TourismFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia"Tourist" redirects here. For other uses, see Tourist (disambiguation).Summer Visitors by Maurice Prendergast(1897)Common sights of backpacking tourism: Guidebooks, train ticket, money and passport.Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World TourismOrganization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environmentfor not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2010, there were over 940 million internationaltourist arrivals worldwide, representing a growth of 6.6% when compared to 2009. International tourismreceipts grew to US$919 billion (€693 billion) in 2010, corresponding to an increase in real terms of4.7%. As a result of the late-2000s recession, international travel demand suffered a strong slowdownfrom the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009. After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth
in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, and ended up only2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. This negative trend intensified during 2009,exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of theH1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwidedecline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, and a 5.7% decline in internationaltourism receipts.Tourism is important and in some cases vital for many countries, suchas France, Egypt, Greece, Lebanon, Israel, the United States, the United Kingdom,Spain, Italy,and Thailand, and many island nations, such as Mauritius, The Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives, Philippines andthe Seychelles. It brings in large amounts of income in payment for goods and services available,contributing an estimated 5% to the worldwide gross domestic product (GDP), and it creates opportunitiesfor employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These service industriesinclude transportation services, such as airlines,cruise ships and taxicabs; hospitality services, suchas accommodations, including hotels and resorts; and entertainment venues, such as amusementparks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues and theatres. Contents [hide]1 Etymology2 World tourism statistics and rankings o 2.1 Most-visited countries by international tourist arrivals o 2.2 International tourism receipts o 2.3 International tourism expenditures o 2.4 Most-visited cities by international tourist arrivals3 History o 3.1 Leisure travel o 3.2 Winter tourism o 3.3 Mass tourism o 3.4 Adjectival tourism4 Recent developments o 4.1 Sustainable tourism o 4.2 Ecotourism o 4.3 Pro-poor tourism o 4.4 Recession tourism o 4.5 Medical tourism o 4.6 Educational tourism o 4.7 Creative tourism
o 4.8 Dark tourism o 4.9 Doom tourism5 Growth o 5.1 Sports tourism o 5.2 Latest trends6 References7 Further reading8 External linksEtymologyTheobald (1994) suggested that "etymologically, the word tour is derived from the Latin, tornare and theGreek, tornos, meaning a lathe or circle; the movement around a central point or axis. This meaningchanged in modern English to represent ones turn. The suffix –ism is defined as an action or process;typical behaviour or quality, while the suffix, –ist denotes one that performs a given action. When theword tour and the suffixes –ism and –ist are combined, they suggest the action of movement around acircle. One can argue that a circle represents a starting point, which ultimately returns back to its beginning.Therefore, like a circle, a tour represents a journey in that it is a round-trip, i.e., the act of leaving and thenreturning to the original starting point, and therefore, one who takes such a journey can be called atourist."In 1941, Hunziker and Krapf defined tourism as people who travel "the sum of the phenomena andrelationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanentresidence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of Englandsdefinition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the placeswhere they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includesmovements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourismdefined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home. In 1994, the United Nations classified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on TourismStatistics: Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country. Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country. Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country.World tourism statistics and rankingsMost-visited countries by international tourist arrivalsMain article: World Tourism rankingsIn 2010, there were 940 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 6.6% as compared to 2009.
The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten countries as the most visited in terms of thenumber of international travellers. In 2010, China overtook Spain to become the third most visited country. International International UNWTO Change tourist touristRank Country Regional 2009 arrivals arrivals Market to 2010 (2010) (2009) 1 France Europe 76.8 million 76.8 million +0.0% 2 United States North America 59.7 million 55.0 million +8.7% 3 China Asia 55.7 million 50.9 million +9.4% 4 Spain Europe 52.7 million 52.2 million +1.0% 5 Italy Europe 43.6 million 43.2 million +0.9% 6 United Kingdom Europe 28.1 million 28.2 million -0.2% 7 Turkey Europe 27.0 million 25.5 million +5.9% 8 Germany Europe 26.9 million 24.2 million +10.9% 9 Malaysia Asia 24.6 million 23.6 million +3.9% 10 Mexico North America 22.4 million 21.5 million +4.4%International tourism receiptsInternational tourism receipts grew to US$919 billion (€693 billion) in 2010, corresponding to an increasein real terms of 4.7% from 2009. The World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as the topten tourism earners for the year 2010, with the United States by far the top earner.
