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The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
The Amman Message
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The Amman Message

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The Amman Message started as a detailed statement released the eve of the 27th of Ramadan 1425 AH/9th November 2004 CE by H.M. King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein in Amman, Jordan. It declares what Islam …

The Amman Message started as a detailed statement released the eve of the 27th of Ramadan 1425 AH/9th November 2004 CE by H.M. King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein in Amman, Jordan. It declares what Islam is and what it is not, and what actions represent it and what actions do not. In total, over 500 leading Muslim scholars worldwide—as can be seen from the Grand List included in this publication—unanimously endorse the Amman Message and its Three Points. This amounts to a historical, universal and unanimous religious and political consensus (ijma ') of the Ummah (religious community) of Islam in our day, and a consolidation of traditional, orthodox Islam.

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  • 1. THE AMMAN MESSAGEthe royal aal al-bayt institute for islamic thought 2009 • jordan
  • 2. THE AMMAN MESSAGEthe royal aal al-bayt institute for islamic thought 2009 • jordan
  • 3. the royal aal al-bayt institute for islamic thought isbn 978- 9957-428-30-3
  • 4. CONTENTSIntroduction vTheAmman Message 1TheThree Points of theAmman Message 16Grand List of Signatories 23FrequentlyAsked Questions 83
  • 5. I N TRODU CTIONT heAmman Message started as a detailed statement released the eve of the 27th of Ramadan 1425 ah /9th November 2004 ce by H.M. King Abdullah II binAl-Hussein inAmman, Jordan. It sought to declare whatIslam is and what it is not, and what actions represent itand what actions do not. Its goal was to clarify to themodern world the true nature of Islam and the nature oftrue Islam. In order to give this statement more religious author-ity, H.M. KingAbdullah II then sent the following threequestions to 24 of the most senior religious scholarsfrom all around the world representing all the branchesand schools of Islam: (1) Who is a Muslim? (2) Is it permissi-ble to declare someone an apostate (takfir)? (3) Who has theright to undertake issuing fatwas (legal rulings)? v
  • 6. introduction Based on the fatwas provided by these great scholars(who included the Shaykh Al-Azhar; Ayatollah Sistaniand Sheikh Qaradawi), in July 2005 ce, H.M. KingAbdullah II convened an international Islamic confer-ence of 200 of the world’s leading Islamic scholars‘Ulama) from 50 countries. In Amman, the scholarsunanimously issued a ruling on three fundamentalissues (which became known as the ‘Three Points of theAmman Message’): 1. They specifically recognized the validity of all 8 Mathhabs (legal schools) of Sunni, Shi‘a and Ibadhi Islam; of traditional Islamic Theology (Ash‘arism); of Islamic Mysticism (Sufism), and of true Salafi thought, and came to a precise definition of who is a Muslim. 2. Based upon this definition they forbade takfir (dec- larations of apostasy) between Muslims. 3. Based upon the Mathahib they set forth the subjec- tive and objective preconditions for the issuing of fatwas, thereby exposing ignorant and illegitimate edicts in the name of Islam. These Three Points were then unanimously adopted vi
  • 7. introductionby the Islamic World’s political and temporal leader-ships at the Organization of the Islamic Conferencesummit at Mecca in December 2005. And over a periodof one year from July 2005 to July 2006, theThree Pointswere also unanimously adopted by six other internation-al Islamic scholarly assemblies, culminating with theInternational Islamic Fiqh Academy of Jeddah, in July2006. In total, over 500 leading Muslim scholars world-wide—as can be seen from the Grand List on the pagesthat follow—unanimously endorsed the AmmanMessage and itsThree Points. This amounts to a historical, universal and unani-mous religious and political consensus (ijma’) of theUmmah (nation) of Islam in our day, and a consolidationof traditional, orthodox Islam. The significance of thisis: (1) that it is the first time in over a thousand years thatthe Ummah has formally and specifically come to such apluralistic mutual inter-recognition; and (2) that such arecognition is religiously legally binding on Muslimssince the Prophet (may peace and blessings be uponhim) said: My Ummah will not agree upon an error (IbnMajah, Sunan, Kitab al-Fitan, Hadith no.4085). This is good news not only for Muslims, for whom itprovides a basis for unity and a solution to infighting,but also for non-Muslims. For the safeguarding of the vii
  • 8. introductionlegal methodologies of Islam (the Mathahib) necessarilymeans inherently preserving traditional Islam’s internal‘checks and balances’. It thus assures balanced Islamicsolutions for essential issues like human rights; women’srights; freedom of religion; legitimate jihad; good citi-zenship of Muslims in non-Muslim countries, and justand democratic government. It also exposes the illegiti-mate opinions of radical fundamentalists and terroristsfrom the point of view of true Islam. As George Yeo,the Foreign Minister of Singapore, declared in the 60thSession of the U.N. General Assembly (about theAmman Message): “Without this clarification, the waragainst terrorism would be much harder to fight.” Finally, whilst this by the Grace of God is a historicalachievement, it will clearly remain only principial unlessit is put into practice everywhere. For this reason, H.M.King Abdullah II is now seeking to implement it, Godwilling, through various pragmatic measures, including(1) inter-Islamic treaties; (2) national and internationallegislation using the Three Points of the AmmanMessage to define Islam and forbid takfir; (3) the use ofpublishing and the multi-media in all their aspects tospread theAmman Message; (4) instituting the teachingof theAmman Message in school curricula and universi-ty courses worldwide; and (5) making it part of the viii
  • 9. introductiontraining of mosque Imams and making it included intheir sermons. God says in the Holy Qur’an says: There is no good in much of their secret conferences save (in) whosoever enjoineth charity and fairness and peace-making among the people and whoso doeth that, seeking the good pleasure of God,We shall bestow on him a vast reward. (Al-Nisa, 4:114). ix
  • 10. THEAMMANMESSAGE
  • 11. THEAMMAN MESSAGE n the name of god, the Compassionate, theI Merciful. Peace and blessings upon His chosen Prophet, and upon his household, his noble blessedcompanions, and upon all the messengers and prophets: God Almighty has said: O humankind! We created youfrom a male and female, and made you into peoples and tribesthat you may know each other. Truly the most honored of youbefore God is the most pious of you. (49:13) This is a declaration to our brethren in the lands ofIslam and throughout the world that Amman, the capi-tal of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, is proud toissue during the blessed month of Ramadan in which theQur’an descended as guidance to humankind and as clarifica-tions for guidance and discernment. (2:185) In this declaration we speak frankly to the [Islamic]nation, at this difficult juncture in its history, regardingthe perils that beset it. We are aware of the challengesconfronting the nation, threatening its identity, assail-ing its tenets (kalima), and working to distort its religionand harm what is sacred to it. Today the magnanimous 3
  • 12. the amman messagemessage of Islam faces a vicious attack from those whothrough distortion and fabrication try to portray Islamas an enemy to them. It is also under attack from somewho claim affiliation with Islam and commit irresponsi-ble acts in its name. This magnanimous message that the Originator—great is His power—revealed to the unlettered ProphetMuhammad—God’s blessings and peace upon him, andthat was carried by his successors and the members ofhis household after him, is an address of brotherhood,humanity and a religion that encompasses all humanactivity. It states the truth directly, commands what isright, forbids what is wrong, honors the human being,and accepts others. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has embracedthe path of promoting the true luminous image ofIslam, halting the accusations against it and repellingthe attacks upon it. This is in accordance with the in-herited spiritual and historical responsibility carried bythe Hashemite monarchy, honored as direct descen-dants of the Prophet, the Messenger of God—peaceand blessings upon him—who carried the message. Forfive decades, his late Majesty King Hussein Bin Talal—God rest his soul—demonstrated this way with the vig-orous effort that he exerted. Since the day he took the 4
  • 13. the amman messageflag, His Majesty King Abdullah II has continued thiseffort, with resolution and determination, as a serviceto Islam, fortifying the solidarity of 1.2 billion Muslimswho comprise one fifth of humanity, preventing theirmarginalization or extrication from the movement ofhuman society, and affirming their role in buildinghuman civilization and participating in its progress dur-ing our present age. Islam is founded upon basic principles, the funda-mentals are attesting to the unity of God (tawhidAllah);belief in the message of His Prophet; continuous con-nection with the Creator through ritual prayer (salat);training and rectifying the soul through the fast ofRamadan; safeguarding one another by paying the almstax (zakat); the unity of the people through the annualpilgrimage (hajj) to God’s Sanctified House, [per-formed] by those who are able; and [observing] Hisrulings that regulate human behavior in all its dimen-sions. Over history these [basic principles] have formeda strong and cohesive nation and a great civilization.They bear witness to noble principles and values thatverify the good of humanity, whose foundation is theoneness of the human species, and that people are equalin rights and obligations, peace and justice, realizingcomprehensive secur ity, mutual social responsibility, 5
