KINOWORDS presents HOLLYWOOD SNOOPS Exploring Certain Investigative  Tendencies in the Cinema of  Orson Welles, Alfred Hit...
HOLLYWOOD SNOOPS Course Leader. Alan Taylor The John F. Kennedy  Institute of  North American Studies The Freie University...
Introduction Overview <ul><li>A script reading </li></ul><ul><li>Storyboards interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Shared analy...
Narrative Terms – A Sample <ul><li>Antagonist  </li></ul><ul><li>Catharsis </li></ul><ul><li>Causal Relationship </li></ul...
Technical Terms – A Sample <ul><li>Angle </li></ul><ul><li>Blocking </li></ul><ul><li>Close up </li></ul><ul><li>Colour co...
The Classic Narrative Paradigm ACT 1    ACT 2 ACT 3 ORDER   CHAOS   ORDER / 2 HOOK  30 min  60 min  90min  120 min The inc...
EARLY DAYS 1912 - 1919 <ul><li>“… they came pouring in, mostly illegible scrawls, written on everything from postcards to ...
Opening Rules <ul><li>“… must have situations plainly visible…a clearly defined story…the complications should start immed...
From Silents to the Talkies ( 2 ) <ul><li>The Director Unit System 09 – 1914   (Chaplin, Griffith, Keaton) </li></ul><ul><...
THE STUDIO SYSTEM <ul><li>PRINCIPLES OF CONTINUITY </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EDITING, from COVERAGE to SHOTS </li></ul></u...
STANDARDISATION <ul><li>“… filmmaking is governed by the division of labor (specialization), by a product  measured agains...
TAYLORISM ….(honest!) <ul><li>Scientific Principles of Management </li></ul><ul><li>Maximising Work flow, time & motion </...
Control on the Studio Floor <ul><li>Division of Labour & managerial oversight via  the continuity sheet </li></ul><ul><li>...
The Auteur Theory <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A personal style </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A meaning...
MISE EN SCENE <ul><li>A personal style in and around genre conventions </li></ul><ul><li>A gap between stated scene narrat...
THEMES <ul><li>A line of recurring motifs, tensions, ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships across characters </li></ul><ul...
ARTISTIC VISION <ul><li>T he  conscious and unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>development of an artist, exploring  </li></ul><...
CONSEQUENCES <ul><li>RE- APPRAISAL OF STUDIO DIRECTORS &  GENRES </li></ul><ul><li>ie:  Howard Hawks 1896 -1977 </li></ul>...
Or...HITCHCOCK <ul><li>52 films </li></ul><ul><li>Personal vision within given genres </li></ul><ul><li>Self-defined auteu...
HITCHCOCKS DISAPPEARING WOMEN <ul><li>THE LADY VANISHES  (1938) </li></ul><ul><li>She is there, she dis-appears, returns a...
Hitchcock‘s Disappearing Women <ul><li>VERTIGO  (1958) </li></ul><ul><li>She is there, she dies, returns, then dies again ...
Auteur Theory – Problems <ul><li>Filmmaking a collaborative process </li></ul><ul><li>Structuralist theory, the problem of...
GENRE THEORY <ul><li>The Principle of Repetition and Difference in </li></ul><ul><li>narrative conventions  </li></ul><ul>...
HISTORICAL CYCLE   Model One Growth Development Decay Model Two   Experimental  Classic  Elaboration  Self-Referential
For the Writers/Directors/Producers <ul><li>“ T o anticipate the anticipations of  </li></ul><ul><li>your audience you mus...
COMPARATIVE SEQUENCE ANALYSIS <ul><li>1933 -  The Man From Utah </li></ul><ul><li>1952 -  Shane..  Stevens </li></ul><ul><...
Sequence Analysis - Genre THE SEARCHERS 1955 Similarities & Differences Iconographic Elements Action THE WILD BUNCH 1969 F...
The Artist and the Rules <ul><li>AUTEUR THEORY and GENRE </li></ul><ul><li>W e must be prepared to entertain the idea that...
