From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
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From the
Treasures
of
Arabic
Morphology
NOTE : Treasures of Arabic morpholo...
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
Page 2
Title From the Treasures of Arabic
Morphology
Author Moulānā Ebrāhīm Muhamm...
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
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Contents
Introduction 10
Some Useful Terms 11
Arabic Terms 12
The Types of ...
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The Prohibition ( ) 61
Exercise 12 65
The Derived Nouns ( ) 66
The Active P...
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Exercise 20 99
( ) 99
Exercise 21 101
( ) 101
Exercise 22 103
( ) 103
Exerc...
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( ) 134
Exercise 35 136
Other Derived Forms 137
Exercise 36 142
The Seven C...
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Rule 7 171
Rule 8 179
Rule 9 184
Rule 10 189
Exercise 43 193
Rule 11 193
Ru...
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The Rules of ( ) 284
Rule 1 284
Rule 2 286
Rule 3 287
Rule 4 288
Rule 5 289...
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The ( ) of ( ) 321
The ( ) of ( ) 322
The ( ) of ( ) 322
Application of the...
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Introduction
Arabic Morphology ( ) is a branch of Arabic
Grammar dealing w...
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method as to how a word is changed from its original form
to its present o...
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Arabic Terms
The following are some of the Arabic terms used
frequently in...
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The first root letter of a word, also referred
to as consonant or radical,...
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The Types of Words
Term Meaning Example
word
noun
verb
particle – it is de...
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Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
Term Meaning Example
Intransitive – does...
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The Second Category of Verbs
With regard to the root letters ( ) of a verb...
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Exercise 1
(1) Determine whether the following verbs have 3 root-
letters ...
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Types of Nouns
(1) There are three types of nouns - ( ):
[a] , [b] and [c]...
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[3] ( ) e.g. ( ) – scorpion
[4] ( ) e.g. ( ) - paper
[5] ( ) e.g. ( ) - qu...
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The Scales of Verbs
The Arabic verb is constructed from a root which usual...
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( ) or standard by which the root letters of a verb are
determined. Accord...
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Exercise 2
(1) Determine the scales of the following verbs and what
each l...
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The Categories of Triliteral Verbs
( )
(1) The first and third letters of ...
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(5) The ( ) of ( ) is sometimes ( ) e.g.
( ) and sometimes ( ) e.g. ( ).
(...
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) the second or third letter will be from the (
)5
, e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ).
[...
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The Perfect Active Tense ( )
(1) There are 14 word-forms ( ) of the perfec...
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(Word-form) Verb
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Exercise 4
Conjugate the following verbs in the perfect tense (
) in table...
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The Perfect Passive ( )
The ( ) is constructed from the (
) in all trilite...
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Word-form Verb
singular masculine 3rd
person
dual masculine 3rd
person
plu...
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Verb Pronoun
The words ( ) or ( )
are used for the
negative sense. To use
...
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Word-form Verb
Note the Arabic terms used for the different word-forms in
...
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Exercise 5
(a) Translate the following sentences:
)1(
)2(
)3(
)4(
)5(
)6(
...
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[6] ( )
[7] ( )
[8] ( )
[9] ( )
[10] ( )
(c) Are the following verbs ( ) o...
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The Imperfect ( )
The Imperfect ( ) is formed by adding prefixes and/or
su...
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Meaning Verb
He is doing or he will do.
They (2 males) are doing or they w...
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Exercise 6
(1) To which category ( ) do each of the following
verbs belong...
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The Imperfect Passive Tense ( )
The ( ) is constructed from the (
) in all...
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Exercise 7
(a) Translate the following into English:
)1(
)2(
)3(
)4(
)5(
(...
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The ( )
The ( ) are: ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). When they
precede the ( ), the...
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)1(
)2(
The word ( ) changes the positive imperfect tense (
) to negative ...
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Exercise 8
(1) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ):
)1(
)2(
)3(
)4(
)5...
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The ( )
The ( ) are ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) and (
). When they precede the ( ),...
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)2(
The word ( ) changes the positive imperfect tense (
) to the negative ...
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) is a ( ), the ( ) is deleted.
Examples:
(
)
Example of
( )
Example of
( ...
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Exercise 9
(1) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ):
)1(
)2(
)3(
)4(
)5...
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The ( ) and ( ) of Emphasis
( ) – The Energetic Forms
(1) To create emphas...
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)2(
)3(
)4(
)5(
)6(
)7(_
(4) The ( ) of the ( ) is retained while the ( ) ...
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the ( ) is ( ) after ( ) and ( ) in the other
instances.
(8) The ( ) is si...
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◘
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Exercise 10
(1) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ) in the
active and ...
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The Imperative ( )
The ( – imperative second person) is constructed
from t...
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(7) The ( ) at the end is deleted. Examples:
( ) becomes ( ).
( ) becomes ...
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X
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Exercise 11
Conjugate the imperative ( ) of the following verbs in
the act...
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Exercise 12
(1) Conjugate the prohibition ( ) of the following
verbs in th...
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THE DERIVED NOUNS ( )
The following six nouns are derived from the verb:
)...
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In the indicative case ( ), the ( ) is used with an ( )
while in the accus...
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Exercise 13
Conjugate the ( ) of the following verbs:
)1(
)2(
)3(
)4(
)5(
...
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The Passive Participle ( )
The passive participle ( ) is that entity on wh...
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Exercise 14
Conjugate the ( ) of the following verbs:
)1(
)2(
)3(
)4(
)5(
...
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The Elative ( )
The ( ) is a derived noun that indicates the comparative
o...
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Exercise 15
Conjugate the ( ) of the following verbs:
)1(
)2(
)3(
)4(
)5(
...
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The ( )
The ( ) is a derived noun referring to the permanent
quality of an...
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The ( ) is used on many scales for which there is no
rule. It is based on ...
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chaste
thick
empty
free
happy
companion
noble
red
thirsty
The Noun of the ...
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The paradigm including the dual and plural cases is as follows:
Scales Exa...
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Exercise 16
(a) Conjugate the ( ) of the following verbs:
)5( )4( )3( )2( ...
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The Adverb ( )
The ( ) is a derived noun that indicates the place or
time ...
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( ) – a place of many lions - derived from ( ) – lion,
( )– a place of man...
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( ) – antimony bottle, from ( ) - antimony.
The scale of ( ) indicates the...
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The Intensive Adjective ( )
The ( ) is a noun that indicates excess in mea...
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( ):
Scale Example Meaning
very cautious
very knowledgeable
big eater
shed...
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Exercise 18
(A) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:
(1) He is v...
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The Categories ( ) of Verbs
The ( ) of ( )
You have already learnt that th...
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The Second ( ) : ( )
( ) – the ( ) of the ( ) has a ( ) while
the ( ) has ...
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) or ( ) is from the ( ), will be from
( ). The abbreviated paradigm of th...
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The Fifth ( ) : ( )
( ) – the ( ) of the ( ) has a ( ) while
the ( ) also ...
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from this ( ). However, verbs that are ( )9
or ( )10
have
been used, e.g. ...
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Exercise 19
Conjugate the following verbs as done above:
)1(
)2(
)3(
)4(
)...
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The ( ) of ( )
The Derived Forms of the Triliteral Verb
Arabic is extremel...
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Verb Meaning
to massacre
to combat, battle
to fight with one another
to ri...
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penultimate letter which will be ( ). The ( ) will
remain as it is,
e.g. (...
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The 12 ( ) of ( ) are as follows:
Example Extra Letters
no hamza
no hamza
...
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Construction of the Derived Nouns
To construct the ( ) of any ( ) besides ...
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the words ( ) are added to the ( ) for this purpose, e.g.
( ) – the means ...
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The Abbreviated Paradigm ( ) of Each
( )
The sign of ( ) is a ( ) 11
in th...
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:
.
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Exercise 20
Conjugate the following verbs:
)1()2()3()4()5(
The sign of ( )...
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:
.
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Exercise 21
Conjugate the following verbs:
)1()2()3()4()5(
The sign of ( ...
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:
.
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Exercise 22
Conjugate the following verbs:
)1()2()3()4()5(
The sign of ( ...
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:
.
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Exercise 23
Conjugate the following verbs:
)1()2()3()4()5(
The sign of ( ...
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(2) Sometimes the ( ) is changed to ( ) and then the rule of
( ) is appli...
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(1) The ( ) is changed to ( ) and the rule of ( ) is applied,
e.g. ( ) ch...
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Rule 4
If the ( ) of ( ) is ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ),
( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ...
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:
.
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Exercise 24
Conjugate the following verbs:
)1()2()3()4()5(
The sign of ( ...
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:
.
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Exercise 25
Conjugate the following verbs:
)1()2()3()4()5(
The sign of ( ...
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:
.
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Exercise 26
Conjugate the following verbs:
)1()2()3()4()5(
The sign of ( ...
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Rule 2
If the ( ) of ( ) and ( ) is ( ), ( ),
( ), ( ) ,( ), ( ), ( ), ( ...
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:
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Exercise 27
Conjugate the following verbs:
)1()2()3()4()5(
The sign of ( ...
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:
.
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Exercise 28
Conjugate the following verbs:
)1()2()3()4()5(
The sign of ( ...
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:
.
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Exercise 29
Conjugate the following verbs:
)1()2()3(
The sign of ( ) is t...
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:
.
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Exercise 30
Conjugate the following verbs:
)1()2()3()4(
The sign of ( ) i...
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:
.
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Exercise 31
(A) Conjugate the following verbs:
)1(
)2(
(B) What is the ( ...
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Four-Root letter Verbs
The ( ) of ( )
The sign of ( ) is the presence of ...
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to gargle, ( ) – to stammer.
(3) composite roots taken from a familiar ph...
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:
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Exercise 32
Conjugate the following verbs:
)1(
)2(
)3(
)4(
)5(
(B) What i...
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The Derived Forms of Four-Root Letter Verbs
The sign of ( ) is the extra ...
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:
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Exercise 33
Conjugate the following verbs:
)1()2()3()4()5(
The sign of ( ...
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:
.
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Exercise 34
Conjugate the following verbs:
)1()2()3()4()5(
The sign of ( ...
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:
.
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Exercise 35
(A) Conjugate the following verbs:
)1(
)2(
)3(
)4(
)5(
(B) Wh...
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Other Derived Forms
The ( ) of ( )
There are two categories of ( ) here:
...
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:
(4) ( ) – there is an extra ( ) after the ( ), e.g.
( ) – to trim the e...
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make someone don a hat.
:
( ) was originally ( ). ( ) was originally
( )....
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after the ( ), e.g. ( ) – to be a satan.
(4) ( ) – the extra letters are ...
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) are extra, e.g. ( ) – to walk with the chest and
neck protruding out.
:...
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In all the word-forms of this ( ), ( ) has been applied and
the changes a...
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The Seven Categories
With regards to the letters of verbs, they fall into...
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1) The term ( ) refers to any verb that contains a
( ).
2) If there is a ...
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( ).
10) If the ( ) has a ( ), it is called ( ) eg
( ).
11) If the ( ) ha...
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18) If the ( ) and the first ( ) and the ( ) and the second
( ) are the s...
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The Rules of ( )
Rule 1:
It is permissible to change a ( ), that is alone...
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becomes
becomes
becomes .
n n n n n
Rule 3
(3.1) It is permissible to cha...
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can also be read as .
If there are two ( )'s which are ( ) and none of
th...
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We are left with which can also be read as .
Step by Step
( ) ( )
( ) ( )...
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Example of
.
The word ( ) is the ( ) of ( ) which is
the ( ) of ( ) - mea...
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( ) after the ( ) of and it is before a ( ). It
changes to ( ) and the ( ...
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( ).
3) In the words the ( ) of the ( ) is
transferred to the ( ) and the...
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then the ( ) is removed leaving ( ).
The ( ) can be read as ( ) or ( ).
n...
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( ) will be between ( ) and ( ). If ( ) is
made, then the ( ) will be bet...
