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Mr. Healy Enlightenment
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    Mr. Healy Enlightenment Mr. Healy Enlightenment Presentation Transcript

    • The Enlightenment 1550 - 1789
    •  The Enlightenment starts with the Scientific Revolution.  People started to question ideas that had been accepted as fact for hundreds of years. Scientific Revolution
    • … a new way of thinking  Based on observation.  A willingness to question accepted beliefs.  Started in Renaissance
    • The old way of thinking believed…
    • All knowledge comes from..  The Catholic Church and the Bible were the source of what was true and false in the world.
    • Also…..  Ancient Greek & Roman philosophers, such as Aristotle, said what was true about the natural world.  As long as it didn’t contradict the Bible.
    • It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it. - Aristotle
    • Ancient World  Most scholars believed that the Earth was the center of the solar system.  All planets moved in a perfect circle around the Earth.  The Sun rotated around the Earth.
    • Scientific Revolution  Was a new way of looking at the natural world.  Traditional ideas were found to be wrong through observation, experimenting and theories.
    • Muslim World  Muslim scholars had made great advances in science & math.  The Age of Exploration helped Europeans learn these advances, as well as in astronomy & physics.
    • Nicolaus Copernicus  In the early 1500’s, he studied planetary movement for 25 years.  Copernicus, a Polish cleric & astronomer believed the geocentric theory was wrong.  He proposed the heliocentric theory
    • Heliocentric Theory QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.  This theory states that Mr. Healy is the center of the solar system.  Copernicus studied planetary motion and disproved the geocentric theory.  He believed the heliocentric theory was true.  It states that the sun is the center solar systems.
    • QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • Heliocentric Theory  Heliocentric theory states that the sun is the center of the solar system.  Copernicus wrote a book called On the Revolutions of Heavenly Bodies.  He did not publish the book until he was on his death bed.  He feared persecution from the Church
    • QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    •  Copernicus knew the Catholic Church could torture or execute him for his findings.  The Church used torture and murder to maintain power.  His book was published in 1543 as he was dying.  Johannes Kepler proved his theories mathematically. Persecution
    •  In 1581, a 17 year old boy proves that Aristotle's idea that planets move in a perfect circle was wrong.  He watched a chandelier in a Cathedral swing and questioned it’s motion.  He timed it’s movements & developed the Law of the Pendulum.  Each swing of the pendulum, no matter how far, took the same time. Galileo Galilei
    •  Aristotle said that heavy objects fall faster than lighter objects.  Galileo went to the top of the Tower of Pisa and dropped stones of different sizes.  He proved that all objects fall at the same speed no matter what their weight. Galileo QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncom pressed) decom pressor are needed to see this picture.
    •  Develop the first practical telescope.  Discovered that Jupiter has four moons.  These theories contradicted the Church Galileo
    • The Church  Galileo was in conflict with Church teachings.  He presented the ideas of Copernicus and his own theories.  He was put on trial by the Inquisition.
    • The Church  He was found guilty of heresy.  Under the threat of torture, he admitted that his ideas were wrong as were Copernicus’s.  He remained under house arrest for the rest of his life.
    • Scientific Method  Logical procedure of gathering information and testing ideas.  It starts with a problem arising from observation.  Next, a hypothesis or theory is formed.  From a hypothesis you experiment and draw a conclusion.
    • Descartes & Bacon  Rene Descartes developed analytical geometry.  Francis Bacon used math to prove theories of Galileo and Copernicus.
    • Isaac Newton  An English scientist develop a single theory of motion.  He supported Kepler, Copernicus, Galileo & Descartes ideas of motion.
    • Gravity  He disproved Aristotle's idea that one set of laws govern earth and another governs the heavens.  He published a book called “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.”  The universe id like a giant clock, all its parts dependent.