Leadership

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Leadership

  1. 1. LEADERSHIP AN OVERVIEW
  2. 2. LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Leader and Managers - some differences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers administer; leaders innovate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers maintain; leaders develop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers control; leaders inspire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers imitate; leaders originate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers accepts the status quo; leaders challenge it. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. A Thought <ul><li>Lives of great men all remind us </li></ul><ul><li>We can make our lives sublime </li></ul><ul><li>And, departing leave behind us </li></ul><ul><li>Footprints on the sands of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Longfellow </li></ul>
  4. 4. SOME DEFINITIONS <ul><li>The creative and directive force of morale (Munson, 1921) </li></ul><ul><li>The process by which an agent induces a subordinate to behave in a desired manner (Bennis, 1959). </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of a particular influence relationship between two or more persons (Hollander & Julian, 1969). </li></ul><ul><li>Directing and co-ordinating the work of group members (Fiedler, 1967). </li></ul><ul><li>The leader’s job is to create conditions for the team to be effective (Ginnett, 1996). </li></ul>
  5. 5. COMMON DEFINITION <ul><li>… the process of influencing an organized group toward accomplishing its goals. </li></ul>
  6. 6. LEADERSHIP IS AN ART: SOME VIEWS <ul><li>Leadership is more a condition of the heart than a set of things to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership has to be looked from the eyes of the followers, and you have to live the message…. People become motivated when you guide them to the source of their own power and when you make heroes of employees who best personify what you want to see in the organization. </li></ul>
  7. 7. SOME VIEWS ... <ul><li>Leadership is helping people develop, ‘become something.’ </li></ul><ul><li>The secret of Leadership is in serving, in being a servant-leader, in a feeling that one wants to serve and to serve first. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership involves challenging the status quo, inspiring a shared vision, enabling others to act, modeling a way through personal example and encouraging the heart. </li></ul>
  8. 8. LEADERSHIP... <ul><li>People excel in performance when they have the confidence to do what is right in an environment that supports a strong code of morality. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is liberating the best in people, infusing spirit, character, human values and decency in the workplace and life. </li></ul>
  9. 9. VIEWS... <ul><li>Leadership involves transformation of the self to lead a virtuous life, trust and faith in and emotional attachment to external values, and putting the interests of others before one’s own . </li></ul>
  10. 10. THEORIES <ul><li>GREAT MAN THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>THE TRAIT APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>THE BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH </li></ul>
  11. 11. REVIEW... <ul><li>STOGDIL’S REVIEW LED HIM TO CONCLUDE THAT </li></ul><ul><li>LEADERS DO NOT HAVE DISTINGUISHING TRAITS BUT THEY DIFFER IN BEHAVOUR IN GROUPS. </li></ul>
  12. 12. THE BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH <ul><li>Does a leader emerge as a result of his qualifications, skills etc. and what are the processes of his being accepted by others? </li></ul><ul><li>Is leaders style linked to the situation? </li></ul><ul><li>Is any particular leadership style more successful than other? </li></ul>
  13. 13. BRIEFLY THE FINDINGS... <ul><li>A person assumes a leader’s position when, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>he helps group to accomplish their assigned task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>helps people to stay on course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>helps to reach the goal by providing useful knowledge. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Studies Also Found... <ul><li>Groups were more effective if they had two kinds of leaders: TASK LEADER & MAINTENANCE LEADER. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies by Lewin & Lippit (1930) on effects of democratic and authoritarian styles of leader behaviour concluded that democratic style is more effective both for task performance and feelings members hold for the leader. </li></ul>
  15. 15. WHEREAS SOME... <ul><li>… the style depended on the particular situation and circumstances. The effectiveness of a style also depended on the expectations of members from the leaders in that culture. </li></ul>
  16. 16. BLAKE & MOUTON CONCERN FOR PRODUCTION P E O P L E 1 9 9 H L 1,9 1,1 9,9 9,1 5,5
  17. 17. MANAGERIAL GRID R E L A T I O N TASK BEHAVIOUR L H H RELATED INTEGRATED SEPARATED DEDICATED
  18. 18. SEPARATED <ul><li>LESS EFFECTIVE (D) </li></ul><ul><li>Work to rules – gives up minimum output </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids involvement – responsibility commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Uncreative – unoriginal- narrow-minded </li></ul><ul><li>Hinders others – make things difficult </li></ul><ul><li>MORE EFFECTIVE (B) </li></ul><ul><li>Follows orders – rules – procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable – dependable </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains system and going concern </li></ul><ul><li>Watches details – efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Rational – logical – self controlled </li></ul>
