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Natural captia & resourcesl Natural captia & resourcesl Presentation Transcript

  • 3.2 RESOURCESNATURAL CAPITAL 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 1
  • What is Natural Capital ? • Natural capital is the term used for ‘natural resources’ which can be exploited to produce natural income of goods and services. • e.g. trees as timber that can be harvested and sold for money. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 2
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  • Natural Capital OF EARTH It includes the core and crust of the earth, the biosphere itself teeming with forests, grasslands, wetlands, tundra forests, deserts, and other ecosystems - and the upper layers of the atmosphere. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 4
  • NATURAL CAPITAL & INCOME • The stock is the present accumulated quantity of natural capital. It is a supply accumulated for future use; a store. • Natural capital is the term used for ‘natural resources’ which can be exploited to produce natural income of goods and services. • e.g. trees as timber that can be harvested and sold for money. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 5
  • • Natural capital provides a wide variety of valuable ecosystem services including flood control, climate stabilization, maintenance of soil fertility, and even beauty and play. • Globally, and within the bioregion, natural capital is being depleted through over-harvesting, development, poor agricultural practices, toxic contamination, and other causes. Human capture 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 6
  • 3 TYPES OF NATURAL CAPTIAL oRenewable oNon renewable oReplenishable 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 7
  • Resources Perpetual Direct solar energy Nonrenewable Metallic minerals Nonmetallic minerals (iron, copper, aluminum) Fossil fuels Winds, tides, flowing water (clay, sand, phosphates) Renewable Fresh air 9/25/2013 Fresh water Guru Fertile soil Topic 3 Plants and animals (biodiversity) IB ESS 8
  • RECAP • • • • What is Natural Resources? What is Natural Capital? Example of Natural Resources? Types of Natural resources 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 9
  • Values of Natural Capital: • Economic value: can be determined from the market price of the goods and services it produces. • Ecological value: have no formal market price. Photosynthesis, nitrogen-fixation, soil erosion control are essential for human existance, but are taken for granted. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 10
  • • Aesthetic value: have not market price and may not provide identifiable commodities, so they are unpriced or undervalued from an economic viewpoint. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 11
  • Natural Environment SOURCES Raw Materials Economy Products production consumption money Natural Environment SINKS Waste products 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 12
  • • Healthy ecosystems make very significant economic contributions, but often in ways that transcend conventional accounting. • In order to maintain Natural Capital and the services that it provides, the physical basis for the productivity and diversity of nature must not be systematically deteriorated. Weak trees removed Clear cut 30 9/25/2013 Seedlings planted 25 15 Years of growth 10 5 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 13
  • Natural Capital can be protected through careful application of: • Ecological Land-Use to maintain habitat quality and connectivity for all species. • A connected system of wild lands can coexist with productive rural areas and towns and cities, with each part of the landscape contributing to the stability of natural capital. • Sustainable Materials Cycles prevent the systematic contamination of living systems. • Social Capital contributes to a culture of sufficiency easing consumption pressures on natural capital. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 14
  • Environmentalists have identified 5 basic causes of environmental problems we face. • Rapid population growth • Unsustainable resource use • Poverty • Not including the environmental costs of economic goods and services in their market prices • Trying to manage and simplify nature with too little 9/25/2013 Guru IB ESS knowledge about how itTopic 3 works 15
  • 3 TYPES OF NATURAL CAPTIAL oRenewable oNon renewable oReplenishable 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 16
  • What is Renewable energy & Nonrenewable energy? • Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable • Nonrenewable energy is energy that comes from the ground and is not replaced in a relatively short amount of time. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 17
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  • RECAP • • • • • What is Natural Resources? What is Natural Capital? Example of Natural Resources? Types of Natural resources Environmentalists have identified 5 basic causes of environmental problems we face. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 20
  • What is Replenishable energy? • Replenishable energy is that energy source that doesn’t reduce and gets their replenishment of energies from other natural sources like wind, sun, trickling water, geothermal flows of heat and biological processes • Example: • Water stores,Ground Water or surface water 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 21
  • Difference between renewable &non renewable energy Renewable Energy 1. 2. 3. 4. Non Renewable Energy The resources that can be renewed 1. The resources that are present in fixed quantities are called by reproduction are called non-renewable resources. renewable resources. 2. Non-renewable resources are exhaustible. Renewable resources are inexhaustible. 3. Non renewable resources are affected by human activities 4. Renewable resources are not Some abiotic resources are affected by the human activities. non-renewable. For example- fossil fuels and All biotic resources are minerals. renewable. For example: air and water. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 22