  • 14. the amman messagebeing good to one’s neighbor, protecting belongings andproperty, honoring pledges, and more. Together, these are principles that provide commonground for the followers of religions and [different]groups of people. That is because the origin of divinereligions is one, and Muslims believe in all Messengersof God and do not differentiate between any of them.Denying the message of any one of them is a deviationfrom Islam. This establishes a wide platform for thebelievers of [different] religions to meet the other uponcommon ground, for the service of human society, with-out encroaching upon creedal distinctions or uponintellectual freedom. For all of this we base ourselvesupon His saying: The messenger believes in what has been revealed unto him from his Lord as do the believers. Each one believes in God and His angels and His scriptures and His mes- sengers. We make no distinction between any of His messengers—and they say: “We hear, and we obey. [Grant us] Your forgiveness, our Lord. Unto You is the journeying.” (2:285) Islam honors every human being, regardless of hiscolor, race or religion: We have honored the sons of Adam,provided them transport on land and sea, sustained them with 6
  • 15. the amman messagegood things, and conferred on them special favors above a greatpart of our creation. (17:70) Islam also affirms that the way of calling [others] toGod is founded upon kindness and gentleness: Call to thepath of your Lord with wisdom and a beautiful exhortation,and debate with them in that which is most beautiful (ahsan).(16:125) Furthermore, it shuns cruelty and violence inhow one faces and addresses [others]: It is by some Mercy of God that you were gentle to them. Were you severe—cruel hearted—they would have bro- ken away from you. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult with them in the conduct of affairs. And when you are resolved, put your trust in God; truly God loves those who trust [in Him]. (3:159) Islam has made clear that the goal of its message isrealizing mercy and good for all people. TheTranscendent has said, We did not send you [Muhammad]but out of mercy for all creatures. (21:107) And the ProphetMuhammad—blessings and peace upon Him—said,“The Merciful has mercy upon those who are merciful,be merciful to those on earth, He who is in heaven willbe merciful unto you.” Islam calls for treating others as one desires to betreated. It urges the tolerance and forgiveness that 7
  • 16. the amman messageexpress the nobility of the human being: The recompensefor an evil is an evil equal thereto, but who forgives and recon-ciles, his recompense is from God. (42:40) Good and evil arenot equal. Repel with what is most virtuous. Then he betweenwhom and you there is enmity will be as if he were an intimatefriend. (41:34) Islam confirms the principle of justice in interactingwith others, safeguarding their rights, and confirms thatone must not deny people their possessions: And let notthe hatred of others make you swerve to wrong and departfrom justice. Be just: that is closer to piety; (5:8) God commandsyou to return trusts to their owners, and if you judge betweenpeople, you shall judge with justice; (4:58) So give [full] meas-ure and [full] weight and do not deny the people their goods,and work no corruption in the land, after it has been set right.(7:85) Islam requires respect for pledges and covenants,and adhering to what has been specified; and it forbidstreachery and treason: Fulfill the covenant of God when youhave entered into it, and break not oaths after they have beenconfirmed and you have made God your surety; truly Godknows what you do. (16:91) Islam recognizes the noble station of [human] life, sothere is to be no fighting against non-combatants, andno assault upon civilians and their properties, children 8
  • 17. the amman messageat their mothers’ bosom, students in their schools, norupon elderly men and women. Assault upon the life of ahuman being, be it murder, injury or threat, is an assaultupon the right to life among all human beings. It isamong the gravest of sins; for human life is the basis forthe prosperity of humanity: Whoever kills a soul for otherthan slaying a soul or corruption upon the earth it is as if he haskilled the whole of humanity, and whoever saves a life, it is asif has revived the whole of humanity. (5:32) The primordial religion of Islam is founded uponequanimity, balance, moderation, and facilitation: Thushave we made of you a middle nation that you might be wit-nesses over the people, and the Messenger a witness overyourselves. (2:143) The Prophet Muhammad—peace andblessings upon him—said: “Facilitate and do not makedifficult, bear good tidings and do not deter.” Islam hasprovided the foundation for the knowledge, reflectionand contemplation that has enabled the creation of thisdeep-rooted civilization that was a crucial link by whichthe West arrived at the gates of modern knowledge, andin whose accomplishments non-Muslims participated,as a consequence of its being a comprehensive humancivilization. No day has passed but that this religion has been atwar against extremism, radicalism and fanaticism, for 9
  • 18. the amman messagethey veil the intellect from foreseeing negative conse-quences [of one’s actions]. Such blind impetuousnessfalls outside the human regulations pertaining to reli-gion, reason and character. They are not from the truecharacter of the tolerant, accepting Muslim. Islam rejects extremism, radicalism and fanati-cism—just as all noble, heavenly religions reject them—considering them as recalcitrant ways and forms ofinjustice. Furthermore, it is not a trait that character-izes a particular nation; it is an aberration that has beenexperienced by all nations, races, and religions.They arenot particular to one people; truly they are a phenome-non that every people, every race and every religion hasknown. We denounce and condemn extremism, radicalismand fanaticism today, just as our forefathers tirelesslydenounced and opposed them throughout Islamic his-tory. They are the ones who affirmed, as do we, the firmand unshakeable understanding that Islam is a religionof [noble] character traits in both its ends and means; areligion that strives for the good of the people, theirhappiness in this life and the next; and a religion that canonly be defended in ways that are ethical; and the endsdo not justify the means in this religion. The source of relations between Muslims and others 10
  • 19. the amman messageis peace; for there is no fighting [permitted] when thereis no aggression. Even then, [it must be done with]benevolence, justice and virtue: God does not prevent you,as regards those who do not fight you in religion’s [cause], nordrive you from your homes, from dealing kindly and justlywith them: truly God loves the just; (60:8) Then if they cease,let there be no aggression, save against the oppressors. (2:193) On religious and moral grounds, we denounce thecontemporary concept of terrorism that is associatedwith wrongful practices, whatever their source andform may be. Such acts are represented by aggressionagainst human life in an oppressive form that trans-gresses the rulings of God, frightening those who aresecure, violating peaceful civilians, finishing off thewounded, and killing prisoners; and they employ uneth-ical means, such as destroying buildings and ransackingcities: Do not kill the soul that God has made sacrosanct, savefor justice. (6:151) We condemn these practices and believe that resist-ing oppression and confirming justice should be alegitimate undertaking through legitimate means. Wecall on the people to take the necessary steps to achievethe strength and steadfastness for building identity andpreserving rights. We realize that over history extremism has been 11
  • 20. the amman messageinstrumental in destroying noble achievements in greatcivilizations, and that the tree of civilization witherswhen malice takes hold and breasts are shut. In all itsshapes, extremism is a stranger to Islam, which is found-ed upon equanimity and tolerance. No human whoseheart has been illumined by God could be a radicalextremist. At the same time, we decry the campaign of brazendistortion that portrays Islam as a religion that encour-ages violence and institutionalizes terrorism. We callupon the international community to work earnestly toimplement international laws and honor the interna-tional mandates and resolutions issued by the UnitedNations, ensuring that all parties accept them and thatthey be enacted without double standards, to guaranteethe return of rights to their [rightful] holders and theend of oppression. Achieving this will be a significantcontribution to uprooting the causes of violence, fanati-cism and extremism. The way of this great religion that we are honoredto belong to calls us to affiliate with and participate inmodern society, and to contribute to its elevation andprogress, helping one another with every faculty [toachieve] good and to comprehend, desiring justice forall peoples, while faithfully proclaiming the truth [of 12
  • 21. the amman messageour religion], and sincerely expressing the soundness ofour faith and beliefs—all of which are founded uponGod’s call for coexistence and piety. [We are called] towork toward renewing our civilization, based upon theguidance of religion, and following upon establishedpractical intellectual policies. The primary components of these policies comprisedeveloping methods for preparing preachers, with thegoal of ensuring that they realize the spirit of Islam andits methodology for structuring human life, as well asproviding them with knowledge of contemporary cul-ture, so that they are able to interact with theircommunities on the basis of awareness and insight: Say,“This is my way. I, and those who follow me, call for God withinsight.” (12:108); taking advantage of the communica-tion revolution to refute the doubts that the enemies ofIslam are arousing, in a sound, intellectual manner,without weakness or agitation, and with a style thatattracts the reader, the listener and the viewer; consoli-dating the educational structure for individualMuslims, who are confident in their knowledge andabilities, working to form the integral identity that pro-tects against corrupting forces; interest in scientificresearch and working with the modern sciences uponthe basis of the Islamic perspective that distinguishes 13
