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Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2

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  • 1. nmusba.wordpress.com
  • 2. THE TARTUMAN A L - Q U R ~
  • 3. This English Translation copy right @ 1967 by Dr. S y d Abdul Latifs Trust fo.Quranic and other Cultural Studies , Reprinted 1982, Second Edition. Printed in India by : MIS GOLDEN PRESS, Hyderabad. Under Supervision of : MIS HUSAMI BOOK DEPOT HYDERABAD 500 002.
  • 4. The Tarj urn511 al-Qur gn br MAWLANA ABUL KALAM AZAD EDITED AND RENDERED INTO ENGLISH BY DR. SYED ABDUL LATIF VOLUME TWO AL-BAQARAH TO AL-ANFAAL DR. SYED ABDUL L A T I ~ STRUST FORQURANIC & OTHER CULTURAL STUDIES SHAD1 KHANA, KING KOTHl ROAD. HYDERABAD-500 001 /
  • 5. CONTENTS1 . Preface to the English Translation of tlze Cumm of Al-Baaarah to Al-Anfad by Dr. Sved Abdzil Latzy2. Translnliolz of Extra ctsfromPreface to 1 Idit ion o The Tarjumltn u l - @ d i n b lwawlana f y *I AOUl . Kalam AzadY. 1-ranslation of Preface to the Second Edition izf T h e Tarjumin 01- Q u 1 Abul 2 AsadPart One 11. THECOW-AL-BAQARAHPart Two 11. %RAT AL-BAQARAH (Contd.) 57Part Three 11. AL-BAQARAH (Conid.) 111. AL IMRANPart Four 111. AL-I-IMRAN(Contd.) IV. WOMAN-XL-NISAPart Five IV. Ar.-NISA (Contd.jPart Six IV. AL-NISA (Contd.) V. THE FOOD-AL-MAIDA
  • 6. vi CONTENTS Part Seven V. Ax.-MAIDA (Conld.) VI. THECATTI.E Part E g t ih VI. THE CATTLE (Conid.) VII. AL-ARAF-THEHEIGHTS Part JVine VII. AL-ARAF (Contd.; VIII. SPOILS WAR OF Ptr rt Ten VIII. SPOILS WAR (Co~ztd.) 01: Index
  • 7. I PREFACE T O T H E TRrZNSLATIONVhilc issuing thc prcscnt volumc of the T u ~ i i r n i t nl-Qor~11 iin its English rendering covcring Chaptcrs I1 to V I I I oftllc@irdn,it has been thought desisnblcto rcproducchcrcin ctrtninextracts from Mawlann Azads prcfaccs to the first ;ul~cl secondcdition of his work, given in full in volumc I, which cxplail~ ~11cplan he has followed, Loth original and revised, in his inter-pretation of the @ ~ r i n . I express my sincere thanks to Mr. Ali hlusa Razn hluhajir,a retired Edycational oflicrr of Hydcrabad, for having assistcclme in the preparation of the matter of this volumc for the press,and to Dr. M. Yusuruddin, Head of the Department of Rcligiolland Culture, Osmai~iaUniversity, for preparing its indcx.
  • 8. ILATION O F EXTRACTS F R O M PREFACE I E FJRST EDITION OF T H E TARJUMAN AL-OURAN. 1930, 1 C WHILE p this w 3rk, The c n al-@lr Zn, for study one may D cilsposeci to know tne lines which I have aaopted e in the presentation therein of the content s and o)c! jectivz of the Qurzn. Indeed, anticipzlting suc:h a wish on tht: part 01 my . . .. readers, I had contemplated to statc the liries ioliowed in a brief preface to the volume. B u t T hen I sc:t out ro deal wit11 the subject, I soon realised that it wz1 not po ssible to do justic:e t o s -. . it within the brief compass of a nrPc-#.P lhe lssucs involved yrLlubL. were so many and so complicated that a satisfactory discurjsion of them would have necessitated a detailed survey of a very wide and intricate background. T h e idea was therefore given up. Instead, I have attempted here t o draw just a par;sing attention to the dificultics or obstacles which usually clog; the way of a satisfactorv study of the &urYZnso that the reader mav incident ally obt: tin a rou gh idea of a t least the pur poses un der- lying thc:attempt made h ere to present the Qurtz to the w,odd of today As for the exposition of the prin lllowed in the pre sen- tation of the commentary, one willIhave t o , await the publica of my Prolegomena to the C o m ~ ~ e n. r rne rewriting of W-11: :I . in 1 ~ r ~ ~ I a m a t present engaged For v:arious reasons irito whic h one may not go here, the .- exact message of the Qur,an 1 for ccnturies been stea dilv nas ~ kept out of view; so much so, that a very low standarlI approach to it has come into vogue. This is noticeable not merely in the approach to the Qurgnic content but to alr everything connected with it-its language an( phrasc structure, and its style. I n every age, the author of a work is normally the proauct a1 his intell[ectual e:nvironrrlent. I t :is only Ihose who are gifted with visjion and insight who for1n the e:cception. JVb~lii
  • 9. X PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONlook back into the history of the commentaries of the Qj~rcinfrom the earlicst centuries of Islam right u p to theclose of thelast century, we find that the standard of approach to themeaning of the Grcin had steadil y detcriorated. This was the .yuullLYresult of a gradual decadcncc in thc m.,,,l:i.r of the Muslim minditself. J4rhen the commcrttators found that they could not riseto the heights of the Qur 5nic tholught, th :to bring itdown to the level of thei r own mlind. If we a re to see the QtlrEn in its true light, it will be necessaryfor us to lift all those veils which have, from age to age, been1aid ther,con under the stress of influences alien to the spiritof the Qt ~rcinand then sea.rch for the reality about it in its ownpages. TV(v o Right Appre~intion f fluences are by I10 mean s few. They are numerc 1and have pervaaed every corner of Islamic thought. I t is not,therefore, easy to set them out on a brief canvas. I have,however, tried in my Prolegomena tothe commentary of theQurzn to sum them u p under certain broad heads.The foll~wingare the leading aspects which call for con-sideration : (1) T h e Qurcin is not bound by any conventionality in itsform of presentation or style or in its manfier of address orargument, but follows a way of expression such as is germaneto the character of its content or is natural to it. I t is this dis-tinctive peculiarity observed by all scriptures which distin-guishes them from the conventional forms of litcrary expressionemployed in learned discussions. T h e first generation of people among whom the Cur& was delivered were not a sophisticated race. Thcir mind was not cast in, any artificial or conventio~al mould furnished by civilization. I t was content to rtccivc a simple thought in its plain simplicity. That was why il?c Quriinic thought, simple as it was, sank easily into thcir hearts. KO onc at thc time felt it difficult to catch its meaning. T h e moincnt thc conlpanions