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  • What is Fossil fuels? • Coal, oil and gas are called "fossil fuels" becausethey have been formed from the organic remains ofprehistoric plants and animals. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 25
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  • FOSSIL FUELS SOURCE OF ENERGY • Coal ,oil and natural gas are the three fossil fuels. They have two common characteristic 1. They were formed from the decomposition of the remains of plants and animals. 2. It has taken millions of years for them to accumulate and form deposit which are large enough to be mined for human use 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 27
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  • Formation of Oil &Natural Gas • These were formed from the decomposition of plant and dead creatures, which collected in layers on the sea bed. • Each one rotted to form a tiny spot of oil. • Their remains were covered by mud and sand. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 29
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  • • As the sand was compressed into hard sandstone rock, the oil and gas separated and rose through the sandstone filling in the spaces between the rock. • Finally lighter gas rises to the top 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 31
  • TOP 10 OILS COMPANIES Rank Company 1 2 National Iranian Oil Company 3 Qatar Petroleum 4 Iraq National Oil Company 5 Petróleos de Venezuela 6 Abu Dhabi National Oil Company 7 Kuwait Petroleum Corporation 8 9/25/2013 Saudi Aramco Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation 9 10 Libya NOC Guru Sonatrach Topic 3 IB ESS 32
  • Advantage & Disadvantage of Fossil fuel Advantages 1. Large amounts of electricity can be generated in one place using coal, fairly cheaply. 2. Transporting oil and gas to the power stations is easy. 3. Fossil fuels are very easy to find. 4. Power stations that make use of fossil fuel can be constructed in almost any 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 location. Disadvantages 1. Basically, the main drawback of fossil fuels is pollution. Burning any fossil fuel produces carbon dioxide, which contributes to the "greenhouse effect“. 2. It also produces sulphur dioxide, a gas that contributes to acid rain. 3. Mining coal can be difficult and dangerous. Strip mining destroys large areas of the landscape. 4. Coal-fired power stations need huge amounts of fuel, which means train-loads of coal almost constantly. IB ESS 33
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  • What is Nuclear Energy? • Nuclear energy originates from the splitting of uranium atoms in a process called fission. • At the power plant, the fission process is used to generate heat for producing steam, which is used by a turbine to generate electricity. • Nuclear energy contributed only between 7 & 8 % of total world commercial energy consumption . 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 35
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  • Nuclear Power plants • A nuclear power plant (NPP) is a thermal power station in which the heat source is one or more nuclear reactors. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 37
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  • Nuclear Power plants in India • Nuclear power is the fourth-largest source of electricity in India after thermal, hydroelectr ic and renewable sources of electricity. • As of 2010, India has 20 nuclear reactors in operation in six nuclear power plants, generating 4,780 MW. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 39
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  • Is Nuclear Power plants is safe ? 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 41
  • SAFETY OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT • Scientist have repeatedly emphasized how safe nuclear power is ,but they have not been able to convince most . • Public confidence is nuclear power was shattered by the great explosion in 1986,at chernobl in the Ukraine 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 42
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  • countries produce the most nuclear power? Huge demand for power No coal left,very little oil & gas Major industrial country;has little coal,no oil and gas 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 44
  • Advantage & Disadvantage of Nuclear Energy Disadvantage Advantage 1. Does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide, so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. 2. Produces huge amounts of energy from small amounts of fuel. 1. Nuclear plants are more expensive to build and maintain. 2. Waste products are dangerous and need to be carefully stored for long periods of time. 3. 3. Produces small amounts of waste. 4. Nuclear power is reliable. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 Nuclear power plants can be dangerous to its surroundings and employees. IB ESS 45
  • ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES AND OTHER CONSERVATION STRATEGIES 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 46
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  • What is alternative source of energy? • An alternative source usually refers to an energy source that can be used as a replacement for fossil fuels. • Most alternative sources are also renewable sources of energy • They are also SUSTAINABLE sources of energy, which means that people will be able to use long after fossil fuels run out. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 48
