IntroductionPollution is contamination by a chemical or other agent that renders part ofthe environment unfit for intended or desired use. These uses also and veryimportantly include all wildlife and ecological requirements to sustain life inall its natural forms.Pollution damages the Earths land, water and air. It results in contaminationof the earth’s environment with materials that interfere with human health,the quality of life, and the natural functioning of ecosystems (livingorganisms and their physical surroundings).It deserves emphasis that the environment also refers to the place where youlive. Natural processes have released toxic chemicals into the environmentthroughout the history of the earth. Currently, the pollution generated byhuman activities presents the most serious problem.Pollution Crisis is a major problem all around the world. It has adverselyaffected the lives of millions of people and caused many deaths and healthdisorders. Pollution is usually caused by human actions, but can also be theconsequence of natural disasters. Pollution can also occur from disruption ordamage to wastewater collection and treatment infrastructure due to severenatural events like hurricanes or flooding. Most types of pollution affect theimmediate area surrounding the source, and reduce as you move away fromthe source.To fulfill our demand we pollute our environment continuously which statedbelow:
Air pollutionAn air pollutant is known as a substance in the air that can cause harm tohumans and the environment. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles,liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made.Particulates of both natural and human origin also cause pollution. Smokeboth natural from fires and human activities cause from industries and othersources are major and cause much damage. The chemicals that are mosttrouble-some in air pollution are formed in the atmosphere by gases. Thepollutant introduced into the atmosphere in the largest quantities by humanactivity is carbon monoxide.Industrial or gray smog is considered the most serious type of air pollution.Smoke and oxides of that are released by burning coal and oil containingminor amounts of sulfur is the cause.CauseAir Pollution - Each year industrially developed countries generate billionsof tons of pollutants. Many pollutants come from directly identifiablesources; for example, comes from electric power plants burning coal or oil.Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants, coal-firedpower plants, oil refineries, petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposalactivity, incinerators, PVC factories, metals production factories, plasticsfactories, and other heavy industry. The increasing number of vehicles hasalso lead to an increase in Air Pollution, due to the harmful gases likeCarbon Monoxide emitted from these vehicles.
EffectThroughout the world the damage cause by air pollution is enormous. Inmoney alone it represents a loss of billions of dollars each year. Manyflower and vegetable crops suffer ill effects from air pollution caused byexhaust gases. Trees have been killed by pollution. Cattle have beenpoisoned. Air pollution causes rubber tires on automobiles to crack andbecome porous. Pollutants in the air make it hard for people to breathecausing lung disease. When it rains the chemicals in the air cause acid rainhurting the animals and plantsPollution ControlThere are various air pollution control technologies and land use planningstrategies available to reduce air pollution. At its most basic level land useplanning is likely to involve zoning and transport infrastructure planning. Inmost developed countries, land use planning is an important part of socialpolicy, ensuring that land is used efficiently for the benefit of the widereconomy and population as well as to protect the environment.Efforts to reduce pollution from mobile sources includes primary regulation(many developing countries have permissive regulations), expandingregulation to new sources (such as cruise and transport ships, farmequipment, and small gas-powered equipment increased fuel efficiencyconversion to cleaner fuels.
Water pollutionIt covers 71% of the earths surface and makes up 65 % of our bodies.Everyone wants clean water-- to drink, for recreation, and just to enjoylooking at. If water becomes polluted, it’s lost its value to us economicallyand aesthetically, and can become a threat to our health and to the survivalof the fish living in it and the wildlife that depends on it.Although some kinds of water pollution can occur through natural processes,it is mostly a result of human activities. We use water daily in our homesand industries. The used water of a community is called wastewater, orsewage. If it is not treated before being discharged into waterways, seriouspollution is the result. Water pollution also occurs when rain water runofffrom urban and industrial areas and from agricultural land and miningoperations makes its way back to receiving waters (river, lake or ocean) andinto the ground.CauseThe wastewater and liquids from plants and factories are linked with nearbyriver water, which are polluted when they release disposal from these units.People in Developing/Undeveloped countries also pollute rivers by using thewater in these rivers for washing clothes, utensils, bathing and otheractivities. Many companies dump their toxic waste in many rivers andlakes. Ships spill oil in oceans and rivers. People throw litter in water.
EffectWater pollution infects the water and renders it unfit for drinking and otherpurposes. It is also a major cause of most of the water-borne diseases. Waterpollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due tocontamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developingcountries. Toxic waste and oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes andalso cause many animals and plants to die. Litter also is eaten by animals orthey get caught in the litter like six pack plastics causing the animals death.Pollution controlTo keep our used water from spoiling our water resources, we have toremove the pollutants before the water gets back into the environment.Industries located in areas where they are not connected to a sewer candischarge directly into a waterway, but will need a permit, and will probablyhave to have their own treatment plants. Homes in non-urban areas that arenot connected to a sewer are usually required by their town to have on-sitetreatment systems, which consist of a buried tank connected to a set ofperforated pipes, embedded in gravel, which distribute the water into thesoil.