  • 10. ACE TO THE FIRST EDITIt3No the Prop f e recited to then:1, they fcwthwithcaught its signihcal But hardly had the first generation of Muslims passed awaywhen the influences of the Roman and Iranian civilizationsbegan to sweep over the new Arab empire. Translations fromthe Greek literature gave them new literary tastes and initiatedt hern into the art of dialectics. Zest for novelty and inventivc-nP O C in approach to everything came to be ever on the increase,wit1I the result that the simplicity of the Quriinic mannergracgually lost its charm for them. Slowly, step by step, a stagewas reached when everything Quriinic was attempted to begivt:n an artificial mould. Since the Qury5n ht couldnot fit into any such mould, serious complic: thought?.-,, with every attempt a t resolvicg them GliUlllt: in moreintr icate complications. vdhenever distanc:e is assc~ m e dfrom natur alness, aind arti-ficiz~lity resorted to, w b alr; ,-l:":..,.l:.r u u..-Ac u +mu 1 *.IF a L Lhingsin -. .e .a - .. . uloll r L -4. lvvh 4.theiJ- natural simplicity. We cannot visualize beauty orgraindeur in its simplicity. Whenever we choose to endow athirtg with splendour, we invariably try to f x it in a network iof cbrnamentation. This is what exactly happened with theQir i n . The dispositions of the first generation of Muslims werenot cast in any conventional or artificial moulds. That was whythe: 1 instantly caught the meaning oft rl. But thc:genera-tion1 which followed would not let tl s z presenit itself in UL .-its s~implicity. Their love for invent~~cllc;s> L ~ U V 1C4 L Lwould ~not allow this. They began to dress everything in the c~~rcinin n,ovel costumes; and since the QurZn could not fit into suchCOS t urnes, the effort to force on it things which did not suit :pressed its genius and forced its Imeaning to assurne forms no means natural to it. he first period of the Quriinic interpretatiorr w a s ~ l ~which at :eded the codification of Islamic learning. The second an with this codification and has continued, in its different ses, through the succeeding centuries. The second periodhad hardly opened when the urge to cloak the QurYZn new ingarbs took its rise reachixg its climax during the heyday of
  • 11. #ii PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION philosophic speculation among Muslims. That was the time when Imam Fakhruddin Razi wrote his Commentary to invest the Quriinic word withan absolutely novel import. Had Imam Razi chosen to represe nt what exactly the Qurdn stood for, a t least two-thirds o f 7what he wrote would have beer left unwritten. Be that as it may, one thing stands out clearly, and it is that to the extent the @~rrin freed from the unnatural moulds into is which it is pressed, to that extent will it disclose its own reality. The difficultieswhich we feel today in appreciating the manner of presentation observed by the @~rZn,or the arrangement of its parts and verses, or t%e phraseology employed therein are all due to the inclination inherited from our mediaeval past not to appreciate a simple thing for its simplicity. The Ql~ran is so simple to understand and yet we do not feel happy until we evaluate its worth by fanciful standardsof our own making, standards so distasteful to the purposes of the Qrrrr5n. That is the. picture which today confronts us at every turn. f2) Whenever we are to know what meaning a particular piece of wfiting bears, we naturally prefer to accept themeaning given to it by those who have had theopportunityof ascertaining it from one who originally published it. The@r76n, be it remembered, was delivered piecemeal during thecourse of 23 years. Whatever portion of it was delivered waswraptly listened to by the companions of the Prophzt and wasrepeatedly recited in their prayers; and whatever clarificationthey needed of anything therein, they obtained it directly from, Prophet hi1mself. (I f these companions, some were dis-thetinguished for th.e firm g~ they had of the Quriinic meaning, .asp ~-and this is endorsea I.-. the Prophet himself. I t should have - -1 wybeen in the fitness of things to have given preference to theirinterpretation over the interpretation of those who came afterthem who had not the advantage of close association with theProphet. I t is a matter f )r regret that those who came after the cfirst generation chiefly inspired by external influences, beganto invent for themselves new and newer forms of approach t othe J2frrGn and caused the original interpretation of it to fall
  • 12. PREFACE! TO THE FIRST EDITION xiiiinto disuse. The idea came to be entertainec he earliegeneration was strong in faith, and the lat~ ation wastrong in knowledge," although the earlier generation wareputed to be sound both in heart and mind, in faith as wea s in knowledge. All the same, the real meaning of the Qrirciwas gradually relegated to the limbo of oblivion, and its simp1message ca me to ra.ise, in almost every sphere of life, issues todifficult to solve. To make matters worse, an unwarranted attitude was assumewhich hardened as time went. This led to complications whici n their turn necessitated the employment in their support ca variety of methods of argument. And then came into voguethe habit of textual criticism, the writing of foot-notes, andindices. This again gave rise to further complications in the - Inapproach to the meaning of the QgryinZn. certain cases,laid layers above 1iyers of veils ovt : 3 thicker than th other. T o understand the situation, take any passage of the c ~ ~ r r ifor illustration. First, look into the interpretation of it whicthe companions of the Prophet and the first generation <Muslims gave to it. Then turn to the commentaries of thoswho came after, and compare the two. The earliest commertaries present the Quriinic meaning in its natural sjmplicitjwhereas the later commentaries gave to it a strange visage bmaking it the subject of subtle disquisitions (3) From the very beginning, stories and a s from thlore of new converts to Islam steadily received currency iMuslim circles. A great body of them were of Jewish origirand exerted a powerful infiuence on the Muslim mind. Thearly commentators avoided to malie use of them. But thanecdotes nevertheless succeeded in forcing themselves intthe very texture of the commentaries of the QurGn written aftethem. (4) The traditions of the Prophet were usually employed toclarify the meaning of the QyrGn. But the tendency among thelater commentators ace to refer not so much to the traditions known to tl- inions of the Prophet, but to thos
