Geen vrede zonder water - Pieter vd Zaag 130328
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Geen vrede zonder water - Pieter vd Zaag 130328

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Geen vrede zonder water - Pieter vd Zaag 130328 Geen vrede zonder water - Pieter vd Zaag 130328 Presentation Transcript

  • Geen vrede zonder water Pieter van der Zaag Hoogleraar Water Resources Management, UNESCO-IHE & TU Delft Waterseminar “Green vrede zonder water” Rotary in Nederland, Watermuseum, Arnhem, 28 March 2013
  • Geen vrede zonder water• De zes grote water uitdagingen van de 21ste eeuw• Hoe kunnen dreigende water conflicten getransformeerd worden in water samenwerking• Een concluderende opmerking
  • De zes grote water uitdagingen van de 21ste eeuw• Water en sanitatie voor allen  Mensenrecht• Voeden van een groeiende bevolking  Voedsel• Duurzame energie voor economieën  Energie• Bescherming tegen water gerelateerde rampen,  Overstromingen, inclusief klimaat adaptatie droogtes, zeespiegelstijging• Handhaven en verbeteren van ecologische  Milieu integriteit• Transformeren van conflicten tot samenwerking  Governance, Bestuur
  • 1. Water and sanitation services for all
  • 1. Water and sanitation services for all Improved drinking water Source: UN, 2010 Improved sanitation Source: UN, 2011
  • 2. Feeding a growing population Meat consumption and income 1961-2000 120 100 USAmeat consumption (kg/cap/yr) 80 60 China 40 20 0 India 10 100 1000 10000 100000 GDP per capita (2000 constant dollars per year) Source: De Fraiture and Clayton, 2009
  • 2. Feeding a growing population Per capita water requirement for food consumption in China Animal products Cereals and starchy roots Source: Lundqvist (2010)
  • 2. Feeding a growing population Most agriculture takes place under rainfed conditions. There is ample scope to increase productivitySource: De Fraiture et al., 2009
  • 3. Powering economies sustainablyxx
  • 3. Powering economies sustainablyTo produce energy requires water(and, in case of biofuels, also land)To produce drinking water requires energyTreatment of wastewater produces energy
  • 4. Protecting people from water relateddisasters victims economic losses Source: OECD, 2012
  • 4. Protecting people from water relateddisastersClimate change is here with usIncrease in temperature• leads to sea level rise• speeds up the hydrological cycle• in most regions: - more droughts and floods - glacier melt - reduction of usable water• adaptation to climate change is >90% water-related
  • 5. Maintaining and restoring ecological integrity Ecological disasters due to unsustainable practices:• depletion of water stocks (surface and groundwater) Source: UN, 2011
  • 5. Maintaining and restoring ecological integrity Ecological disasters due to unsustainable practices:• depletion of water stocks (surface and groundwater) Source: Sutcliffe et al., 1999• accumulation of pollutants• modification of natural flow regimes Source: Ronco et al., 2010
  • 6. Turning potential conflict into cooperationphoto: Eric Baran Cochabamba - Bolivia Mekong Scheldt estuary - Netherlands/Belgium Omo river basin (Ethiopia) and Lake Turkana (Kenya) Indus
  • Water is special• Water is special: vital and finite and fugitive  recognised as such in all major religions• Different forms: blue, green, grey, virtual• Multiple uses, involving different sectors• Multiple scales: “from bucket to basin”; from communities to nations and regions• Rising pressure on our water resources
  • Water is specialRising pressure on water leads to tensions:• between the haves and the have-nots - 0.9 billion without clean water - 2.6 billion without basic sanitation• between water users within the same sector - e.g. irrigators• between different sectors - urban water supply vs. irrigators - distant energy consumers vs. riparian communities - environmental vs. economic interests• between different social/political entities - the transboundary dimension• at the global scale - e.g. the current land & water grab in Africa
  • Water sharing• Different regimes to reconcile competing interests: - customary vs. statute - moral (value-based), legal (rule-based), economic (market)Principles of water sharing1. The right of equitable and reasonable use2. The duty not to cause significant harm3. The duty to cooperate
  • Water sharing The water asymmetry boundary up down sea
  • Water sharingPrinciples of equity and no harm implythat water users have to consider theneeds of other users.Thus, users may have to forgo somepotential (and immediate) water benefits. Why would water users voluntarily accept to forgo benefits?
  • Water sharingIf water users acknowledge that theydepend on each other, Strategy: • not only in terms of water but also 1. make explicit the in other ways existing • not only now but also in the future interdependencies between partiesit may be rational for them to cooperate 2. actively seek toand forgo some immediate benefits increase mutual • even for upstream users/countries dependencies • even in cases where power- differences are large
  • Water sharingCreating interdependencies Strategy:• data sharing 1. make explicit the• joint infrastructure development existing interdependencies• benefit sharing between parties• rewards for environmental services 2. actively seek to• issue linking increase mutual• .. dependencies
  • Conflict or cooperation? researchsearch term in title, 1998-2007 papers citationswater AND conflict NOT cooperation 91 317water AND cooperation NOT conflict 30 96water AND cooperation AND conflict 11 28 Web of Knowledge database (isiwebofknowledge.com) 132 441 source: Gupta & Van der Zaag, 2009; Van der Zaag et al., 2009
  • Conflict or cooperation? source: Zeitoun & Mirumachi, 2008
  • Conflict or cooperation? source: Zeitoun & Mirumachi, 2008
  • Conflict or cooperation? source: Zeitoun & Mirumachi, 2008
  • ConclusionWater may be a cause of conflictWater may also be a cause for cooperationWhat can we, as engineers,environmentalists, lawyers, mediators,educators and philanthropists do? We can promote the awareness of the cooperation potential of water
  • Conflict or cooperation? from Potential Conflict to Cooperation PotentialWater may be a cause of conflictWater may also be a cause for cooperationWhat can we, as engineers, “Since wars beginenvironmentalists, lawyers, mediators,educators and philanthropists do? in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men We can promote the awareness of that the defences of peace the cooperation potential of water must be constructed” UNESCO Constitution, November 1945http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/water/ihp/ihp-programmes/pccp/
  • Conflict or cooperation? from Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential Thank you for your attention www.unesco-ihe.org/users/pvanderzaaghttp://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/water/ihp/ihp-programmes/pccp/
  • Helsinki Rules on the Uses of the Waters ofInternational Rivers (ILA, 1966)Convention on the Protection and use ofTransboundary Watercourses and International Lakes(UNECE, 1992)UN Convention on the Law of the Non-NavigationalUses of International Watercourses (UN, 1997)[Berlin Rules of Water Resources Law (ILA, 2004)]
  • UN Watercourses ConventionThe convention is not yet in force*As of February 2013, the 1997 UN Convention had been ratified,or acceded to, by the following 30 countries:Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany,Greece, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon,Libya, Luxembourg, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, Niger,Nigeria, Norway, Portugal, Qatar, South Africa, Spain, Sweden,Syria, Tunisia and Uzbekistan.(NB: Countries in italics did not vote in favour of the UN Convention yet ratified it.)Source: http://treaties.un.org; look for Status of Treaties, then Chapter XXVII Environment; then entry no. 12* 35 countries need to ratify, accept, approve or accede to the Convention before it comes into force.