International UNWTO TourismRank Country Regional Receipts Market (2010)1 United States North America $103.5 billion2 Spain Europe $52.5 billion3 France Europe $46.3 billion4 China Asia $45.8 billion5 Italy Europe $38.8 billion6 Germany Europe $34.7 billion7 United Kingdom Europe $30.4 billion8 Australia Oceania $30.1 billion9 Hong Kong (China) Asia $23.0 billion10 Turkey Europe $20.8 billionInternational tourism expendituresThe World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as the top ten biggest spenders oninternational tourism for the year 2010. International UNWTO TourismRank Country Regional Expenditures Market (2010)1 Germany Europe $77.7 billion
International UNWTO TourismRank Country Regional Expenditures Market (2010)2 United States North America $75.5 billion3 China Asia $54.9 billion4 United Kingdom Europe $48.6 billion5 France Europe $39.4 billion6 Canada North America $29.5 billion7 Japan Asia $27.9 billion8 Italy Europe $27.1 billion9 Russia Europe $26.5 billion10 Australia Oceania $22.5 billionMost-visited cities by international tourist arrivals Top 10 most visited cities by estimated number of international visitors by selected year International City Country visitors Year/Notes (millions)Paris France 15.1 2010 (Excluding extra-muros visitors)London United Kingdom 14.6 2010
New York United States 9.7 2010CityAntalya Turkey 9.2 2010 2010 (Excluding Malaysian citizens arriving bySingapore Singapore 9.2 land)Kuala Lumpur Malaysia 8.9 2010Hong Kong Hong Kong (China) 8.4 2010 (Excluding Mainland Chinese visitors) United ArabDubai 8.3 2010 EmiratesBangkok Thailand 7.2 2010Istanbul Turkey 6.9 2010HistorySee also: Grand TourWealthy people have always traveled to distant parts of the world, to see great buildings, works of art, learnnew languages, experience new cultures and to taste different cuisines. Long ago, at the time ofthe Roman Republic, places such as Baiae were popular coastal resorts for the rich. The word tourist wasused by 1772 and tourism by 1811. In 1936, the League of Nations definedforeign tourist as "someonetraveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours". Its successor, the United Nations, amended this definitionin 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months.Leisure travel
Englishman in the Campagna by Carl Spitzweg (c. 1845)Leisure travel was associated with the Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom – the first Europeancountry to promote leisure time to the increasing industrial population. Initially, this applied to the ownersof the machinery of production, the economic oligarchy, the factory owners and the traders. Thesecomprised the new middle class. Cox & Kings was the first official travel company to be formed in1758.The British origin of this new industry is reflected in many place names. In Nice, France, one of the first andbest-established holiday resorts on the French Riviera, the long esplanade along the seafront is known tothis day as the Promenade des Anglais; in many other historic resorts in continental Europe, old, well-established palace hotels have names like the Hotel Bristol, the Hotel Carlton or the Hotel Majestic –reflecting the dominance of English customers.Many leisure-oriented tourists travel to the tropics, both in the summer and winter. Places of such natureoften visited are: Bali in Indonesia, Colombia, Brazil,Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Malaysia, Mexico thevarious Polynesian tropical islands, Queensland in Australia, Thailand, Saint-Tropez and Cannes inFrance, Florida, Hawaii and Puerto Rico in the United States, Barbados, SintMaarten, Saint Kitts and Nevis, The Bahamas, Anguilla, Antigua, Aruba, Turks and CaicosIslands and Bermuda.Winter tourismSee also: List of ski areas and resorts and Winter sportAlthough it is acknowledged that the Swiss were not the inventors of skiing, it is well documented that St.Moritz, Graubünden became the cradle of the developing winter tourism; since that year of 1865 in St.Moritz, when many daring hotel managers choose to risk opening their hotels in winter. It was, however,only in the 1970s when winter tourism took over the lead from summer tourism in many of the Swiss skiresorts. Even in winter, portions of up to one third of all guests (depending on the location) consist of non-skiers.Major ski resorts are located mostly in the various European countries(e.g. Andorra, Austria, Bulgaria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, CzechRepublic, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Serbia,Sweden, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland),Canada, the United States (e.g. Colorado, California, Utah, Montana, Wyoming, New York, New Jersey,Michigan, Vermont, New Hampshire) New Zealand,Japan, South Korea, Chile, and Argentina.Mass tourism
Reisepläne (Travel plans) by Adolph Menzel (1875)Mass tourism could only have developed with the improvements in technology, allowing the transport oflarge numbers of people in a short space of time to places of leisure interest, so that greater numbers ofpeople could begin to enjoy the benefits of leisure time.In the United States, the first seaside resorts in the European style were at Atlantic City, NewJersey and Long Island, New York.In Continental Europe, early resorts included: Ostend, popularised by the people of Brussels; Boulogne-sur-Mer (Pas-de-Calais) and Deauville (Calvados) for the Parisians; and Heiligendamm, founded in 1793,as the first seaside resort on the Baltic Sea.Adjectival tourismFor a more comprehensive list, see List of adjectival tourisms.Adjectival tourism refers to the numerous niche or specialty travel forms of tourism that have emerged overthe years, each with its own adjective. Many of these have come into common use by the tourism industryand academics. Others are emerging concepts that may or may not gain popular usage. Examples of themore common niche tourism markets include: Agritourism Medical tourism Birth tourism Nautical tourism Culinary tourism Pop-culture tourism Cultural tourism Religious tourism Extreme tourism Slum tourism Geotourism Space tourism Heritage tourism War tourism LGBT tourism Wildlife tourismRecent developmentsThere has been an up trend in tourism over the last few decades, especially in Europe, where internationaltravel for short breaks is common. Tourists have a wide range of budgets and tastes, and a wide variety ofresorts and hotels have developed to cater for them. For example, some people prefer simple beachvacations, while others want more specialised holidays, quieter resorts, family-oriented holidays or nichemarket-targeted destination hotels.