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  • Most common types of alternative energy 1. Solar energy is generating of electricity from the sun 2. Wind energy is generating of electricity from the wind 3. Geothermal energy is using hot water or steam from the Earth’s interior for heating buildings or electricity generation. 4. Biofuel and ethanol are plant-derived substitutes of gasoline for powering vehicles 5. Wave : force of the sea waves as they break against the coastline 6. Biomass: using fuel wood, crop wastes and animal dung as fuel 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 51
  • What is biomass? • Biomass, as a renewable energy source, is biological material from living, or recently living organisms. • As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly, or converted into other energy products such as biofuel. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 52
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  • Advantage & Disadvantage of Biomass Advantages 1. Theoretically inexhaustible fuel source 2. Minimal environmental impact 3. Alcohols and other fuels produced by biomass are efficient, viable, and relatively clean-burning Disadvantages 1. Still an expensive source, both in terms of producing the biomass and converting it to FUEL 2. On a small scale there is most likely a net loss of energy--energy must be put in to grow the plant mass 4. Available throughout the world 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 55
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  • What is Solar Energy • Solar energy refers primarily to the use of solar radiation for various purposes. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 57
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  • Advantage & Disadvantage of Solar Energy Advantage Disadvantage 1. Solar energy is free - it needs no fuel and produces no waste or pollution. 2. Solar cells make absolutely no noise at all. 3. Solar powered panels and products are typically extremely easy to install. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 1. The Solar Cells and Solar Panels that are needed to harness solar energy tend to be very expensive 2. Solar power cannot be harnessed during a storm, on a cloudy day or at night. IB ESS 61
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  • What is Geothermal Energy? • Geothermal means earth-heat. It is related to the thermal energy of Earth’s interior. • On a large scale, the intensity of this thermal energy increases with depth, that is, the temperature of the Earth increases as we travel closer to its centre. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 64
  • How it works? • Hot rocks underground heat water to produce steam. • We drill holes down to the hot region, steam comes up, is purified and used to drive turbines, which drive electric generators. • There may be natural "groundwater" in the hot rocks anyway, or we may need to drill more holes and pump water down to them. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 65
  • Advantage & Disadvantage of GeoThermal Energy Advantage Disadvantage 1. Geothermal energy does not produce any pollution, 1. Not universally available. 2. The power stations do not take up much room, so there is not 2. High Cost: much impact on the environment. 3. No fuel is needed. 4. Once you've built a geothermal power station, the energy is almost free. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 66
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  • What is HYDRO POWER? • Hydropower or water power is power that is derived from the force or energy of moving water • The production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 72
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  • WORKING PROCESS • Most hydroelectric power (HEP) comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. • The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 75
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  • Advantage Disadvantage 1. Once the dam is built, the energy is virtually free. 2. No waste or pollution produced. 3. Finding a suitable site can be difficult - the impact on residents and the environment may be unacceptable. 4. Water can be stored above the dam ready to cope with peaks in demand. Building a large dam will flood a very large area upstream, causing problems for animals that used to live there. Water quality and quantity downstream can be affected, which can have an impact on plant life. Much more reliable than wind, solar or wave power. 4. The dams are very expensive to build. 2. 3. 1. 5. Electricity can be generated constantly. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 78
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  • What is Wind Energy? • Wind energy is energy that is created by using the wind to generate power. • It is a form of kinetic energy that can be transformed into mechanical energy or electricity. How it works? • Wind turbines transform the energy in the wind into mechanical power, which can then be used directly for grinding etc. or further converting to electric power to generate electricity. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 80
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  • Where you can see? • On hill tops and other areas of open high ground • Along the coastline • Offshore(in the sea) but close to the coast 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 84
  • Top 10 countries by windpower capacity (2010) MW China 44,733 United States 40,180 Germany 27,215 Spain 20,676 India 13,066 Italy 5,797 France 5,660 United Kingdom 5,204 Canada 4,008 Denmark 3,734 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 85
  • Advantage Disadvantage 1. Wind is free, wind farms need no fuel. 1. The wind is not always predictable some days have no wind. 2. Produces no waste or greenhouse gases. 2. Suitable areas for wind farms are often near the coast, where land is expensive. 3. The land beneath can usually still be used for farming. 4. Wind farms can be tourist attractions. 5. 3. Some people feel that covering the landscape with these towers is unsightly. A good method of supplying energy to remote areas. 4. Can kill birds - migrating flocks t 5. Can affect television reception if you live nearby. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 86