  • 13. xiv PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONcollected indifferently in later times. This created furtherdifficultiesin the understanding ofthe.QurZnicword. (5) The sad result of all this was that the manner of pre-sentation adopted by tF was 10st in a ma:ze of far-fetch-ed conceits. The stren ,e Qur51nic mearling lies in themanner of its presefitat s that which lends clarity to itsstatements and observatior,~, and makes significant the importof its stories and parables, its appeals and admonitions, andits purposes. Once the significance of this manner was missed,the true pictur QurEn was lost to sight. In the wordsof a poet: "Tl;at very page was blackened Whereon had been noted what was desi~The manner of argument observed by the Prophets was not toassume logical poses and confuse the hearer. They adopted thenatural way of direct appeal, such as might reach every type ofmind, and touch every heart. But the commentators, obsessedby the philosophy and logic of Greece could hardly bringthemselves to look a t reality in its naturalness and appreciateit. They thought that they were honouring their Prophets byturning them into dialecticians. They sought to demonstratethe greatness of t.he Qt~rEnby pressing it into the framework ofAristotelian logic, hardly realizing that it was never its primaryobject. The result was that the beauty and attraction of theQuriinic method of argument and of demonstrating its truthwas lost in a network of dialectical disquisitions. I n fact, thetruth had already been lost. The tragedy was that our com-mentators could not achieve even what they aimed at. Theysimply let the door wide open to doubt and endless specula-tion. Imam Razi showed the greatest Blacrity and ingenuityin promoting this consummation. (6) The trouble did not end here. The applicationof philosophy to the QurBnic thought gave rise to numerousdialectical terms, with the result that the simple words ofArabiccame to be invested with new connotations. The subject of
  • 14. THE FIRST EDITION XVthe @~rcin, it is obvious, is not the philosophy of the Greeks,nor was the Arabic language a t the advent of the Qurinfamiliar with its philosophic terms. The words employed inthe @1rYZndid not originally bear the meaning which wasassigned to them in the light of Greek concepts. The transfor- mation led to a vaiicry of speculations; so much so, that wordssuch as Khuliid, Ahdiyat, Mithliyat, T f i , o s l Hujjat, Burhin and Tiwil came to bear meanings which the earliest listeners ofthe @rYinwould never have thought could bear. (7) As a corollary to this attitude, the idea came to thefore that the Qdrin shodd support and endorse every newdiscovery in scientific knowledge. An attempt, therefore,was made to read therein an argument in favour of the Ptolemic system even as the present-day dispensers of intelli-gence who write commentaries of the @L?& try to interpretit in terms of every new development in the Science of the Cosmos. (8) Every book or every system of teaching has somethingor other for its central theme; so much so that everythingpertaining to it revolves ?ound it; and unless this centraltheme or its primary objective is understood, its significanceor anything that is subsidiary to it is not possible properlyto comprehend. The @1ry5n certain fundamental objectives hasto present. Unless these are appreciated in their properperspective, nothing pertaining to them is possible to catcharight. When under the circumstances explained above, theessential objectives of the QiuCn were missed, it was but in-evitable that everything pertaining to them could not beviewed in proper perspective-the statements of the Qyrin,its teaching, its method of argument and of address, and itsremarks and observations. Space does not allow citation ofillustrations here. Still, to catch a fleeting glimpse of whathas been wrought by our commentators, attention maybe drawn to but one or two examples. Take verse 160 ofchapter 3 : "It is not meet for a prophet to act dishonestly,"and read the far-fetched commentaries thereon. Take anotherverse which reproduces the Jewish assertion-"The hand of
  • 15. -1XV~ PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONAllah is tied up" (554). What a rambling, do we not findin the explanations given thereof in utter disregard of thecontext in which the verse occurs! (9) A- primary condition of proper appreciation of theQurgnic meaning is the presence in the cornmeritator of aright taste for literature. Bui for various reasons this tastesteadily grew weaker among our commentators, resulting ininept approaches to the QurHnic word or to the idiomand usage of the language in which the QurZa had beendelivered. (10) The field of interpretation of the Qurgnic word hesalways been affected, even as the fields of arts and sciences,by the atmospheric inflcence of every preceding age. I t is nodoubt a matter for pride that in the course of Muslim history,scholars possessed of upright character never yielded topolitical influences or tolerated compromises-in the doctrinal iefs of Islax. But the atmospheric influence of an age does . penetrate through the door of politics alone. In its ~chological aspects, it finds for itself many a door to come in.Once such doors are thrown open, they scarcely close there-after, however much one might try. The doctrinal beliefsmight escape contamination, and thanks to our uprightscholars they indeed were not seriously touched. But thegeneral character of the minds of men could not remain unaffected. (1 1) The period of enquiry and research in Islamic learning came to an end after the close of the 4th century of theHijra, and thereafter, barring certain exceptions, the ten- dency to lean on the past for every idea took hold of themind of the learned. Every one who ever attempted to writea commentary of the Qt~rZnchose as a matter of course to havebef bre him the work of some predecessbr and to follow it-
  • 16. -xvi PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONAllah is tied up" (5:64). What a rambling, do we not findin the explanations given thereof in utter disregard of theconrext in which the verse occurs! (9) A primary condition of proper appreciation of the 1QurBnic meaning is the presence in the cornmeritator of aright taste for literature. Blli for various reasons this tastesteadily grew weaker among our commentators, resulting ininept approaches to the QurY8nicword or to the idiomand usage of the language in which the Q71rln had beendelivered. (10) The field of interpretation of the Qurgnic word. hzsalways been affected, even as the fields of arts and sciences,by the atmospheric influence of every preceding age. I t is nodoubt a matter for pride that in the course of Muslim history,scholars possessed of upright character never yielded topolitical inflaences or tolerated compromises.in the doctrinalbeliefs of Islax. But the atmospheric influence of an age doesnot penetrate through the door of politics alone. In itspsychological aspects, it finds for itself many a door to come in.Once such doors are thrown open, they scarcely close there-after, however much one might try. The doctrinal beliefsmight escape contamination, and thanks to our uprightscholars they indeed were not seriously touched. But thegeneral character of the minds of men could not remain unaffected. (1 1) The period ol earch in Islamic learning came to an end after the clust. aL the 4th century of the Hijra, and thereafter, barring certain exceptions, the ten- dency to lean on the past for every idea took hold of themind of the learned. Every one who ever attempted to write a commentary of the QiirY6n chose as a matter of course to have before him the work of some predecessbr and to follow it blindly in every detail. If, for instance, a conmewtator ofthe third century had committed a serious blunder in the understanding of any particular passage in the @lrZn, it be- came the bounden duty of those who came after him to re-produce word by word whatever he had written. No one for