  • 22. the amman messagebetween creation, life and the human being; benefitingfrom modern achievements in the fields of science andtechnology; adopting an Islamic approach for realizingthe comprehensive development that is founded upon[maintaining] the delicate balance between the spiritu-al, economic and social dimensions [of life]; providingfor human rights and basic liberties, ensuring life, digni-ty and security, and guaranteeing basic needs;administering the affairs of society in accordance withthe principles of justice and consultation; and benefit-ing from the goods and mechanisms for adoptingdemocracy that human society has presented. Hope lies in the scholars of our Nation, that throughthe reality of Islam and its values they will enlighten theintellects of our youth—the ornament of our presentage and the promise of our future. The scholars shieldour youth from the danger of sliding down the paths ofignorance, corruption, close-mindedness and subordi-nation. It is our scholars who illuminate for them thepaths of tolerance, moderation, and goodness, and pre-vent them from [falling] into the abysses of extremismand fanaticism that destroy the spirit and body. We look to our scholars to lead us in partaking of ourrole and verifying our priorities, that they may be exem-plars in religion, character, conduct, and discerning 14
  • 23. the amman messageenlightened speech, presenting to the nation theirnoble religion that brings ease [in all matters] and itspractical laws in which lie the awakening and joy of thenation. Among the individuals of the nation andthroughout the regions of the world, they disseminategood, peace and benevolence, through subtle knowl-edge, insightful wisdom and political guidance in allmatters, uniting and not dividing, appeasing hearts andnot deterring them, looking to the horizons of fulfill-ment to meet the requirements and challenges of the21st century. We ask God to prepare for our Islamic Nation thepaths of renaissance, prosperity and advancement; toshield it from the evils of extremism and close-minded-ness; to preserve its rights, sustain its glory, and upholdits dignity. What an excellent Lord is he, and what anexcellent Supporter. GodAlmighty says:This is My straight path, so follow it.And follow not the [other] ways, lest you be parted from Hisway. This has He ordained for you, that you may be God-fear-ing. (6:152 153) And the last of our supplications is that praise be toGod, Lord of the worlds. (10:10)Amman Ramadan 1425 hijriThe Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan November 2004 ce 15
  • 24. the three points of the amman message the official text of the three points (version 1)(1) Whosoever is an adherent to one of the four Sunnischools (Mathahib) of Islamic jurisprudence (Hanafi,Maliki, Shafi‘i and Hanbali), the two Shi‘i schools ofIslamic jurisprudence (Ja‘fari and Zaydi), the Ibadischool of Islamic jurisprudence and the Thahiri schoolof Islamic jurisprudence, is a Muslim. Declaring thatperson an apostate is impossible and impermissible.Verily his (or her) blood, honour, and property areinviolable. Moreover, in accordance with the ShaykhAl-Azhar’s fatwa, it is neither possible nor permissibleto declare whosoever subscribes to the Ash‘ari creed orwhoever practices real Tasawwuf (Sufism) an apostate.Likewise, it is neither possible nor permissible todeclare whosoever subscribes to true Salafi thought anapostate. 16
  • 25. the three points Equally, it is neither possible nor permissible todeclare as apostates any group of Muslims who believesin God, Glorified and Exalted be He, and HisMessenger (may peace and blessings be upon him) andthe pillars of faith, and acknowledges the five pillars ofIslam, and does not deny any necessarily self-evidenttenet of religion.(2) There exists more in common between the variousschools of Islamic jurisprudence than there isdifference between them. The adherents to the eightschools of Islamic jurisprudence are in agreement asregards the basic principles of Islam.All believe inAllah(God), Glorified and Exalted be He, the One and theUnique; that the Noble Qur’an is the Revealed Word ofGod; and that our master Muhammad, may blessingsand peace be upon him, is a Prophet and Messengerunto all mankind. All are in agreement about the fivepillars of Islam: the two testaments of faith(shahadatayn); the ritual prayer (salat); almsgiving(zakat); fasting the month of Ramadan (sawm), and theHajj to the sacred house of God (in Mecca). All are alsoin agreement about the foundations of belief: belief inAllah (God), His angels, His scriptures, Hismessengers, and in the Day of Judgment, in Divine 17
  • 26. the amman messageProvidence in good and in evil. Disagreements betweenthe ‘ulama (scholars) of the eight schools of Islamicjurisprudence are only with respect to the ancillarybranches of religion (furu‘) and not as regards theprinciples and fundamentals (usul) [of the religion ofIslam]. Disagreement with respect to the ancillarybranches of religion (furu‘) is a mercy. Long ago it wassaid that variance in opinion among the ‘ulama(scholars) “is a good affair”.(3) Acknowledgement of the schools of Islamicjurisprudence (Mathahib) within Islam means adheringto a fundamental methodology in the issuance offatwas: no one may issue a fatwa without the requisitepersonal qualifications which each school of Islamicjurisprudence determines [for its own adherents]. Noone may issue a fatwa without adhering to themethodology of the schools of Islamic jurisprudence.No one may claim to do absolute Ijtihad and create anew school of Islamic jurisprudence or to issueunacceptable fatwas that take Muslims out of theprinciples and certainties of the Shari‘ah and what hasbeen established in respect of its schools ofjurisprudence. 18
  • 27. the three points the three points endorsed at the islamic fiqh academy conference (version 2)The Official version of the three points of the AmmanMessage (see above) was the version signed by most of thesignatories listed in the Grand list on the following pages. Thethree points were also endorsed at the Islamic Fiqh Academy’s17th session held in Amman, Jordan, on 24th-28th June 2006.The text had slight variations to the official text yet itfollowed an essentially identitical form. This is duly noted asversion 2 in the Grand List.The full text is as follows:(1) Whosoever is an adherent to one of the four Sunnischools (Mathahib) of Islamic jurisprudence (Hanafi,Maliki, Shafi‘i and Hanbali), the two Shi‘i schools ofIslamic jurisprudence (Ja‘fari and Zaydi), the Ibadischool of Islamic jurisprudence and the Thahiri schoolof Islamic jurisprudence, is a Muslim. Declaring thatperson an apostate is impossible and impermissible.Verily his (or her) blood, honour, and property areinviolable. Moreover, in accordance with the ShaykhAl-Azhar’s fatwa, it is neither possible nor permissibleto declare whosoever subscribes to the Ash‘ari creed orwhoever practices real Tasawwuf (Sufism) an apostate. 19
  • 28. the amman messageLikewise, it is neither possible nor permissible todeclare whosoever subscribes to true Salafi thought anapostate. Equally, it is neither possible nor permissible todeclare as apostates any other group of Muslims whobelieves in God, Glorified and Exalted be He, and HisMessenger (may peace and blessings be upon him), thepillars of faith (Iman), and the five pillars of Islam, anddoes not deny any necessarily self-evident tenet ofreligion.(2) There exists more in common between the variousschools of Islamic jurisprudence than there is differencebetween them. The adherents to the eight schools ofIslamic jurisprudence are in agreement as regards thebasic principles of Islam. All believe in Allah (God),Glorified and Exalted be He, the One and the Unique;that the Noble Qur’an is the RevealedWord of God pre-served and protected by God, Exalted be He, from anychange or aberration; and that our master Muhammad,may blessings and peace be upon him, is a Prophet andMessenger unto all mankind.All are in agreement aboutthe five pillars of Islam: the two testaments of faith (sha-hadatayn); the ritual prayer (salat); almsgiving (zakat);fasting the month of Ramadan (sawm), and the Hajj to 20
  • 29. the three pointsthe sacred house of God (in Mecca).All are also in agree-ment about the foundations of belief: belief in Allah(God), His angels, His scriptures, His messengers, andin the Day of Judgment, in Divine Providence in goodand in evil. Disagreements between the ‘ulama (schol-ars) of the eight schools of Islamic jurisprudence areonly with respect to the ancillary branches of religion(furu‘) and some fundamentals (usul) [of the religion ofIslam]. Disagreement with respect to the ancillarybranches of religion (furu`) is a mercy. Long ago it wassaid that variance in opinion among the ‘ulama (scholars)“is a mercy”.(3) Acknowledgement of the schools of Islamicjurisprudence (Mathahib) within Islam means adheringto a fundamental methodology in the issuance offatwas: no one may issue a fatwa without the requisitequalifications of knowledge. No one may issue a fatwawithout adhering to the methodology of the schoolsof Islamic jurisprudence. No one may claim to dounlimited Ijtihad and create a new opinion or issueunacceptable fatwas that take Muslims out of theprinciples and certainties of the Shari‘ah and what hasbeen established in respect of its schools ofjurisprudence. 21
  • 30. grand list of all religious and political leaders who have endorsed the amman message and its three points (July 2005–July 2006) Total number of signatures:552 * from 84 countriescode / conference total§ True Islam and Its Role in Modern Society Conference,Amman (July 2005) 201 [three points version 1] - signed¶ Forum of Muslim Ulama andThinkers, Mecca 42 (September 2005) - endorsed* Islamic Schools of Jurisprudence Conference, AalAl-Bayt University, Jordan (November 2005) 33 - endorsed∞ 9th Session of the Council of Ministers of Religious Endowments and IslamicAffairs, Kuwait 7 (November 2005) - endorsed∫ 3rd Extraordinary Session, OIC, Mecca 54 (December 2005) - endorsed≈ Moderate IslamicThought and Culture,Amman (April 2006) [three points version 1] - signed 55◊ International FiqhAcademy Conference,Amman (June 2006) [three points version 2] - signed 68 23
  • 31. the amman messageπ Muslims of Europe Conference, Istanbul (July 2006) - endorsed 157 islamic republic of afghanistan1 H.E. Mr. Hamid Karzai ∫ President2 Amb. NusairAhmad Nour § AfghaniAmbassador to Qatar Islamic Envoy of the Government ofAfghanistan republic of albania3 H.E. Mr. Florent Celiku ∫ Deputy Minister of ForeignAffairs4 Mr.Tahir Zenelhasani π people ’ s democratic republic of algeria5 H.E. Mr.AbdelAziz Belkhadem ∫ Minister of ForeignAffairs6 H.E. Lakhdar Ibrahimi § Special Envoy of the Secretary General of the United Nations; Former Foreign Minister ofAlgeria 24
