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problem solving

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  • 1. Organizational Behavior
  • 2. Organizational Behavior <ul><li>Project Compiled by: </li></ul><ul><li>Ambika Mudaliar </li></ul><ul><li>Ankita Sheth </li></ul><ul><li>Kinnari Raval </li></ul><ul><li>Krupali Christian </li></ul><ul><li>Prachi Pandit </li></ul><ul><li>Ronak Hadial </li></ul><ul><li>Ruta Trivedi </li></ul>
  • 3. A Challenge <ul><li>Please give a One Sentence Definition of </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM SOLVING and DECISION MAKING </li></ul>
  • 4. Definitions <ul><li>Problem Solving . </li></ul>A systematic approach to defining the problem (question or situation that presents uncertainty, perplexity or difficulty) and creating a vast number of possible solutions without judging these solutions.
  • 5. Definitions <ul><li>Decision Making : </li></ul>The act of narrowing down the possibilities, choosing a course of action, and determining the action’s potential consequences.
  • 6. <ul><li>“ Problem solving is a cognitive processing directed at achieving a goal where no solution method is obvious to the problem solver.” </li></ul>Definitions Critical Thinking Defined “ Purposeful mental activity that helps formulate or solve problems, make decisions, or fulfill a desire to understand.”
  • 7. Decision Making <ul><li>What was the first occasion when u took a decision by your own? </li></ul><ul><li>May be you were just a few months older when u did so…and you will keep doing it till your last breath… </li></ul>
  • 8. Decision Making <ul><li>People at all level make decisions. Being in H.R. field, we are expected to take the decisions throughout our working phase. So its highly necessary for us to develop decision making skill. </li></ul><ul><li>By making decision the manager translates various plans such as objective, policy and strategy etc. into action. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions are made on a managerial function like planning, organizing, staffing, controlling and other matters related to various functional areas such as production, marketing, finance and personnel etc. </li></ul>
  • 9. Nature Of Decision Making <ul><li>Identification: </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Development: </li></ul><ul><li>Search </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Selection: </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul>Decision making is a human process and as we all know though decision making is a simple but complex process it includes three major phases in the decision making process
  • 10. Nature Of Decision Making <ul><li>The Identification Phase : </li></ul><ul><li>During this phase recognition and diagnosis of a problem is done in a very systematic way. </li></ul><ul><li>The Development Phase : </li></ul><ul><li>During this phase search and design for new solution is done among alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>The Selection Phase : </li></ul><ul><li>During this phase the choice of decision is made by two ways. </li></ul><ul><li>By the judgment of decision maker, on the basis of experience or intuition rather than logical analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>By the analysis of the alternatives on a logical systematic basis. </li></ul>
  • 11. Main Characteristics of Decision Making <ul><li>Decision making is a human and social process. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an integral part of planning, every planner has to make a choice of appropriate solutions or alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making aims at choosing a suitable course of action by weighing and weeding out several available alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>It requires giving freedom to the person for making use of their experience, skills and judgment. </li></ul>
  • 12. Main Characteristics of Decision Making <ul><li>In any organization, when decision is made by the manager it is committed towards organization and specific course of action and utilizing resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions are made by managers for solving problems, resolving crisis and conflicts and tackling various situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making is a purposive activity because it is directed towards the achievement of goals and objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making requires giving freedom to the managers for making use of their experience, skill and judgement. </li></ul>
  • 13. Elements in Decision Making Intuition Facts Authority Ready accessibility Authenticity Experience
  • 14. Factors of Decisions Process concept Time Sequence Rationality Action Commitment Evaluation
  • 15. What is Problem Solving? “ Problems call forth our courage and our wisdom; indeed, they create our courage and our wisdom. It is only because of problems that we grow mentally and spiritually.” - M. Scott Peck
  • 16. <ul><li>Making judgements </li></ul>What Skills Do You Use In Problem Solving? <ul><li>Analytical skills </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting information </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul>
  • 17. <ul><li>What processes do you use? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you explain them to another person? </li></ul><ul><li>Do these processes vary depending upon the problem? </li></ul>How Do You Solve Problems?
  • 18. Techniques Of Decision Making and Problem Solving- The Scientific way <ul><li>Define the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Look at potential causes for the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Identify alternatives for approaches to resolve the problem </li></ul>
  • 19. Techniques Of Decision Making and Problem Solving- The Scientific way <ul><li>Select an approach to resolve the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Plan the implementation of the best alternative (this is your action plan </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor implementation of the plan </li></ul>
  • 20. Techniques Of Decision Making and Problem Solving- The Scientific way <ul><li>Verify if the problem has been resolved or not </li></ul><ul><li>Other Simple techniques are: </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify the problem Solve one part at a time Redefine the problem </li></ul>
  • 21. Challenges For Decision Maker <ul><li>Multiple Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Intangible </li></ul><ul><li>Risk & Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term Implication </li></ul>
  • 22. Challenges For Decision Maker <ul><li>Interdisciplinary </li></ul><ul><li>Pooled decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Value judgment </li></ul>
  • 23. Conclusion <ul><li>The manager manages by making decision & them implemented. The effectiveness of decision making & quality of decision depends upon a manager’s skill, judgment competence & ability. </li></ul><ul><li>In the managerial setup of organization the required structural & administrative arrangement are made for delegating the authority to lower level managers as to authorize them for making decisions. Thus, decision making is not only at the core of planning but an integral part of managerial ability. </li></ul>
  • 24. Any Questions?
  • 25. Good Luck on Your Final Exam 

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