  • 17. PREFACE T O THE FIRST EDITIONa moment paused to scrutinize the statement or questionT h e result was that gradually few could develop the urge -- -write fresh. cornmentaries. Every one contented hirrlself there-after to wr,ite only marginal notes to the cornmentar ies alreacl~in existenc:e. Read. the marginal notes of Baidavi anid Jalala in td see what energy was wasted by them to give mere coatings the walls already raised by others. (12) The prevailing ineptitude of scholars in the succeedingperiods of Muslim history let every form of idiosyncrasy "-prosper; so much s3, that only those commentaries came infashion and were read with zest which bore no trace whatevof the touch given to the interpre~ tation o the Qurzn by the fearliest band of commentators. Th.e tender~ c grew universal. yIt was felt in every sphere of iearning. he period of time I iich could prefer Sakkaki to Juq jani or I>refer T:iftazani rkkaki was indeed a period when only wr iters o f t:he type ridavi and Jalalain could shine. (13) Take the case of compilations wherein matter wasgathered from commentarip already in existence. Wherevera variety of interpretations had been offered by previous com- entators, the compiler would invariably choose the feeblest. ~t that his eyes did not rest on appropriate or valid in- rpretations; but with a view to pandering to the prevailing ste, he would aeliberately overlook then (14) To make matters worse, the typ mmenta: .. l ~ .own as "Tafsir-bir-rai" or commentary wnicn lets tne te .~ bserve ones own personal opinion on any subject, came ~w freely to be written-a form of commentary strongly scountenanced by the companions of the Prophet. Not at reason and insight were tabooed in Islam. Were it so, all ldy of the QurBnic thought would seem futile ; for the rrciir openly invites its readers to exercise reason in their ~proach:o it, anc1 ponder on whait it states. At ev~ corn1 i ery its presetntation, it exclaims : "Do th ey medi tate on the g t ~ r ~ n ? are there: locks or their m~inds (0 :2 ?" :47
  • 18. xviii PREFAC rE FLRST "TaO ;ir-bir-ra at form of commlcntary which docs not LI-. , - . , ..-. - -. n l n l to rcprc!cnt wnar rrlc p. .7 an actually states. O n the . L " hand, th nntator 1]as somc view to advance and he ,s thc Q ext to le:nd suppfort to it. - - .. - . l n i s stylc 01 commentary camc lnto vogue in the days ~ lvhcn cvcry doctrinal bclicf of Islam came to be seriously cxamincd and a number of schools of theology took their rise, cnch intent 011 exploiting thc Ql~rA17 to uphold its own point of Comn~cntarics with this purpose are styled ,ir-bis-rai". A ~.~ l l r t ~wncn, zealous tollowers of thc diffcrent juristic ~cr schoo ; lfuslim pcd thc passion for sectarianism, thc v thc Qiirc .xploitcd to uphold, by hook or oy crooK, tncir own particular schisnlatic obsessions. Fcw carccl to bc guidccl by the pl;lin m c aning of the plain word ~ of thc Gircin,or by thc clear p urposcs I lndcrlying thc Qurznic mcthocl of prcscntntio~.of its contents, or by straight-forvard onc atte mptcd t I forcc the QurSnic mcaning to c lc vicws sponsor cd by thc Imam or founder of nls own sctus~natlc . school. of... , thought. T o crcatc furthcr complica~ions,c:ertain scctions of the Sufi stchool of thought in their search f or thc h iddcn meaning ". . . o thc Qurcn, went so far as to press cvcrythlng ~ u r ~ a ninto f .- i cthe moulds of their own formulas. Thus every Qurznic in-junction and every basic belief came to bear somc sort of eso-tcric c onnotation. This form of approach is also "Tafsir-bir-rai". O r takc another instance of this "Tafsir-bir-rai". Attemptswcrc madc during the period undcr rcfcrence to give the .- -Qura nic mcthod of argument the ga.rb of Greek logic. Infact, whcncvcr any rcfercnce was made to the sky, or theconste llaryordcr, attempt was made to square it with thc Greeksystcm of astronomy. O r take the latest examples of interpretatior lted bya certain type of commentators both in India ana agypt inthe name ofreorientation of the Quriinic thought. Attempt ismade to invoke the @(r&z to lend its support to the achieve-ments of modern research in the different spheres of scientific
  • 19. PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION xix thought, as if the gt~ilrinwas delivered over 1,300 years agojust to endorse in advance, in the form of riddlcs, what cen- / turics after, men like Copcrnicus, Ncwton, Darwin, H. G .Wells, could find out for themsclvcs without the aid of any revealed scripture-riddlcs reserved to be noticed and unravell-ed only by the present-day Aiuslirn comnlentators of thc &!ir1En. Such commentaries arc also to be classed as "Tafsir-bir-rai". Such in brief is the story of the QurLnic interpretation attempted in the past. But howcvcr bricf this survey, it isenough to show .tvhat obstacles one has to overconle to reachthe Q~~rfiz, what thick veils to lift to catch a clear vision of it. or The effort will involve a simultaneous survey of cvery nook and corner of the Q11r~n and thc cxcrcise of deep insight intothe meaning of things. It is only thcn that the forsakcn realityof the Qurin may put in its appearance. I have tricd to thebest of my ability to negotiatc with these obstacles. I cannotsay to what extent I have succecdcd in my attempt. But1 maysay this with confidence that 1 have opencd a new avenuefor an intclligcnt approach to the QurEn, and hope that men ofunderstanding will noticc that the method adopted by mc issomething fun( lly differ-ent fronn the mcin the past. 1, P- .. . Three distinct necas call ror attenuon In connecaon wu11the study of the Qurcn. These have been attended to severallyin Mzqaddam-i-Tafsir, Tc~J:rir-cll-Bfiyinand The Tarjum6n al-QurEn. The first prcscnts thc o-bjects orpurposes of the Qiirinand discusses the principles underlying them and enunciatcsthe leading ideas advaiiced by the Q,urin. The second is meantfor a detailed study of the Q?irJin,and the last aims to presentwhat is universal in the Qurznic teaching. The last of the series is published first ibr the reason that inits purposes, it can claim priority of importance, and in fact,i t forms the basis on which the other two works rest. I n thepreparation of this work, the object kept in view is to presentnot a detailed commentary on the traditional lines, but togive out all that is essential t o an easy grasp of the Quriinicmeaning. T h e method of presentation adopted for this purpose,