  • 32. signatories7 Prof. Dr.AbdAllah bin al-Hajj Muhammad Al GhulamAllah § Minister of ReligiousAffairs8 Dr. Mustafa Sharif § Minister of Higher Education and FormerAlgerianAmbassador in Cairo9 ShaykhYusuf bin Mahdi ¶ Professor and Member of the Fatwa Committee inAlgeria10 Dr. Sa‘id Shayban § Former Minister of ReligiousAffairs11 Prof. Dr.AmmarAl-Talibi § Department of Philosophy, University ofAlgeria12 Mr.Abu JaraAl-Sultani § ≈ Head of theAlgerian Peace Society Movement13 Dr.Ammar Jaydal * Batina University14 Dr. Muhammad Zurman * Batina University australia15 Shaykh Salim ‘Ulwan al-Hassani fatwa § Secretary General Darulfatwa, Islamic High Council16 Ms. Maha KarimAbdo ≈ 25
  • 33. the amman message austria17 Prof.AnasAl-Shaqfa § Head of the Islamic Commission18 AymanAly π Federation of the Islamic Organizations in Europe, Graz19 Mr.Tarafa Baghajati § π Initiative ofAustrian Muslims republic of azerbaijan20 H.E. Mr. IlhamAliev ∫ President21 ShaykhAl-IslamAllah-Shakur bin Hemmat Bashazada § Grand Mufti, MuslimAdministration of the Caucasus kingdom of bahrain22 H.M. King Hamad bin IsaAl Khalifa ∫23 Shaykh Dr. MuhammadAliAl-Sutri § Minister of Justice24 Dr. Farid binYa‘qubAl-Miftah § ¶ Undersecretary of the Ministry for IslamicAffairs25 Mr. MansourAl-Jamri ≈ 26
  • 34. signatories26 Dr. Ibrahim FadilAl-Dibbo ◊ Professor, Faculty of Humanities, University of Bahrain people ’ s republic of bangladesh27 H.E. Begum Khaleda Zia ∫ Prime Minister28 Prof. Dr.AbuAl-Hasan Sadiq § President of theAsian University of Bangladesh29 Prof. ShamshirAli ¶ President of theAcademy of Sciences and UniversityVice-President belgium30 Mr. Ismail Batakli π Professor of Islamic Studies31 Mr. Mohamed Boulif π President, Islamic Executive Council32 Mr.Ahmed Bouziane π33 Dr. Karim Chemlal π Pasteur Institute, Lille34 Mrs. Malika Hamidi-Hosseinpour π Coordinator, European Muslim Network35 Mr. Ibrahim Kocaoglu π 27
  • 35. the amman message36 SheikhYacob Mahi π Professor of Islamic Studies,Athénée Royal Léonardo da Vinci37 Dr.Abdelmajid Mhauchi π Professor of Islamic Studies38 Mr. Khallad Swaid π President, FEMYSO republic of benin39 H.E. Mr. Dzulkifli Salami ∫ Senior Minister of Planning, Economy and Development40 Shaykh Fathi Shitu ◊ bosnia and herzegovina41 Prof. Dr. Shaykh Mustafa Ceric § π Head of the ‘Ulama’ and Grand Mufti of Bosnia and Herzegovina42 Prof. Hasan Makic § Mufti of Bihac43 H.E. Professor Enes Karic ¶ Professor in Faculty of Islamic Studies44 Prof.Anes Ljevakovic § Researcher and Lecturer, Islamic Studies College 28
  • 36. signatories45 Dr.AhmetAlibasic π Lecturer, Faculty of Islamic Studies, Sarajevo46 Mr.Amer Bukvic π Islamic Development Bank47 Imam Senaid Kobilica π Vice President, Islamic Council of Norway48 Mr. Mirnes Kovac π Journalist, Preporod Islamic Newspaper49 Dr. Sukrija Ramic π University of Zenica brunei darussalam50 H.M. Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah ∫51 Prof. Suhaili bin Hajj MuhyiAl-Din ◊ Deputy Mufti of Brunei burkina faso52 H.E. Mr.Youssouf Ouedraogo ∫ Minister of State, Minister of ForeignAffairs53 Dr.Abu Bakr Dakuri ¶ ◊ Member of the Executive Council, ISESCO 29
  • 37. the amman message brazil54 ShaykhAli MuhmmadAbduni § Representative of the International IslamicYouth Club in LatinAmerica; Accredited Religious Representative of the DarAl-Fatwa of the Republic of Lebanon in Sao Paolo republic of cameroon55 H.E. Mr. Marfa HamidouYaya ∫ Minister of State56 Shaykh Mahmud Malbakri ◊ Imam, Grand Mosque and President of the Council of ‘Ulama’ canada57 Shaykh Faraz Rabbani § Hanafi Scholar, Sunnipath.com58 Mr. Fouzan Khan π Reviving the Islamic Spirit Organization republic of chad59 H.E. Mr. Idris Derby ∫ President60 Shaykh Dr. Hussein HasanAbkar § President, Higher Council for IslamicAffairs, Chad61 Mr.Tijani Sabun Muhammad ◊ 30
  • 38. signatories union of comoros62 H.E. Mr. Kub Mohamed Lisharti ∫ Deputy President republic of cote d ’ ivoire63 H.E. Mr. Hamza Salleh ∫ Ambassador in Riyadh denmark64 Imam FatihAlev π DanishAssociation of Cybermuslims republic of djibuti65 H.E. Mr. Ismail Omar Gulleh ∫ President66 ShaykhAbdAl-Rahman Sulayman Bashir ¶ Member of the Higher Judiciary Council arab republic of egypt67 H.E. Mr. Mohamed Hosni Mubarak ∫ President68 H.E. Grand Imam Prof. Dr. Muhammad SayyidTantawi fatwa Shaykh al-Azhar 31
  • 39. the amman message69 Prof. Dr. Mahmud Hamdi Zaqzuq § ∞ Minister of ReligiousAffairs70 Prof. Dr.Ali Jumu‘a fatwa § * ∫ ◊ Grand Mufti of theArab Republic of Egypt71 Prof. Dr.Ahmad MuhammadAl-Tayyib § President ofAl-Azhar University72 Prof. Dr. KamalAbuAl-Majd § Islamic Intellectual; Former Minister of Information; Attorney in the Court of Cassation73 Dr. MuhammadAl-AhmadiAbuAl-Nur § * Former Minister of ReligiousAffairs in theArab Republic of Egypt; Professor, Faculty of Islamic Law,Yarmouk University, Jordan74 Prof. Dr. FawziAl-Zifzaf § Chairman of the Permanent Committee of NobleAl- Azhar for DialogueAmong the Heavenly Religions; Member of theAcademy of Islamic Research75 Prof. Dr. Hasan Hanafi § Researcher and Islamic Intellectual, Department of Philosophy, Cairo University; Fellow of theAal al-Bayt Institute for IslamicThought76 Prof. Dr. Muhammad MuhammadAl-Kahlawi § Secretary, General Union of IslamicArchaeologists; Dean, Faculty ofAntiquities, Fayyum Branch, Cairo University 32
  • 40. signatories77 Prof. Dr.Ayman Fuad Sayyid § Former Secretary General, Dar al-KutubAl-Misriyya78 Shaykh Dr. Zaghlul Najjar § Head of the Committee onThe Miraculous Nature of the Qur’an in the Higher Council for IslamicAffairs, Egypt79 Shaykh Moez Masood § Islamic Missionary80 Prof. Dr. MuhammadAl-Dasuqi * Researcher and Member of the Forum for the Proximity of the Islamic Schools of Jurisprudence81 Mr.Amr Khaled π Islamic Missionary82 Mr. Bara Kherigi π Director,Awakening Records83 Dr. Heba Raouf Ezzat π Department of Political Science, Cairo University84 Dr. Ja‘farAbdussalam ◊ President of the League of Islamic Universities85 Dr. ShawqiAhmad Dunya ◊ Dean of the (Womens’) Faculty of Commerce,Al-Azhar University86 Dr. ‘Umar ‘AbdAl-Kafi ≈ 33
  • 41. the amman message87 Dr. Huda ‘AbdAl-Sami‘ ≈88 Eng. ‘Amr Faruk Farid ≈89 Mr. MuhammadAl-Samman Lutfi ≈90 Eng.AbuAl-‘Ala Madi ≈91 Dr. ‘AbdAl-WahhabAl-Masiri ≈92 Dr. ‘AbdAl-Halim Oweis ≈93 Mr.Ahmad Sha‘ban ≈94 Mr. HusamTammam ≈95 Mr. MuntasirAl-Zayyat ≈96 Dr. Raged al-Sirjani §97 Dr. Muhammad Hidaya §98 Dr. MuhammadAbd al-Mun‘imAbu Zayd ◊ Professor, Faculty of Shari‘ah, Department of Islamic Economics,Yarmouk University republic of france99 Shaykh Prof. DalilAbu Bakr § Chairman of the France Supreme Council of the Islamic Religion and Dean of the Paris Mosque100 Dr. Husayn Rais § Director of CulturalAffairs, Paris Grand Mosque 34
  • 42. signatories101 Prof. Dr.AbdAl-MajidAl-Najjar * President of the Islamic Centre, Paris102 Dr. FouadAlaoui π President, Union of Islamic Organizations in France (UOIF)103 Ms. FatihaAjbli π Sociologist104 Ms. SihamAndalouci π Member, Présence Musulman105 Dr.Ahmed Bakcan π Representative, Milli Görüs106 Mr.Abdelwaheb Bakli π President, MuslimYouth of France107 Shaykh KhalidAdlen Bentounes π Alawiyah Sufi Order; Honorary President of the International Association of the Friends of Islam108 Mr. El Hadji Babou Biteye π President, Muslim Students of France (EMF)109 Mr. LajThami Breze π Union of Islamic Organizations in France (UOIF)110 Mr. Haydar Demiryürek π Secretary General,The Islamic Council of France 35
  • 43. the amman message111 Dr. Boubaker El HadjAmor π Treasurer, Union of Islamic Organizations in France (UOIF)112 Shaykh Ounis Guergah π Head of the Fatwa House, Paris113 Prof. Dr. Ömer Faruk Harman π DITIP, Germany114 Mr. Fouad Imarraine π Collecive of Muslims of France115 Dr.Ahmed Jaballah π Member of the European Council for Fatwa and Reseach, France116 Mrs. Noura Ben Hamouda Jaballah π President of European women forum (France)117 Dr. Zuhair Mahmood π Institute for the Human Sciences (IESH), Paris118 Dr. Mohamed Mestiri π Director, International Institute of IslamicThought, Paris119 Mr.Abdelmajid Najar π120 Ms. Nora Rami π Free Community Organization, Paris121 Shaykh Zakaria Seddiki π 36
  • 44. signatories122 Dr. Muhamad Bashari ◊ President, Federal Society for Muslims in France republic of gabon123 H.E. ElhadjAli BongoAwadamba ∫ Minister of National Defence and Chairman of Supreme Council for IslamicAffairs and Special Envoy of the President republic of gambia124 H.E.Alhaji Dr.YahyaA.J.J. Jammeh ∫ President125 Mr. Samba Fall ∞ Minister of ForeignAffairs,Youth, Sport, and Religious Affairs, Gambia126 Prof. Dr. Omar Jah ¶ ◊ Former DeputyAssistant to the President for Special Assistance Programs, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah republic of germany127 Prof. Dr. Murad Hofmann § Former GermanAmbassador to Morocco; Intellectual and Researcher 37
  • 45. the amman message128 Shaykh SalahAl-DinAl-Ja‘farawi § Assistant Secretary-General ofWorld Council for Islamic Propagation129 Mr. Ridvan Çakir π President,Turkish-Islamic Union of Germany130 Shaykh BashirAhmad Dultz π German Muslim League131 Mr. Belal El-Mogaddedi π132 Mr. Ibrahim F. El-Zayat π Head of Public Relations, Federation of Islamic Organisations in Europe (FIOE)133 Dr. Sabiha El-Zayat π Centre for IslamicWomen Studies, Institute for the Human Sciences (IESH), Paris134 Mr. Mesud Gülbahar π IGMG President ofYouth Organisations, Germany135 Mr.Ali Kizilkaya π Head, Islamic Council of Germany136 Dr. EyüpA. Köhler π137 Mr. Michael MuhammedAbduh Pfaff π German Muslim League138 Mr. CelalTüter π IGMG President of University Org., Germany 38
  • 46. signatories139 Mr. RecepYildirim π EuropeAssociation ofTurkish Cultural Centers, Germany140 Mr. OsmanYoba π141 Mr. Nabil Chabib ≈ republic of guinea142 H.E. Mr. Cellou Dalein Diallo ∫ Prime Minister143 Mr.Al-Husayni Diallo ¶ Inspector General, Ministry of Justice144 Prof. Dr. Qutb Mustafa Sanu ◊ Department of Usul al-Fiqh, International Islamic University of Malaysia republic of india145 H.E. Maulana Mahmood Madani § π Member of Parliament; General Secretary, Jamiat Ulema-i-Hindi146 Prince Ja‘farAl-Sadiq Mufaddal SayfAl-Din § Islamic Intellectual147 PrinceTaha SayfAl-Din § Islamic Intellectual148 Prof. Dr. SayyidAwsafAli § President of Hamdard University 39
