization’s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (specially decision-making, planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. Beer (1980) [The aims of OD are]… (1) enhancing congruence between organizational structure, processes, strategy, people and culture ; (2) developing new and creative organizational solutions; and (3) developing the organization’s self-renewing capacity. Vaill (1989) Organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objective.
CONTINUED… Porras and Robertson (1992) Set of behavioral science based theories, values, strategies and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance through the alteration of organizational members’ on-the-job behaviors. Cummings and Worley (1993) A system wide application of Behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structures and processes for improving an organization’s effectiveness. Burke (1994) Planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioral science technologies, research and theory.
Orientations to Organization Development Externally Oriented Practioners Internally Oriented Practitioners Technique Presence What we produce How we relate Practices and methods Vision and value Logic Intuition Behaviour Beliefs Provide answers Facilitate learning External Results void of spiritual meaning Spiritual meaning without connection to external results
This mind has to be made progressively clean and pure with the conscious pursuit of thoughts which are elevating and uplifting.
With some self – discipline, which every manager should be capable of, for the stakes are indeed immense, this snapped link between the first powers of willing, thinking and perceiving and their first fountainhead could be revised.
It is the greatest manifestation of power to be calm. It is easy to be active. Let the reins go, and the horses will run away with you. Anyone can do that but he who can stop the plunging horses is the strong man. Which requires the greater strength, letting go or restraining? The calm man is not the man who is dull…Activity is the manifestation of inferior strength, and calmness of the superior.