The developments in technology and transport infrastructure, such as jumbo jets, low-cost airlines andmore accessible airports have made many types of tourism more affordable. On April 28, 2009TheGuardian noted that "the WHO estimates that up to 500,000 people are on planes at any time." Therehave also been changes in lifestyle, for example some retirement-age people sustain year round tourism.This is facilitated by internet sales of tourist services. Some sites have now started to offer dynamicpackaging, in which an inclusive price is quoted for a tailor-made package requested by the customer uponimpulse.There have been a few setbacks in tourism, such as the September 11 attacks and terrorist threats totourist destinations, such as in Bali and several European cities. Also, on December 26, 2004, a tsunami,caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, hit the Asian countries on the Indian Ocean, includingthe Maldives. Thousands of lives were lost including many tourists. This, together with the vast clean-up operations, stopped or severely hampered tourism in the area for a time.The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel has a similardefinition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimesused pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited by tourists.Sustainable tourism"Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic,social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecologicalprocesses, biological diversity and life support systems." (World Tourism Organization)Sustainable development implies "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability offuture generations to meet their own needs" (World Commission on Environment and Development,1987)Sustainable tourism can be seen as having regard to ecological and socio-cultural carrying capacities andincludes involving the community of the destination in tourism development planning. It also involvesintegrating tourism to match current economic and growth policies so as to mitigate some of the negativeeconomic and social impacts of mass tourism. Murphy (1985) advocates the use of an ecologicalapproach, to consider both plants and people when implementing the sustainable tourism developmentprocess. This is in contrast to the boosterism and economic approaches to tourism planning, neither ofwhich consider the detrimental ecological or sociological impacts of tourism development to a destination.However, Butler questions the exposition of the term sustainable in the context of tourism, citing itsambiguity and stating that "the emerging sustainable development philosophy of the 1990s can be viewedas an extension of the broader realization that a preoccupation with economic growth without regard to itsocial and environmental consequences is self-defeating in the long term." Thus sustainable tourismdevelopment is seldom considered as an autonomous function of economic regeneration as separate fromgeneral economic growth.Ecotourism
Main article: EcotourismEcotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is responsible travel to fragile, pristine, and usuallyprotected areas that strives to be low impact and (often) small scale. It helps educate the traveler; providesfunds for conservation; directly benefits the economic development and political empowerment of localcommunities; and fosters respect for different cultures and for human rights.Pro-poor tourismPro-poor tourism, which seeks to help the poorest people in developing countries, has been receivingincreasing attention by those involved in development; the issue has been addressed through small-scaleprojects in local communities and through attempts by Ministries of Tourism to attract large numbers oftourists. Research by the Overseas Development Institute suggests that neither is the best way toencourage tourists money to reach the poorest as only 25% or less (far less in some cases) ever reachesthe poor; successful examples of money reaching the poor include mountain-climbing in Tanzania andcultural tourism in Luang Prabang, Laos.Recession tourismRecession tourism is a travel trend, which evolved by way of the world economic crisis. Identified byAmerican entrepreneur Matt Landau (2007), recession tourism is defined by low-cost, high-valueexperiences taking place of once-popular generic retreats. Various recession tourism hotspots have seenbusiness boom during the recession thanks to comparatively low costs of living and a slow world jobmarket suggesting travelers are elongating trips where their money travels further.Medical tourismMain article: Medical tourismWhen there is a significant price difference between countries for a given medical procedure, particularlyin Southeast Asia, India, Eastern Europe and where there are different regulatory regimes, in relation toparticular medical procedures (e.g. dentistry), traveling to take advantage of the price or regulatorydifferences is often referred to as "medical tourism".Educational tourismEducational tourism developed, because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledgeand the enhancing of technical competency outside of the classroom environment.In educationaltourism, the main focus of the tour or leisure activity includes visiting another country to learn about theculture, such as in Student Exchange Programs and Study Tours, or to work and apply skills learned insidethe classroom in a different environment, such as in the International Practicum Training Program.Creative tourismCreative tourism has existed as a form of cultural tourism, since the early beginnings of tourism itself. ItsEuropean roots date back to the time of the Grand Tour, which saw the sons of aristocratic familiestraveling for the purpose of mostly interactive, educational experiences. More recently, creative tourism has