  • 47. the amman message149 Prof. Dr.AkhtarAl-Wasi § Head of the Bureau of Islamic Studies, Dean of the College of Humanities and Languages; Director of the Dhakir Husayn Centre for Islamic Studies republic of indonesia150 H.E. Dr.Alawi bin Shihab ∫ Coordinating Minister for People’sWelfare and Special Envoy of the President151 Dr Muhammad Maftuh Basyuni ∞ Minister of ReligiousAffairs152 Dr.TuttyAlawiyah § President,Al-Shafi‘i Islamic University153 Amb. RabhanAbdAl-Wahhab § Ambassador of the Republic of Indonesia to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan154 ShaykhAl-HajjAhmad Hashim Muzadi § Chairman, Central Board of Nahdlatul Ulama, Indonesia155 Shaykh Rozy Munir § Vice-Chairman of the Central Board of Nahdlatul Ulama, Indonesia156 Mr. Muhamad Iqbal Sullam § International Conference of Islamic Scholars, Indonesia157 Dr. Muhammad Masyuri Naim ¶ Professor, Islamic University 40
  • 48. signatories158 Prof. Dr. M. Din Syamsuddin π Chairman of Muhammadiyah islamic republic of iran159 Supreme Spiritual Leader GrandAyatollah Al-SayyidAli Khamenei fatwa160 H.E. Dr. MahmoodAhmedinejad ∫ President161 GrandAyatollah Shaykh MuhammadAliAl-Taskhiri fatwa § ¶ ◊ Secretary General, Forum for the Proximity of the Islamic Schools of Jurisprudence162 GrandAyatollahAl-Sayyid Fadil Lankarani fatwa163 GrandAyatollah MuhammadWaez-zadeh Al-Khorasani § ◊ Former Secretary General, Forum for the Proximity of the Islamic Schools of Jurisprudence164 GrandAyatollah Prof. Dr.Al-Sayyid Mustafa Mohaghegh Damad § Director of theAcademy of Sciences; Justice in the Ministry of Justice; Head of the Inspectorate General165 HujjatAl-Islam Dr. Mahmoud Mohammadi Iraqi § Chairman of the Cultural League and Islamic Relations in the Islamic Republic of Iran 41
  • 49. the amman message166 Dr.Al-Sayyid Mahmoud Mar‘ashiAl-Najafi § Head of the GrandAyatollah Mar‘ashiAl-Najafi Library167 Dr. MuhammadAliAdharshab § Secretary-General,Arab-Iranian Friendship Society168 Mr. Murtada Hashim Bur Qadi § Secretary-General, Bureau for International Relations, Great Islamic Encyclopaedia169 ShaykhAbbasAli Sulaymani § Representative of the Supreme Spiritual Leader in Eastern Iran170 Mr. Ghulam Rida Mirzai § Member, Consultative Council171 Dr. Syed Muhammad Rida Khatimi § Political leader; Former Deputy Speaker of the Iranian Parliament172 Shaykh Muhammad Shari‘ati § FormerAdvisor to the President of Iran; Member of Parliament173 Amb. Muhammad Kazem Khuwansari ◊ Permanent Representative of Iran to the OIC174 Mr. Ma ShaAllah Mahmoud ShamsAl-Waithin § Journalist andWriter175 Dr. Ruqayya RustumYurmaki * Imam Sadiq University 42
  • 50. signatories176 Dr. Mojgan Sakhaei * Imam Sadiq University177 ShaykhAhmad Mablaghi ◊ Professor, Qom Seminary178 Dr. Gholam Reza Noor-Mohammadi ◊ Director, Centre for Islamic Medical Research, Imam al- Sadiq University, Qom; Professor, Faculty of Medicine, University ofTehran179 Shaykh Hassan Jawahiri Zadeh ◊ Professor, Religious Seminary, Qom republic of iraq180 H.E. Mr. JalalTalabani ∫ President181 GrandAyatollahAl-SayyidAli Sistani fatwa182 GrandAyatollah Shaykh IshaqAl-Fayad fatwa183 GrandAyatollahAl-Sayyid Muhammad Sa‘idAl- Hakim fatwa184 GrandAyatollah Shaykh BashirAl-Najafi fatwa185 GrandAyatollahAl-Sayyid Shaykh Hussein Isma‘il Al-Sadr fatwa186 GrandAyatollah Shaykh HusaynAl-Mu‘ayyad §* Knowledge Forum, Baghdad 43
  • 51. the amman message187 GrandAyatollahAhmad al-Bahadili § Islamic Missionary188 Shaykh Dr. HarithAl-Dari ≈ Head of Ulema organization189 Dr. Muhsin ‘AbdAl-Hamid ≈190 Dr.AhmadAbdAl-GhaffurAl-Samara‘i § Head of the Diwan of the SunniWaqf191 Al-SayyidAbd al-SahibAl-Khoei § Secretary General, ImamAl-Khoei Benevolent Foundation192 Al-Sayyid MuhammadAl-Musawi § Secretary General,World IslamicAhlAl-Bayt League193 Shaykh Dr. Mahmoud Mhd. DawudAl-Sumayda‘i ≈194 Prof. Dr.AbdAl-AzizAl-Duri § Researcher and Historian, Department of History, University of Jordan; Fellow ofAal al-Bayt Institute for IslamicThought195 Prof. Dr. BashsharAwwad Marouf § * Researcher and Editor; Fellow ofAal al-Bayt Institute for IslamicThought196 ShaykhAbbasAli KashifAl-Ghita § College of Islamic Studies, University of al-Kufa197 Dr.AbdAl-HamidAl-Najdi § Islamic Intellectual 44
  • 52. signatories198 ShaykhWalid FarajAllahAl-Asadi § College of Islamic Studies, University of al-Kufa199 Shaykh Prof. Dr.AhmadAl-Kubaysi §≈ Missionary and Islamic Intellectual200 Prof. Ghanem Jawad § Director of CulturalAffairs, Khoei Benevolent Foundation201 Mr. MuhammadAllawi § Assistant Director General,World IslamicAhlAl-Bayt League202 Prof. Sa‘dAl-Malla § Islamic Intellectual203 Dr. MustafaAbdAl-Ilah KamalAl-Din § Islamic Intellectual204 Prof. Dr.AdnanAliAl-Faraji * Islamic University205 Dr.Aziz RashidAl-Dayini * Islamic University206 Dr.AbdAl-Qadir MustafaAl-Muhammadi * Islamic University207 Mr. ‘Ala’Al-DinAl-Mudarris * Researcher and Historian 45
  • 53. the amman message republic of ireland208 Mr. Nooh al-Kaddo π Director, Islamic Cultural Centre of Irelands italy209 Mr.Yahya Sergio Pallavicini § π Vice President, Islamic Religious Community of Italy (CO.RE.IS.)210 Dr.AliAbu Shwaima π Head, Islamic Centre of Milan hashemite kingdom of jordan211 H.M. KingAbdullah II binAl-Hussein ∫212 Prof. Dr. HRH Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad § π Personal Envoy and SpecialAdvisor to HM KingAbdullah II binAl-Hussein; Chairman of the Board ofTrustees of theAal al-Bayt Institute for IslamicThought213 Shaykh IzzedineAl-KhatibAl-Tamimi § IslamicAffairsAdvisor to HM the King; Chief Justice214 Prof. Dr.Abdul-SalamAl-Abbadi § ¶ ∞ ◊ Former Minister of IslamicAffairs; President,Aal al-Bayt University215 Prof. Dr. ShaykhAhmad Hlayyel § ≈ Advisor to HM the King and Imam of the Royal Court 46
  • 54. signatories216 Shaykh SaidAl-Hijjawi § ≈ Grand Mufti of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan217 Mr.Akel Bultaji § Advisor to HM the King218 Prof. Dr. KhalidTouqan § Minister of Education; Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research219 H.E. Shaykh Salim Falahat § Director General of the Muslim Brotherhood in Jordan220 H.E. Shaykh Dr.AbdAl-Aziz Khayyat § ◊ Former Minister of ReligiousAffairs221 Shaykh NuhAl-Quda § Former Mufti of the JordanianArmed Forces222 Prof. Dr. KhalidAl-Karaki § Deputy-Chairman of the Board ofTrustees,Aal al-Bayt Inst. for IslamicThought; President, Jerash Private University223 Prof. Dr. IshaqAl-Farhan § President of Zarqa Private University; Former Minister of Education224 Prof. Kamil Ismail HamdanAl-Sharif § ¶ Secretary General, International Council for Islamic Propagation and Relief 47
  • 55. the amman message225 Dr.AbdAl-LatifArabiyyat § Former Speaker of the Lower House of Parliament; Chairman of the Consultative Committee of the Islamic Action Front226 ShaykhAbdAl-Karim Salim S.Al-Khasawneh § Grand Mufti of the JordanianArmed Forces227 Prof. Dr.AdelAl-Toweisi § * Former President,Aal al-Bayt University; Minister of Culture228 Prof. Dr.YusufAl-Ghaydhan § Dean of the University Faculty of Religion, Balqa’Applied University229 Shaykh HasanAl-Saqqaf § Advisor to the Chairman of the Board ofTrustees of the Aal al-Bayt Institute for IslamicThought; Director of ImamAl-Nawawi Publishers and Distributors230 Eng. MarwanAl-Faouri § ≈ Chairman, Forum for Moderation inThought and Culture231 Mrs. NawalAl-Faouri § ◊ Educator and Islamic Intellectual232 Prof. Dr.AbdAl-NasirAbuAl-Basal § ◊ Former Dean of the Faculty of Islamic Law,Yarmouk University 48
  • 56. signatories233 Mr. BilalAl-Tal § ◊ Editor-in-Chief, Liwa’ Newspaper234 Prof. Dr.AzmiTahaAl-Sayyid § College of Jurisprudential and Legal Studies,Aal al-Bayt University235 Prof. Dr. Muhammad Hisham Sultan * Vice-President for Islamic Studies,Aal al-Bayt University236 Prof. Dr. ZiyadAl-Daghamin * Dean of the College of Jurisprudential and Juridical Studies, Head of the Preparatory Committee of the Internal Islamic Conference237 Dr. Rashid Sa‘id Shahwan ◊ Faculty of Islamic Propagation and the Fundamentals of Religion, BalqaApplied University238 Prof. Dr. QahtanAl-Duri * Aal al-Bayt University239 Prof. Dr. SharifAl-Shaykh SalihAl-Khatib * Aal al-Bayt University240 Prof. Dr.AbdAl-MajidAl-Salahin * Dean of the College of Islamic Law, University of Jordan241 Dr. Hayil ‘AbdAl-Hafiz ≈242 Shaykh ‘AbdAl-KarimAl-‘Akor ≈243 Mr. HaythamAl-‘Amayreh ≈ 49
  • 57. the amman message244 Dr. MuhammadAl-Khatib ≈245 Mr. HatimAl-Manasir ≈246 Dr. MalikAl-Moumini ≈247 Dr. MuhammadAl-Qada ≈248 Dr. FayezAl-Rabi‘ ≈ republic of kazakhstan249 H.E. Mr.Askar Mussinov ∫ Ambassador in Riyadh and Special Envoy of the President kenya250 ShaykhAbdullahiAbdi π Chief Executive Officer, NorthernAid state of kuwait251 H.H. Shaykh SabahAlAhmadAl JaberAl Sabah ∫ Prime Minister252 Dr.Abdullah Matuq al-Matuq ∞ Minister ofAwqaf and ReligiousAffairs, Kuwait253 Prof. Dr.AbdullahYusufAl-Ghoneim § Head of the Kuwaiti Centre for Research and Study254 Dr.AdelAbdullahAl-Fallah § 50
  • 58. signatories Undersecretary of the Ministry of ReligiousAffairs255 Dr. MohamedAbdul GhaffarAl-Sharif ◊ Secretary-General, Secretariat General of ReligiousAffairs256 Dr. MuhammadAbdAllah Ja‘farAl-Sharif ¶ Undersecretary ofWaqf Foundation257 Dr. Khaled MadhkourAbdallah Madhkour ◊ Professor, Faculty of Shari‘ah, University of Kuwait258 Mr. Mutlaq RashedAl-Qarawi ≈259 Shaykh Dr. ‘Ajil Jassim al-Nashami ◊ Professor, Faculty of Shari‘ah, University of Kuwait260 Dr.Ahmad Raja‘i al-Jundi ◊ Islamic Organization for Medical Sciences, Kuwait kyrgyz republic261 H.E. Mr. Dastan Sarygulov ∫ Secretary of State republic of lebanon262 H.E. Mr. Fouad Sinoura ∫ Prime Minister263 Prof. Dr. Hisham Nashabeh § Chairman of the Board of Higher Education Dean of Education at MakassedAssociation 51
  • 59. the amman message264 Al-Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah fatwa265 Shaykh Muhammad Rashid Qabbani ¶ Grand Mufti, Republic of Lebanon (Mufti of the Sunni Muslims)266 Prof. Dr. Hani Fahs § ≈ Member of the Higher Shi‘i Council267 ShaykhAbdullah al-Harari fatwa § Head of the Habashi Order268 Prof. Dr. RidwanAl-Sayyid § Faculty of Humanities, Lebanese University; Editor-in-Chief,Al-Ijtihad Magazine269 Prof. MuhammadAl-Sammak § ¶ Secretary-General of the National Council for Islamic- Christian Dialogue; Secretary-General for the Islamic Spiritual Summit270 Ja‘fari Qadi ShaykhAsadAllahAl-Harashi § Higher Islamic Shi‘i Council271 Shaykh KhalilAl-Mays § ◊ Mufti of Zahleh andWestern Beqa‘272 ShaykhAbdAl-Emir Qublan § Deputy Head of the Higher Shi‘i Counci273 Prof. Dr. ZakariyyaAbdAl-RazzaqAl-Misri * ImamAl-Awza‘i University 52
