What Motivates You?Shauna F. King, M.Ed.May 2013EDUC 7011: How Adults LearnDr. Stacy Wahl
Overview•Presentation will last about 30 minutes.•Handout will provide key information.•Please provide feedback with the provided evaluationform.•Relax and enjoy!“Remember, the only person’s workthat is being graded is mine!”
About YourPresenterShauna is currently a graduate course instructor with The Regional Training Centerand a certified presenter for The Upside Down Organization, Inc. She has worked invarious roles in public and non-public school settings, including principal, program andintervention specialist, peer mediation teacher and secondary classroom teacher.Shauna worked as the PBIS coordinator in one of the largest school districts in thestate of Maryland. Because of her commitment to this initiative, she was invited to jointhe Maryland PBIS State Leadership Team where she served as a state level trainer.Shauna has a Bachelor of Science degree in Health Education from Morgan StateUniversity of Baltimore and a Masters of Education from Bowie State University. She iscurrently pursuing her doctoral of education degree in Adult Education from WaldenUniversity.Shauna is married to a school administrator and the mother of two young children. Sheis also an active member of her church where she has served on the Board ofDirectors and most recently held the position of principal at Renaissance ChristianAcademy in Prince George’s County, MD.
What are our objectives?1. Review the history of behaviorism.2.Construct a definition of behaviorism asprovided by B. F. Skinner2. Recognize how behavioral theory is utilized tomotivate adult behavior.3.Identify and provide examples of reinforcementin society.4. Identify the steps in the Behavior ModificationModel.
Let’s See What you Already KnowFact or Myth
Facts and MythsAbout Motivation1. A behaviorist theory is based on the idea thatbehaviors that are reinforced will tend to continue,while behaviors that are punished will eventually end.FACT.Reward what you wantsomeone to do again and ignorewhat you want them to stop doing.
Facts and MythsAbout Kids and Learning2. An example of Skinner’s reinforcementtheory is when a schoolteacher awardspoints to those students who are themost calm and well-behaved.FACT -Students eventually realize that when they arevoluntarily better behaved, that they earn morepoints.
Facts and MythsAbout Motivation3. Operant conditioning is the same as classicalconditioning.Myth: In operant conditioning, a voluntaryresponse is then followed by a reinforcingstimulus. In contrast, classical conditioning iswhen a stimulus automatically triggers aninvoluntary response.
Common ConfusionHistory of Behavioral TheoristsClassical ConditioningIvan Pavlovbehavior can come from deep roots, which may take years tounlearnStimulus coupled with physiological response:Research w/ dogs- animals were conditionedto certain stimuli (bells)Operant ConditioningB.F. SkinnerBehaviors are made from conscious decision- through rewards and punishment:-Positive behavior is reinforced= repeated-Bad behavior is disciplined= not favored
B.F. SkinnerSkinner’s work, known as Operant Conditioning, canbe simplified as,Skinners theory simply states that adult behaviorsthat lead to positive outcomes will be repeated andbehaviors that lead to negative outcomes will not berepeated (Skinner, 1953).
Operant Conditioning“If a behavior is reinforced or rewarded, the responseis more likely to occur again under similar conditions.”Learning in adulthood.Merriam, Caffarella, and BaumgarterOperant conditioning(i.e. rewarding good behavior)is the key to behavioral learning.By rewarding behaviors we want repeated (and also bypunishing bad behaviors) we influence the likelihoodof that behavior being repeated.
Examples of operant conditioning.•Many parents reward theirkids for good grades on areport card.•Money is given as a rewardin the work place in hopesthat the behaviors andproductivity will continue.
What Motivates You?• Describe the actions and behaviors of yourmanager or supervisor that you respond tomost effectively?
Development ofBehavior Through Learning• Reinforcement is anything that increases thelikelihood of a response– Operant behaviors – responses emitted without astimulus necessarily being present– Operant conditioning involves shaping andreinforcing operant behaviors– Shaping deliberately molding the organism’sresponses through series of reinforcements inorder to achieve a desired behavior
Operant Conditioning• Change in consequences of response willaffect the rate at which the response occurs• Most of human behavior learned this way• Behaviors that work are frequently displayed;ineffective behaviors are not repeated.
• Operant Conditioning- B.F. Skinner– Behaviors are made from conscious decisionthrough rewards and punishment:- Positive behavior is reinforced= repeated- Bad behavior is disciplined= not favored
Click Below to View AHilarious Example ofOperant Conditioning!!http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f61DzYn-VU4
Does it work?• How many men think thatit is possible to modifythe behavior of yourspouse or significantother?• How many women thinkthey can modify thebehavior of theirhusbands/significantothers?
The Formula For ChangeA= Shared Dissatisfaction with the current stateB= Clear vision of the desired stateC= Knowledge of the steps for getting thereX= The cost of change(A+B+C) > XGarmston,R. J. (1999) The adaptive school: A sourcebook for developing collaborative groups
The Behavior Modification ModelPrecursor: DenialAwareness– You realize that you actually think or behave in a way that isunhealthy or less than ideal Desire to Change– No change will occur without a desire to stop or change a badbehavior, even when it become obvious how damaging it might be. Cognitive Restructuring– You catch yourself in the act of an undersirable behavior and thinkof a new and suitable alternative. Behavioral Substitution– An undesirable behavior is consciously replaced with a healthy orstress-reducing behavior. Evaluation– Analyze whether or not the new behavior worked and figure outwhat can be done to fine-tune this process when the occasion arisesagain
Individual ActivityFollow steps to initiate Behavior Modification1. What is one undesirable behavior that youare aware that you do?2. Ask yourself how motivated you are tochange this behavior. Ask yourself if thecosts will outweigh the benefits.
3. What changes in your perceptions and attitudesmust accompany this behavioral change?4. What new behavior do you wish to adopt to replacethe old behavior? (It is best to think positively forexample “I would like to show up on time”Instead of negatively “I don’t want to be late”.5. After trying the new behavior, ask yourself how youdid. Was your first or second attempt successful?Why or why not? If not, what other approach canyou take to accomplish your goal?
An Easy Way to Remember…All Disciplined Children Behave Excellently!• Awareness• Desire to Change• Cognitive Restructuring• Behavioral Substitution• Evaluation
Final Thoughts• Behavior can be controlled by consequences-type of reinforcement following the behavior• Behavior and learning theorists emphasizeexperience and learning as the primary forcesthat shape human behavior.
ReferencesGarmston,R. J. (1999) The adaptive school: Asourcebook for developing collaborative groups.Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and HumanBehavior. New York: Free Press.
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