  • 20. XX PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONI venture to hope, may be favoured by the thoughtful amongus. T h e aim is to furnish a self-explanatory translation of the(LflrEn in Urdu, explicit enough to convey the scnsc ofthe ori-ginal in full, supported here and there, by appropriate foot-notes. These foot-notes offer commcnts on thc textual content,furnish details for the Qurgnic gcrtcralisations, disclose thevarious purposcs undcrl>.ing them, furnish argumcnt or cvi-dencc in thcir support, introducc cohcrcncc and orclcr in thediffcrcnt QurZnic i~junctions,anc! clarify thc ~ncaning the ofQuriinic tcxt with the utmost brevity. In short, thcy scrvc asa beacon light to thc thoughtliil- "a light glcaining bcforethem and on their right hand"-to usc the Quriinic phrasco-logy (Q:57: 12), a light that kccps thc rcacler company anddocs not dcscrt hjw. The arrangement of notes lvas no less an casy task than thetranslation of the original tcxt. One could not givc to thcmmorc than a limitcd space; but thc need was always tl~erc lct tothcm be as fi~lly comprchcnsive in their scope as possiblc. Carcwas thercforc taken to sce that thcy bctraycd no lacunae. T h cutrnost brevity has had to be rcsorted to in thcir coinposition;but i t may be made clear that every word of these notes issuggestive in import, and opens out vast vistas of possibleelaboration.District Jail, LVKCI ul16 &oeember,
  • 21. TRANSLATION OF PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION, 1945 THE ~ C I ~ ~ L ( ~ S Sof~ rn;t~l noiiceable in the fact that tlic plans I I ( ~ S S is 1i(. 1;tys o u t sca :ti11 prrL roclay he scarts a piccc o f lvork a~itl t Iic 1i;is .I1 that ,as ncccssary. FVlie~l lie 11c:xt( 1 ; ~ ) . CI;LM.IIS ancl h e rev~elvs t what vas clone by him tlic: cl;~!; bclore , he real izcs that thc vo1 e had thought wns donc well begins .to disclo Evcsy lvriter - . wlio has had rnc occnslon 10 rcvisc 111s own writings, will 1 cndorsc thc truth of thc stntcmcnt that I have j ust madl L a TVhcn I lookccl into the first cdition of The Tarjk m t n nl-1Ql~riitt after the Inpsc of scveral years, I felt just this experlencc. Thc rcsult was that I had to rcvisc the cntirc matter both of thc translation and the commentary which havc now put 011 a ncw bearing altogcthcr. T h c following are the alterations that need special mention: (1) Fscsh items of ir,terest have been incorporated into thetext of thc commentary of the Surat-ul-Fatika which had pre-viously been overlooked. T h e bulk of the volume has con-scquently been enlarged. T h e enlargement is particularlyduc to a further elucidation of t h e issues arising out of thesubjcct of the "Conccpt of God". T h c attributes of God have always formed a vcry delicateand complicated subjcct to handle. I t touches the frontiersof metaphysics 011 thc onc hand, and of religion on the other,since both havc an equal intcrcst therein. Philosophers morethan rcligious divincs havc taken a kcen interest in it. T h ephilosophic speculations of carly timcs, particularly in India,Grccce, and Alexandria, and of thc middle agcs havc givenrisc to alarge body of literature on the subject. IYhenscholars turned their attention to thc question of divine unity,and began to indulge in dialcctics, they fought among them-selves over the issues raised in consequence and opened the wayto a variety of divergent schools of religious thought among
  • 22. xxii PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITIONthcmselves. The historic conflict between the Traditionists(Ashnb-td-Hadith) and Free Thinkers ( A s h i i r ~ ) may be citedas but an instance. This was one of the questiorls which for lon~perplexed mein my student days. IYhen thc truth dawned on me ultimately,I realized that the way of the dialectician took one nowhcrc.The more I pursued it. thc more distant did I find rnysclffrom the truth. I ily after a vcry scrious and painfulrcflcction that I ri .hat the way to mental satisfaction ~ .. L - n.. .was thc V ; L ~m;~rkc.u u uy .LIIL x ~ ~ r d n u itself, thc way followedta tlic first ;gcneratic~n of interpreters of the Qrtrin. I t isth )d ~.liichI have followed in my approach to it. I "The more I da!shed my hands and feet agtiinst the wavt:s, The more woef~ perplexed did I fgel. , llly But when I ceasect to struggle and lay motionl~,, PCP The way ieir own free will, drifteci me acr le shore."The subject of the "Concept of God" seemed to me hedgedin an intricate network of dialectic disquisitions and philoso- phic terminology, and I felt that it should bc rescucd. This I have attempted; and I feel that cven those who are not con-vcrsant with the phraseology of Islamic learning will be able to follow my line of thought without difliculty. IYherevernecessary, I have given English cquivalcnts to such Arabicterms of philosophy and clialectics as had necessarily to beused in the course of my discussion, so that those whose educa-tion has been conducted on modern lines mayeasilyfollow whathas been stated on the subject. (2) In the course of the discussion on the "Concept of God"I had, in the first edition, incidentally to refer to the views heldon the subject by the followers of other faiths. The referencewas but cursory. But after its publication, it was realized thatthis needed some elaboration. The matter has therefore beenentirely recast for this edition and set in appropriate detail. (3) I n the first edition, I was content to distribute the
  • 23. PREFACE TO THE SECOXD EDITION xxiiimattcr of the volume only under certain leading heads. Inthe second edition, however, I have supplied sub-headingsas well to enable the rcadcr to catch at a glance the scope ofthemnttcr covcrccl undrr cnch main llcad. (4) T h c el~tirc mnttcr of tllr tsai~slationhas bccn revisedso n$ to sct ill c1casc.r 1~cssprctivc meaning of thc original theancl thic, as l"tr ;I$ possible in utmost conformity to thc dictionof tllc. Asabic tcxt. Tliosc -]lo hnvc hacl the opportunity ofrcntling thc mnttcr or thc first cclition will not miss to noticethat cvcry scco~l.cl third line in evcry paragraph has, in one orfor 111 or anotllcr, bceil modified. (5) T h e explanatory notes attached to the translation havein most cases bccn cnlargcd. O n the wholc, thc prcscrlt cdition is, in view of its specialnew kntures, so differe~t from thc prcvious cdition that, I daresxy, those who have read thc earlier edition will by no means lye1 indifferent to it.Ahrnacl~lagnrFort Jail7 fibrrtcly, 191.5 .