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  • What is Ecological Footprint? • The ecological footprint is a measure of human demand on the Earth's ecosystems. • An ecological footprint measures the total amount of land and resources used, it includes your carbon footprint but goes further • It represents the amount of biologically productive land and sea area necessary to supply the resources a human population consumes, and to assimilate associated waste. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 88
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  • Ecological footprint? • Using this assessment, it is possible to estimate how much of the Earth it would take to support humanity if everybody followed a given lifestyle. • It is a standardized measure of demand for natural capital that may be contrasted with the planet's ecology 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 90
  • 2007 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 91
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  • Ecological footprints can be increased by: 1. Greater reliance on fossil fuels 2. Increased use of technology and energy (but technology can also reduce the footprint) 3. High levels of imported resources (which have high transport costs) 4. Large per capita production of carbon waste (high energy use, fossil fuel use) 5. Large per capita consumption of food 6. A meat-rich diet 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 94
  • Ecological footprints can be reduced by: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. reducing use of resources recycling resources reusing resources improving efficiency of resource use reducing amount of pollution produced transporting waste to other countries to deal with improving country to increase carrying capacity importing resources from other countries reducing population to reduce resource use using technology to increase carrying capacity using technology to intensify land 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 95
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  • 3.8.3: Describe and explain the differences between the ecological footprints of two human populations, one from an LEDC and one from a MEDC • LEDCs have small ecological footprints as MEDCs have much greater rates of resource consumption. • This is partly because MEDCs have higher incomes and the demands for energy resources is high. MEDCs consume a lot of resources as they are wasteful, they also have more waste and pollution. • LEDCs are the opposite with lower consumption as people do not have too much to spend. The economy of the country forces them to recycle many resources, however they are developing and they’re ecological footprint is increasing. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 97
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  • 3.2.4 INTRINSIC VALUE 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 100
  • What is Intrinsic value? • Intrinsic values, in relation to ecosystems, means those aspects of ecosystems and their constituent parts which have value in their own right, including: • (a) Their biological and genetic diversity; and • (b) The essential characteristics that determine an ecosystem's integrity, form, functioning, and resilience. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 101
  • Intrinsic value? • Environmentalists argue that every part of the ecosystem has intrinsic value. • This means that although living things may have no monetary value to human beings, they have significant worth in other ways. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 102
  • DOES ENVIRONMENT HAVE ITS OWN INTRINSIC VALUE? 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 103
  • Environment have its own Intrinsic value In the modern world, many governments look at the economic value of an aspect of the environment when making policy decisions.  Those who believe in intrinsic value would say that though an endangered species or a rainforest may not provide any use or value for people, they have inherent worth nonetheless. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 104
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  • 3.2.6 Sustainable development 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 107
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  • What is Sustainable development? • Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts: 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 109
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  • • the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and • the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs." 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 111
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  • • Sustainability is the extent to which a given interaction with the environment exploits and uses the NATURAL INCOME without causing long term deterioration of NATURAL CAPITAL. • Harvesting renewable or replenishable resources at a rate that will be replaced by natural growth. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 114
  • Which one is Sustainable Yield? 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 115
  • Sustainable Yield • Rate of increase in NATURAL CAPITAL. • Amount which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential to be replenished. • Exploitation must not affect long term productivity. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 116
  • Calculation of SY • Gain in biomass over time through growth and recruitment (addition of individuals to the population). • Can express as energy rather than biomass. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 117
  • RECYCLE REDUCE 9/25/2013 REUSE Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 118
