1.1.1-.3 Systems

5/12/2013

Author-Guru

IB/ESS

1
Environmental Systems and
Societies

Interrelationships among climate, geology, soil,
vegetation, and animals.
5/12/2013
A...
A System
Is an organized collection of interdependent
components that perform a function and which
are connected through t...
Why use Systems Concept
Why do we use Systems?
• Useful for understanding and explaining
phenomena
• A holistic approach t...
Characteristics of Systems
What are the characteristics?
• Component parts (reservoirs, storages, stocks,
accumulations)
•...
Why Models
Why models?
• The real thing is not available or it’s
impractical
• Too rare, too complex, too big, too expensi...
What is a Model?
What is a model?
• A representation or a simulation, could be
conceptual, physical, mathematical

5/12/20...
How to evaluate a model?
• Does it explain past observations
• Does it agree with other models
• Does it predict accuratel...
Models
• “You never change things by fighting the
existing reality. To change something, build a
new model that makes the ...
A system has properties and functions NOT
present in the individual components.
The whole (system) is greater than the sum...
Synergy and Systems
• Synergy is the only word in our language
that means behavior of whole systems
unpredicted by the sep...
System according to Buckminster
Fuller (a good example of the use of language)
• A system is the first subdivision of Univ...
Fuller’s Comprehensive
Anticipatory Design Science Model

5/12/2013

Author-Guru

IB/ESS

13
Systems are defined by the source and ultimate
destination of their matter and/or energy.

1. OPEN SYSTEM:
a system in whi...
2. CLOSED SYSTEM: a system in which energy
is exchanged across boundaries of the system,
but matter is not.

5/12/2013

Au...
3. ISOLATED SYSTEM: a system in which
neither energy nor matter is exchanged across
boundaries of the system.

NO SUCH SYS...
Two basic processes must occur in an ecosystem:
1. A cycling of chemical elements.
2. Flow of energy.

TRANSFERS: normally...
Components of a system:

1. Inputs such as
energy or matter.
Calorie
s

Protein

5/12/2013

Author-Guru

IB/ESS

18
2. Flows of
matter or
energy within
the systems at
certain rates.

Calor
ies

Prote
in
5/12/2013

Author-Guru

IB/ESS

19
3.Outputs of
certain forms of
matter or energy
that flow out of
the system into Calor
ies
sinks in the
environment.
Prote
...
4. Storage areas in
which energy or
matter can
accumulate for Calor
ies
various
lengths of time
before being
Prote
release...
Inputs and Outputs

5/12/2013

Author-Guru

IB/ESS

22
5/12/2013

Author-Guru

IB/ESS

23
energy input
from sun

PHOTOSYNTHESIS
(plants, other producers)
nutrient
cycling

RESPIRATION
(hetero & autos, decomposers...
5/12/2013

Author-Guru

IB/ESS

25
SUSTAINABILITY is the extent to which a given
interaction with the environment exploits and
utilizes the natural income wi...
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1.1.1 .3 (2)

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1.1.1 .3 (2)

  1. 1. 1.1.1-.3 Systems 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 1
  2. 2. Environmental Systems and Societies Interrelationships among climate, geology, soil, vegetation, and animals. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 2
  3. 3. A System Is an organized collection of interdependent components that perform a function and which are connected through the transfer of energy and/or matter All the parts are linked together and affect each other. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 3
  4. 4. Why use Systems Concept Why do we use Systems? • Useful for understanding and explaining phenomena • A holistic approach that can lead to a deeper understanding and possibly to further discoveries 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 4
  5. 5. Characteristics of Systems What are the characteristics? • Component parts (reservoirs, storages, stocks, accumulations) • Processes (flows, transformations, transfers, reactions, photosynthesis, respiration) • Negative feedback mechanism for maintaining equilibrium Eg, circulatory system – heart, veins, arteries, capillaries, blood cells, plasma etc – pumping of the blood, blood pressure, nutrient exchange, vasodilation etc 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 5
  6. 6. Why Models Why models? • The real thing is not available or it’s impractical • Too rare, too complex, too big, too expensive 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 6
  7. 7. What is a Model? What is a model? • A representation or a simulation, could be conceptual, physical, mathematical 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 7
  8. 8. How to evaluate a model? • Does it explain past observations • Does it agree with other models • Does it predict accurately 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 8
  9. 9. Models • “You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete.” R Buckminster Fuller 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 9
  10. 10. A system has properties and functions NOT present in the individual components. The whole (system) is greater than the sum of the parts. Properties of the whole (system) CANNOT be predicted with the study of the parts on their own. This is called “Synergy” 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 10
  11. 11. Synergy and Systems • Synergy is the only word in our language that means behavior of whole systems unpredicted by the separately observed behaviors of any of the system’s separate parts or any subassembly of the system’s parts. There is nothing in the chemistry of a toenail that predicts the existence of a human being. Buckminster Fuller 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 11
  12. 12. System according to Buckminster Fuller (a good example of the use of language) • A system is the first subdivision of Universe. It divides all the Universe into six parts: first, all the universal events occurring geometrically outside the system; second, all the universal events occurring geometrically inside the system; third, all the universal events occurring nonsimultaneously, remotely, and unrelatedly prior to the system events; fourth, the Universe events occurring nonsimultaneously, remotely, and unrelatedly subsequent to the system events; fifth, all the geometrically arrayed set of events constituting the system itself; and sixth, all the Universe events occurring synchronously and or coincidentally to and with the systematic set of events uniquely 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 12
  13. 13. Fuller’s Comprehensive Anticipatory Design Science Model 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 13
  14. 14. Systems are defined by the source and ultimate destination of their matter and/or energy. 1. OPEN SYSTEM: a system in which both matter and energy are exchanged across boundaries of the system. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 14
  15. 15. 2. CLOSED SYSTEM: a system in which energy is exchanged across boundaries of the system, but matter is not. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 15
  16. 16. 3. ISOLATED SYSTEM: a system in which neither energy nor matter is exchanged across boundaries of the system. NO SUCH SYSTEM EXISTS!!! Most natural living systems are OPEN systems. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 16
  17. 17. Two basic processes must occur in an ecosystem: 1. A cycling of chemical elements. 2. Flow of energy. TRANSFERS: normally flow through a system and involve a change in location. TRANSFORMATIONS: lead to an interaction within a system in the formation of a new end product, or involve a change of state. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 17
  18. 18. Components of a system: 1. Inputs such as energy or matter. Calorie s Protein 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 18
  19. 19. 2. Flows of matter or energy within the systems at certain rates. Calor ies Prote in 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 19
  20. 20. 3.Outputs of certain forms of matter or energy that flow out of the system into Calor ies sinks in the environment. Prote in 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS Was teHe at Was teM atte r 20
  21. 21. 4. Storage areas in which energy or matter can accumulate for Calor ies various lengths of time before being Prote released. in 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 21
  22. 22. Inputs and Outputs 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 22
  23. 23. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 23
  24. 24. energy input from sun PHOTOSYNTHESIS (plants, other producers) nutrient cycling RESPIRATION (hetero & autos, decomposers) 5/12/2013 energy output (mainly heat) Author-Guru IB/ESS 24
  25. 25. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 25
  26. 26. SUSTAINABILITY is the extent to which a given interaction with the environment exploits and utilizes the natural income without causing longterm deterioration to the natural capital. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 26
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