  • 24. C H A P T E R I1 T H E C O W-AL-BAQARAH- REVEALED A T MADINA I n the name o j Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful. This chapter begins with a statement that the object of the Qurzn is to direct mankind to the path of goodness, and that success in life is for those who care to live aright. Section I opens with a description of this category of people. [2] This is the Book whereinthere is nothing to doubt-a guidance to those who livearight- [3] To those who believe inthe Unseen, who observe prayer,and give (to others) out ofwhat We have given them, [4] And who have full faith -4 ~ 9 7 99 49. /in that which hath been sent kd3%?e&b H down to thee (the Prophet of Islam) and in thatwhich hath been sent downbefore thee and who firmly believe in the life to follow. [5] These are they who have 5hJ2 < ~,. 9 b /99*9~99 9 ~ taken to the path laid down by their Lord, and these are 0 u+?+ they with whom it shall be well. As agrainst thc3se who care to live aright and have full faith in the Qurln, there stands a body of people who have chosen 3
  • 25. 4 P$$T 11 3 to reject its guidance. A description of them also is given here. [6] As for those who ha..?? 9 ~ 7 M d s M/ e , Orefused to believe, alike i t $,+$&b69$?2$~&~ /,e .. @- 99 99 / .7~,,/is to them whether thou warnthem or warn them not; they oc;,Y4?Y+~p?d;~will not believe. [7] God hath set a seal ontheir hearts, and on theirhearing, and a veil licthover their eyes; and forfhenl a~vaiteth grc achastisement. SE Iiclway 1 the twc) sets of people rncn tion " .., stand those who profess to believe in the iaitn presenreu r the Qurcn but who actually arc not believers. 181 And there arc someamong tllc who say:"We believe in God andin the Day to follow".I n truth, believersthey are not ! [9] They seek to aecclve 994 i / 9God and those who believe. , ~p /~ c %~ / S P / G . W L + I 97 @ ~ / ~ .In fact, they deceive &YJU$&Lthemselves, though they are )f LXVJ A here is a disease (of disbelief) in their he arts; so God ha th incre ascd thcir , . , T:" disL,roL. ~r them, there is a grievous chastisement,
  • 26. THE COW-AL-BAQARAH 5 because of the false assertion they make. While pretending to be working for peace and order,they spread d i s ~ r d e r . [ l l ] And when it is y 9 l p J b. bV!,*&y / ,p ,?- , 9.7 said to them: "Do not 4 kf~ 3 L. ~ ./ 2 P P(c ,/ - &%&idlfl$ 7 spread disorder in the @ r land," they say, "We are the people who promote order". [I21 hfark! I t is $ 3 u 3 ?9 bp A9 ~ t F 4 9 4 / 9 J +e they who are the / 9 93Z" promoters of disorder! @d>L.id But this they d o not realise. They regard upright behaviour as fol the crcationof disaffection and strife as ~visdom. [13] Then it is said 3 da$,,a~, 5; 1 to them: "Believe as others have believed," thcy say: "Shall we believe in the manner of 4 -J<" 9 I fools?" Tnkc it! OU+$?~&J they arc thenlsclvcs veritable fools, although (in their arrogance) they do not realisc it. -1 hey 7 mock a t believers. [I41 When they meet r4:j9$(3j3$jJ3; %rg( the Faithful, they say: , ,
  • 27. "We hold to your faith";and when they are apart > , I3 wj d 4 9 <r~<s g l F J g ,/-.r*with the mischievous f L*;, 7 lamong them, they say 99 - 0 . ~ @A &.+ $+ to them: "MTe rcallyare with you; we wrrc cking t h ] God v ly 99 4rnrow [lack a t thcnn 4 ~ 2 - ; 3 ~ 3thrir mockery and lct / , 9 4 ~ 7 @~ , 9 & 4 4 3 , q / -them loose to eddy aboutin their perfidy. [16] These arc theywho have purchasedmis-pidance a t thecost of guidance. So,neither their trafichas brought them gain, @ ; $gt; a .. /nor could they takkto the right path.mile: [17] They are like onewho was groping in thedark a n d kindled a fire &$&to have light, but whenthe fire flamed a n d its aFlUGL&G 9 15~ / 9 / 4 ,9/ / c / 7 9 9 9 /< / 0light spread around, it &o~YJ&!!$,~~ 3 eso happened, through @u>&. A ~ ~ 7 9 + 2 Pdivine power, t h a tsuddenly the flame gotextinguished, a n d thelight vhnished. T h eresult was t h a t darknessoverspread again a n d theycould see nothing.
  • 28. THE COW-AL-RAQARAH 7 [I81 So, deaf, dumb, / 9 ~ / . l g f ~ Prk 9 blind, as ther arc, they 11 A ~ r u f h f l / 79 ?/ cannot, in their state @ U% * & of pcrfidy, be reclaimed. The Truth of God manifests itself cvcn in natural calamities. T h r y are blessings in disguise, bringing home to those who disregard the 1x1~s life the painful consequcnces of tllcir of actions. [:9] Or tbcy are like those14 ho when thc earth is in nccd ofrain and God, through His grace, clouds the skies and causesn cloud-burst nccon~panicdby darkness, thunder, and lightning, , , , 5zl$s & -4" Ainstead of rvelcon~ing,as theirsharc, the bcncfits of the rain,mind only its disturbingaccompanirncnts. The)- arestruck with fear OC cleath, andsince they cannot stop thethundering roar, thrust thcirfingers into thcir cars againstthc thunder-claps, althoughthey cannot ward off thelightning by this device; andGod encircleth thc disbelievers. [20] Whenever the lightn-ing flashes powerfully, theirterror increases; so much sothat they feel that the !i_~htn-ing bath wcii-iiigh snatched 2 Y ? Vtheir sight. So, ivhen~veritflashes to t h r o ~ vlight aroundthem, they go a fev pacesforward and when darltnesscloses upon them, they hold
