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States and Changes (Matter)
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States and Changes (Matter)

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  • 1. STATES & CHANGES IN MATTERSTATES & CHANGES IN MATTER
  • 2. MATTERMATTER • Matter is everywhere. • Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. • Matter is constantly experiencing both chemical and physical changes.
  • 3. STATES OF MATTERSTATES OF MATTER
  • 4. FOUR STATES OF MATTERFOUR STATES OF MATTER Solid Liquid Gas Plasma
  • 5. BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION OF THEBASIS OF CLASSIFICATION OF THE FOUR TYPESFOUR TYPES  Based upon the particle arrangement.  Based upon energy of particles.  Based upon distance between particles.
  • 6. KINETIC THEORY OF MATTERKINETIC THEORY OF MATTER • Matter is made up of particles which are in continual random motion.
  • 7. SOLIDSOLID • Particles are tightly packed, vibrating about a fixed position. • Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume. • Solids have weight. • Solids take up space.
  • 8. SOLID (cont...)SOLID (cont...) • Crystalline Solids – molecules are arranged in a geometric pattern Ex. Table Salt • Amorphous Solids – molecules do not have a set pattern of arrangement Ex. Gels
  • 9. SOLID (cont...)SOLID (cont...) Particle Movement
  • 10. EXAMPLES OF SOLIDEXAMPLES OF SOLID Gold Wood
  • 11. EXAMPLES OF SOLIDEXAMPLES OF SOLID Steel Bricks
  • 12. LIQUIDLIQUID • Particles of liquids are tightly packed, but are far enough apart to slide over one another. • Liquids have an indefinite shape and a definite volume. Liquids take the shape of their container. • Liquids have weight & take up space.
  • 13. LIQUID (cont...)LIQUID (cont...) Particle Movement
  • 14. EXAMPLES OF LIQUIDEXAMPLES OF LIQUID Milk Blood
  • 15. EXAMPLES OF LIQUIDEXAMPLES OF LIQUID WaterUrine
  • 16. GASSESGASSES • Particles of gases are very far apart and move freely. • Gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume. • Gasses spread out to fill the entire space given. • Gasses have weight & take up space.
  • 17. GAS (cont...)GAS (cont...) Particle Movement
  • 18. EXAMPLES OF GASEXAMPLES OF GAS Air Helium
  • 19. EXAMPLES OF GASEXAMPLES OF GAS Nitrogen Carbon Dioxide
  • 20. PHASE CHANGESPHASE CHANGES Description of Phase Change Term for Phase Change Heat Movement During Phase Change Solid to liquid Melting Heat goes into the solid as it melts. Liquid to solid Freezing Heat leaves the liquid as it freezes.
  • 21. PHASE CHANGES (cont...)PHASE CHANGES (cont...) Descriptio n of Phase Change Term for Phase Change Heat Movement During Phase Change Liquid to gas Vaporization, which includes boiling and evaporation Heat goes into the liquid as it vaporizes. Gas to liquid Condensation Heat leaves the gas as it condenses. Solid to gas Sublimation Heat goes into the solid as it sublimates.
  • 22. LET’S WATCH THIS!LET’S WATCH THIS!
  • 23. QUESTION:QUESTION: But what happens if you raise the temperature to super-high levels… between 1000°C and 1,000,000,000°C ? Will everything just be a gas?
  • 24. PLASMAPLASMA • A plasma is an ionized gas. • A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity and is affected by magnetic fields. • Plasma, like gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume.
  • 25. PLASMA (cont...)PLASMA (cont...) • Particles are electrically charged.
  • 26. EXAMPLES OF PLASMAEXAMPLES OF PLASMA Flame Lightning
  • 27. EXAMPLES OF PLASMAEXAMPLES OF PLASMA Aurora Sun
  • 28. STATES OF MATTER?STATES OF MATTER? What would it take for matter to move from one state to another?
  • 29. ENERGY DETERMINES THEENERGY DETERMINES THE STATES!STATES!
  • 30. SUMMARYSUMMARY SOLID LIQUID GAS PLASMA Tightly packed, in a regular pattern Vibrate, but do not move from place to place Close together with no regular arrangement. Vibrate, move about, and slide past each other Well separated with no regular arrangement. Vibrate and move freely at high speeds Has no definite volume or shape and is composed of electrical charged particles
  • 31. CHANGES IN MATTERCHANGES IN MATTER
  • 32. PHYSICAL CHANGEPHYSICAL CHANGE • Physical Changes occur when matter changes its property but not its chemical nature. • Physical property changes could include a change in texture, shape, size, color, odor, volume, mass, weight and density.
  • 33. EXAMPLES OF PHYSICAL CHANGEEXAMPLES OF PHYSICAL CHANGE Melting an ice Breaking a bottle
  • 34. EXAMPLES OF PHYSICAL CHANGEEXAMPLES OF PHYSICAL CHANGE Casting silver in a mold Crumpling a paper
  • 35. Chemical ChangeChemical Change • Chemical changes are changes matter undergoes when it becomes new or different matter. • To identify a chemical change look for signs such as color change, bubbling and fizzing, light production, smoke, and presence of heat.
  • 36. Chemical Change (cont...)Chemical Change (cont...) • A chemical change occurs when fireworks are used. Fireworks are made of metals such as magnesium and copper. • These change chemically as they light up the sky.
  • 37. EXAMPLES OF CHEMICAL CHANGEEXAMPLES OF CHEMICAL CHANGE Burning wood Dissolving salt in water
  • 38. EXAMPLES OF CHEMICAL CHANGEEXAMPLES OF CHEMICAL CHANGE Digesting foods Mixing acid and base
  • 39. LET’S WATCH THIS!LET’S WATCH THIS!
  • 40. LET’S PLAY A GAME!LET’S PLAY A GAME!
  • 41. NAME THAT CHANGE!NAME THAT CHANGE! How To Play For each item, you will need to tell whether a physical or a chemical change has taken place!
  • 42. Is it a chemical or physical change?Is it a chemical or physical change? • Breaking water up by separating it into hydrogen and oxygen. Chemical Change
  • 43. Is it a chemical or physical change?Is it a chemical or physical change? • Cutting paper. Physical Change
  • 44. Is it a chemical or physical change?Is it a chemical or physical change? • Crashing an aspirin. Physical Change
  • 45. Is it a chemical or physical change?Is it a chemical or physical change? • Metal rusting. Chemical Change
  • 46. Is it a chemical or physical change?Is it a chemical or physical change? • Lighter fluid burning. Chemical Change
  • 47. Is it a chemical or physical change?Is it a chemical or physical change? • Wall painting. Physical Change
  • 48. Is it a chemical or physical change?Is it a chemical or physical change? • Ribbon cutting. Physical Change
  • 49. THANK YOUTHANK YOU ANDAND GOOD DAYGOOD DAY

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