  • 60. signatories274 Prof. Dr.AhmadAl-Sahmarani * ImamAl-Awza‘i University275 Dr. Muhammad ‘Assaf ≈276 Dr.As‘adAl-Sahmarani ≈277 ShaykhAbdAl-Naser Jabri ≈278 Shaykh Jamil Muhammad Husseini fatwa §279 Mr. Hasan Farhat §great socialist people ’ s libyan arab jamahiriya280 H.E. Mr.Abdel Rahman Mohamed Shalqam ∫ Minister of ForeignAffairs281 Prof. IbrahimAliAbuAl-QasimAl-Rabu § ¶ Secretary of the Office of Conferences, International Islamic Propagation Society282 Dr.Al-Ujaili FarhatAl-Miri § Official for Dialogue in the International Islamic Popular Leadership283 Dr. MuhammadAl-Ziyadi ◊ President, International Islamic Call University284 Prof. Dr. HamzahAbu Faris * Al-Fatih University 53
  • 61. the amman message285 Mr.AbdAl-Salam MuhammadAl-SharifAl-Alim * Al-Fatih University macedonia286 Mr. Rufat Sherifi π malaysia287 H.E. Dato’ SeriAbdullah bin HajiAhmad Badawi ∫ Prime Minister288 Dr.Anwar Ibrahim § π Former Deputy Prime Minister289 Dato’ Dr.Abdul Hamid Othman § Minister in the Office of the Prime Minister290 Prof. Dr. Kamal Hasan ¶ President, Islamic International University, Kuala Lumpur291 Prof. Dr. Mohammad Hashim Kamali § π Dean of the International Institute of IslamicThought and Civilisation292 Mr. Shahidan Kasem § First Minister of Perlis State, Malaysia293 Mr. Khayri JamalAl-Din § Deputy Chairman for theYouth Sector, the United Malays National Organisation 54
  • 62. signatories294 Dr. Salih Qadir KarimAl-Zanki * International Islamic University maldives295 H.E. Mr. MaumoonAbdul Gayoom ∫ President296 Dr. MahmudAl-Shawqi § Minister of Education297 Shaykh Mohamed Rasheed Ibrahim ◊ President of the Supreme Council for IslamicAffairs republic of mali298 H.E. Mr.AmadouToumaniToure ∫ President299 Mr. Sidi MohamedYoussouf Djire ◊ General President of the Islamic Foundation for Production islamic republic of mauritania300 H.E. Mr.Al Ould Mohamed Fal ∫ President301 H.E. ShaykhAbdallah Bin Bayyah fatwa π FormerVice President of Mauritania;Vice President of the International Union of Muslim Scholars 55
  • 63. the amman message302 Mr.Al-HajjWuldAl-HajiAhmad ¶ Advisor to the Minister of Education and Islamic Guidance303 Mr. Cheikhna Bin Bayyah π mauritius304 Shaykh Ghulam Muhammad § Chairman and Secretary General of the Blue Crescent Society moldova305 Mr.AbdulraheemAljabari π kingdom of morocco306 H.M. King MohammedVI ∫307 Prof. Dr.AbbasAl-Jarari § ¶ Advisor to HM the King308 Prof. Dr.AbdAl-Hadi BuTalib § FormerAdvisor to HM the King309 Amb.Al-Makki Kawan ∞ Ambassador of the Kingdom of Morocco to Kuwait, representing Dr.AhmadAl-Tawfiq, Minister of ReligiousAffairs, Kingdom of Morocco 56
  • 64. signatories310 Prof. Dr.AbdelhadiAl-Tazi § Fellow of the Royal MoroccanAcademy; Former Ambassador311 Prof. Dr. Mohammad FaroukAl-Nabhan § Former Director of DarAl-HadithAl-Hasaniyya312 Prof. Dr.Ahmad Shawqi Benbin § Director of the Hasaniyya Library313 Dr. Hamdati Chbihanna Malainine ◊ Member, Supreme Constitutional Council; President, Regional Scientific Council,Al-Qunaitra314 Prof. Dr. NajatAl-Marini § Department ofArabic Language, MohammedV University315 Dr.Abdul FilaliAnsary § Director, Institute for the Study of Muslim Civilizations, Aga Khan University316 Dr.Abdel-KabeerAl-Madghari ◊ Former Minister ofWaqf and IslamicAffairs317 Dr. MaryamAyatAhmad ≈318 Mr. MuhammadAl-Amin ≈319 Mr. MuhammadTullabi ≈320 Dr. Sa‘dAl-DinAl-‘Uthmani ≈ 57
  • 65. the amman message republic of mozambique321 H.E. Mr.ArisAli ∫ Minister of Education and Culture the netherlands322 Mr. Zakaria Hamidi π Director, New Horizon republic of niger323 H.E. Mr. HamaAmadou ∫ Prime Minister federal republic of nigeria324 H.E. Mr Ibrahim Mousa Kazawari ∫ Ambassador in Riyadh325 H.H. Prince HajiAdo Bayero § Emir of Kano326 Mr. Sulayman Osho § Secretary General of the Islamic Conference forAfrica327 Dr.Ahmad Limu ¶ Head of the Organization of the Islamic Endowment for Education and Guidance328 Dr.Al-KhidrAbdAl-Baqi Muhammad * Researcher andWriter 58
  • 66. signatories norway329 Mr. Brahim Belkilani π Journalist, ITRI330 Dr. Lena Larsen π Coordinator,The Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief, Norwegian Centre for Human Rights, Uni. of Oslo sultanate of oman331 H.H.Al SyedAsaad binTareqAl Said ∫ Special Envoy of the Sultan332 ShaykhAhmad bin HamadAl-Khalili fatwa § ¶ ◊ Grand Mufti of the Sultanate of Oman333 ShaykhAhmad bin Sa‘udAl-Siyabi § ◊ General Secretary in the Office of the Grand Mufti334 Dr.AbdAllah MubarakAl-Shanfari ¶ University Professor, University of Dhofar335 Shaykh Dr. Kahlan bin NahbanAl-Kharusi * ≈ JurisprudentialAdvisor in the Office for the Issuance of Fatwas336 Mr.Aflah binAhmadAl-Khalili * Researcher in the Office for the Issuance of Fatwas337 AbdAl-LatifAl-Humaym ≈ 59
  • 67. the amman message republic of pakistan338 H.E. General Pervez Musharraf ∫ President339 H.E.Ambassador MuhammadAslam ∞ Ambassador of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to Kuwait representing Dr. Muhammad I‘jazAl-Haqq, Minister of ReligiousAffairs, Islamic Republic of Pakistan340 Shaykh Mufti MuhammadTaqi Uthmani fatwa ¶ ◊ Deputy Chairman, Islamic Fiqh Council, Jeddah; Vice President, Dar al-Ulum, Karachi341 Shaykh Dr. MuhammadTahir ul-Qadri § π Director General, Centre for Islamic Research, Islamabad342 Prof. Dr. Zafar IshaqAnsari § Director General, Centre for Islamic Research, Islamabad343 Dr. Reza Shah-Kazemi § π Researcher and Islamic Intellectual344 H.E.AmbassadorArif Kamal § Ambassador of the Republic of Pakistan to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan345 H.E. Prof. Dr. MahmoudAhmad Ghazi § President of the Islamic University, Islamabad; Former Minister of ReligiousAffairs, Pakistan 60
  • 68. signatories state of palestine346 H.E. Mr.Ahmed Qorei ¶ Prime Minister347 Shaykh Dr. Ikrimah Sabri § ≈ ◊ Grand Mufti of Jerusalem andAll of Palestine; Imam of the BlessedAl-Aqsa Mosque348 ShaykhTaysir RajabAl-Tamimi § ≈ Chief Justice of Palestine349 Dr. Mustafa MahmudYusufAbu Suway ¶ Lecturer in the Department of Philosophy and Islamic Studies inAl-Quds University350 Dr. MuhammadAliAl-Salibi * Al-Najah University351 Dr. MarwanAliAl-Qaddumi * Al-Najah University poland352 Dr. Samir Ismail π portugal353 Mr.Abdool MagidVakil § π Chairman, Banco Efisa354 Mr. Sohail Nakhooda § π Editor-in-Chief, Islamica Magazine 61
  • 69. the amman message qatar355 H.E. Shaykh Hamad bin JassemAlThani ∫ First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs356 Prof. Dr. ShaykhYusufAl-Qaradawi fatwa § π Director of the Sunna and Sira Council;Vice President of the International Union of Muslim Scholars357 ShaykhThaqil bin Sayer ZaydAl-Shammari ◊ Justice, Court of Cassation, Member of the Supreme Judicial Council358 Prof. Dr.AishaAl-Mana‘i § Dean of the Faculty of Islamic Law, University of Qatar359 ShaykhAbdAl-Rahman binAbdAllah bin ZaydAl Mahmud ¶ Member of Prominent Persons Committee, Organization of the Islamic Conference360 Dr.Ali MuhyiAl-Din Qaradaghi ◊ Professor, Faculty of Shari‘ah, University of Qatar361 Dr.AliAhmadAl-Salus ◊ Professor, Faculty of Shari‘ah, University of Qatar362 Shaykh Mohammad HajYusufAhmad ◊ Imam, Doha Mosque 62
  • 70. signatories russian federation363 Shaykh RawiAynAl-Din § Mufti; Head of the Muslim ReligiousAdministration364 Prof. Dr. Said Hibatullah Kamilev § ¶ Director, Moscow Institute of Islamic Civilisation365 Dr. Murad Murtazein § President, Islamic University, Moscow366 Mr. RushanAbassoof § Director of ExternalAffairs, Dept. of Council of Muftis, Russia367 Mr.YakupovValiulla π Assistant to the Chief Mufti ofTatarstan kingdom of saudi arabia368 H.M. KingAbdullah binAbdelAzizAl Saud ∫ King of SaudiArabia; Custodian of theTwo Holy Mosques369 Dr.AbdAl-Aziz bin UthmanAl-Touaijiri § ¶ Director General,The Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (ISESCO)370 H.E. ShaykhAbdAllah Sulayman bin Mani‘ ◊ Member, Council of Senior ‘Ulama’ of SaudiArabia371 Dr. Hassan bin Mohamed Safar ◊ Professor, Islamic Studies Department, Faculty of Humanities KingAbdulaziz University, Jeddah 63
  • 71. the amman message372 Mr.AbobakrAbdelfatah π373 ShaykhAli Baddahdah π374 Dr. SalihAl-Wuhaibi ≈375 Shaykh ‘AbdAllahYahya ≈376 Mr. NabilAbdAl-Ilah Nassif ◊ Assistant to the President forAssistanceAffairs Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah377 Dr. Muhammad JabrAl-Alfi ◊ Professor, Higher Judiciary Institute, Department of Comparative Jurisprudence, Riyadh378 Dr. Muhammad binYahya bin HasanAl-Najimi ◊ Associate Professor, King Fahd Defence College379 Dr.AhmadAbd al-AlimAbdAl-Latif ◊ Researcher, Department of Studies,The International Islamic FiqhAcademy, Jeddah380 Dr.AbdAl-Qahir Qamar ◊ Researcher, Department of Studies,The International Islamic FiqhAcademy, Jeddah381 Shaykh al-Habib Muhammad binAbdurrahman al-Saqqaf §382 Dr. MohamedAliAl-Bar ◊ King Fahd Centre for Medical Research 64
  • 72. signatories republic of senegal383 H.E. Mr.AbdoulayeWade ∫ President384 Mr.Al-Hajj Mustafa Sisi § ≈ SpecialAdvisor to the President of Senegal385 Prof.Abdallah Bah § President of the Union of Volunteers in Islamic Education and Culture386 Prof.AbadirTiyam ¶ University Press and President of the National Society, Dakar387 Prof.Ahmad Mukhtar Embo ¶ Former Director General, UNESCO, Paris388 Prof. Rohan Mbaye ◊ Director, Islamic Institute, Dakar republic of sierra leone389 H.E.Alhaji Dr.AhmadTejan Kabbah ∫ President republic of singapore390 Dr.Yaqub Ibrahim § Minister of the Environment andWater Resources, and MuslimAffairs 65
  • 73. the amman message republic of somalia391 H.E. Mr.AbdullahYoussefAhmed ∫ President republic of south africa392 Shaykh Ibrahim Gabriels § Head of SouthAfrican ‘Ulama’ spain393 Mr. Mansur Escudero π Spanish Islamic Commission394 Mr.Ali Boussaid π Islamic League for Dialogue and Conviviality republic of sudan395 H.E. General Omar HassanAl Bashir ∫ President396 AbdAl-Rahman SawarAl-Dhahab § Former President of the Republic of Sudan397 Al-ImamAl-SadiqAl-Mahdi ≈ Former Prime Minister of Sudan, Head ofAnsar Movement398 Dr. IsamAhmadAl-Bashir § ¶ Minister of Guidance and ReligiousAffairs 66
  • 74. signatories399 Mr.TariqAli Bakhit ¶ Director in the General Secretariat and Head of Cultural and IslamicThought Committee, Khartoum400 Prof. Dr. Izz al-Din Umar Musa § Lecturer in the Department of History, Malik Saud University, Riyadh401 Dr. Muhammad Mahjub Harun ¶ Journalist and University Professor, University of Khartoum402 Dr.AhmadAliAl-Imam ¶ Advisor to the Sudanese President403 Dr. Mustafa ‘Uthman Isma‘il ≈ Former Foreign Minister of Sudan Special Envoy of the Secretary General of theArab League404 Dr. IbrahimAhmad Uthman ◊ Secretary General, Supreme Judiciary Council405 Dr.Ahmad Khaled Babacar ◊ Secretary General of the Islamic FiqhAcademy of Sudan sweden406 Mr. Mahmoud Khalfi Driri π switzerland407 Prof.Tariq Ramadan § π Islamic intellectual 67
