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2.4.1 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 2.4.1 Biomes and aquatic ecosystems 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 1
  • 2. Major Ecosystems of the World Biomes 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 2
  • 3. Biomes of the World 1. The Tundra 1. Extremely cold climate 2. Low biotic diversity 3. Simple vegetation structure 4. Permafrost  limited drainage 5. Short growing season 6. Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material 7. Large population oscillations 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS alpine vs arctic tundra 3
  • 4. Biomes of the World 2. The Taiga aka: boreal forest 1. Band of coniferous trees located just south of tundra 5/11/2013 Author-Guru 2. Milder climate and more diverse biota than tundra 3. Forests subject to heavy logging IB/ESS 4 pressure.
  • 5. Biomes of the World 3. Temperate Rain Forest 1. Located on NW coast of No. America 2. Moderate climate and high annual rainfall 3. Relatively nutrient-poor soils 4. Forests subject to heavy logging pressure. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 5
  • 6. Biomes of the World 4. Temperate Deciduous Forest 1. Located in the mid-latitude areas 2. Four distinct seasons 3. Short, cold winters & long, hot, wet summers 5/11/2013 4. Trees adapted to the winter with a period of dormancy and thick bark to protect Author-Guru IB/ESS 6 them from the cold weather
  • 7. Biomes of the World 5. Grasslands 1. Composed of a rich mix of grasses and forbs and some of the world's most fertile soils 2. Semiarid, continental climate 3. Summers tend to be dry 4. Most precipitation falls at start of growing season 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 7
  • 8. Biomes of the World 6. Chaparral (aka: scrub forest) 1. Composed of drought tolerant trees, shrubs, and grasses 2. Occur in California, coastal Mediterranean, and south coast of Australia 3. Plants go dormant during very dry summer 4. Most precipitation falls in winter 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 8
  • 9. Biomes of the World 7. Deserts 1. Arid, with annual rainfall less than 10 in. 2. Plants adapted to conserve water over long periods (e.g. cacti, sagebrush, and mesquite) or germinate, develop to maturity, flower, and produce a new crop of seeds within a few weeks following a rain event 3. Animals burrow to escape the heat of the desert sun 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 9
  • 10. Biomes of the World 8. Savanna 1. Tropical grasslands 2. Tropical climate with alternate wet and dry seasons 3. Characterized by a continuous cover of perennial grasses 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 10
  • 11. Biomes of the World 9. Tropical Rain Forests 1. Earth's most complex biome in terms of structure and species diversity 2. Climate characterized by abundant precipitation and year round warmth 3. Trees vertically stratification into three distinct layers 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 11
  • 12. Aquatic Ecosystems Trophic Levels 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 12
  • 13. Aquatic Ecosystems Environmental Factors Temperature 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 13
  • 14. Aquatic Ecosystems Environmental Factors Light 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 14
  • 15. Aquatic Ecosystems Environmental Factors Salinity The Black Sea 16 PPT Baltic Sea 5-15 PPT Lake Michigan 0.5 PPT The Dead Sea 332 PPT 5/11/2013 Author-Guru Pacific Ocean 36 PPT The Red Sea & The Persian Gulf 40 PPT IB/ESS 15
  • 16. Aquatic Ecosystems Environmental Factors Currents 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 16
  • 17. Aquatic Ecosystems Environmental Factors Dissolved Oxygen Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) 5/11/2013 Temperature TemperatureIB/ESS (ºC) Author-Guru Depth (m) Depth (m) Dissolved Oxygen 17
  • 18. Aquatic Ecosystems Zonation 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 18
  • 19. Aquatic Ecosystems Human Impacts Waterways across the United States are contaminated by a medicine chest of antibiotics, hormones, caffeine, painkillers and other drugs Agricultural runoff can carry fertilizers, including traces of antibiotics and hormones, into waterways 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 19