been given its own name by Crispin Raymond and Greg Richards, who as members of the Associationfor Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS), have directed a number of projects for the EuropeanCommission, including cultural and crafts tourism, known as sustainable tourism. They have defined"creative tourism" as tourism related to the active participation of travellers in the culture of the hostcommunity, through interactive workshops and informal learning experiences.Meanwhile, the concept of creative tourism has been picked up by high-profile organizations suchas UNESCO, who through the Creative Cities Network, have endorsed creative tourism as anengaged,authentic experience that promotes an active understanding of the specific cultural features ofa place.More recently, creative tourism has gained popularity as a form of cultural tourism, drawing on activeparticipation by travelers in the culture of the host communities they visit. Several countries offer examplesof this type of tourism development, including the United Kingdom, the Bahamas, Jamaica, Spain, Italy andNew Zealand.Dark tourismSee also: Jihadi tourismOne emerging area of special interest has been identified by Lennon and Foley (2000) as "dark"tourism. This type of tourism involves visits to "dark" sites, such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimesor acts of genocide, for example: concentration camps. Dark tourism remains a small niche market, drivenby varied motivations, such as mourning, remembrance, education, macabre curiosity or evenentertainment. Its early origins are rooted in fairgrounds and medieval fairs.Doom tourismAlso known as "Tourism of Doom," or "Last Chance Tourism" this emerging trend involves traveling toplaces that are environmentally or otherwise threatened (the ice caps of Mount Kilimanjaro, the meltingglaciers of Patagonia, The coral of the Great Barrier Reef) before it is too late. Identified by travel trademagazine TravelAge West editor-in-chief Kenneth Shapiro in 2007 and later explored inThe New YorkTimes, this type of tourism is believed to be on the rise. Some see the trend as related to sustainabletourism or ecotourism due to the fact that a number of these tourist destinations are considered threatenedby environmental factors such as global warming, over population or climate change. Others worry thattravel to many of these threatened locations increases an individual’scarbon footprint and only hastensproblems threatened locations are already facing.GrowthThe World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) forecasts that international tourism will continue growing at theaverage annual rate of 4 %. With the advent of e-commerce, tourism products have become one of themost traded items on the internet. Tourism products and services have been made available
through intermediaries, although tourism providers (hotels, airlines, etc.) can sell their services directly.This has put pressure on intermediaries from both on-line and traditional shops.It has been suggested there is a strong correlation between tourism expenditure per capita and the degreeto which countries play in the global context. Not only as a result of the important economic contributionof the tourism industry, but also as an indicator of the degree of confidence with which global citizensleverage the resources of the globe for the benefit of their local economies. This is why any projections ofgrowth in tourism may serve as an indication of the relative influence that each country will exercise in thefuture.Space tourism is expected to "take off" in the first quarter of the 21st century, although compared withtraditional destinations the number of tourists in orbit will remain low until technologies such as aspaceelevator make space travel cheap.Technological improvement is likely to make possible air-ship hotels, based either on solar-powered airplanes or large dirigibles. Underwater hotels, such as Hydropolis, expected to openin Dubai in 2009, will be built. On the ocean, tourists will be welcomed by ever larger cruise ships andperhaps floating cities.Sports tourismSince the late 1980s, sports tourism has become increasingly popular. Events such as rugby, Olympics,Commonwealth games, Asian Games and football World Cups have enabled specialist travel companies togain official ticket allocation and then sell them in packages that include flights, hotels and excursions.Latest trendsAs a result of the late-2000s recession, international arrivals suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June2008. Growth from 2007 to 2008 was only 3.7% during the first eight months of 2008. The Asian andPacific markets were affected and Europe stagnated during the boreal summer months, whilethe Americas performed better, reducing their expansion rate but keeping a 6% growth from January toAugust 2008. Only the Middle East continued its rapid growth during the same period, reaching a 17%growth as compared to the same period in 2007. This slowdown on international tourism demand wasalso reflected in the air transport industry, with a negative growth in September 2008 and a 3.3% growth inpassenger traffic through September. The hotel industry also reports a slowdown, as room occupancycontinues to decline. As the global economic situation deteriorated dramatically during September andOctober as a result of the global financial crisis, growth of international tourism is expected to slow evenfurther for the remaining of 2008, and this slowdown in demand growth is forecasted to continue into 2009as recession has already hit most of the top spender countries, with long-haul travel expected to be themost affected by the economic crisis. This negative trend intensified as international tourist arrivals fell by8% during the first four months of 2009, and the decline was exacerbated in some regions due to theoutbreak of the influenza AH1N1 virus.References
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