  • 75. the amman message syrian arab republic408 H.E. Mr. FaroukAl-Sharaa’ ∫ Minister of ForeignAffairs409 Shaykh Dr.Ahmad Badr Hasoun § Grand Mufti of the SyrianArab Republic410 Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sa‘id RamadanAl-Buti § ≈ Head of the Religion Department, Faculty of Law, University of Damascus411 Prof. Dr. ShaykhWahba MustafaAl-Zuhayli § ≈ ¶ Head of Department of Islamic Jurisprudence and its Schools, Islamic Law Faculty, Damascus University412 Dr. SalahAl-DinAhmad Kuftaro § Director General, ShaykhAhmad KuftaroAcademy and Islamic Intellectual413 Dr. MuhammadTawfiq Sa‘idAl-Buti § Professor of Shari‘ah at Damascus University414 Dr. MahmudAl-Sayyid ¶ Academic Researcher in the Centre of Islamic Studies, School of Oriental andAfrican Studies, University of London415 ShaykhAbdallahAdhami § π Islamic missionary and scholar416 Dr. Muhammad Habash ≈ 68
  • 76. signatories417 Dr. MuhammadAbd al-Latif Saleh al-Farfur ◊ Secretary General, International ScientificAcademy418 Prof. Dr.AbdAl-SattarAbu Ghuddah ◊ President of the United Shari‘ah Council of the Baraka Group, Jeddah republic of tajikistan419 H.E. Mr. ImamAly Rahmanov ∫ President thailand420 Mr.Wan Muhammad Nur Matha § Advisor to the Prime Minister421 Amb.Wiboon Khusakul § Ambassador ofThailand in Baghdad republic of togo422 H.E. Mr. ZarifouAyéva ∫ Minister of ForeignAffairs republic of tunisia423 Mr. MohamedAl-Ghanousi ∫ Prime Minister424 Prof. Dr.Al-HadiAl-Bakkoush § Former Prime Minister ofTunisia 69
  • 77. the amman message425 Dr.Abu BakerAl-Akhzuri § Minister of ReligiousAffairs426 Prof. Dr.AliAl-Shabi § Chairman of the Higher Islamic Council; Former Minister of IslamicAffairs427 Prof. Ibrahim Chabbouh § Advisor to the Higher Chairman of theAal al-Bayt Institute for IslamicThought; Director of theAal al-Bayt Institute for IslamicThought428 Shaykh Dr. MohammadAl Habib ibnAl Khojah ◊ Secretary-General, Int. Islamic Fiqh Council, Jeddah429 Prof. Dr. MuhammadAl-BashirAl-Buzaydi ¶ Director of the Higher Institute for the Fundamentals of Religion, Zaytuna University430 Mr.AhmadAl-‘Ujaymi ¶ Advisor in the Office of the Secretary General of the Organization of the Islamic Conference431 Shaykh Dr. Rachid Ghannouchi π Leader of Ennada432 Prof. Habib Shaybub § Writer and Historian433 Dr.AmirAl-Zamali § Advisor of IslamicWorldAffairs, International Committee for the Red Cross 70
  • 78. signatories434 Dr. Shaykh Mohieddine Gadi ◊ The Higher Islamic Council,Tunis435 Dr.Taieb Salama ◊ The Higher Islamic Council,Tunis republic of turkey436 H.E. Mr. BulentArinc ∫ President of the GrandTurkishAssembly437 Prof. Dr. Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu § π ◊ Secretary-General, Organisation of the Islamic Conference438 H.E. Prof. Dr. MehmetAydin π Minister of State, Government ofTurkey439 Prof. Dr.Ali Bardakoglu ¶ Head of ReligiousAffairs Directorate440 Prof. Dr.AliAuzak Head of the Endowment for Islamic Scientific Studies, Istanbul441 Prof. Dr. Mualla Saljuq § Dean of the Faculty of Islamic Law,Ankara442 Prof. Dr. Mustafa Çagrici § π ≈ Grand Mufti of Istanbul and Professor of Islamic Philosophy 71
  • 79. the amman message443 Prof. Ibrahim Kafi Dönmez § Professor of Islamic Jurisprudence at the University of Marmara444 Dr.Ali Ihsan Bala * YüzüncüYil University445 Mr. Ufuk Gökçen π Advisor to the Secretary General of the OIC446 Mr. MustafaAkyol π Writer and journalist447 Dr. MuhammetAruçi π Turkish Religious Endownment (DiyanetVakfi)448 Prof. Dr.AkifAydin π Marmara University449 Mr. KurtuluAykan π450 Dr. Savas Barçin π451 Ms. Selin Bölme π Marmara University452 Prof.Ali Dere π ForeignAffairs Department, Presidency of Religious Affairs,Ankara453 Mr. Muammer Dumanli π454 Mr.Ahmet Hakan π 72
  • 80. signatories455 Dr. Ibrahim Kalin π Assistant Professor of Islamic Studies, College of the Holy Cross, USA; Director, SETAFoundation,Ankara456 Prof. Recep Kaymakcan π Assistant Professor of Religious Education, Sakarya University457 H.E.Ambassador Fazli Kesmir π CounsellorTurkish Embassy and Permanent Representative ofTurkey to FAO, Rome458 Dr.Abdülhamid Kirmizi π459 Mr. Fehmi Koru π Journalist,Yeni Safak460 Dr.Ali Köse π Lecturer, Faculty ofTheology, Marmara University461 Mr.Talha Köse π462 Prof.Talip Küçukcan π Centre for Islamic Studies, Istanbul463 Ambassador Ömür Orhun π OCSE Personal Representative on Combating Islamophobia464 Mr.Taha Özhan π465 Prof. Mehmet Paçaci π Faculty ofTheology,Ankara University 73
  • 81. the amman message466 Mr.Ali Sarikaya π President, Islamic ConferenceYouth Forum for Dialogue and Cooperation467 Prof. Bülent Senay π Professor of Comparative Religion, Uludag University, Bursa468 Dr. Nazife Sisman π469 Dr. IsmailTaspinar π Faculty ofTheology, Marmara University470 Mr.Ahmet SelimTekelioglu π SETA,Anakara471 Dr. NuriTinaz π Centre for Islamic Studies, Istanbul472 Mrs. ÜmareYazar π473 ProfessorAli MuratYel π Lecturer in Sociology andAnthropology, Fatih University turkmenistan474 H.E. Mr. Rashid Mirdov ∫ Minister of ForeignAffairs ukraine475 Mufti ShaykhAhmadTamim § Mufti of Ukraine 74
  • 82. signatories uganda476 Mr.AnasAbdunnoor Kalissa ◊ Director of Research and Shari‘ah united arab emirates477 H.H. Shaykh Khalifa bin ZayedAl Nahyan ∫ President478 H.H.Ambassador Nasir binAbdAllah bin Hamdan ¶479 Mr.Ali binAl-SayyidAbdAl-RahmanAl-Hashim § Advisor to the President for Judiciary and ReligiousAffairs480 Shaykh MuhammadAl-Banani § Judge in the Supreme Federal Court481 Dr. Saleh bin ZabinAl-Marzuqi § Secretary-General, International Islamic FiqhAcademy, Jeddah482 MuhammadAbdulrahim SultanAl-Ulama ◊ Deputy-Dean of Scientific ResearchAffairs, UnitedArab Emirates University483 Dr. Hamad binAl-SheikhAhmadAl-Chibani ◊ Secretary-General, Bureau for IslamicAffairs and CharitableWorks, Dubai484 Shaykh Mansur ‘Etah al-Minhali ◊ Director, IslamicAffairs andAwqaf 75
  • 83. the amman message485 Dr.AhmadAbdulAzizAl-Haddad ◊ Chief Mufti, Bureau of IslamicAffairs and Charitable Works, Dubai486 ShaykhTalib MuhammadAl-Shehi ◊ Preacher, Ministry of Justice and IslamicAffairs487 Dr. MahmudAhmadAbu Layl ◊ Professor, Faculty of Shari‘ah,Al-‘Ain University488 Dr. Khalid SulaymanAl-Fahdawi ≈489 Dr.Ali Muhammad Ujla ◊490 Dr. MuhammadAl-Zahili ◊ Dean, Faculty of Shari‘ah, University of Sharjah united kingdom491 Dr.Abbas Mahajarani § Member of the ImamAl-Khoei Benevolent Foundation492 Dr. Hassan Shamsi Basha ◊ Expert,The International Islamic FiqhAcademy, Jeddah493 Mr. ShamsVellani § Director, Special Studies,The Institute of Ismaili Studies494 Dr. Farhad Daftary § Associate Director,The Institute of Ismaili Studies495 ShaykhYusuf Islam § Islamic Missionary 76
  • 84. signatories496 Dr. Fuad Nahdi § Editor-in-Chief, Q-News International497 ShaykhWanisAl-Mabrouk * Representative, Union of Muslim Organisations of UK& EIRE498 Mr. Sharif Banna π Co-Founder,Awakening Records; President, Union of Muslim Students in the UK499 Mr. SamiYusuf § π Islamic singer500 MohamedAbdulAziz π Director, Faithwise501 Dr. ManazirAhsan π Director,The Islamic Foundation502 Mr. KhurshidAhmed π British Muslim Forum (BMF)503 Mrs. FareenaAlam π Editor, Q-News International504 Dr.Anas Shaikh-Ali π Director, International Institute of IslamicThought, London505 Mr.AhmedAl-Rawi π President, Federation of Islamic Organisations in Europe 77
  • 85. the amman message506 Mr. IsmailAmla π507 Mr. IqbalAsaria π Finance Director, Muslim Council of Britain508 Dr. MehmetAsutay π Department of Economics, Durham University509 Mr.Yasar Çolak π Counsellor forTurkish ReligiousAffairs in London510 Mr. Said Ferjani π MuslimAssociation of Britain511 Dr. Sophie Gilliat-Ray π Cardiff University512 Mr.AbdelRahman Helbawy π513 Mr. Dilwar Hussain π The Islamic Foundation514 Mrs. Sarah Joseph π Editor, Emel Magazine515 Mr.Wakkas Khan π President, FOSIS516 Mr. Mustafa Köker π Chief Editor, Haber Newspapers (Turkish)517 Ms. Maleiha Malik π Department of Law, King’s College 78
  • 86. signatories518 Ms. Unaiza Malik π Muslim Council of Britain519 Mr.Ahmed Sheikh Mohamed π520 Dr. Mohamed Mukadam π Association of Muslim Schools521 Mr.Ahmed Musawi π522 Prof. Farhan Nizami π Director, Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies523 Mr. Habibur Rahman π524 Sir Iqbal Sacranie π Former Secretary General of the Muslim Council of Britain525 Shaykh HaythamTamim π Utrujj Institute526 Mr.AhmedVersi π Editor,The Muslim News527 Mr. ShaukatWarraich π Community leader528 ShaykhAbdal Hakim Murad /TimWinter § π Lecturer, University of Cambridge529 Mr. HaiderAli π Book distributor 79
  • 87. the amman message united states of america530 H.E. Prof. Dr. Seyyed Hossein Nasr § Author and Professor of Islamic Studies at the George Washington University531 Shaykh HamzaYusuf Hanson § π President of the Zaytuna Institute532 Shaykh FaisalAbdur Rauf § Imam of NewYork City Central Mosque533 Prof. Dr. Ingrid Mattson § Professor of Islamic Studies, Hartford Seminary; President of the Islamic Society of NorthAmerica (ISNA)534 Prof. Dr. SuleimanAbdallah Schleifer § Director Emeritus of theAdham Center forTelevision Journalism535 Mr. NihadAwad § ≈ Executive Director, Council onAmerican-Islamic Relations536 Shaykh Nuh Ha Mim Keller § π Islamic Missionary and Intellectual; Fellow of theAal al-Bayt Institute for IslamicThought537 Sheikh Suhaib D.Webb π Islamic Missionary 80
  • 88. signatories538 Dr. Caner Dagli π SpecialAdvisor for InterfaithAffairs, Royal Hashemite Court of Jordan; Professor of Islamic Studies, Roanoke College, USA539 Prof. James Morris §π Univesity of Exeter540 Mr. RadwanAl-Masmudi ≈541 Prof. Joseph Lumbard § Former SpecialAssistant to H.M. KingAbdullah II for InterfaithAffairs republic of uzbekistan542 H.E. Mr. Shawkat Sirdayev ∫ Prime Minister543 Shaykh MuhammadAl-Sadiq MuhammadYusuf § Grand Mufti of the Republic544 Prof.Yusufov Ortoqbek § Islamic Intellectual republic of yemen545 H.E. GeneralAliAbdullah Saleh ∫ President546 Shaykh Muhammad bin Muhammad Isma‘il Al-Mansur fatwa 81
