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Building An Accessible Site from the Ground Up
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Building An Accessible Site from the Ground Up

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Tips for making your site accessible to everyone. Lots of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript tips.

Tips for making your site accessible to everyone. Lots of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript tips.

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  • 1. Building An Accessible Site from the Ground Up
  • 2. Russell Heimlich @KingKool68 ‣Web Developer at the Pew Research Center ‣http://www.russellheimlich.com/blog
  • 3. I Like Funny T-Shirts
  • 4. What is accessibility? http://www.flickr.com/photos/artbystevejohnson/4610457832/
  • 5. Accessibility is NOT just about people with disabilities.
  • 6. Accessibility is about PEOPLE! http://www.flickr.com/photos/elvire-r/2451784799/
  • 7. Devices ‣Desktop Computer ‣Mobile ‣In Between (iPad, Netbooks) ‣TV’s http://www.flickr.com/photos/krossbow/4757275301/
  • 8. Interactions ‣Mouse ‣Keyboard ‣Touchscreen ‣Screenreader http://www.flickr.com/photos/a6u571n/3207185886/
  • 9. Technologies ‣JavaScript ‣CSS ‣Images display: none;
  • 10. So what can be done to make websites more accessible?
  • 11. Think About The HTML
  • 12. Use the Right Element for the Job <p> = paragraph <h1>-<h6> = Heading 1 through 6 <div class=”paragraph”> Using Tables for Layout
  • 13. Be Aware of the Source Order ‣Markup content the way it should be read NOT the way it should be displayed. Header Header Aside Content Content Aside
  • 14. Create Consistent Conventions <div id=”header”> <ul id=”nav”> <div id=”content”> <div id=”sidebar”> <div id=”footer”>
  • 15. Use Alt Attributes on <img> ‣Include text to display as a backup ‣Provide context to what the user is missing ‣If the image is purely decoration use alt=””
  • 16. Style Alt Text a img { background-color:#EDEBD5; border:medium none; color:#000; font-size:28px; line-height:125%; }
  • 17. Why Bother with Alt Text? ‣Screenreaders read filenames when no alt attribute ‣Text-only browsers/devices benefit ‣Image links have anchor text/context ‣Google indexes alt text ‣Sometimes your CDN goes down
  • 18. Form Inputs
  • 19. Associate Inputs with Labels ‣Link descriptive text with an input field ‣Provides context about what is expected ‣Clicking label focuses input field
  • 20. Implicit vs. Explicit Labels <label for=”name”>Name</label> <input type=”text” id=”name”> <label> Name <input type=”text”> </label> label { curser: pointer; }
  • 21. Use Most HTML5 Input Types ‣type=”search” ‣type=”tel” ‣type=”url” ‣type=”email” ‣Old browsers fallback to type=”text”
  • 22. Type=”search” Has Slight Benefit http://css-tricks.com/webkit-html5-search-inputs/
  • 23. Fieldsets Group Several Inputs <fieldset id=”contact”> <label> Name <input type="text"> </label> <label> Email <input type="email"> </label> </fieldset>
  • 24. Legend is a Caption for Fieldsets <fieldset id=”contact”> <legend>Contact Info</legend> .... </fieldset
  • 25. Keyboard Navigation
  • 26. Turn it on in OSX System Preferences -> Keyboard -> All Controls or Press Control + F7
  • 27. Tab Index ‣Use tabindex attribute to specify tab order ‣Tab index goes from lowest to highest ‣tabindex=”-1” will be skipped ‣If you use proper HTML source order, you’re done!
  • 28. This Site is Gorgeous! http://www.hd-live.co.uk/
  • 29. Pretty Hover State http://www.hd-live.co.uk/
  • 30. No Focus State Defined! http://www.hd-live.co.uk/
  • 31. :focus = :hover ‣Anywhere :hover is used, add :focus as well a:hover, a:focus { text-decoration:underline; color:red; }