GROUP DISCUSSION q & a
NEXT UP: STRUCTURALISM [email_address] Berlin, November, 2008
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Hollywood Basics

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Based on Film Studies Course, John F. Kennedy Institute of North American Studies, Dept of Culture. "Hollywood Snoops"

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Hollywood Basics

  1. 1. KINOWORDS presents HOLLYWOOD SNOOPS Exploring Certain Investigative Tendencies in the Cinema of Orson Welles, Alfred Hitchcock, Samuel Fuller and Errol Morris By Alan Taylor, Berlin
  2. 2. HOLLYWOOD SNOOPS Course Leader. Alan Taylor The John F. Kennedy Institute of North American Studies The Freie University of Berlin Fall/Winter 08-09
  3. 3. Introduction Overview <ul><li>A script reading </li></ul><ul><li>Storyboards interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Shared analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of mise-en-scene </li></ul>
  4. 4. Narrative Terms – A Sample <ul><li>Antagonist </li></ul><ul><li>Catharsis </li></ul><ul><li>Causal Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Character </li></ul><ul><li>Climax </li></ul><ul><li>Complication </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Dénouement </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Epiphany </li></ul><ul><li>Exposition </li></ul><ul><li>Foreshadow </li></ul><ul><li>Genre </li></ul><ul><li>Hero & Hubris </li></ul><ul><li>Irony </li></ul><ul><li>Point of View </li></ul><ul><li>Plot </li></ul><ul><li>Protagonist </li></ul><ul><li>Reversal </li></ul><ul><li>Story </li></ul><ul><li>Subplot </li></ul><ul><li>Subtext </li></ul><ul><li>Suspense </li></ul><ul><li>Theme </li></ul>
  5. 5. Technical Terms – A Sample <ul><li>Angle </li></ul><ul><li>Blocking </li></ul><ul><li>Close up </li></ul><ul><li>Colour codes </li></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity system </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive space </li></ul><ul><li>Eye line matching </li></ul><ul><li>Frame </li></ul><ul><li>Impact editing </li></ul><ul><li>Long shot </li></ul><ul><li>Medium shot </li></ul><ul><li>Mise en scene </li></ul><ul><li>Montage </li></ul><ul><li>Point of view shot </li></ul><ul><li>Shot-reverse shot </li></ul><ul><li>Three-point lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking shot </li></ul><ul><li>Voice over </li></ul><ul><li>Zoom </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Classic Narrative Paradigm ACT 1 ACT 2 ACT 3 ORDER CHAOS ORDER / 2 HOOK 30 min 60 min 90min 120 min The inciting incident
  7. 7. EARLY DAYS 1912 - 1919 <ul><li>“… they came pouring in, mostly illegible scrawls, written on everything from postcards to butcher paper…One in five hundred was acceptable…” </li></ul><ul><li>B.P. Schulberg, </li></ul>
  8. 8. Opening Rules <ul><li>“… must have situations plainly visible…a clearly defined story…the complications should start immediately and the developments come with the proper regard to sequence…too many notes and subtleties interrupt the story and detract from the interest…let your stories, though they both strong in plot… be convincing, the situations not merely possible but probable…” </li></ul>
  9. 9. From Silents to the Talkies ( 2 ) <ul><li>The Director Unit System 09 – 1914 (Chaplin, Griffith, Keaton) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Central Producer System, 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>(Thomas Ince) </li></ul><ul><li>Division of Labour – 1920s </li></ul><ul><li>Sound 1928 </li></ul><ul><li>Standardisation of practices </li></ul><ul><li>Classic Narrative and Style, 1930s-1940s </li></ul><ul><li>(see Bordwell, 1985) </li></ul>
  10. 10. THE STUDIO SYSTEM <ul><li>PRINCIPLES OF CONTINUITY </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EDITING, from COVERAGE to SHOTS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EYE-LINE MATCHING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>180 degree RULE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CAMERA ANGLES - DRAMATICALLY JUSTIFIED/GENRE CODES </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. STANDARDISATION <ul><li>“… filmmaking is governed by the division of labor (specialization), by a product measured against its economic success (commercialization) and by a calculable production (standardization). </li></ul><ul><li>As the length of motion pictures increased in the 1920s, the screenplay came to occupy a key position in production…” </li></ul><ul><li>Claudia Sternberg, p. 7 </li></ul>
  12. 12. TAYLORISM ….(honest!) <ul><li>Scientific Principles of Management </li></ul><ul><li>Maximising Work flow, time & motion </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Production – Assembly Line </li></ul><ul><li>Car Industry, Ford </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated work functions </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency, Predictability, Measurability </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul>