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  • What is SOIL? • Soil is a natural body consisting of layers of mineral constituents of variable thicknesses, which differ physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics • Soil is composed of particles of broken rock that have been altered by chemical and mechanical processes that include weathering and erosion. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 121
  • Soil formation is a slow process: 1. Weathering of rock (mechanical). 2. Deposition of sediments by erosion (mechanical). 3. Decomposition of organic matter in dead organisms (chemical). 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 122
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  • These top two layers are most fertile, have the highest concentration of organic matter, and contain large amounts of living organisms. Rove beetle Pseudoscorpion Flatworm Centipede Ant Adult fly Fly larvae Ground beetle Mite Roundworms Beetle Protozoa Mite Springtail Millipede Bacteria Sowbug Slug Fungi Snail Actinomycetes Mite Earthworm 9/25/2013 Organic debris Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 125
  • “B” (subsoil) and “C” (parent material) HORIZON contain most of the soil’s inorganic matter, broken-down rock. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 126
  • • Soil has four basic constituents 1. Organic matter: living plants and animals and their dead remains and wastes 2. Mineral matter: mainly sand, silt and clay 3. Water 4. Air 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 127
  • Soil Content • • • • Clay (very fine particles) Silt (fine particles) Sand Gravel (coarse to very coarse particles) SOIL TEXTURE is determined by the relative amounts of the different types and sizes of mineral particles. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 128
  • Silt (fine particles)Clay (very fine particles) 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 129
  • Sand (medium-size particles) 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 130
  • Gravel (coarse to very coarse particles) 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 131
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  • Properties of Soils with Differ Texture Nutrient Capacity Infiltration WaterHolding Capacity Aeration Workability Clay Good Poor Good Poor Poor Silt Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Sand Poor Good Poor Good Good Loam Medium Medium Medium Medium medium 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 133
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  • SOIL PROFILE • Soil Profile refers to the layers of soil; • Horizon A, B, and C. • Horizon A refers to the upper layer of soil, nearest the surface. It is commonly known as topsoil. • Horizon A provides plants with nutrients they need for a great life 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 135
  • • The layer below horizon A, of course, has to be horizon B • The subsoil is the horizon B • This is where materials accumulates from horizons above & below 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 136
  • • Horizon C consists mostly of weatherized big rocks. • This contains many loose pieces of rock, broken off from the parent rock below weathering 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 137
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  • Soil Minerals 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 140
  • • Soil minerals play a vital role in soil fertility since mineral surfaces serve as potential sites for nutrient storage. • There are numerous types of minerals found in the soil. • These minerals vary greatly in size and chemical composition. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 141
  • Soil texture • Soil texture is a qualitative classification tool used in both the field and laboratory to determine classes for agricultural soils based on their physical texture. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 142
  • 100%clay 0 clay 80 20 60 Increasing percentage clay 40 silty clay sandy clay 40 60 clay loam sandy clay loam 20 silty clay loam loam 0 100%sand 9/25/2013 80 silty loam sandy loam sand Increasing percentage silt loamy sand silt 80 60 Guru 40 Increasing percentage sand ESS Topic 3 IB 20 100%silt 143
  • SOIL PERMEABILITY is the rate at which water and air move from upper to lower soil layers. Water Water High permeability 9/25/2013 Low permeability Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 144
  • Nitrogen fixing by lightning Pathway of plant nutrients in soil. Crop plant Organic fertilizers, animal manure, green manure, compost Commercial inorganic fertilizer 10-6-4 N-P-K Dead organic matter Nitrogen fixing Application to land Decomposition Nutrient removal with harvest Absorption of nutrients by roots Supply of available plant nutrients in soil Nutrient loss by bacterial processes such as conversion of nitrates to nitrogen gas Weathering of rock 9/25/2013 Nitrogen fixing by bacteria Guru Topic 3 IB ESS Nutrient loss from soil erosion 145
  • Desertification is the enlargement of deserts through human activities. Consequences Causes Overgrazing Worsening drought Deforestation Famine Surface mining Economic losses Erosion Lower living standards Salinization Environmental refugees Soil compaction 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 146
  • • • • • • • • • • • October summative : 22.10.2012(Monday) Marks:60 Format: Paper 2 Syllabus: Ecological footprint Intrinsic value Sustainable development &Yield Calculation of Sustainable Yield SOIL &FOOD SYSTEM Book page numbers:192 to 253 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 147
  • EOST 2012 • • • • • • • • • • Thursday, 22nd,November Time :11.30 am-1.00 pm Syllabus: Topic 3: Human population, carrying capacity and resource use 3.1 Population dynamics 3.2 Resources—natural capital 3.3 Energy resources 3.4 The soil system 3.5 Food resources 3.6 Water resources 3.7 Limits to growth 3.8 Environmental demands of human populations 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 148