  • 89. 547 Shaykh Humud bin ‘Abbas al-Mu‘ayyad fatwa548 Shaykh Ibrahim bin MuhammadAl-Wazir fatwa § Secretary General of the Islamic Unification andWorks Movement549 Shaykh Habib ‘Umar bin Muhammad bin Salim bin Hafiz § Principal, Dar al-Mustafa,Tarim550 ShaykhAl-HabibAl-Jifri § Islamic Missionary and Intellectual551 Shaykh MuhammadAbduh Umar ◊ Head, Bureau of Direction and Guidance, Permanent Committee of the General People’s Conference552 Prof. Dr. HusaynAl-Umari § Member of the Consultative Committee, Member of the UNESCO Executive Committee; Professor of Modern History, University of Sana‘a’
  • 90. F RE QU EN TLY ASKE D QUES TIONS1. How does Islam function?Islam has no central authority or church. It has beenheld together over the centuries and generations, acrossgeographic, juridical and intellectual diversity, by textsand by established, authoritative interpretations ofthese texts—starting with the Holy Qur’an itself. Mis-interpretation of these texts, and misunderstanding ofthe methodologies of their interpretation can have verydangerous consequences and can lead to an entirely dif-ferent civilization from that of traditional orthodoxIslam.2. What are the greatest challenges facing Islam today?Islam today as a religion faces many challenges andproblems. Perhaps one of the greatest of these is misun-derstanding and confusion about the true nature of thereligion of Islam amongst Muslims and non-Muslimsalike.This misunderstanding has led to erroneous inter-pretations of Islamic texts and thus illegitimate 83
  • 91. the amman messagereligious edicts (fatwas) by people who are intellectuallyand morally unqualified to make religious edicts. Cor-recting this situation through proper understanding ofthe traditional Islamic texts in all their diversity andcomplexity is thus of profound importance to thefuture of Islam and Muslims.3. What isTheAmman Message?The Amman Message started as a simple but detailedstatement issued in Ramadan 1425 ah / November 2004ce inAmman, Jordan by KingAbdullah II of Jordan andsenior Islamic scholars. It described what Islam is andwhat it is not, and what actions represent it and whatactions do not. Its goal was to clarify to the modernworld the true nature of Islam and the nature of true Islam. Itis a message of devotion to God, love of the neighbor,goodwill, moderation and peace.4. What areTheThree Points ofTheAmman Message?In order to give more religious authority to the AmmanMessage and in order to tackle the root problem of mis-interpretation in Islam, in 2005 King Abdullah II sentthe following three critical questions to 24 of the mostsenior religious scholars from all around the world rep-resenting all the branches and schools of Islam: 84
  • 92. frequently asked questions 1. Who is a Muslim?; 2. Is it permissible to declare someone an apostate (takfir)?; and 3. Who has the right to undertake issuing fatwas (legal rulings)?Based on the fatwas provided by these great scholars(who included the Shaykh Al-Azhar; Ayatollah Sistaniand Sheikh Qaradawi), in July 2005 ce, King AbdullahII of Jordan convened an international Islamic confer-ence of 200 of the world’s leading Islamic scholars or‘Ulama) from 50 countries. In Amman, the scholarsunanimously issued a ruling on three fundamentalissues (which became known as the ‘Three Points of theAmman Message’): 1. They specifically recognized the validity of all 8 Mathhabs (legal schools) of Sunni, Shi‘a and Ibadhi Islam; of traditional Islamic Theology (Ash‘arism); of Islamic Mysticism (Sufism), and of true Salafi thought, and came to a precise definition of who is a Muslim. 2. Based upon this definition they forbade takfir (dec- larations of apostasy) between Muslims. 85
  • 93. the amman message 3. Based upon the Mathahib they set forth the subjec- tive and objective preconditions for the issuing of fatwas, thereby exposing ignorant and illegitimate edicts in the name of Islam.These Three Points were then unanimously adopted bythe Islamic World’s political and temporal leadershipsat the Organization of the Islamic Conference summitat Mecca in December 2005. And over a period of oneyear from July 2005 to July 2006, the Three Points werealso unanimously adopted by six other internationalIslamic scholarly assemblies, culminating with theInternational Islamic FiqhAcademy of Jeddah (the IslamicWorld’s leading juridical body), in July 2006. In total,over 500 leading Muslim scholars worldwide—as can beseen online (at www.ammanmessage.com)—unani-mously endorsed the Amman Message and its ThreePoints.5. Why is it so Important?The signed, universal Islamic Consensus on the AmmanMessage and its Three Points is of the greatest importancebecause it amounts to a historical, universal and unani-mous religious and political consensus (ijma’) of theUmmah (nation) of Islam in our day, and a consolidation 86
  • 94. frequently asked questionsof traditional, orthodox Islam. The significance of thisis: (1) that it is the first time in over a thousand years thatthe Ummah has formally and specifically come to such apluralistic mutual inter-recognition; (2) that such arecognition is religiously legally binding on Muslimssince the Prophet (may peace and blessings be uponhim) said: My Ummah will not agree upon an error (IbnMajah, Sunan, Kitab al-Fitan, Hadith no.4085), and (3)that it addresses one of the most critical problems fac-ing Muslims today: lack of agreement about whatconstitutes Islam, and thus lack of agreement aboutwho is a Muslim and what is truly ‘Islamic’.6. Is the content of theAmman Messagesomething new in Islam?No. There is nothing essentially new in the Amman Mes-sage, nor could there be for it to be truly authentic, forIslam is a religion revealed by God, and therefore notchangeable by man.The Amman Message is merely a con-crete restatement and crystallization of the commonprinciples of traditional, orthodox, ‘moderate’ Islam—in all its traditional schools of thought and law—theIslam to which over the vast, overwhelming majority ofthe world’s approximately 1.4 billion Muslims belong. 87
  • 95. the amman message7. What does ‘Amman’ have to do with the ‘Message’?Nothing. The name ‘Amman’ merely comes from thefact that the Message was first launched in Jordan by thecountry’s king and scholars. The Message is a universalpan-Islamic one, as is seen in its acceptance by Muslimsauthorities from every school of thought and of law inIslam, and in its ratification by Muslims from everycountry and major Muslim community in theworld.8. Will it resolve all of Islam’s problems? Will it help?No, the Amman Message will not resolve all of Islam’sproblems: no religion can be without problems on theworldly plane, especially in the modern age. The Econo-mist (June 28th, 2007) argues that:This much is true: anyof the Muslims who are drawn to jihadist violence, or tostrident forms of political Islam, are indifferent to, orignorant of, the nuances of theology; that makes themsusceptible to “amateur” fatwas. But as a French scholar,Olivier Roy, points out, it doesn’t follow that such peo-ple—when presented with sophisticated religiousarguments—would change their mind. In many cases,they have a general aversion to the idea of elaborate the-ology. However, what proper awareness, education andunderstanding of the Amman Message and its Three 88
  • 96. frequently asked questionsPoints, might well do, God Willing, is prevent 99.99% ofMuslims from being influenced by illegitimate fatwasand sliding into takfir and terrorism, as a visceral over-reaction to poverty, injustice and mistakes in Westernforeign policy.After all, God says in the Holy Qur’an: O ye who believe! Be steadfast witnesses for God in equity, and let not hatred of any people make you swerve from justice. Deal justly, that is nearer to piety. Observe your duty to God. Lo! God is Informed of what ye do. (Al-Ma’idah, 5:8)Finally, proper awareness of The Amman Message, mayalso, by exposing the illegitimate opinions of radicalfundamentalists and terrorists from the point of view oftrue Islam, help in preventing calls in the West for hos-tility against Muslims as such. As George Yeo, theForeign Minister of Singapore, declared in the 60thSession of the U.N. General Assembly (about theAmman Message): “Without this clarification, the waragainst terrorism would be much harder to fight”. Itthus may help to prevent a wider conflict between theover 55% of the world’s population: approximately 2.1billion Christians and 1.4 billion Muslims … 89
  • 97. the amman message9. What could it mean for Islam’s relations withnon-Muslims?The Amman Message Initiative is good news not only forMuslims, for whom it provides a basis for unity and asolution to infighting, but also for all non-Muslims. For,in safeguarding of the basic principles, texts and legalmethodologies of Islam, theAmman Message necessarilymeans inherently preserving traditional Islam’s internal‘checks and balances’. It thus assures balanced Islamicsolutions for essential issues like human rights; women’srights; freedom of religion; legitimate jihad; good citi-zenship of Muslims in non-Muslim countries, and justand democratic government, all key issues that areessential to world peace and harmony.10. What is the next step?In order that Amman Message not remain merely a his-torical agreement on basic principles, various stepsare being taken to introduce it through pragmatic andinstitutional means, such as: (1) inter-Islamic treaties;(2) national and international legislation using theThree Points of the Amman Message to define Islamand forbid takfir; (3) the use of publishing and the multi-media in all their aspects to spread the AmmanMessage; (4) instituting the teaching of the Amman 90
  • 98. frequently asked questionsMessage in school curricula and university coursesworldwide; and (5) making it part of the training ofmosque Imams and making it included in their sermons.11. What can you do?Whoever you are, and wherever you live, you canhelp by adding your voice to this unique and historicinternational Islamic consensus. Please visit www.ammanmessage.com, where you can read more aboutthe Amman Message and find many useful documentsand links. Under the button saying: Click here to endorsetheAmman Message (or on the automatic pop-up) you canadd your name to the list of people worldwide who haveendorsed and supported the three points. Your under-standing of the Amman Message is in itself importantgoal. Your endorsement of the Amman Message is oneway to contribute towards peace in the world. hrh p ri n c e ghazi bin muhamma d Chairman of theAmman Message Committee July 22nd, 2007. 91
  • 99. And praise be to God, the Lord of the worlds
  • 100. english series - book 1isbn 978- 9957-428-30-3

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