  • 29. 1) a c k . 11 (1;ocl will i t , thcvv i l l rrrnz in thrre I,cl.c.rt of ..>:.. I .-....i.." , > " At l i r i i ~ i t - ~ l l a L I utlirir siglit. - 97 , 7 f :5"ii <&> pl.c.rily Gocl 1iatl-1 vcra l l things. llir Unity of Go:,. T h e Divinc attributes of c r e a t l ~ ~ ~ ullu SUE tcnnncc arc a tldi~ccd support o r bclicf in Divine Unity, a in I~clit~f wllicli i.; iilgl-ainccl in human nature. [ ? I ] 0 y c ~ n a n k i n d Scrve !your Lord who created you cba- A $; ; 4 ~ 7 ~ ~ 9 : ; ;&&JyJ-J+."- (2: -.and ~ v h ocrcatccl also thosethat liavc gone I>c.forcyou,that you niay liverighteously.place for you niicI thehcavcn a coverinIS, the 9 5 /L2"3* > $heaven 11..on1 whilch l i e /,9 /< $,E,b : ;,:.!!, , 7 f<4 /-pours do~n rain to ~ v a t e A P L q > *f " + G :$ r - b ?<,f.v/ 5 d9-, %the earth from .I- ~ i c h grol dpui3~,~dJi&s , /fruits o r c livcrsc sort foryour sustcnancc. So, ~ v h c nthepower of creation is,only His, a n dthe poivcr o f sustenanic is only His, andt h a t therc is no God other ii1a.n He ! ~ r o ~ h c t l t o o and Kcv elation: d qd note that if you be in doubt -tlth of tile .:<b.delation
  • 30. wllicl~ Mc. 1iar.c. srnt down through our servant, (~hr mc.isc.ngc.r), then you can casily dt.citle l i ~ r) ~ o u r s r l v ~ s ct.hethc.r it is a n y procluc~ion01 t1ic Ilurnan inti.llect; &&lJ+ 01. il y o u pt.rsLst in >.our doubt, then $3 7 L?>LTP *, d//J. 7 /d , ? w f product :it lcast a chapter, onc like it, . d%;~&l~;; A // , a n d invite bcsidc God all thosc tr.honn you regard as j.our liclpers so help you d o i t . [24] And if you d o i t not-ancl ih? trutli is that you shall ncver do it-thrn, fear the Ficc of which, 9 /~P/,z/ i ~ ~ s t e aof wood, men and stoner ibsrn 0 d ~k!b>~~& the fuel, a n d which is prep;ired for those ~ c h o rrjcct the Truth. QsG . : . /0 5 I/- & .~ ,u~+ i k $ i r [25] T o thosc ~ v h ohave follc the p a t h of hclief and .hose works also are rigliteous, to them annour- that tllcy shall have gardcns of rtcrnal bliss, instrad of a place . 9.. .9-/9 p i ~ / 4.,c., cf fist, grcen gardcns in which Lkb-&9&d& I, S) ( kflow cut-rents of ri;lter. .Vhensoever [hey will bc providccl therefrom >$ ~ % g > . i ? & ~ 9 / ivith fruit for sustenance or any a " -9- 7 9 7otller form of heavenly sustenance, ~ b ~ l wNb&r>- #/9t h e v shall cjaculate: "This was the & A i.*cvery sustenance which was provided ~~~~,bg,A~d / 79 1 /9* 7 G;B/4to 11s bcfore. I t is a recompense forgoodly dccds of ~ v h i c hrvc had beenpromised in o u r earthly life."T h e recompense will correspond to thetleecl thcy had wrought. Apart fromthis thcy shall have virtuous a n dchaste female companions a n d theirbliss will be a n unfailingbliss with n o diminishing.
  • 31. 10 r PA! - I&, 7, T h e way of God is to express thc T r u t h a t times by inc,anr: of iilustratinn~. [26] God (rhose messnsc is intcndedto cxprcss a thing in a manner intelligi-ble to the pcoplc addressed) docs not ror /,,,../,r , ,/.+"/ , J / T / + / /tllc sake of cimrnrss ]leiitate to e n ~ p l o y bLbw9ba4*G~bthc iltuslration o f cvcn ;I gnat or of &,A , , .,,, ,, ,9 ,, ,anything morc insignificant. As for Js$jy4&$those who bclicvp, thcy catch thesignificance of rhat is adv:nccd by 7 d., ; J u 3 L, 9 J9 i c 7 " ; / ,r/ , A& + their Lord; but as for thosc. i.i.110 dis-bclievc, they cannot, clue to ignorance w? ;>> : t $;,y>b ug+ ,//+,/ P 9 +/, *,f.,/4a n d inciiffcrc.r.c:., :cac:i the i y i i i i i . &CS@J!~=&%&P! 3 I?They will ask: "What mc.nncth Goc!by such a n il!ustration?" Mail>-therlc are lvl-lo arc tiicrcby togo a stray, arl d many thcrc arc vhoarc causeu to go aright and (thcDivine tra)7 is) to let nonc go , y / ,*9J R.// 7 astray cxccpt the transgressors. &3d+&+.~$ [ 2 7 ] Mho a r c thc t r n n s ~ r c s s o r s .., ;transgressors arc they who brcak tliccovcnant of God having once admittedit, a n d sundrr what God had biddcnto bc kept unitcd an rl a c t di sorclcrly & ~ ~ w ~ / 7 9 / ? a ! 7 99 7 9I / 7 v b 9, ? /in thc land. SO c011f irmed a r c t l I c J , i n @~>&J&&JJ& , F.~ -/their ~vickcdnessand perverseness that theyare bound to sufEr loss in consequence. T h e Life Hereafter-the first creation, a n ai-gunlent for thc sccond. - r281 0 Sfankind! How can you deny G,, - -;hen you know that you were once without 53 7P;g lik ar:d h c p:~;.:. :-c?i.l lift, ;.qc? :rill ther, bb1d3$Lu3&&,$ 9 ~ 9 J j :-"iv. J p ~ - "$ < ,, ; :d/y .f#cnucr you io dic a n d c!iiicken you t o life .. + f j . . 2) U $aG43 ;S ,
  • 32. SHE COW-AL-BAQrZRAH 11once again, and eventually shall you be /,JAYRbrought back to Him. @~ ~ - & j . TI, . superiority of man over the rest of the rings earth is emphasized. / 1291 H e it is rho created for you allthat is on earth; then turned H e to the skirs J,kfl&Gd$ / , Tf,and formed them into seven spheres, every 22.11of which offers you a variety of benefits; band H e knoivcth all things. 11 d..&JJ) 9~- ~ Y H $9 // 6 Thc a p p o i n t ~ : ~ c n t man as the vicegerent of God on earth of -the perfection of human species-the advent of Adam and the starting of Divine Revelation. [30] And 0 Prophet! Ponder on thisfact that when thv Lord addressed theanqels: "Verily I a m about to place onez icegcrcnt", they said: "Wilt 3~&{/JE &/=,1 3 $.J >3 9;/, 71 ,T :e thrrcin as vicrgercnt a being / && #bb;ikji&y~ ../ /who will cause disorder in the earth and , 9 1? , , ~&@&w / 1 3 . 3 9 4shed blood therein, while we hymn T h ypraise and extol T h y holiness, in the trust thatthy purpose is free from evil and T h y movement is free from flaw?" H e said:"Verily that which I have in view, youknow not". [3!] T h e n the process was set inmotion even as was the Divinc purpose, 9 ~ ~ ~so much so, that Adam made so marked aprogress intellectually7 that he acquaint- , ,,,, f 994 d 0ed himself with the narnrs of things. ~ o d ~ $ & J @ f l & ~set these things before the angels a n d asked: "Tell me the names of thes