  • What is Leaching? • Leaching refers to the loss of watersoluble plant nutrients from the soil, due to rain and irrigation. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 149
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  • 3.4.3 Soil Degradation 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 151
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  • What is Soil Degradation? • Soil degradation is the decline in quantity and quality of soil. • It includes erosion by wind and water, biological degradation(e.g. the loss of humans and plant or animal life) • Physical degradation(loss of structure, changes in permeability) • Chemical degradatrion(acidification,declining fertility,changes in ph & salinity) 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 153
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  • Types of Soil Degradation • There are three main types of soil degradation: 1. Soil erosion, 2. Desertification, and 3. Salinization. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 155
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  • What is Soil erosion? • Soil is naturally removed by the action of water or wind or • Soil erosion is when the soil is blown away by the wind or washed away by the rain. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 157
  • 1.Soil Erosion Causes of soil erosion • Water can cause soil erosion. Rainfall is an example of water causing soil erosion. • The lack of permanent vegetation cover in certain locations can cause soil erosion due to the wind. • Human activities such as farming, logging, and constructions also cause soil erosion. Consequences of soil erosion • Soil erosion can lead to poor crop growth and yield reductions in areas of fields. • Loss of soil fertility through depletion of plant nutrients in top soil. • Soil quality, structure, stability and texture can be affected by the loss of soil. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 158
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  • What is called this type of land? 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 161
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  • What is Soil Desertification? • Desertification is the development of desert-like conditions in regions that have experienced human disturbance such as deforestation, overgrazing, or poorly managed agriculture. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 163
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  • 2.Desertification Causes of desertification • Natural climate change that causes prolonged drought. • Human activities that reduce or degrade top soil. • Increased population and livestock pressure on marginal lands accelerates desertification. • Deforestation Consequences of desertification • Economic loses • Lower living standards • Major threat to biodiversity • Prolonged droughts 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 165
  • Lake Chad in a 2001 satellite image, with the actual lake in blue. The lake has shrunk by 95% since the 1960s 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 166
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  • 3.Salinization Causes of Salinization • High level of salt in the soils • Over cultivation • Irrigation mismanagement • Climate trends that favor accumulation Consequences of Salinization • Stunts crop growth • Lowers crop yields • Destroys fertility and plants • Damage to infrastructure (i.e. roads, bricks etc.) • Reduction of water quality 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 169
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  • Soil Conservation involves reducing soil erosion and restoring soil fertility. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 174
  • Soil Restoration • • • • • • • Organic fertilizer Manure Compost crop rotation No till farming Contour farming Terracing Nitrogen fixation-legumes 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 175
  • 3.4.4 SOIL CONSERVVATION 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 176
  • 1.PLANTING TREES • Roots of trees firmly hold on to the soil. As trees grow tall, they also keep rooting deeper into the soil. • As the roots of trees spread deep into the layers of soil, they hold it tightly, thus preventing soil erosion. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 177
  • 2. No-till Farming • The process of preparing soil for plowing is known as tilling. • No-till farming is a way of growing crops without disturbing it through tillage. • The process of tilling is beneficial in mixing fertilizers in the soil, making rows and preparing the surface for sowing. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 178
  • 3.Crop Rotation • Some pathogens tend to build up in soil if the same crops are cultivated again and again. • To save the soil from these adverse effects, crop rotation is practiced. • It is a method of growing a series of dissimilar crops in an area. Crop rotation also helps in the improvement of soil structure and fertility. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 179
  • 4. Build Terraces • A terrace is a leveled section of a hilly cultivated area. • Owing to its unique structure, it prevents rapid surface runoff of water. • Terracing gives the landmass a stepped appearance, thus slowing the washing down of soil. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 180
  • 5. Water the Soil • Watering soil is a good measure of soil conservation. • Watering the soil along with plants growing in it is a way to prevent soil erosion caused by wind. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 181
  • 6. Salinity Management • The salinity of soil increases due to excessive accumulation of salts in the soil. • The salinity of soil is detrimental to the vegetative life in it. • The death of vegetation leads to soil erosion. Hence, salinity management is an indirect way of conserving soil. 9/25/2013 Guru Topic 3 IB ESS 182