Waste ManagementIntroduction:Waste (also known as rubbish, trash, refuse, garbage, junk, and litter) is unwanted or uselessmaterials, which has lost its value to its owner or does not impose any economic value. Waste islinked to people development. Litter refers to waste disposed of improperly.There are many waste types defined by modern systems of waste management, notablyincluding: Municipal Waste includes Household waste, Commercial waste, and Demolition waste Hazardous Waste includes Industrial waste Bio-medical Waste includes Clinical waste Special Hazardous waste includes Radioactive waste, explosives waste, and Electronic waste (e-waste)According to a report about 10-12 million tons of waste is generated annually, in India, which isheavy and has high density, covering the land and it also consist mostly of inert and non-biodegradable material.Overview:In India the biodegradable portion dominates the bulk of Municipal Solid Waste. Generally thebiodegradable portion is mainly due to food and yard waste
Compostion of Solid waste Food & Garden Waste Paper Inert Textiles Glass & Ceramic Plastics/RubberWaste management cycle involves collection, transportation, segregation, treatment and disposalof organic, recyclable and inert waste. It can also be used to fill the land-site, incineration,recycling and composting. Collectio n Recyclab le and Transpo Inert rtation waste Waste Management Disposal s of Cycle Segregat organic ion Treatme ntPicking up waste from residential and industrial area and dumping it to at landfill sites in openmostly understood as waste management. Currently no such waste management policy is beenadopted in India.
Waste collection is usually done on a contract basis. In most cities it is done by rag pickers, smalltime contractors and municipalities.Municipal Solid Waste Management Practices in IndiaThe term municipal solid waste refers to solid waste from houses, streets and public places,shops, offices, and hospitals. Management of these types of waste is most often the responsibilityof Municipal or other Governmental authorities. Except in the metropolitan cities, SWM is theresponsibility of a health officer who is assisted by the engineering department in thetransportation work. The activity is mostly labour intensive, and 2-3 workers are provided per1000 residents served. The municipal agencies spend 5-25% of their budget on SWMA typical waste management system in a low- or middle-income country like India includes thefollowing elements: Waste generation and storage Segregation, reuse, and recycling at the household level Primary waste collection and transport to a transfer station or community bin Street sweeping and cleansing of public places Management of the transfer station or community bin Secondary collection and transport to the waste disposal site Waste disposal in landfillsBut in most of the Indian cities open dumping is the Common Practices which is adverselyaffecting on environment and Public health.Effect of Open DumpAn open dumping is defined as a land disposal site at which solid wastes are disposed of in amanner that does not protect the environment, are susceptible to open burning, and are exposedto the elements, vectors, and scavengers.Open dumping can include solid waste disposal facilities or practices that pose a reasonableprobability of adverse effects on health or the environment. Health Effect Air Pollution Water Pollution Soil Contamination Global Warming and Climate ChangeLegal Framework (Law/ Policies regarding waste) in IndiaMunicipal Waste (Non-Hazardous Material)Municipal Solid Waste Rule 20—
Applicable to all municipal authorities responsible for collection, segregation, storage,transportation processing and disposal of municipal solid wastes IndustrialWaste (Hazardous)Hazardous & Toxic Waste Handling Rule of 20—ActRules apply to handling of hazardous wastes, it mandatory for occupier and the operator of afacility for proper collection, reception, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous wastes.Biomedical WasteBio-medical Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 19—It applies to every occupier of an institution generating bio-medical waste which includes ahospital, nursing home, clinic, dispensary, veterinary institution, animal house, pathologicallaboratory, blood bankElectronic WasteNo separate legislation/policy for e-waste E-waste management is governed by followingenvironmental legislations:– Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 20--– Hazardous Wastes(Management and Handling) Rules, 20--– Draft Hazardous Materials Rules, 20—– Public Liability Act, 19— – Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 20--Municipal Solid Waste (Managment & Handling ) Rule was notified by the Ministry ofEnvironment and Forest, Govt. of India [vide No.S.O.908 (B) dated the 25th September 2000].The objective of these Rules was to make every municipal authority responsible for theimplementation of the various provisions of the Rules within its territorial area and also todevelop an effective infrastructure for collection, storage, segregation, transportation, processingand disposal of Municipal Solid Wastes. The Civic bodies have the responsibility to enforcethese rules.The major functions of civic body include Prohibiting littering of street Organizing house to house waste collection. Conducting awareness programs to disseminate information to public. Providing adequate community storage facilities. Use of colour code bins and promotion of waste segregation. Transport of wastes in covered vehicles. Processing of wastes by adopting an appropriate combination of composting, anaerobic digestion, Pellatisation etc.
Upgradation of the existing dump sites and Disposal of inert wastes in sanitary landfills.As per the Rules, the citizens are responsible for Segregation of wastes at source. Avoid littering of streets. Delivery of wastes in accordance with the delivery system notified by the respective Civic body.Issues and Challenges Lack of Awareness Lack of collection and segregation at source India becoming ground for waste Scarcity of landSolutions:Government Government should come up with such effective policy and implement it Avoid or use paper in limit as major share of percent paper is used in govt. organization.Industries Should make such products that can easily be recycle or reuse Such Plastics Material should be produce which is bio-degradable. Most plastics takes 200-400 years to degrade or use degrade-able plasticsPeople Kitchen and housing waste can be recycle Incineration and burial of garbage in graveyardHospitals Store securely of clinical waste Toxic and chemicals should be managed properly
Conclusion:With the increase in population, usage of every item is increasing and where the resources arediminishing waste material is increasing day by day, but the problem is that no policy has beentaken, yet, and even this waste is not been managed properly resulting various adverse effect onsociety, which can easily be seen. To make earth the better place to live in future, we must takecharge and take some effective initiative on ground level, today.