Noise pollutionNoise is probably the most frequently forgotten of the environmentalpollutants, yet its effects can be many and far-reaching. Noise pollution isunwanted human-created sound that disrupts the environment. Millions ofpeople on all continents are exposed to unhealthy levels of noise live inareas where the daily average noise levels exceed the safe noise level of anaverage of 55 decibels. What is a truly safe level of noise is controversial;levels of between 55 and 65 dB have been used for planning purposes havebeen called "acceptable".CauseThe overarching cause of most noise worldwide is generated bytransportation systems, principally motor vehicle noise, but also includingaircraft noise and rail noise. Besides transportation noise, other prominentsources are office equipment, factory machinery, appliances, power tools,lighting hum and audio entertainment systems. Other sources include thenoise in occupational settings or even the noise of simultaneousconversations. It also seems from a number of studies that intermittent noiseis more of a problem than noise of a similar intensity which is constant. Themachines used in factories make noise throughout the day, and this disturbsthe peaceful atmosphere in the vicinity, as machines used without propercovering lead to sound pollution. This puts heavy mental strain on thepeople staying in the nearby areas. Noise is the most pervasive pollution inAmerica.
EffectNoise pollution affects nearly every aspect of life and probably hasdamaging physical effects as well. The best-studied and best-defined effecton physical health is the effect of noise on hearing. Several research studiessuggest that noise can cause high blood pressure. Others say that psychiatricdiseases can be caused by noise. Noise affects us in another significant way;people exposed to noise feel a greater sense of frustration and annoyancethan people whose environment is not as noisy. Noise induced hearing lossis hearing loss arising from repeated exposure to moderate noise. The latteris the more common form of hearing loss due to noise pollutionPollution controlThere are some of the techniques described in our section on Stress to lessenthe impact unpleasant sounds may have on us. When we are more relaxed ingeneral, big annoyances become little annoyances and may disappearaltogether. When we learn to truly relax, we may find that sounds whichwere once of great concern simply faded away into the background.We should aware from reducing the volume of the sound, which isunfavorable to others.
Land pollutionLand pollution is where our land may be as far as beingcontaminated. All of the bad toxic chemicals and waste, that is leftor dumped on our land, causes it to become polluted. All types ofwaste can be found on land. Some is left behind after humanactivities and some is washed ashore from boats and sewage outlets.Also, acid rain can pollute our land.CauseWe are creating too much waste due to in particular to muchunnecessary packaging. In addition to this, we do not adequatelyrecycle the waste we create. Many of the resources we use in oureveryday lives are disposed of quickly. Food is wrapped in paper orplastic bags, drinks are in throw-away bottles or cans, batteries aredisposed of after a short lifePollution sources include chemical plants, coal-fired power plants,oil refineries, nuclear waste disposal activity, large animal farms,metals production factories, plastics factories, and other heavyindustry. Landfills are also the source of many chemical substancesentering the soil environment. With the rising standards of living,we are throwing away more things and there is an increase in thequantity of solid waste.
EffectNowadays, there is an excess of waste being dumped. The long termeffects of this could be the pollution of new building ground.People live or work in nearby areas, could suffer from healthproblems. The health problems that could occur from land pollutionare not very well known at this time. But the problems the amountof toxic chemicals , coming from this waste, are going to cause, arehealth issues such as deformities or cancers. This is the worryingissue and it is not quite clear yet about the way in which to preventhealth problems from land pollution .Pollution ControlThe solution to land pollution is reducing, re-use and recycle. Wecan try to prevent land pollution by disposing of some wastecorrectly.We can cut down on waste in our dustbins with a little thought andeffort. We can separate household waste at home for recycling . Itwould make recycling easier, if waste collection authorities set up asystem for householders to separate their rubbish into paper, glassand metal. Separate collections would be more expensive in theshort term, but save resources, disposal costs and immeasurableenvironmental damage.
Greenhouse EffectThe greenhouse effect is a phenomenon whereby greenhouse gases create acondition in the upper atmosphere causing a trapping of heat and leading toincreased surface and lower tropospheric temperatures. Heat from the sunpasses through the atmosphere, warming it up, and most of it warms thesurface of the planet. Some of this heat is trapped by the atmosphere, but therest escapes into space. The so-called "greenhouse gases" make theatmosphere trap more of this radiation, so it gradually warms up more than itshould, like a greenhouse.The greenhouse effect causes trouble by raising the temperature of theplanet. Recent studies have investigated the potential for long-term risinglevels of atmospheric carbon dioxide to cause slight but critical increases inthe acidity of ocean waters, and the possible effects of this on marineecosystems. Most of the countries, which would suffer most from a rise insea levels, are poor countries.We have possible solution of Greenhouse effect by reduce carbon dioxide byreducing or eliminating pollutants such as fossil fuels. Find alternativeenergy sources, such as solar energy or wind energy. Research alternativefuel choices, such as hydrogen fuel. Turn off lights, appliances, andelectrical equipment when not in use. Use timers for various appliances thatare used every day. Consider purchasing a hybrid vehicle. For shortdistances, walk or ride a bike instead of driving your car. Plant trees in yourarea. This helps absorb some of the carbon dioxide that can’t escape backinto space due to the greenhouse effect.
ConclusionTo protect the environment from the adverse effects of pollution, manynations worldwide have enacted legislation to regulate various types ofpollution as well as to mitigate the adverse effects of pollution. Awarenessamong masses, regarding the adverse effects of pollution around the world,can also help in reducing the intensity of pollution. This awareness can becreated through various media like newspapers, television, radio, flyers,seminars, etc. There are many efforts are begin held for environmentprotection. But there is one more important thing must be cared about: wemust stop harmful to our environment actions, before taking any effort toprotect it.