  19. 19. RELATED <ul><li>LESS EFFECTIVE(M) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasant – kind – warm </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks acceptance of himself – dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids initiation – passive – gives on direction </li></ul><ul><li>Unconcerned with output standards </li></ul><ul><li>Controls </li></ul><ul><li>MORE EFFECTIVE (D) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains open communication channel – listens </li></ul><ul><li>Develops talents of others – cooperates </li></ul><ul><li>Understands others – supports </li></ul><ul><li>Works well with others – cooperates </li></ul><ul><li>Trusted by other - trusts </li></ul>
  20. 20. DEDICATED <ul><li>LESS EFFECTIVE (A) </li></ul><ul><li>Critical – threatening </li></ul><ul><li>Makes all decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Demands obedience </li></ul><ul><li>Wants action – results immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Downward communication only gets without consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Feared - disliked </li></ul><ul><li>MORE EFFECTIVE (BA) </li></ul><ul><li>Decisive – shows initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Industrious – energetic </li></ul><ul><li>Finisher – committed </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluative of quantity – quality waste – time </li></ul><ul><li>Cost – Profit – sales conscious </li></ul><ul><li>Obtains results </li></ul>
  21. 21. INTEGRATED <ul><li>LESS EFFECTIVE (C) </li></ul><ul><li>Over see participation </li></ul><ul><li>Yielding – weak </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids decisions – produces grey acceptable decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes task and relationships when inappropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Idealist – ambiguous - distrusted </li></ul><ul><li>MORE EFFECTIVE (E) </li></ul><ul><li>Uses teamwork in decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Uses participation appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Induces Commitment to objective </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages higher performance </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate with others in work </li></ul>
  22. 22. CONTINGENCY APPROACHES <ul><li>TASK REQUIREMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>PEERS’ EXPECTATIONS AND BEHAVIOUR </li></ul><ul><li>EMPLOYEES’ CHARACTERISTICS, EXPECTATIONS, AND BEHAVIOUR </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND POLICIES. </li></ul>
  23. 23. FIEDLER’S MODEL <ul><li>TASK ORIENTED LEADERS ARE MORE EFFECTIVE IN FAVOURABLE AND UNFAVOURABLE SITUATIONS. His measuring instrument was LPC </li></ul><ul><li>Fiedler identified 3 leadership situations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader-member relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position Power </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. HERSEY AND BLANCHARD’S SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL LEADER BEHAVIOUR R E L A T I O N TASK BEHAVIOUR PROVIDING GUIDANCE L H H Participating HIGH (R) LOW (T) Selling HIGH (R) HIGH (T) Delegating LOW (R) LOW (T) Telling LOW (R) HIGH (T)
  25. 25. THE FOUR LEADERSHIP STYLES & THE DEVELOPMENTAL LEVEL OF THE TEAM REGULATING BEHAVIOUR N U R T U R I N G REGULATING BEHAVIOUR PROVIDING GUIDANCE L H H Consulting (S3) HIGH (N) LOW (R) Supportive (S2) HIGH (R) HIGH (N) Delegating (S4) LOW (R) LOW (N) Directive (S1) LOW (N) HIGH (R)
  26. 26. PATH-GOAL APPROACH <ul><li>MARTIN G. EVANS & ROBERT J. HOUSE </li></ul><ul><li>A leadership theory emphasizing the leader’s role in clarifying for subordinates how they can achieve high performance and its associated rewards. </li></ul>
  27. 27. LEADER BEHAVIOUR <ul><li>Directive </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive </li></ul><ul><li>Participative </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement Oriented </li></ul>
  28. 28. LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS <ul><li>PERSONAL </li></ul><ul><li>CONTEXT-RELATED </li></ul><ul><li>BEHAVIOURAL STYLES </li></ul>
  29. 29. Leadership Effectiveness & Developmental Theory <ul><li>Leadership effectiveness and delegation in addition to the style of leadership are key elements of a dynamic process of making individual members of a team more effective and competent to achieve organizational goals. </li></ul>
  30. 30. DEVELOPMENTAL LEVELS <ul><li>Raising competence levels </li></ul><ul><li>Raising commitment levels </li></ul><ul><li>Raising teamwork levels </li></ul><ul><li>Raising developmental levels through delegation </li></ul>
  31. 31. STEPS FOR DELEGATION <ul><li>Jointly define role boundaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide needed competencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide needed resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor but do not supervise closely. </li></ul><ul><li>Reward direction and initiative. </li></ul><ul><li>Respect role boundaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Jointly analyze mistakes to plan for the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Review delegation down the line. </li></ul>
  32. 32. LEADERSHIP AND FOLLOWERSHIP <ul><li>A LEADER IS BEST </li></ul><ul><li>When people barely know that he exists </li></ul><ul><li>NOT SO GOOD </li></ul><ul><li>when people obey and acclaim him, </li></ul><ul><li>WORST OF ALL </li></ul><ul><li>when they despise him. </li></ul><ul><li>Lao Tzu </li></ul>
  33. 33. SOURCES OF FOLLOWER COURAGE <ul><li>The courage to accept risk derives from several sources : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength from personal philosophy/religious beliefs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A vision of the future can provide courage to follow difficult course of action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past event that tested individual courage can make future courageous behaviour easier. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal values can give one the courage to act. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment to peers, deep concern for others, and outrage at injustice can foster change. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. FINALLY... <ul><li>THE TRUE LEADER MUST SUBMERGE HIMSELF IN THE FOUNTAIN OF THE PEOPLE. </li></ul><ul><li>V.I.Lenin </li></ul>

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