  • 32. Design for the Outline a { /* This is bad! */ outline:0; } a:focus { /* Keyboard Users */ outline: thin dotted #000; } a:hover { /* Mouse Users */ outline:none; }
  • 33. Design for the Outline ‣Adding outline style is the same as adding a border ‣Some elements need 1 or 2 px of padding ‣TEST, TEST, TEST!
  • 34. Hiding Content the Accessible Way /* Hides from keyboard users */ display:none; /* Hidden but still accessible */ .hidden { left:-999em; position:absolute; top:auto; }
  • 35. Reavling Hidden Content /* Reveal on Focus */ .hidden:focus { position:static; }
  • 36. Skip Navigation Link ‣Lets a visitor skip straight to the content ‣Without it, keyboard visitors suffer ‣Should be the first element after <body> ‣Can be visible or hidden based on the desgin ‣If hidden, should stand out on focus
  • 37. Skip Navigation Link <body> <a id="top" href="#content"> Skip to Content</a>
  • 38. Skip Navigation Link #top:focus { position:static; font-size:1.5em; background-color:#FFFFD5; display:block; font-weight:bold; color:#000; padding:2px 15px 5px; }
  • 39. Screenreaders
  • 40. Add an Anchor to Search Forms <form action="/search/#content"> <label for=”q”>Search</label> <input type="search" id=”q”> <input type=”submit” value=”search”> </form>
  • 41. Add an Anchor to Search Forms ‣Skips visitors straight to the results ‣No need for screenreaders to read through nav
  • 42. ARIA Landmark Roles ‣Help define the structure of a document ‣Screenreaders can move around different sections ‣Just add role attribute to an element <div id=”header” role=”banner”>
  • 43. role=”article” ‣Content that makes sense in its own right, such as a complete blog post, a comment on a blog, a post in a forum, and so on.
  • 44. role=”banner” ‣Site-orientated content, such as the title of the page and the logo. ‣Header
  • 45. role=”complementary” ‣Supporting content for the main content, but meaningful in its own right when separated from the main content. ‣Aside or sidebar
  • 46. role=”contentinfo” ‣Child content, such as footnotes, copyrights, links to privacy statement, links to preferences, and so on. ‣Footer
  • 47. role=”main” ‣Content that is directly related to or expands on the central content of the document. ‣Main content container, #content
  • 48. role=”navigation” ‣Content that contains the links to navigate this document and/or related documents.
  • 49. role=”search” ‣This section contains a search form to search the site.
  • 50. Mobile
  • 51. Mobile Stylesheet ‣Smartphones handle websites OK ‣Dumb phones need a slimmed down stylesheet ‣http://perishablepress.com/press/2009/08/02/ the-5-minute-css-mobile-makeover/
  • 52. Why should I care?
  • 53. More Visitors ‣The more ways your site can be accessed, the more potential visitors. ‣More visitors = more traffic ‣More traffic = more conversions (sales, ad clicks, downloads, whatever)
  • 54. Happier Visitors ‣Users that can find what they’re looking for become loyal, repeat visitors. ‣Loyalty = word of mouth ‣Adds to your brand/reputation
  • 55. Search Engine Optimization ‣Accessible content makes Google Happy! ‣Happy Google ranks you better! ‣Better Rankings = More Traffic ‣Sometimes you need to disguise accessibility with SEO to sell it to stakeholders.
  • 56. The Spirit of the Web ‣The Internet is an open platform ‣The web wants to be device agnostic ‣Different ways to view the same content is what makes the Internet a special medium.
  • 57. It’s the right thing to do! ‣At the end of the day, it’s people on the other end of your website.
  • 58. Thank You!
  • 59. Accessibility Resources ‣ http://webaim.org ‣ http://diveintoaccessibility.org/ ‣ http://juicystudio.com/article/examining-wai-aria-document-andmark- roles.php ‣ http://www.w3.org/standards/webdesign/accessibility ‣ http://jfciii.com/