  13. 13. Control on the Studio Floor <ul><li>Division of Labour & managerial oversight via the continuity sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Standardised agreements across studios </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of trade unions </li></ul><ul><li>Genre-based stories </li></ul><ul><li>Manufactured & contracted star system </li></ul><ul><li>Block booking distribution </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘Academy’ & The Oscars </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Auteur Theory <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A personal style </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A meaningful coherence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stylistic consistency </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An increasingly mature vision </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. MISE EN SCENE <ul><li>A personal style in and around genre conventions </li></ul><ul><li>A gap between stated scene narrative </li></ul><ul><li>and stylistic emphasis of camera </li></ul><ul><li>3. The manipulation of scenic elements </li></ul><ul><li>4. Lighting, camera, lens, movement, pace </li></ul><ul><li>5. Imagery, colour, framing, composition </li></ul><ul><li>6. Blocking, performance, dramatic weight </li></ul>
  16. 16. THEMES <ul><li>A line of recurring motifs, tensions, ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships across characters </li></ul><ul><li>Subtextual features in the narrative </li></ul><ul><li>A maturing of thematic understanding & exploration </li></ul>
  17. 17. ARTISTIC VISION <ul><li>T he conscious and unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>development of an artist, exploring </li></ul><ul><li>and deepening given personal </li></ul><ul><li>themes made meaningful to an </li></ul><ul><li>audience over time. </li></ul>
  18. 18. CONSEQUENCES <ul><li>RE- APPRAISAL OF STUDIO DIRECTORS & GENRES </li></ul><ul><li>ie: Howard Hawks 1896 -1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing Up Baby , 1938 </li></ul><ul><li>Screwball Comedy </li></ul><ul><li>Gentlemen Prefer Blondes , 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>Musical </li></ul><ul><li>Red River, 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>Western </li></ul><ul><li>Land of the Pharoes, 1955 </li></ul><ul><li>Biblical Epic </li></ul>
  19. 19. Or...HITCHCOCK <ul><li>52 films </li></ul><ul><li>Personal vision within given genres </li></ul><ul><li>Self-defined auteur </li></ul><ul><li>Director and producer </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent collaborators </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental motifs and themes </li></ul>
  20. 20. HITCHCOCKS DISAPPEARING WOMEN <ul><li>THE LADY VANISHES (1938) </li></ul><ul><li>She is there, she dis-appears, returns alive </li></ul><ul><li>REBECCA (1940) </li></ul><ul><li>His wife lives, but dies. He (re) marries Rebecca </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hitchcock‘s Disappearing Women <ul><li>VERTIGO (1958) </li></ul><ul><li>She is there, she dies, returns, then dies again </li></ul><ul><li>PSYCHO (1961) </li></ul><ul><li>She lives, she dies. Her sister returns </li></ul><ul><li>MARNIE (1964) </li></ul><ul><li>She is dead inside and emerges into life </li></ul>
  22. 22. Auteur Theory – Problems <ul><li>Filmmaking a collaborative process </li></ul><ul><li>Structuralist theory, the problem of meaning and the </li></ul><ul><li>death of the author, (1970s – 1980s). </li></ul><ul><li>3. Genius....or repetition? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Meaning and value....in who‘s eyes? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Corporate appropriation by the industry for marketing </li></ul>
  23. 23. GENRE THEORY <ul><li>The Principle of Repetition and Difference in </li></ul><ul><li>narrative conventions </li></ul><ul><li>visual, aural codes </li></ul><ul><li>AUDIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>pleasure and control </li></ul><ul><li>recognition </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCER </li></ul><ul><li>marketing and distribution </li></ul><ul><li>standardisation of output </li></ul>TEXT
  24. 24. HISTORICAL CYCLE Model One Growth Development Decay Model Two Experimental Classic Elaboration Self-Referential
  25. 25. For the Writers/Directors/Producers <ul><li>“ T o anticipate the anticipations of </li></ul><ul><li>your audience you must master your </li></ul><ul><li>genre and its conventions….” </li></ul><ul><li>Robert McGee, STORY </li></ul>
  26. 26. COMPARATIVE SEQUENCE ANALYSIS <ul><li>1933 - The Man From Utah </li></ul><ul><li>1952 - Shane.. Stevens </li></ul><ul><li>1955 - The Searchers..... Ford </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1961 - Ride the High Country... Peckinpah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1964 - Fistful of Dollars.... Leone </li></ul><ul><li> 1969 - The Wild Bunch......... Peckinpah </li></ul>
  27. 27. Sequence Analysis - Genre THE SEARCHERS 1955 Similarities & Differences Iconographic Elements Action THE WILD BUNCH 1969 FISTFUL DOLLARS 1964 RIDE THE HIGH COUNTRY 1961 THE MAN FROM UTAH THE WESTERN
  28. 28. The Artist and the Rules <ul><li>AUTEUR THEORY and GENRE </li></ul><ul><li>W e must be prepared to entertain the idea that auteurs grow, and that genre can help to crystallize preoccupations and contribute </li></ul><ul><li>actively to development... </li></ul><ul><li>Kitses 1969 </li></ul>
  29. 29. GROUP DISCUSSION q & a
  30. 30. NEXT UP: STRUCTURALISM [email_address] Berlin, November, 2008

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