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Rule 10
If a ( ) comes before a ( ) as in the word
( ), then it is permis...
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The Orthography15
of the Hamzah
The following rules are general guideline...
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The Paradigms of ( )
Analysis of the changes
(1) The ( ) of this ( ) is (...
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( ), e.g. it is stated in a hadîth, ( ).
(4) If the verb is used in the m...
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Exercise 39
(a) Conjugate the following verbs:
)1(
)2(
(b) What is the pa...
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Analysis of the changes
(1) The changes of this ( ) are similar to those ...
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Analysis of the changes
(1) The rule of ( ) applies in the ( ),
( ) and (...
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Exercise 41
Conjugate the following verbs:
)1(
)2(
)3(
(b) What is the pa...
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( ), ( ) is from ( ), ( ) is from
( ).
(4) In the imperative ( ), after a...
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( ).
(3) The rule of ( ), that is the rule of
( ) applies to all the word...
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The Rules Of ( )
Rule 1
(1.1) The ( ) which appears between ( )16
which i...
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Rule 2
If a ( ) is on the scale of ( ) and its ( ) is a
( ), that ( ) is ...
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Rule 3
(3.1) If a ( ) is not ( ) and is preceded by a
( ), it changes int...
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Step by Step Example
(3.4) If an ( ) is preceded by a ( ), it will change...
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n n n n n
Rule 5
(5.1) If at the beginning of a word there is a ( ), it
i...
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Rarely is a ( ) changed into a ( ).
Examples
( - one) can be read as ( )....
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Examples
Example of a ( ) in the middle of a ( ):
( ) changes to ( ).
Exa...
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- the ( ) is in the place of the ( ) and the
( ) is a ( ). It will also n...
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[4] The ( ) or ( ) must not come before a ( ).
Therefore this law will no...
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Step by Step Examples
( )
( )
( )
( )
[5] The ( ) or ( ) must not be befo...
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( ) – ( ) example of ( ). [meaning – flowing]
( ) – ( ) example of ( ). [...
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[2] In the word ( ), the first ( ) changes to an ( ).
Due to the ( ) comi...
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Example in which ( ) has a ( )
( ) changes to ( ). The ( ) is now deleted...
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The ( ) is deleted. It becomes ( ). Now the ( ) is
given a ( ). It become...
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).
(8.2) If the ( ) is a ( ), the ( ) or ( ) is changed
into an ( ).
Exam...
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case of ( ) and ( ), the ( ) or ( ) will be deleted.
Example of ( )
In th...
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This rule (Rule 8) does not apply to the words ( )
because condition numb...
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Example of ( )
In the word ( ) which is the ( ) of ( ), the
( ) of the ( ...
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Rule 9
(9.1) If there is a ( ) in the ( ) of ( ),
the preceding letter is...
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
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( ), thus becoming ( ).
Example 2
In the word ( ) the ( ) is made ( ). It...
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
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( ). ( ) means to pronounce a ( ) in such a way
that it has the effect of...
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
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Step by Step Example
(9.6) In ( ), whatever the ( ) may be, or that
( ) w...
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
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Original Form Changed
Form
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
Note:
In the ( ) of ( ...
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
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Rule 10
(10.1) If the ( ) of the following word form’s
( ) is ( ) or ( ),...
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
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(10.2) If a word has a ( ) preceded by a ( ) and
followed by another ( ),...
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
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( ), the preceding letter is made ( ) and the ( )
of the ( ) is transferr...
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
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Example
In the word ( ), the ( ) is preceded by a ( ) and
followed by a (...
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
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Exercise 43
(a) Identify the rules or changes of ( ) in the following
wor...
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
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Rule 12
If a ( ) is in the place of the ( ), preceded by a
( ), the ( ) c...
From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology
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Rule 13
(13.1) If a ( ) comes in the place of the ( ) preceded
by a ( ) i...
Treasures  of  Arabic Morphology
Treasures  of  Arabic Morphology
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Treasures  of  Arabic Morphology
Treasures  of  Arabic Morphology
Treasures  of  Arabic Morphology
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Treasures of Arabic Morphology

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  1. 1. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 1 From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology NOTE : Treasures of Arabic morphology has been published by Zam zam Publishers of Pakistan. Unfortunately the quality of the print is poor and the publishers have retyped the contents pages with typing errors. If anyone is prepared to publish the book in a quality format, kindly contact the author at alinaam@alinaam.org.za. All comments and criticisms are welcome. Post your comments to the above email address. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  2. 2. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 2 Title From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Author Moulānā Ebrāhīm Muhammad First Edition Safar 1427 A.H. March 2006 Published by Academy for Islamic Research Madrasah In’āmiyyah P.O. Box 39 Camperdown 3720 South Africa Tel +27 031 785 1519 Fax +27 031 785 1091 email al_inaam@yahoo.com Copyright © 2006 Madrasah In’āmiyyah All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Madrasah In’āmiyyah, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Typeset on Times New Roman 12 and Traditional Arabic 18 by Academy for Islamic Research, Madrasah In’āmiyyah, Camperdown, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  3. 3. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 3 Contents Introduction 10 Some Useful Terms 11 Arabic Terms 12 The Types of Words 14 Transitive and Intransitive Verbs 15 Positive and Negative 15 Active and Passive 15 The Second Category of Verbs 16 Exercise 1 17 Types of Nouns 18 The Scales of Verbs 20 Exercise 2 22 The Categories of Triliteral Verbs 23 Exercise 3 25 The Perfect Active ( ) 26 Exercise 4 28 The Perfect Passive ( ) 29 Exercise 5 33 The Imperfect ( ) 35 Exercise 6 38 The Imperfect Passive ( ) 39 Exercise 7 40 The ( ) 41 Exercise 8 44 The ( ) 45 Exercise 9 49 The ( ) and ( ) of Emphasis 50 Exercise 10 55 The Imperative ( ) 56 Exercise 11 61 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  4. 4. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 4 The Prohibition ( ) 61 Exercise 12 65 The Derived Nouns ( ) 66 The Active Participle ( ) 66 Exercise 13 68 The Passive Participle ( ) 69 Exercise 14 70 The Elative ( ) 71 Exercise 15 73 The ( ) 74 The Noun of the Instrument ( ) 76 Exercise 16 78 The Adverb ( ) 79 Exercise 17 81 The Intensive Adjective ( ) 82 Exercise 18 84 The Categories ( ) of Verbs 85 The ( ) of ( ) 85 The First ( ) 85 The Second ( ) 86 The Third ( ) 86 The Fourth ( ) 87 The Fifth ( ) 88 The Sixth ( ) 88 Exercise 19 90 The ( ) of ( ) 91 Construction of the Derived Nouns 95 The Abbreviated Paradigm of each ( ) 97 ( ) 97 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  5. 5. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 5 Exercise 20 99 ( ) 99 Exercise 21 101 ( ) 101 Exercise 22 103 ( ) 103 Exercise 23 105 ( ) 105 Exercise 24 110 ( ) 110 Exercise 25 112 ( ) 112 Exercise 26 114 ( ) 114 Exercise 27 117 ( ) 117 Exercise 28 119 ( ) 119 Exercise 29 121 ( ) 121 Exercise 30 123 ( ) 123 Exercise 31 125 Four Root-Letter Verbs 126 Exercise 32 129 The Derived Forms of Four Root-Letter Verbs 130 ( ) 130 Exercise 33 132 ( ) 132 Exercise 34 134 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  6. 6. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 6 ( ) 134 Exercise 35 136 Other Derived Forms 137 Exercise 36 142 The Seven Categories 143 Exercise 37 146 The Rules of ( ) 147 Rule 1 147 Rule 2 147 Rule 3 148 Rule 4 148 Rule 5 150 Rule 6 151 Rule 7 152 Rule 8 153 Rule 9 154 Rule 10 156 Exercise 38 156 The Orthography of the Hamzah 157 The Paradigms of ( ) 158 Exercise 39 160 Exercise 40 161 Exercise 41 163 Discussion of ( ) 163 Discussion of ( ) 164 Exercise 42 165 The Rules of ( ) 166 Rule 1 166 Rule 2 167 Rule 3 168 Rule 4 169 Rule 5 170 Rule 6 171 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  7. 7. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 7 Rule 7 171 Rule 8 179 Rule 9 184 Rule 10 189 Exercise 43 193 Rule 11 193 Rule 12 194 Rule 13 195 Rule 14 196 Rule 15 199 Rule 16 199 Rule 17 202 Rule 18 203 Rule 19 204 Rule 20 205 Rule 21 206 Rule 22 207 Rule 23 208 Rule 24 209 Rule 25 210 Rule 26 212 Exercise 44 213 The Paradigms of ( ) 214 Exercise 45 220 The Paradigms of ( ) 221 Exercise 46 228 The Paradigm of ( ) 229 Exercise 47 240 The Paradigms of ( ) and ( ) 241 Exercise 48 250 Exercise 49 260 Exercise 50 271 Combination of ( ) and ( ) 272 Exercise 51 283 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  8. 8. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 8 The Rules of ( ) 284 Rule 1 284 Rule 2 286 Rule 3 287 Rule 4 288 Rule 5 289 Exercise 52 290 Exercise 53 297 A Combination of ( ) , ( ) and ( ) 301 Exercise 54 303 Special Meanings ( ) of Each ( ) 304 The ( ) of ( ) 304 The ( ) of ( ) 304 The ( ) of ( ) 305 The ( ) of ( ) 305 The Derived Categories 306 The ( ) of ( ) 306 The ( ) of ( ) 309 The ( ) of ( ) 311 The ( ) of ( ) 312 The ( ) of ( ) 314 The ( ) of ( ) 314 The ( ) of ( ) 315 The ( ) of ( ) 317 The ( ) of ( ) 318 The ( ) of ( ) 319 The ( ) of ( ) 320 The ( ) of ( ) 320 The ( ) of ( ) 321 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  9. 9. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 9 The ( ) of ( ) 321 The ( ) of ( ) 322 The ( ) of ( ) 322 Application of the Special Meanings 323 Challenging Words 325 Appendix A - Morphology or Etymology? 352 Bibliography 356 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  10. 10. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 10 Introduction Arabic Morphology ( ) is a branch of Arabic Grammar dealing with word-forms and patterns. It is highly essential for the incumbent student of Arabic to learn this science in order to be proficient in the language. Acquiring an understanding of word patterns is of prime importance in learning the language. This is a comprehensive book dealing with all the important aspects of the subject. If a student has to study this book thoroughly, he would develop a very good foundation in this science and it would absolve him of the need to study any further books on the subject. The Arabic names of morphologic terms have been adopted instead of the Urdu forms commonly found in the text books of Islamic seminaries. Thus I have used the term ( ) instead of ( ). Similarly, instead of writing ( ), the correct Arabic form of ( ) has been used while the term ( ) is used instead of ( ) which is incorrect. This will enable the student to learn the correct Arabic terms from the initial stages of his learning. Included also is a collection of rules of word-changes which affect many Arabic verbs and nouns. The rules have been clearly explained with examples and a step by step Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  11. 11. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 11 method as to how a word is changed from its original form to its present one. It is hoped that this book will be beneficial for the students of Arabic Grammar and Morphology and simplify the path to understanding the intricacies of the language. Āmīn. For a detailed discussion on the name of this subject, whether it is called Morphology or Etymology, refer to Appendix A at the end of this book. Some Useful Terms Conjugation: A paradigm, class, or table of verb forms in such inflected languages as Latin and French, where elements are distinguished from each other by patterns of inflection relating to tense, person, number.1 Declension: A term used to describe the case system of nouns and other words.2 Inflection: The variation or change of form that words undergo to mark distinctions of case, gender, number, tense, person, mood, voice, comparison.3 Linguistics and Philology: The study of language. Paradigm: pronounced (pa-ra-dime), in grammar, a set of all the (especially inflected) forms of a word (write, writes, wrote, writing, written), especially when used as a model for all other words of the same type.4 1 The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 256, 1992. 2 Ibid, p. 281. 3 Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 2, p. 1160. 4 The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 747, 1992. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  12. 12. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 12 Arabic Terms The following are some of the Arabic terms used frequently in this book. It would be advisable to learn them thoroughly as they are frequently used throughout the book. Term Meaning A diacritical point denoting the sound of ‘a’. A diacritical point - denoting the sound of ‘u’. A diacritical point - denoting the sound of ‘i’. A diacritical point - that serves the purpose of joining two letters in pronunciation A letter having a fathah, e.g. ( ) A letter having a dammah, e.g. ( ) A letter having a kasrah, e.g. ( ) A letter having a sukûn or jazm, e.g. ( ) The three diacritical points, fathah dammah and kasrah are each called a harakah A letter having a harakah, e.g. ( ) Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  13. 13. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 13 The first root letter of a word, also referred to as consonant or radical, e.g. the ( ) of ( ) The second root letter of a word, e.g. the ( ) of ( ) The third root letter of a word, e.g. the ( ) of ( ) Word-form denoting the number, gender and mood of the verb ( ) is the plural of ( ) which refers to a category of verbs belonging to one class. The first verb of the perfect tense ( ) and the imperfect tense ( ), are used to indicate the diacritical points of the alphabets of the verbs. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  14. 14. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 14 The Types of Words Term Meaning Example word noun verb particle – it is dependent on either an ( ) or ( ) in conveying its meaning With regards to meaning and tense, a verb is of three types: Term Meaning Example Indicates the occurrence of an action in the past tense. It is referred to as the perfect tense in English. – He did. Indicates the occurrence of an action in the present or future tense. It is referred to as the imperfect tense in English. - He is doing or he will do. a command – You do. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  15. 15. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 15 Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Term Meaning Example Intransitive – does not require an object - He is walking. Transitive - requires an object – He is opening the door. Positive and Negative Term Meaning Example positive – He is doing. negative – He is not doing. The terms ( ) and ( ) are also used. Active and Passive Term Meaning Example active tense – the doer of the action is known – He is doing. passive tense – the doer of the action is not known – It is being done. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  16. 16. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 16 The Second Category of Verbs With regard to the root letters ( ) of a verb, they are of two types: Term Meaning Example 3 root letters or triliteral 4 root letters or quadriliteral Each of these two types is further divided into two categories: (1) ( ) – the ( ) consists of root letters only, without any extra letters. (2) ( ) - the ( ) has root letters plus extra letters. This results in the following four categories: Term Meaning Example 3 root letters only 3 root letters plus extra letters 4 root letters only 4 root letters plus extra letters Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  17. 17. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 17 Exercise 1 (1) Determine whether the following verbs have 3 root- letters or 4 root-letters. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (2) What do the following terms mean: Term Meaning Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  18. 18. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 18 Types of Nouns (1) There are three types of nouns - ( ): [a] , [b] and [c] . (2) The ( – verbal noun) is a word that indicates the occurrence of an action and is free of tense e.g. ( ) – to assist. (3) The ( ) is a word derived from a verb e.g. ( ) – helper is derived from ( ). (4) The ( ) is neither a ( ) nor a ( ) e.g. ( ) – man. (5) The ( ) and the ( ) also fall under the categories of ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ) like the ( ). The categories mentioned under the verb like ( ) etc. also apply to an ( ). (6) The noun ( ) with regard to its letters can either have three root letters (triliteral), four root letters (quadriliteral) or five root letters (quinquiliteral). It is therefore of six types: [1] ( ) e.g. ( ) – a man [2] ( ) e.g. ( ) – a donkey Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  19. 19. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 19 [3] ( ) e.g. ( ) – scorpion [4] ( ) e.g. ( ) - paper [5] ( ) e.g. ( ) - quince [6] ( ) e.g. ( ) – a spider (7) The scholars of morphology generally deal with the ( ) because most of the changes ( ) occur in a ( ) while few changes occur in an ( ) and none occur in a ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  20. 20. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 20 The Scales of Verbs The Arabic verb is constructed from a root which usually consists of three letters called consonants or radicals. These consonants form a kind of skeleton which constitutes the verb-stem to which prefixes and suffixes may be added. Arabic verbs are mostly triliteral, that is, they are constructed of three root letters. The simplest form of the verb is the third person masculine singular of the perfect tense ( ). In most dictionaries, all the words derived from a triliteral root are entered under the third person masculine singular form of the verb. In Arabic, there are two main tenses, the perfect or past tense ( ), denoting actions completed at the time to which reference is made; and the imperfect ( ), for incompleted actions, referring to the present or future tenses. The present and future tenses are thus expressed by the imperfect form ( ). The imperative ( ) may be considered a modification of the imperfect. To indicate patterns or type-forms of verbs, the grammarians use the three letters of the verb ( ), where the ( ) represents the first radical of the verb, the ( ) represents the second radical of the verb and the ( ) represents the third radical of the verb. This is the scale Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  21. 21. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 21 ( ) or standard by which the root letters of a verb are determined. Accordingly, the word ( ) is on the scale of ( ), ( ) is on the scale of ( ) and ( ) is on the scale of ( ). The letter that corresponds to the ( ) of the ( ) is called the (ِ ), that which corresponds to the ( ) is called the (ِ ) while the letter corresponding to the ( ) is called the (ِ ). Example: the word ( ) is on the scale of ( ): Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  22. 22. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 22 Exercise 2 (1) Determine the scales of the following verbs and what each letter represents. The first one has been done for you. (a) ( ) The ( ) is the ( ), the ( ) is the ( ), the ( ) is the ( ). (b) ( ) (c) ( ) (d) ( ) (e) ( ) (f) ( ) (g) ( ) (h) ( ) (i) ( ) (j) ( ) Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  23. 23. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 23 The Categories of Triliteral Verbs ( ) (1) The first and third letters of a simple triliteral verb in the active tense is always vowelled with a fathah ( ). The second letter or radical may be vowelled by a ( ), ( ) or ( ). The active perfect tense ( ) of triliteral verbs ( ) is used on three scales: [a] e.g. ( ) [b] e.g. ( ) [c] e.g. ( ) (2) The conjugation of the ( ) and ( ) forms is similar to the conjugation of ( ). (3) The imperfect tense ( ) of ( ) is sometimes ( ) e.g. ( ) and sometimes ( ) e.g. ( ) and sometimes ( ) e.g. ( ). (4) The conjugation of the ( ) and ( ) is similar to the conjugation of ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  24. 24. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 24 (5) The ( ) of ( ) is sometimes ( ) e.g. ( ) and sometimes ( ) e.g. ( ). (6) The ( ) of ( ) is only ( ) e.g. ( ). (7) The ( ) of all three scales is ( ). (8) The ( ) of all three scales is ( ). (9) Based on the above-mentioned facts, there are six categories ( ) of ( ) which are as follows: ( ) )1( ( ) )2( ( ) )3( ( ) )4( ( ) )5( ( ) )6( (10) There is no rule to specify which verb belongs to which category ( ). It is based on ( ) – as heard from the Arabs. One can also ascertain which category a verb belongs to from a dictionary. There are however certain guidelines which are as follows: [a] If the verb belongs to the category of ( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  25. 25. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 25 ) the second or third letter will be from the ( )5 , e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ). [b] If the perfect ( ) is of the form ( ), the imperfect ( ) is generally from the category of ( ). [c] If the perfect ( ) is of the form ( ), the imperfect ( ) is generally from the category of ( ). Exercise 3 To which category ( ) does each of the following verb belong: (1) ( ) (2) ( ) (3) ( ) (4) ( ) (5) ( ) 5 The ( ) are the following six letters: ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  26. 26. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 26 The Perfect Active Tense ( ) (1) There are 14 word-forms ( ) of the perfect tense ( ). All three diacritical points or vowels ( ) can be used on the ( ) as is apparent from the above-mentioned six categories ( ). (2) The Arab Grammarians usually begin the Perfect ( ) and Imperfect ( ) conjugations with the third person ( ), followed by the second person ( ) and finally the first person ( ). (3) Unlike English, Arabic also has a dual form for the second and third persons. As for the first person, the plural form is used for both the dual and plural. (4) Hereunder follow the paradigms of the perfect tense. Note that the first three froms are for the masculine while the second three are for the feminine of the third person. The following six forms are for the second person, the first three being for the masculine and the second three for the feminine. The final two forms are for the first person. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  27. 27. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 27 (Word-form) Verb Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  28. 28. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 28 Exercise 4 Conjugate the following verbs in the perfect tense ( ) in table form : (a) ( ) (b) ( ) (c) ( ) (d) ( ) (e) ( ) (f) ( ) (g) ( ) (h) ( ) (i) ( ) (j) ( ) Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  29. 29. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 29 The Perfect Passive ( ) The ( ) is constructed from the ( ) in all triliteral verbs ( ). If we take the first verb, namely the third person singular form, ( ), a ( ) is rendered to the first letter, a ( ) is rendered to the second letter while the third letter remains in its original condition. The result is ( ). No matter what the ( ) of the second letter in the active tense is, in the passive tense it will always be ( ). Examples: Active – ( ) Passive – ( ) Note that the intransitive verbs can be used in the passive tense if they are used with a particle ( ), e.g. ( ) – It was taken. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  30. 30. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 30 Word-form Verb singular masculine 3rd person dual masculine 3rd person plural masculine 3rd person singular feminine 3rd person dual feminine 3rd person plural feminine 3rd person singular masculine 2nd person dual masculine 2nd person plural masculine 2nd person singular feminine 2nd person dual feminine 2nd person plural feminine 2nd person singular first person dual and plural first person Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  31. 31. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 31 Verb Pronoun The words ( ) or ( ) are used for the negative sense. To use ( ) with ( ), the condition is that the ( ) must be repeated eg. ( ). The column on the right indicates how the pronouns ( ) are used with the verbs. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  32. 32. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 32 Word-form Verb Note the Arabic terms used for the different word-forms in this table. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  33. 33. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 33 Exercise 5 (a) Translate the following sentences: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( )8( )9( )10( (b) What is the ( ) of the following verbs: [1] ( ) [2] ( ) [3] ( ) [4] ( ) [5] ( ) Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  34. 34. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 34 [6] ( ) [7] ( ) [8] ( ) [9] ( ) [10] ( ) (c) Are the following verbs ( ) or ( )? [1] ( ) [2] ( ) [3] ( ) [4] ( ) [5] ( ) Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  35. 35. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 35 The Imperfect ( ) The Imperfect ( ) is formed by adding prefixes and/or suffixes to the perfect tense. The prefixes can either be any of the letters ( ). The suffixes may either be ( ), ( ), ( ) or just ( ). After adding the prefix, the first radical or letter of the verb has ( ), e.g. the ( ) of ( ) has a sukûn. The second letter can have any of the three harakât, depending on which category ( ) the verb belongs to. In the indicative case ( ), the final vowel of the third radical ( ) is ( ) in the singular form of the verb, e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). For the subjunctive case ( ), this ( ) is changed to ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ); while for the jussive case ( ), it is replaced by a ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). The changes in the singular and dual forms will be discussed later. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  36. 36. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 36 Meaning Verb He is doing or he will do. They (2 males) are doing or they will do. They (plural males) are doing or they will do. She is doing or she will do. They (2 females) are doing or they will do. They (plural females) are doing or they will do. You (1 male) are doing or you will do. You (2 males) are doing or you will do. You (plural males) are doing or you will do. You (1 female) are doing or you will do. You (2 females) are doing or you will do. You (plural females) are doing or you will do. I am doing or will do. We are doing or we will do. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  37. 37. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 37Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  38. 38. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 38 Exercise 6 (1) To which category ( ) do each of the following verbs belong: (a) ( ) (b) ( ) (c) ( ) (d) ( ) (e) ( ) (2) What is the ( ) of the following words: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( )8( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  39. 39. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 39 The Imperfect Passive Tense ( ) The ( ) is constructed from the ( ) in all triliteral verbs ( ). If we take the first verb, namely the third person singular form, ( ), a ( ) is rendered to the first letter which is the ( ) – sign of the imperfect tense. A ( ) is rendered to the ( ) while the ( ) remains as it is. The result is ( ). No matter what the ( ) of the ( ) in the active tense is, in the passive tense, it will always be ( ). Examples: Active – ( ) Passive – ( ) Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  40. 40. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 40 Exercise 7 (a) Translate the following into English: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( (b) Translate the following sentences into Arabic: [1] The door of the school is being opened. [2] He is being sent to Madînah. [3] The disbelievers will be defeated. [4] The car will be left on the road. [5] The book will be read today. (c) Conjugate the following verbs into the ( ): )5( )4( )3( )2( )1( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  41. 41. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 41 The ( ) The ( ) are: ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). When they precede the ( ), they render ( ) to the following five words: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( The ( ) of the following seven words is deleted: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( The following two words remain unchanged: Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  42. 42. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 42 )1( )2( The word ( ) changes the positive imperfect tense ( ) to negative ( ) with emphasis. The paradigms of ( ) – the active tense and ( ) – the passive tense – when used with the other particles, ( ), ( ) and ( ) will be the same as was in the case of ( ). Examples: Hereunder follow the paradigms of ( ) when used with the particle ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  43. 43. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 43Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  44. 44. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 44 Exercise 8 (1) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ): )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( (2) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ): )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  45. 45. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 45 The ( ) The ( ) are ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). When they precede the ( ), they render ( ) to the following five words: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( The ( ) of the following seven words is deleted: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( The following two words remain unchanged: )1( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  46. 46. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 46 )2( The word ( ) changes the positive imperfect tense ( ) to the negative perfect tense ( ). The paradigms of ( ) – the active voice and ( ) – the passive voice – when used with ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ), will be the same as was in the case of ( ). Examples: The word ( ) means ‘not as yet’. Thus ( ) will mean ‘he did not do as yet’. The ( ) enters all the word-forms of the passive tense ( ). In the active tense ( ), it is only used in the third person ( ) and first person ( ) word-forms. If any of the ( ) precede a ( ) whose ( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  47. 47. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 47 ) is a ( ), the ( ) is deleted. Examples: ( ) Example of ( ) Example of ( ) Example of ( ) Hereunder follow the paradigms of ( ) when used with the particle ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  48. 48. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 48Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  49. 49. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 49 Exercise 9 (1) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ): )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( (2) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ): )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  50. 50. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 50 The ( ) and ( ) of Emphasis ( ) – The Energetic Forms (1) To create emphasis in the meaning of ( ), the ( ) is prefixed to it and ( ) or ( ) suffixed to it. The ( ) is ( ) and is suffixed to all the word-forms ( ). The ( ) is ( ) and is not suffixed to the ( ) and ( ) word-forms. (2) The letter prededing the ( ) is ( ) in the following word-forms: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( (3) The ( ) is deleted in the following words before attaching the ( ): )1( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  51. 51. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 51 )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7(_ (4) The ( ) of the ( ) is retained while the ( ) itself becomes ( ), e.g. ( ). (5) The ( ) of ( ) and the ( ) of ( ) are also deleted. The ( ) before the ( ) and the ( ) before the ( ) are retained, e.g. ( ) and ( ). (6)In the ( ) word-forms, an ( ) is inserted between the ( ) of ( ) and the ( ) so that three nûns do not occur in one place. This will occur in the following two word- forms: )1( )2( (7) The ( ) itself is ( ) in these two words. In short, Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  52. 52. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 52 the ( ) is ( ) after ( ) and ( ) in the other instances. (8) The ( ) is similar to the ( ) except in the ( ) and ( ) word-forms. The ( ) is only used in those words where there is no ( ) before ( ) and these are eight word-forms. Once ( ) and ( ) enter a ( ), its meaning changes to the future tense. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  53. 53. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 53Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  54. 54. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 54 ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ ◘ Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  55. 55. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 55 Exercise 10 (1) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ) in the active and passive tenses: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( (2) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ) in the active and passive tenses: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  56. 56. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 56 The Imperative ( ) The ( – imperative second person) is constructed from the ( ) in the following manner: (1) The ( ) – the sign of the imperfect tense - is deleted. (2) If the following letter is ( ), the final letter is rendered ( ). Example: the verb ( ) changes to ( ). (3) If the following letter is ( ), a ( ) is inserted at the beginning and the end is rendered ( ). (4) If the ( ) has a ( ), the ( ) is rendered a ( ). Example: ( ) becomes ( ). (5) If the ( ) has a ( ) or ( ), the ( ) is rendered a ( ). Examples: ( ) becomes ( ). ( ) becomes ( ). (6) The ( ) is deleted while the ( ) – the nūn of the feminine plural - is retained. Examples: ( ) becomes ( ). ( ) becomes ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  57. 57. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 57 (7) The ( ) at the end is deleted. Examples: ( ) becomes ( ). ( ) becomes ( ). ( ) becomes ( ). (8) The imperative of the first and third persons ( ) is formed by adding a ( ) at the beginning of ( ). This ( ) has the same effect on the verbs as ( ). (9) The ( ) and ( ) can also be attached to the ( ) word-forms. Hereunder follow the paradigms of ( - the imperative active) and ( - the imperative passive). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  58. 58. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 58Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  59. 59. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 59Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  60. 60. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 60 X Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  61. 61. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 61 Exercise 11 Conjugate the imperative ( ) of the following verbs in the active and passive forms first and then conjugate them using the ( ) and ( ): )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( The Prohibition ( ) (1) The particle ( ) is used before ( ) to denote prohibition. It has the same effect as ( ) in changing the different word-forms. (2) The ( ) and ( ) can be attached to all the forms of ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  62. 62. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 62Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  63. 63. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 63Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  64. 64. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 64Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  65. 65. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 65 Exercise 12 (1) Conjugate the prohibition ( ) of the following verbs in the active and passive forms first and then conjugate them using the ( ) and ( ): )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( (2) What is the ( ) of the following verbs? )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( )8( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  66. 66. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 66 THE DERIVED NOUNS ( ) The following six nouns are derived from the verb: )1()2()3()4( )5()6( The Active Participle ( ) The active participle ( ) indicates the person or being from whom the action emanates, e.g. ( ) – a person who listens. In 3-root letter verbs ( ), the ( ) is formed by adding an ( ) after the first letter, rendering a ( ) to the second letter and ( ) to the final letter. Thus, ( ) becomes ( ). In the dual forms ( ), ( ) and ( ) are attached to the end, e.g. ( ). For the feminine form, a round ( ) is inserted at the end. For the masculine plural ( ), ( ) is inserted, e.g. ( ), while for the feminine plural ( ), the syllable, ( ) is attached, e.g. ( ). There are three scales for the masculine form and three for the feminine form of the word. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  67. 67. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 67 In the indicative case ( ), the ( ) is used with an ( ) while in the accusative and genative cases ( ), it is used with a ( ) preceded by a ( ). The ( ) of the ( ) is ( ), e.g. ( ) and ( ). For the masculine plural in ( ), a ( ) is used while in ( ), a ( ) preceded by a ( ) is used. The ( ) of ( ) is ( ), e.g. ( ) and ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  68. 68. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 68 Exercise 13 Conjugate the ( ) of the following verbs: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( )8( )9( )10( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  69. 69. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 69 The Passive Participle ( ) The passive participle ( ) is that entity on which the action occurs, e.g. ( ) – the thing which is opened. It is formed by adding a ( ) at the beginning, a ( ) after the second letter and ( ) at the end. The first root letter ( ) becomes ( ) while the second one becomes ( ). The additions for the dual and plural forms are the same as the ( ). Like the ( ), it also has six word-forms. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  70. 70. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 70 Exercise 14 Conjugate the ( ) of the following verbs: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( )8( )9( )10( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  71. 71. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 71 The Elative ( ) The ( ) is a derived noun that indicates the comparative or superlative degree e.g. ( ) – more virtuous or most virtuous. The scale of ( ) is used for this purpose, except for colours and defects. In the case of colours and defects, the scale of ( ) is used for ( ) e.g. ( ) – red, ( ) – blind. Tanwīn never enters the end of ( ). The ( ) generally renders the meaning of the doer ( ) but sometimes it can render the meaning of the object ( ), e.g. ( ) - more famous. Hereunder follows the paradigm of the ( ): Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  72. 72. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 72Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  73. 73. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 73 Exercise 15 Conjugate the ( ) of the following verbs: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( )8( )9( )10( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  74. 74. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 74 The ( ) The ( ) is a derived noun referring to the permanent quality of an entity, e.g. ( ) – beautiful. The ( ) on the other hand describes a temporary quality e.g. ( ) – listening at the moment. A person will only be referred to as ( ) if the quality of ( ) emanates from him whereas the attribute of ( ) applies to a person all the time.The ( ) is always intransitive ( ) even though it may be constructed from a transitive verb ( ). Hence the difference between ( ) and ( ) is that ( ) indicates a being listening at the moment while ( ) indicates a being which permanently has the quality of listening even though there may be no object. Therefore one can say ( ), but to say ( ) is incorrect. The ( ) has six word-forms like the ( ). For the dual and plural forms, changes are made to the end as in the ( ). Hereunder follows the paradigm of the ( ): Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  75. 75. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 75 The ( ) is used on many scales for which there is no rule. It is based on ( ) – as heard from the Arabs. Sometimes a ( ), ( ) or ( ) is inserted after the second alphabet, e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ). Sometimes the root-form remains intact but a change occurs in the harakāt, e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ). Some of the more common scales are listed hereunder. Scale Example Meaning handsome impure brave Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  76. 76. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 76 chaste thick empty free happy companion noble red thirsty The Noun of the Instrument ( ) The ( ) is a derived noun that indicates the instrument used for the action. It is formed by adding a ( ) at the beginning of the root letters. It has three scales. Scales Examples Meanings needle fan key Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  77. 77. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 77 The paradigm including the dual and plural cases is as follows: Scales Examples Sometimes the underived noun ( ) is used to denote an instrument. Different scales are used for this purpose but there is no rule for arriving at a particular scale. Examples: ( ) - axe , ( ) – adze6 , ( ) - knife. 6 Adze: kind of axe with arched blade used for shaping wood. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  78. 78. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 78 Exercise 16 (a) Conjugate the ( ) of the following verbs: )5( )4( )3( )2( )1( )10( )9( )8( )7( )6( (b) Identify the derived nouns in the following sentences: )1(. )2(. )3(. )4(. )5(. )6(. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  79. 79. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 79 The Adverb ( ) The ( ) is a derived noun that indicates the place or time of the action. If the word indicates the place of the action, it is called ( ) and if it indicates the time of the action, it is called ( ). It is made by adding a ( ) at the beginning of the root letters. It has two scales, namely ( ) and ( ). If the ( ) is ( ) or ( ) or ( ), the ( ) will be on the scale of ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ) and ( ). If the ( ) is ( ) or ( ), the ( ) will be on the scale of ( ), e.g. ( ) and ( ). The paradigm including the dual and plural forms is as follows: scale example The ( ) is often constructed from the underived noun ( ) on the scale of ( ) to indicate an excess of that object in that place, e.g. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  80. 80. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 80 ( ) – a place of many lions - derived from ( ) – lion, ( )– a place of many predators - derived from ( ) – predator, ( ) – a place of many ducks - derived from ( ) – duck. There are certain words, which according to the rule should have a ( ) on the ( ), but have been used with a ( ) instead. These may be regarded as exceptions to the rule. The scholars have written that it is permissible to pronounce these words with a ( ) as well. These words are: Word Meaning Word Meaning place of prostration place of assembly place of rising place of falling place of staying intersection place of slaughtering place of slaughtering place of germinating east place of resting the elbow west nostril place where one expects something Sometimes the ( ) is used on the scale of ( ), e.g. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  81. 81. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 81 ( ) – antimony bottle, from ( ) - antimony. The scale of ( ) indicates the place where a thing falls during the action, e.g. ( ) – the water which falls during bathing, ( ) – the dirt which falls off the broom when sweeping. Exercise 17 (a) Conjugate the ( ) of the following verbs: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( )8( )9( )10( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  82. 82. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 82 The Intensive Adjective ( ) The ( ) is a noun that indicates excess in meaning of the verbal noun e.g. ( ) – one who hits a lot. The difference between ( ) and ( ) is that in ( ), the excess meaning is limited to itself without taking others into consideration whereas in the ( ), the excess in meaning is in comparison to others. Hence ( ) or ( ) is in comparison to others while ( ) is not in comparison to anyone. In the ( ), there is no difference in gender. Sometimes a ( ) is added for excess in meaning, e.g. ( ) – a very learned man, ( ) - a very learned woman. When ( ) is in the meaning of ( ), or ( ) is in the meaning of ( ), a differentiation is made between the masculine and feminine forms. Examples: ( ) , ( ) ( ) , ( ). The following scales are the ones most frequently used for Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  83. 83. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 83 ( ): Scale Example Meaning very cautious very knowledgeable big eater shedder of blood very great very truthful one who cuts a lot one who awards many prizes chatterbox very strange very decisive one who habitually laughs eternal most holy very agile Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  84. 84. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 84 Exercise 18 (A) Translate the following sentences into Arabic: (1) He is very agile. (2) This book is very strange. (3) The principal awards many prizes. (4) Abū Bakr is very truthful. (5) She is a big eater. (6) Allāh is very knowledgeable. (7) The king was a shedder of blood. (8) The student is very cautious. (9) His mother is very patient. (10) The mujāhid is extremely brave. (B) What is the scale of the following ( ): )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( )8( )9( )10( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  85. 85. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 85 The Categories ( ) of Verbs The ( ) of ( ) You have already learnt that the verbs of ( ) –three root- letter verbs – have six categories ( ) – plural of ( ). The First ( ): ( ) ( ) – the ( ) of the ( ) has a ( ) while the ( ) has a ( ), e.g. ( ) – to help. The abbreviated paradigm7 of this ( ) is as follows: 7 The abbreviated paradigm is where the first ( ) of each paradigm of the active and passive tenses is used. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  86. 86. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 86 The Second ( ) : ( ) ( ) – the ( ) of the ( ) has a ( ) while the ( ) has a ( ), eg ( ) – to hit. The abbreviated paradigm of this ( ) is as follows: The Third ( ) : ( ) ( ) – the ( ) of the ( ) has a ( ) while the ( ) also has a ( ), e.g. ( ) – to open. The condition for this ( ) is that if the verb is ( )8 , the ( ) or ( ) must be from the ( ). This does not mean that every verb which is ( ) and whose ( 8 ( ) is that word which has no ( ), two letters of the same type or ( ) as its root letter. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  87. 87. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 87 ) or ( ) is from the ( ), will be from ( ). The abbreviated paradigm of this ( ) and the remaining ( ) is similar to the above-mentioned examples. The Fourth ( ) : ( ) ( ) – the ( ) of the ( ) has a ( ) while the ( ) has a ( ), e.g. ( ) – to listen. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  88. 88. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 88 The Fifth ( ) : ( ) ( ) – the ( ) of the ( ) has a ( ) while the ( ) also has a ( ), e.g. ( ) – to be noble. The verbs of this ( ) are intransitive. In this ( ), instead of the ( ), the ( ) on the scale of ( ) has been used, e.g. ( ). The Sixth ( ) : ( ) ( ) – the ( ) of the ( ) has a ( ) while the ( ) also has a ( ), e.g. ( ) – to ponder. Besides ( ), no other ( ) has been used in this ( ). Acccording to some scholars, the verb ( ) is also Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  89. 89. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 89 from this ( ). However, verbs that are ( )9 or ( )10 have been used, e.g. ( ) and ( ). The verb ( ) has also been used with a ( ) on the ( ) of ( ), that is ( ). 9 A word having a ( ) or ( ) as the ( ). 10 A word having two ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  90. 90. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 90 Exercise 19 Conjugate the following verbs as done above: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( )8( )9( )10( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  91. 91. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 91 The ( ) of ( ) The Derived Forms of the Triliteral Verb Arabic is extremely rich and copious in derived forms which extend or modify the meaning of the root form of the verb, giving many exact shades of meaning. This is a common feature of Semitic languages and perhaps it reaches its pinnacle in Arabic. Derived forms are made by adding letters before or between the root letters of the simple verb. Accordingly, ( ), which is the root, means to help. From this verb the following verbs are derived with differing meanings: Verb Meaning to support to try to help to render mutual assistance to come to someone’s aid to ask for assistance Another example of derived verbs is ( ) which means to kill. When extra letters are added to this root, the following meanings are achieved. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  92. 92. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 92 Verb Meaning to massacre to combat, battle to fight with one another to risk one’s life Very few verb roots have all the other derived forms. Some have only one (like – to drive away) or two (like – to sink), while others have four or five as in the above examples. There is often a good deal of overlapping of meaning between the forms. Sometimes the root form is not in use while the derived forms are used, e.g. ( - to arrange). The ( ) of ( ) are twelve in total. They are formed by adding extra letters to the ( ) of ( ). Upto a maximum of three extra letters can be added to a verb, thus bringing the maximum number of letters of a verb to six (root letters plus extra letters). Seven of these ( ) have ( ) at the beginning while five do not have. Besides ( ), every letter with a ( ) will become ( ) in the ( ) except for the Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  93. 93. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 93 penultimate letter which will be ( ). The ( ) will remain as it is, e.g. ( ), ( ). When ( ) or ( ) are used in the ( ), the ( ) will not be pronounced as will the ( ) of the ( ) and ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  94. 94. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 94 The 12 ( ) of ( ) are as follows: Example Extra Letters no hamza no hamza no hamza no hamza Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  95. 95. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 95 Construction of the Derived Nouns To construct the ( ) of any ( ) besides ( ), the ( ) is modified by adding a ( ) at the beginning and making the penultimate letter ( ) if it is not already ( ). Examples: The ( ) is like the ( ) except that the penultimate letter is ( ). Examples: The ( ) of these ( ) is used on the scale of the ( ). There is neither ( ) nor ( ) in these ( ). In ordert to express the meaning of the ( ), Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  96. 96. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 96 the words ( ) are added to the ( ) for this purpose, e.g. ( ) – the means of refraining. To express the ( ), the word ( ) is used before the ( ), e.g. ( ) – more refraining. Words like ( ), ( ) etc. can also be used. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  97. 97. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 97 The Abbreviated Paradigm ( ) of Each ( ) The sign of ( ) is a ( ) 11 in the ( ) and ( ) while the ( ) is always ( ). The ( ) of the ( ) is deleted from the ( ). Thus ( ) becomes ( ). The remaining word-forms follow the same pattern. The detailed paradigms of this verb are provided hereunder. 11 A hamzah that is not deleted in pronunciation when prefixed by any letter. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  98. 98. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 98 : . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  99. 99. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 99 Exercise 20 Conjugate the following verbs: )1()2()3()4()5( The sign of ( ) is the tashdîd of the ( ) in the ( ) and ( ) without a ( ) preceding the ( ). The ( ) of this ( ) is also always ( ). The ( ) of this ( ) is also used on the following scales: ( ) e.g. ( ); ( ) e.g. ( ); ( ) e.g. ( ); ( ) e.g. ( ). The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  100. 100. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 100 : . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  101. 101. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 101 Exercise 21 Conjugate the following verbs: )1()2()3()4()5( The sign of ( ) is the ( ) after the ( ) in the ( ) and ( ) without a ( ) preceding it. The ( ) of this ( ) is always ( ). The ( ) of ( ) is also used on the following scales: ( ) e.g. ( ); ( ) e.g. ( ). The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  102. 102. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 102 : . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  103. 103. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 103 Exercise 22 Conjugate the following verbs: )1()2()3()4()5( The sign of ( ) is the ( ) before the ( ). This ( ) is always intransitive ( ). The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  104. 104. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 104 : . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  105. 105. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 105 Exercise 23 Conjugate the following verbs: )1()2()3()4()5( The sign of ( ) is the ( ) after the ( ). Rule 1 If the ( ) of ( ) is ( ), ( ), or ( ), the ( ) of ( ) is changed to ( ). If the ( ) is a ( ), then ( - assimilation) is compulsory, e.g. ( ) changes to ( ). If the ( ) of ( ) is ( ), then after changing the ( ) to ( ), the following three changes are permissible: (1) The ( ) is changed to ( ) and the rule of ( ) is applied, e.g. ( ) changes to ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  106. 106. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 106 (2) Sometimes the ( ) is changed to ( ) and then the rule of ( ) is applied to the ( ), e.g. ( ) changes to ( ). (3) Sometimes the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of ( ), e.g. ( ). If the ( ) of ( ) is ( ), then after changing the ( ) to ( ), the following two changes are permissible: (1) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of ( ), e.g. ( ). (2) Sometimes the ( ) is changed to ( ) and then the rule of ( ) is applied to the ( ), e.g. ( ) changes to ( ). Rule 2 If the ( ) of ( ) is ( ), ( ), ( ), or ( ), the ( ) of ( ) is changed to ( ). If the ( ) is a ( ), then it is compulsory to apply ( ) e.g. ( ) changes to ( ). If the ( ) of ( ) is ( ), then after changing the ( ) to ( ), the following three changes are permissible: Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  107. 107. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 107 (1) The ( ) is changed to ( ) and the rule of ( ) is applied, e.g. ( ) changes to ( ). (2) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of ( ), e.g. ( ). (3) The ( ) is changed to ( ) and the rule of ( ) is applied, e.g. ( ) changes to ( ). If the ( ) of ( ) is ( ) or ( ), then after changing the ( ) to ( ), the following two possibilities are permissible: (1) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of ( ), e.g. ( ) and ( ). (2) Sometimes the ( ) is changed to ( ) or ( ) and then the rule of ( ) is applied, e.g. ( ) changes to ( ) and ( ) changes to ( ). Rule 3 If the ( ) of ( ) is ( ), then it is permissible to change the ( ) to ( ) and apply the rule of ( ), e.g. ( ) changes to ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  108. 108. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 108 Rule 4 If the ( ) of ( ) is ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), or ( ), then after changing the ( ) to the same letter as the ( ), the ( ) of the ( ) is transferred to the preceding letter and the rule of ( ) is applied. The ( ) is deleted, e.g. ( ) changes to ( ) and ( ) changes to ( ). (4.2) The ( ) of these verbs - ( ) and ( ) - will be ( ) and ( ). (4.3) It is permissible to have a ( ) on the ( ), e.g. ( ) and ( ). The words ( ) and ( ) which have appeared in the Qur’ân are from this ( ). (4.4) It is permissible to read a ( ) on the ( ) of the ( ). Therefore all three harakats are permissible, e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ). Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  109. 109. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 109 : . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  110. 110. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 110 Exercise 24 Conjugate the following verbs: )1()2()3()4()5( The sign of ( ) is the repetition of the ( ) and four letters after the ( ) in the ( ). The ( ) of this ( ) is always ( ) except in ( ).12 Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. 12 The rules of ( ) will be discussed later. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  111. 111. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 111 : . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  112. 112. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 112 Exercise 25 Conjugate the following verbs: )1()2()3()4()5( The sign of ( ) is the tashdīd of the ( ) and ( ) precedes the ( ) in the ( ). Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  113. 113. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 113 : . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  114. 114. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 114 Exercise 26 Conjugate the following verbs: )1()2()3()4()5( The sign of ( ) is that the ( ) precedes the ( ) in the ( ) and there is an extra ( ) after the ( ). Rule 1 In ( ) and ( ), when two ( )’s are adjacent to one another in the ( ), it is permissible to delete one, e.g. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  115. 115. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 115 Rule 2 If the ( ) of ( ) and ( ) is ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) ,( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) or ( ), it is permissible to change the ( ) into the ( ) and apply the rule of ( ). In this case, the ( ) and ( ) require a ( ) at the beginning. The ( ) and ( ) have been created due to this rule. Examples: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _ Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  116. 116. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 116 : . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  117. 117. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 117 Exercise 27 Conjugate the following verbs: )1()2()3()4()5( The sign of ( ) is the extra ( ) and ( ) before the ( ). It is permissible to delete the ( ) from the verb ( ). The verbs ( ) and ( ) mentioned in the Qur’ân are from this ( ). Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  118. 118. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 118 : . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  119. 119. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 119 Exercise 28 Conjugate the following verbs: )1()2()3()4()5( The sign of ( ) is the repetition of the ( ) and the appearance of a ( ) between the two ( )’s. This ( ) has changed to a ( ) in the ( ) due to the preceding ( ). This ( ) is mostly intransitive ( ). Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  120. 120. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 120 : . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  121. 121. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 121 Exercise 29 Conjugate the following verbs: )1()2()3( The sign of ( ) is the repetition of the ( ) and the appearance of an extra ( ) before the first ( ) in the ( ). This ( ) changes to a ( ) in the ( ). The ( ) in this ( ) is similar to the ( ) of ( ). The verbs of ( ) and ( ) mostly have the meanings of colours and defects and they are intransitive ( ). Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  122. 122. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 122 : . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  123. 123. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 123 Exercise 30 Conjugate the following verbs: )1()2()3()4( The sign of ( ) is the ( ) after the ( ). Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  124. 124. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 124 : . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  125. 125. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 125 Exercise 31 (A) Conjugate the following verbs: )1( )2( (B) What is the ( ) of the following words: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( )8( )9( )10( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  126. 126. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 126 Four-Root letter Verbs The ( ) of ( ) The sign of ( ) is the presence of four root letters in the ( ). The ( ) of this ( ) is ( ). The rule for the ( ) of the ( ) is that if the ( ) has four letters, whether root letters or extra letters, the ( ) will be ( ) even in the active tense ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ). If the ( ) has less than or more than four letters, the ( ) will be ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ). Four-root letter verbs are of three types: (1) those of genuine four-radical origin, e.g. ( ) – to translate. (2) verbs formed by the doubling of a biliteral root, e.g. ( ) – Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  127. 127. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 127 to gargle, ( ) – to stammer. (3) composite roots taken from a familiar phrase or combination of roots, e.g. ( ) – to say Al-hamdulillāh, ( ) – to say Bismillāh. Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  128. 128. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 128 : . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  129. 129. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 129 Exercise 32 Conjugate the following verbs: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( (B) What is the ( ) of the following words: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( )8( )9( )10( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  130. 130. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 130 The Derived Forms of Four-Root Letter Verbs The sign of ( ) is the extra ( ) before the four root letters. Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  131. 131. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 131 : . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  132. 132. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 132 Exercise 33 Conjugate the following verbs: )1()2()3()4()5( The sign of ( ) is having four root letters, the repetition of the second ( ) and the inclusion of ( ) in the ( ) and ( ). Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  133. 133. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 133 : . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  134. 134. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 134 Exercise 34 Conjugate the following verbs: )1()2()3()4()5( The sign of ( ) is the inclusion of ( ) in the ( ) and ( ) and the extra ( ) after the ( ). Some of the detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  135. 135. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 135 : . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  136. 136. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 136 Exercise 35 (A) Conjugate the following verbs: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( (B) What is the ( ) of the following words: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( )8( )9( )10( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  137. 137. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 137 Other Derived Forms The ( ) of ( ) There are two categories of ( ) here: (1) ( ) (2) ( ) The first category ( ) has seven ( ): (1) ( ) – the ( ) is repeated, e.g. ( ) – to don a shawl. : (2) ( ) – there is an extra ( ) after the ( ), e.g. ( ) – to don a trouser. : (3) ( ) – there is an extra ( ) after the ( ), e.g. ( ) – to command. This word can be used as ( ) as well. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  138. 138. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 138 : (4) ( ) – there is an extra ( ) after the ( ), e.g. ( ) – to trim the extra leaves of a plant. : (5) ( )– there is an extra ( ) after the ( ), e.g. ( ) – to make someone don socks. : (6) ( )– there is an extra ( ) after the ( ), e.g. ( ) – to make someone don a hat. : (7) ( )– there is an extra ( ) after the ( ), e.g. ( ) – to Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  139. 139. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 139 make someone don a hat. : ( ) was originally ( ). ( ) was originally ( ). ( ) was originally ( ). These changes will be discussed later. The second category - ( ) has three groups: (1) ( ) (2) ( ) (3) ( ) The first group ( ) has 8 ( ): (1) ( ) – the extra letters are ( ) before the ( ) and the ( ) is repeated, e.g. ( ) – to don a shawl. (2) ( ) – the extra letters are ( ) before the ( ) and the ( ) between the ( ) and the ( ), e.g. ( ) – to don a trouser. (3) ( ) – the extra letters are ( ) before the ( ) and a ( ) Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  140. 140. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 140 after the ( ), e.g. ( ) – to be a satan. (4) ( ) – the extra letters are ( ) before the ( ) and a ( ) after the ( ), e.g. ( ) – to don socks. (5) ( ) – the extra letters are ( ) before the ( ) and a ( ) after the ( ), e.g. ( ) – to don a trouser. (6) ( ) – the extra letters are a ( ) and a ( ) before the ( ), e.g. ( ) – to be poor. (7) ( ) – the extra letters are a ( ) before the ( ) and a ( ) after the ( ), e.g. ( ) – to behave like a devil. (8) ( ) – the extra letters are a ( ) before the ( ) and a ( ) after the ( ), e.g. ( ) – to don a hat. The conjugation of these ( ) should be done like ( ), while the last one, namely, ( ) is like ( ). The second group, ( ) has two ( ): (1) ( ) – The second ( ), the ( ) after the ( ) and the ( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  141. 141. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 141 ) are extra, e.g. ( ) – to walk with the chest and neck protruding out. : (2) ( ) – The ( ) after the ( ), the ( ) after the ( ) and the ( ) are extra, e.g. ( ) – to lie on one’s back. : The ( ) of this ( ) – ( ) was originally ( ). The ( ) was changed to a ( ). The third group - ( ) has one ( ): ( ) – The ( ) after the ( ) and one ( ) is extra, e.g. ( ) – to strive. : Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  142. 142. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 142 In all the word-forms of this ( ), ( ) has been applied and the changes are similar to those of ( ). Exercise 36 What is the word-form ( ) of the following words and which ( ) are they from: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( )8( )9( )10( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  143. 143. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 143 The Seven Categories With regards to the letters of verbs, they fall into seven categories, namely: Definitions Term Meaning Example A word whose root letters do not have a ( ), ( )13 or two letters of the same type A word having a ( ) in the ( ) A word having a ( ) in the ( ) A word having a ( ) in the ( ) A word having a ( ) as a root letter – a hamzated verb A word having, as its root letters, two letters of the same type A word having two ( ) as the root letters 13 The ( ) are ( ), ( ) and ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  144. 144. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 144 1) The term ( ) refers to any verb that contains a ( ). 2) If there is a ( ) in the ( ), it is called ( ) or ( ), eg ( ). 3) If there is a ( ) in the ( ), it is called ( ) or ( ), e.g. ( ). 4) If there is a ( ) in the ( ), it is called ( ) or ( ), e.g. ( ). 5) If the ( ) has a ( ), it is called ( ) eg ( ). 6) If the ( ) has a ( ), it is called ( ). eg ( ). 7) If the ( ) has a ( ), it is called ( ) eg ( ). 8) If the ( ) has a ( ), it is called ( ) eg ( ). 9) If the ( ) has a ( ), it is called ( ) eg Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  145. 145. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 145 ( ). 10) If the ( ) has a ( ), it is called ( ) eg ( ). 11) If the ( ) has a ( ), it is called ( ) eg ( ). 12) If the ( ) has a ( ), it is called ( ) eg ( ). 13) If the ( ) has a ( ), it is called ( ) eg ( ). 14) ( ) is of two types: ( ) and ( ). 15) ( ) is when the two ( ) are separate, e.g. ( ). 16) ( ) is when the two ( ) are adjacent to one another, e.g. ( ). 17) If the ( ) and ( ) are the same, it is called ( ) e.g. ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  146. 146. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 146 18) If the ( ) and the first ( ) and the ( ) and the second ( ) are the same letters, it is called ( ) e.g. ( ). Exercise 37 Classify the following verbs according to the seven categories: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( )8( )9( )10( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  147. 147. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 147 The Rules of ( ) Rule 1: It is permissible to change a ( ), that is alone and ( ) to correspond to the previous ( ). That is, (a) after a ( ), change the ( ) into an ( ). Example ( )(head) becomes( . ) (b) after a ( ), change the ( ) into a ( ). Example (destitute) becomes ( ). (c) after a ( ), change the ( ) into a ( ). Example (wolf) becomes ( ). n n n n n Rule 2 If a hamzah mutaharrik ( ) appears before a ( ) that is ( ), it becomes necessary to change the ( ) letter to the corresponding ( ). Examples Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  148. 148. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 148 becomes becomes becomes . n n n n n Rule 3 (3.1) It is permissible to change a ( ) that is ( ) and is preceded by a ( ) to a ( ). Example becomes is the plural of which means a perfume holder. (3.2) It is permissible to change a ( ) that is ( ) and is preceded by a ( ) into a ( ). Example becomes . n n n n n Rule 4 (4.1) If two ( )’s are ( ) and one of them is ( ), then it is permissible to change the second ( ) into a ( ). Example Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  149. 149. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 149 can also be read as . If there are two ( )'s which are ( ) and none of them are ( ), then it is necessary to change the second ( ) into a ( ). Examples i) will be read as ii) will be read as ( ) originally was ( ) ( of ). The ( ) which comes after ( ) will change into a ( ). It becomes ( ). Now there are two ( ) and one of them is ( ) . The second ( ) changes into a ( ) becoming ( ) (according to the rule of - rule 4.1). ( ) can also be written as . The ( ) on the ( ) is (difficult to pronounce). Therefore it is removed and ( ) remains. Now due to ( ) (the coming together of two [ ] letters), the ( ) is deleted. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  150. 150. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 150 We are left with which can also be read as . Step by Step ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) n n n n n Rule 5 If a ( ) comes after the ( ) or ( ) that are and or if a ( ) comes after the ( ) of ( ), it is permissible to change the ( ) into the letter that precedes it and then ( ) (incorporation of one letter into another) is made. Example of ( ) The word ( ) is the ( ) of ( ). Example ( ) . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  151. 151. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 151 Example of . The word ( ) is the ( ) of ( ) which is the ( ) of ( ) - meaning axe. n n n n n Rule 6 If there occurs a ( ) after the ( ) of and before a ( ), the ( ) changes to ( ) and the ( ) changes to ( ). Example The word ( ) is the plural of ( ). The word ( ) was originally ( ). The ( ) which comes after the ( ) of ( ) as the second last letter, changes into a ( ).14 It becomes ( ). Now we have two ( )’s and one of them is ( ). The rule of ( ) applies, whereby the second ( ) changes into a ( ) and becomes . Now there is a 14 This refers to rule no. 18 which you will read under the rules of . Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  152. 152. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 152 ( ) after the ( ) of and it is before a ( ). It changes to ( ) and the ( ) changes to ( ). The word becomes ( ). NOTE: This law is compulsory ( ). Step by Step n n n n n Rule 7 If a ( ) is ( ) and it comes after a ( ) that is not a ( ) nor is it ( ) , then the ( ) of the ( ) is given to the letter preceding it. This law is permissible ( ). Examples 1) In the word ( ), the ( ) of the ( ) is given to the ( ) and the ( ) is then deleted. It becomes ( ). 2) In the words the ( ) of the ( ) is given to the ( ) and the ( ) is then deleted. It becomes Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  153. 153. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 153 ( ). 3) In the words the ( ) of the ( ) is transferred to the ( ) and the ( ) is then deleted. It becomes ( ). n n n n n Rule 8 The rule of ( ) is compulsorily applied to all the ( ) (verbs) of ( ) and ( ) ( ). Example In ( ) the ( ) of the ( ) is given to the ( ) and the ( ) is deleted. It becomes ( ). NOTE: It is permissible to apply this rule to the ( ) (derived nouns) too. The ( ) can be read as ( ) or ( ). The ( ) can be read as ( ) or ( ). The ( ) of the ( ) of ( ) is given to the ( ) and Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  154. 154. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 154 then the ( ) is removed leaving ( ). The ( ) can be read as ( ) or ( ). n n n n n Rule 9 If a ( ) is preceded by a ( ) letter, then both ( ) and ( ) are both permissible. 9.1 ( ) is to read the ( ) between its ( ) and the ( ) of the ( ) corresponding to its (hamza’s) . 9.2 ( ) is to read a letter between its ( ) and the ( ) of the ( ) corresponding to the preceding ( ). ( ) is also known as . Examples When ( ) is made on the word ( ), then in both ( ) and ( ) the ( ) will be that of ( ) and ( ). In the word ( ) if ( ) is made, then the Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  155. 155. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 155 ( ) will be between ( ) and ( ). If ( ) is made, then the ( ) will be between ( ) and ( ). In the word ( ) if ( ) is made, then the ( ) will be between ( ) and ( ). If ( ) is made then the ( ) will be between ( ) and ( ). (9.3) If there is a ( ) after ( ), it is permissible to apply ( ) only. ( ) is not permissible in this case. Examples [1] In the word ( ), the ( ) is ( ). Therefore the ( ) will be read between the ( ) of the ( ) and the ( ). [2] If ( ) is read with a ( ), the ( ) will be read between the ( ) of the ( ) and ( ). [3] If ( ) is read with a ( ), the ( ) will be read between the ( ) of the ( ) and ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  156. 156. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 156 Rule 10 If a ( ) comes before a ( ) as in the word ( ), then it is permissible to apply the rule of ( ) (Rule 4). Thus, ( ) will be read as ( ) . It is also permissible to make ( ), whether ( ) or ( ). It is also permissible to bring an ( ) between the two ( )’s and read it as ( ). n n n n n Exercise 38 (1) Apply rule no.1 to the following words: )1()2()3( (2) Which rule applies to the word ( ) and how? (3)Analyse the changes to the word ( ). (4) Apply the rule of ( ) to the word ( ). (5) What can ( ) also be read as? Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  157. 157. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 157 The Orthography15 of the Hamzah The following rules are general guidelines with regards to how a hamzah is written: (a) Hamzah is invariably written over or under an alif at the beginning of a word, e.g. ( ), ( ) and ( ). (b) When the initial hamzah is followed by an alif of prolongation (long vowel ), the latter is replaced by a madd over the initial alif, e.g. ( ) for ( ). (c) The hamzah tends to be written over the semi- consonant ( ) corresponding to the vowel ( ) of the preceding letter. Examples: ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) (d) Where the previous consonant has a ( ), the hamzah tends to be written over the semi-consonant ( ) coinciding with its own vowel ( ). Examples: ( ), ( ), ( ) This rule is applied for ( ) instead of (c) above. Thus, ( ) is written with a ( ) and ( ) with a ( ) without dots. 15 the correct spelling Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  158. 158. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 158 The Paradigms of ( ) Analysis of the changes (1) The ( ) of this ( ) is ( ) which is an exception from the normal method of constructing the ( ). ( ) was originally ( ). (2) Similarly, the ( ) of ( ) is ( ). It is necessary to delete the ( ) from both ( ) and ( ). (3) In the verb, ( ), it is permissible to delete the hamzas and to retain them. Therefore, both ( ) and ( ) are correct to use. If the verb is used at the beginning of the sentence, it is more eloquent to delete the Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  159. 159. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 159 ( ), e.g. it is stated in a hadîth, ( ). (4) If the verb is used in the middle of the sentence, then most often the hamzah is retained, e.g. The Qur’ânic verse, ( ). (5) In the word-forms of ( ) of this ( ), besides the singular first person ( ), the rule of ( ) has been applied. The same rule applies to the ( ) and ( ). (6) The rule of ( ) applies in the ( ). (7) The rule of ( ) applies in the ( ) except for the singular first person ( ). (8) In the singular first person ( ) of ( ) and the ( ), the rule of ( ) applies. (9) In the plural ( ) of ( ), the rule of ( ) applies. (10) In the singular first person of the ( ), the rule of ( ) applies. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  160. 160. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 160 Exercise 39 (a) Conjugate the following verbs: )1( )2( (b) What is the paradigm of the ( ) of ( )? (c) What is the paradigm of the ( ) of ( )? (d) What is the paradigm of the ( ) of ( )? (e) How has the word ( ) changed from its original? Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  161. 161. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 161 Analysis of the changes (1) The changes of this ( ) are similar to those of ( ) except for the imperative ( ) – ( ) – where the rule of ( ) applies. (2) The other ( ) of ( ) follow the same pattern. Exercise 40 Conjugate the following verbs: )1( )2( (b) What is the paradigm of the ( ) of ( )? (c) What is the paradigm of the ( ) of ( )? (d) What is the paradigm of the ( ) of ( )? (e) How has the word ( ) changed from its original? Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  162. 162. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 162 Analysis of the changes (1) The rule of ( ) applies in the ( ), ( ) and ( ). (2) The rule of ( ) applies in the ( ). (3) The rule of ( ) applies in the ( ). (4) The rule of ( ) applies in the ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). Analysis of the changes (1) Conjugate all the verbs of ( ) like the conjugations of ( ) and ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  163. 163. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 163 Exercise 41 Conjugate the following verbs: )1( )2( )3( (b) What is the paradigm of the ( ) of ( )? (c) What is the paradigm of the ( ) of ( )? (d) What is the paradigm of the ( ) of ( )? (e) How has the word ( ) changed from its original? Discussion of ( ) (1) The rule of ( ) or ( ) applies to all the verbs of ( ) of ( ). Note that this rule is optional. (2) The rule of ( ) applies to the ( ) and ( ) of ( ). (3) ( ) is from ( ), ( ) is from Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  164. 164. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 164 ( ), ( ) is from ( ), ( ) is from ( ). (4) In the imperative ( ), after applying the rule of ( ), the ( ) is deleted. Therefore ( ) becomes ( ), ( ) becomes ( ), ( ) becomes ( ) and ( ) becomes ( ). The conjugation of the imperative second person ( ) form is as follows: Discussion of ( ) (1) In most of the word-forms of ( ), the rule of ( ) or ( ) applies, e.g. ( ). (2) The rule of ( ) applies to ( ), e.g. Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  165. 165. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 165 ( ). (3) The rule of ( ), that is the rule of ( ) applies to all the word-forms of ( ) and ( ). Accordingly, in the words ( ) and ( ), the hamzah can become ( ), in the words ( ) and ( ), the hamzah can become ( ) and in the words ( ) and ( ), the hamzah can become ( ). Exercise 42 Conjugate the following verbs: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( )8( )9( )10( Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  166. 166. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 166 The Rules Of ( ) Rule 1 (1.1) The ( ) which appears between ( )16 which is ( ) and the ( ) which is ( ), falls off. Example The word becomes . Every ( ) that comes between the ( ) and the ( ) which is ( ), the ( ) falls off, on condition that either the ( ) or the ( ) is from the ( )17 . Example The word becomes . Note: Every ( ) on the scale of ( ) follows this rule. n n n n n 16 are the following letters 17 The are the following letters: Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  167. 167. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 167 Rule 2 If a ( ) is on the scale of ( ) and its ( ) is a ( ), that ( ) is deleted and the ( ) is given a ( ). A ( ) is then added at the end of the word. Step by Step Example Note: If the ( ) has a ( ) on its ( ), for example in the word ( ), the ( ) of the ( ) can also be given a ( ). Step by Step Example The word ( ) the ( ) of ( ). Note: It is also permissible to read ( ) as ( ). n n n n n Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  168. 168. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 168 Rule 3 (3.1) If a ( ) is not ( ) and is preceded by a ( ), it changes into a ( ). Example The word changes to . Exception The word ( ) will remain unchanged, because the ( ) is ( ). (3.2) If ( ) is not ( ) and it is preceded by a ( ), the ( ) changes into a ( ). Example The word ( ) changes to ( ). Exceptions The word ( ) remains unchanged because the ( ) is ( ). (3.3) If an ( ) is preceded by a ( ), it will change into a ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  169. 169. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 169 Step by Step Example (3.4) If an ( ) is preceded by a ( ), it will change into a ( ). Example The plural of ( ) is ( ). This changes to ( ) because the ( ) is preceded by a ( ). n n n n n Rule 4 If the ( ) of ( ) is a ( ) or ( ), the ( ) or ( ) will change into a ( ) and ( ) will be made, that is, both the ( )’s will be assimilated. Step by Step Example of ( ) Step by Step Example of ( ) Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  170. 170. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 170 n n n n n Rule 5 (5.1) If at the beginning of a word there is a ( ), it is permissible to change it into a ( ). Examples ( – plural of ) changes to ( ). (This is an example of an ). ( – the [ ] of ) changes to ( ). (This is an example of a ). (5.2) If ( ) appears at the beginning of a word, it is permissible to change it to a ( ). Example ( – swordbelt) can be read as ( ). (5.3) If a ( ) appears in the middle of a word, it is permissible to change it into a ( ). Example ( ) can be read as ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  171. 171. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 171 Rarely is a ( ) changed into a ( ). Examples ( - one) can be read as ( ). ( – a lazy woman) can be read as ( ). n n n n n Rule 6 When two ( ) come together at the beginning of a word, it is compulsory ( ) to change the first ( ) into a ( ). Example ( ) is read as ( ) (This is the plural of ). ( ) is read as ( ). This is the ( ) of ( ). n n n n n Rule 7 (7.1) If ( ) or ( ) ( ) is preceded by a , the ( ) or ( ) is changed into an ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  172. 172. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 172 Examples Example of a ( ) in the middle of a ( ): ( ) changes to ( ). Example of a ( ) in the middle of a ( ): ( ) changes to ( ). Example of a ( ) at the end of a ( ): ( ) changes to ( ). Example of a ( ) at the end of a ( ): ( ) changes to ( ). Example of a ( ) in an ( ): ( ) changes to ( ). Example of a ( ) in an ( ): ( ) changes to ( ). Conditions for the above rule This rule only applies if the following conditions are met: [1] The ( ) or ( ) must not be in the place of the ( ). Therefore this rule will not apply to the word Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  173. 173. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 173 - the ( ) is in the place of the ( ) and the ( ) is a ( ). It will also not apply to ( ) because the ( ) is in the place of the ( ) of ( ). It will also not apply to - ( ) is in the place of the ( ) of ( ). [2] The ( ) or ( ) must not be in place of the ( ) of a word which is ( ). ( is that word which has two ). Therefore this law will not apply to the word ( ) . Here ( ) is in the place of the ( ). The law will also not apply in the word ( ). Here ( ) is in the place of the ( ). [3] The ( ) or ( ) must not come before the ( ) of ( ). Therefore this law will not apply to the word ( ), since there is a ( ) before the ( ) of ( ) and in the word ( ), since there is a ( ) before the ( ) of ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  174. 174. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 174 [4] The ( ) or ( ) must not come before a ( ). Therefore this law will not apply to the word ( ) because the ( ) is before a ( ) which is not a ( ). It will also not apply in the word ( ) because the ( ) after the ( ) is not a ( ). Also in the word ( ), the ( ) is before an ( ) which is not a ( ). Objection In the words ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ), the ( ) and ( ) were not supposed to be changed to ( ) because they came before a ( ), but yet this rule has been applied. Answer The ( ) in these words is a separate word and it is the ( ) of the ( ), while the ( ) is not ( ), therefore the ( ) or ( ) changes to ( ) and then falls off due to ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  175. 175. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 175 Step by Step Examples ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [5] The ( ) or ( ) must not be before ( ), for example, the word ( ). The ( ) or ( ) must also not be before ( ), for example, the word ( ). [6] The word must not have the meaning of a colour or defect, for example, ( ) (to be one-eyed), ( ) (to have a crooked neck). [7] The word must not be on the scale of ( ), ( ) or ( ), for example ( ) – ( ) – example of ( ). [meaning – rotation] Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  176. 176. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 176 ( ) – ( ) example of ( ). [meaning – flowing] ( ) – ( ) example of ( ). [meaning – name of a spring of water] ( ) – ( ) example of ( ). [meaning – to walk arrogantly – from ] and ( ) – ( ) example of ( ). [meaning – weaver – plural of ] [8] The word must not be from ( ) having the meaning of ( ). For example, the word (in the meaning of ) and (in the meaning of ). Both words mean to take in turns. (7.2) If after such an ( ) (which has been changed from a or ), there is a ( ) letter, the ( ) falls off. Examples [1] In the word ( ), the first ( ) changes to ( ). It becomes ( ). Here ( ) has come before a ( ). The ( ) falls off and it becomes ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  177. 177. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 177 [2] In the word ( ), the first ( ) changes to an ( ). Due to the ( ) coming before a ( ), it is deleted. It becomes ( ). (7.3) If such an ( ) has come before a ( ) of ( ), even if the ( ) is ( ), the ( ) is deleted. Examples 1. The word ( ) changes to ( ). Now we have an ( ) before ( ) of ( ). Therefore it is deleted. It becomes ( ). 2. The word ( ) changes to ( ). There is a ( ) after the ( ). Therefore the ( ) is deleted. It becomes . (7.4) In the ( ) of ( ), from ( ) until the end, if the word is ( ), whether the ( ) has a ( ) or ( ), after deleting the ( ), the ( ) is given a ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  178. 178. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 178 Example in which ( ) has a ( ) ( ) changes to ( ). The ( ) is now deleted because it is followed by a ( ). It becomes ( ). The ( ) is now given a ( ) because it is ( ). It becomes ( ). The word ( ) is from the ( ) of ( ). Example in which ( ) has a ( ) The word ( ) is from the ( ) of ( ). (7.5) In the ( ), from ( ) till the end, after deleting the ( ), if it is ( ) or there is a ( ) on the ( ) in ( ), the ( ) is given a ( ). Example in which ( ) has a ( ) In the word ( ), the ( ) is preceded by a ( ). Therefore the ( ) changes to ( ). It becomes ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  179. 179. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 179 The ( ) is deleted. It becomes ( ). Now the ( ) is given a ( ). It becomes ( ). Step by Step Example of ( ) with ( ) The word ( ) is from the ( ) of ( ). n n n n n Rule 8 (8.1) If the letter before ( ) or ( ) is ( ), the ( ) of the ( ) or ( ) is transferred to the preceding letter. Example [1] In the word ( ), the ( ) of the ( ) which is a ( ) in this case, is given to the ( ). It becomes ( ). (This is an example of ). [2] In the word ( ), the ( ) of the ( ) is given to the ( ). It becomes ( ). (This is an example of Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  180. 180. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 180 ). (8.2) If the ( ) is a ( ), the ( ) or ( ) is changed into an ( ). Examples [1] In the word ( ), the ( ) of the ( ) is given to the ( ). It becomes ( ). Now due to the ( ), the ( ) is changed into an ( ) becoming ( ). [2] In the word ( ), the ( ) of the ( ) is given to the ( ) becoming ( ). Now due to the ( ) of the ( ) the ( ) changes into an ( ), thus becoming ( ). Remember The conditions applicable to Rule 7 apply to Rule 8 as well. (8.3) If such a ( ) or ( ) is followed by a ( ), in the Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  181. 181. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 181 case of ( ) and ( ), the ( ) or ( ) will be deleted. Example of ( ) In the word ( ) because of ( ) the ( ) is deleted. It becomes ( ). Example of In the word ( ), the ( ) is followed by a ( ), therefore the ( ) is deleted. It becomes ( ). (8.4) If a ( ) or ( ) is followed by a ( ) and preceded by a ( ), the ( ) (which was originally or ) is deleted. Examples ( ) changes to ( ). After the ( ) is deleted, it becomes ( ). ( ) changes to ( ). After the ( ) is deleted, it becomes ( ). Important
  182. 182. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 182 This rule (Rule 8) does not apply to the words ( ) because condition number one has not been fulfilled. In the words ( ) and ( ), the rule is not applied because of condition number 2 - ( ). The words ( ), ( ) and ( ) remain unchanged because of the fourth condition - ( ). However, the ( ) of the ( ) is an exception to condition number 4. Despite there being a ( ), the ( ) of the ( ) or ( ) will still be given to the previous letter. Example of ( ) In the word ( ) which is the ( ) of ( ), the ( ) of the ( ) is still transferred to the ( ). It becomes ( ). Due to ( ), the first ( ) is deleted. It becomes ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  183. 183. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 183 Example of ( ) In the word ( ) which is the ( ) of ( ), the ( ) of the ( ) is transferred to the ( ). It becomes ( ). Due to ( ), the ( ) is deleted and it becomes ( ). Since the corresponding ( ) of ( ) is a ( ), the ( ) is given a ( ). It becomes ( ). Exception In the words (to be one-eyed), (to have a crooked neck), (black), (white) and (black), due to condition number 6 (i.e. having the meaning of a colour or defect), no change occurs. The aforementioned rule (Rule 8) does not apply to ( ), that is those words on the scale of ( ); or ( ), like ( and ); and words that are ( ), like ( and ). n n n n n Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  184. 184. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 184 Rule 9 (9.1) If there is a ( ) in the ( ) of ( ), the preceding letter is made ( ) and the ( ) of the ( ) is transferred to the preceding letter. Then the ( ) changes to ( ). Example 1 . Example 2 (9.2) If there is a ( ) in ( ) in the place of the ( ), the preceding letter is made ( ) and the ( ) of the ( ) is transferred to the preceding letter. No other changes are made. Example 1 In the word ( ) the ( ) is made ( ). It becomes ( ). Now the ( ) of the ( ) is transferred to the Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  185. 185. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 185 ( ), thus becoming ( ). Example 2 In the word ( ) the ( ) is made ( ). It becomes ( ). The ( ) of the ( ) is transferred to the ( ). It becomes ( ). (9.3) It is also permissable to retain the ( ) of the preceding letter and to make the ( ) or the ( ) ( ). In this case the ( ) changes to ( ). Examples (9.4) It is also permissible to pronounce these words with Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  186. 186. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 186 ( ). ( ) means to pronounce a ( ) in such a way that it has the effect of another ( ). For example in the word ( ), the ( ) of the ( ) is pronounced in such a way that it has the fragrance of a ( ). Similar is the case with the ( ) of ( ). The ( ) of the ( ) will have the effect of a ( ). The condition for this rule is that changes must have taken place in the ( ) form of the verb. Therefore, the word ( ) will remain unchanged because the ( ) form of this word, namely ( ) was unaffected by any change. (9.5) In ( ), if the ( ) is ( ) in ( ), after the ( ) is deleted in the ( ), the ( ) is given a ( ) from the ( ) of ( ) until the end (i.e. ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  187. 187. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 187 Step by Step Example (9.6) In ( ), whatever the ( ) may be, or that ( ) where the ( ) is ( ) in the ( ), after deleting the ( ), the ( ) is given a ( ) from the ( ) of ( ) until the end, that is, ( ). Example of ( ) Example of such a ( ) wherein the ( ) is ( ) Note that the forms of ( ) and ( ) are now the same. However the ( ) - original form of each one will be different: Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  188. 188. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 188 Original Form Changed Form ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Note: In the ( ) of ( ), the transferring of the ( ) is not according to this rule i.e. rule number 9, but is due to rule number 8 (the rule of ). Therefore the rule of ( ) and ( ) will not apply. For example ( ) becomes ( ). n n n n n Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  189. 189. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 189 Rule 10 (10.1) If the ( ) of the following word form’s ( ) is ( ) or ( ), it becomes ( ) if it is preceded by a ( ) or a ( ): 1. 2. 3. 4. Examples ( ) becomes ( ) – example of ( ) ( ) becomes ( ) – example of ( ) If the ( ) or ( ) of the ( ) is preceded by a ( ), it becomes ( ) in accordance with the rule of ( ). Examples ( ) becomes ( ) – example of ( ) ( ) becomes ( ) – example of ( ) Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  190. 190. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 190 (10.2) If a word has a ( ) preceded by a ( ) and followed by another ( ), that ( ) falls off. Example of ( ) In the word ( ), before the ( ) there is a ( ) and after the ( ) there is another ( ). Therefore, the first ( ) is made ( ) and the second one falls off due to ( ). It becomes ( ). If a ( ) is preceded by a ( ) and followed by another ( ), the first ( ) becomes ( ) and the other ( ) is deleted because of ( ). Example of ( ) In the word ( ) there is a ( ) before the ( ) and it is followed by a second ( ). Therefore the first ( ) becomes ( ) and the second ( ) falls off. It becomes ( ). (10.3) If a ( ) is preceded by a ( ) and followed by a Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  191. 191. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 191 ( ), the preceding letter is made ( ) and the ( ) of the ( ) is transferred to the preceding letter. Then the ( ) changes into a ( ) and falls off due to ( ). Example In the word ( ) the ( ) is preceded by a ( ) and followed by a ( ), therefore the preceding letter ( ) is made ( ) and the ( ) of the ( ) which is a ( ) is transferred to the preceding letter, the ( ). It therefore becomes ( ). Due to the preceding ( ), the ( ) changes into a ( ). Now due to ( ) the ( ) is deleted. It becomes ( ). (10.4) If a ( ) is preceded by a ( ) and followed by a ( ), the preceding letter is made ( ) and the ( ) of the ( ) is given to the preceding letter. Then the ( ) changes into a ( ) and falls off due to ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  192. 192. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 192 Example In the word ( ), the ( ) is preceded by a ( ) and followed by a ( ). Therefore, the preceding letter ( ) is made ( ) and the ( ) of the ( ) which is a ( ), is transferred to the preceding letter ( ). It becomes ( ). Due to the preceding ( ), the ( ) changes to ( ). It becomes ( ). Now due to ( ), the ( ) is deleted. It becomes ( ). Further Examples ( – ) becomes . ( – ) becomes . Step by Step n n n n n Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  193. 193. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 193 Exercise 43 (a) Identify the rules or changes of ( ) in the following words: )1( )2( )3( )4( )5( )6( )7( )8( )9( )10( Rule 11 If a ( ) appears in the place of the ( ) after a ( ), the ( ) changes into a ( ). Example In the word ( ) the ( ) appears in the place of the ( ) after a ( ). Therefore the ( ) changes into a ( ). It becomes ( ). The same change occurs in ( ), ( ) and ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  194. 194. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 194 Rule 12 If a ( ) is in the place of the ( ), preceded by a ( ), the ( ) changes into a ( ). Example In the word , which is ( ) of ( ) from the masdar ( ), meaning intellect, the ( ) is in the place of the ( ), preceded by a ( ). The ( ) changes into a ( ). It becomes ( ). n n n n n Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  195. 195. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Page 195 Rule 13 (13.1) If a ( ) comes in the place of the ( ) preceded by a ( ) in the ( ), it changes into a ( ), on condition that ( – a change) occurred in the ( ). Examples 1. The word (which is the of ) was originally . 2. The word (which is the of ) was originally . However, the word ( ) which is the ( ) of ( ) of ( ) remains unchanged, because no ( ) occurred in the ( ). The ( ) is ( ). (13.2) The same ( ) occurs if a ( ) comes in place of the ( ) of a word that is ( ), on condition that ( ) is ( ) in the ( ) or ( ) took place in the ( ) of the ( ). Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/

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