  • 33. 4ye know thc truth about them, as yefancy you do". @&&/q;J,y$4rl -/ [32] T h e angcls said: "Glorybe to Thee! We have no kno~vledge cxccpt . , ,what Thou hast causcd us to know. Thou, dl&[Thou alone art the Knowing, thc Tivise!" ,, - bw -. c @T %I [33] When the angels admitted thus - - -" / ir ignorance, He 0 Adarr : them their na94 when he gave out their names, . ~J$%~EL,saic1: "Did I nottell you tha t I know what is hidden . . -J -g $ p[ . .- / / / .the heavens and in the earth, and what ye . .sho.r r forth and whz~t ye cor Angels bow before Adam-Satan refuses-the heav, existence of Adam-the forbidden tree. - L r341 ILhen 7iVe said to the angels: "Row -1to Adam," they bowed accordingly save 0,: $%(a >l,Iblis (Satan) who woilld not, and stood F 24 / I / b / 7 / -+ / 7 p1 / 4 // /, % 4 /stiff -necked. T h e fact is that he was &bd~&~y~f9wof tlle ungrateful. [35] And Ye said : "0 Adam! ., 1 p 9</#77P 9 P / / / t0thou and thy male in the garaen anc ?>J>&I&,Q>~&~cat together freely thcrefrorye like, but approach not yf ye twain be of the transgressors. Ihe 1apse of Adam- -his con f ~ s ~ . i n n - - f.ess, and~the~ ~~gi ~ hrginnirig of a nlew phas;e of life ~ d b1 7.en Satan caused the twain to 1 ~fall i nto a la] and be deprived of ?se . . .pdd7 / 49 1 7 4 /ythe 2jtate (the state of peace and -comfort) they were in. And 11:e said L j &r U ; 5 ps l f klu6L Get ye out, everyone a n ene:my untc /../ $ . d ~ [
  • 34. THE COW-AL-BAP_ARIIH 13every o t h r r . You will have to livehcrcaftcr (instead of in the garden) I 9 ~/6<?9on earth a n d profit (a5 is indivinr kno~vlcctge)by the good things (3 G- &jFL3of life for a pcriocl." [37] T h r n did Adam rccrive fromHis Lorcl certain directions, and Md qb&-j+9 c 4 0 / / !>then Gocl tiirned H e to him) in relent- 9, , 6 ,p /6,h , ,n-~ent.For, verily, H e it is .vho @ ? ?! 1j-J J s -Yy l p #& 4,lovrtlt to turn a n d 1 lolimitto His mrarcy. l h c guiclancc of Revclation an od ancl c,vil ;it work 1381 Adam forgiven, We issuc~command, "Grt yc all o11t Iro~nher8for tllc ncw lilt. that you I~avt, now --7 c~&~&G@to nclopt. Hut rc.rncml)cr that .vlicncver amcss;~gcof [ r u t h comcs to you, H .A". 5.you lvill havc two ways bcfore you. F.z6: / p v / / -/e /pWliosnrvcr S I ~ ; I I I follow M Y way, *J;Wai$cslMthcrr s!iall collie upon him no fear, # 9 H ~ M ~nor shall he grieve. O~ i , . Yh. r791 "Ant1 as for hiin who shall L dbelicvc not rtnd deny our signs,hc shall be of thc companions ofFire to tlwc.11 thcrcin." I l~cginning of I)i.inr Revelation-atldrcss to the c~l~ilclren 1sr;tr.I ~vlio ol .crc- rc.g;trdccI as the chosen peoj~lc. [4(] O h cliildrcn of Isr:tc.l! Ca , 3,9J$7 j& ! 2 1 && 7 d. I ~ >,~ ~. & $tnincl the 1)lcssings ~vhcrcwith I I ~ l ~ s s e ~ l " ~ , 9 ?A9ye and b r [roc to the promisr ye gave
  • 35. 5I E will ac cept 1Zy guidancean, , , , ,r t ..-an it faithfully. I ,, , , , ,,wB~shall fulfil the prornise I gave ye thfor those M :ho act f kithfucy on-the guidarILL, +hP. shall be re~vnrded ,"P cLLLjrwith prosperity; and of Me alone, beve mindful. [41] And believe in what I have / I/j$wd9L,P> /7/ sent down, confirming that which :with you already, and do not take $gJj@g$j"the lead in rejecting it, and donot for petty gains exploit My j9Le&b+ ,/&/A,-! -/ JJ~% 79<9cAdwords, and of Me be mindful. 0 u$g~& [42] And clothe not what is true ,PAW,with what is u n t rie and r aise not ~ -/ g&?gsuspicion about it, or knovv.inglysupress the truth. [43] And o b s e ~ e pdyer, the vsignificance of which is lost on =?$r$@$J;you, and pay the poor-rate inrespect of IU are nolonger sin( 1 bow downwith those y v l i w ,aw down. 199 [44] Itrill ye enjoin righteous-ness upon others, and neglect &~;~CCT~~u,y~ / / / c7 9 / 9 5 ? F /9 9to practise it yourselves, althoughthe Rook of God is with you and b $ 3 ah 1you are accustomed to read it. @ GggjslC a n ye not understand this much? Implicit trust in God in moments of trial and prayer is the one spiritual force which promotes purity of mind and brings about a change for the better in ones cc [45] PLILuA,..?. upon the forces of s t e ; ~ ,"A UL,Nfast patience and of prayer to bette our condition; but this is a
  • 36. THE COW-:lL-BAQAR.4I1 15task whichis very hard to perform exceptfor those who humble themselves P/ /> . 791 9 9 4 0 A &before God,will have to meet their Lord, as ~ ~ _ o ~ ~ I o & C & , 1461 A n d who think that they L ,,p I /; 7 s 4 @ ~ J ~ ~ P . . r, B S 0 r T k> ~ I oeventually indeed they will have to return t o H i m . Rt.rcrence to the times a n d doings of the Israelites-and to the causes of the rise s( fz!! of nations. ;! ; [47] O h children of Israel ! , , , .. $!@yJjIJJ~>!&. 9 9 / 7 w / , A / Call to mind the blessingswith which I blessed you a n dlifted you abovc all others. [48] And bcwarc of the Daywhen n o effort o n the part ofa n y one will protect you fromthe consequence of an evil drcd, " J / ~ W 3 "when n o intercession of onc foranother be considered, o r any 95 9 19 % wb / 7 P/?Pcompensation be accepted, and when 0WEnone shall succour a n o ~ h c r . T h c delivcrunce of the Israelites from the captivity of thePharaohs of Egypt a n d thc grant to them of the Hook a n d t h eCriterion. Idolatry a n d t h c worship of the cow among t h e1~r:lrlitt~s. r491 And call t o mind the occasion L .lvllcn We rescued you from the .Us ? / / 9 /bondage imposed upon you by ~ $J J ? 2 ,S .,$3thc Ihnrnolls lvho had lncrcdo u t to you n c r u d trcntmcnt, ,f&&zes . - +y&+ @ 7 9 79,slain your rnalc children, a n d
  • 37. thr m e m l ~ c r sof tl pastv. 11nd in t l l i 5ordcal for you. 4 7 ~ pp .I * /. . I&;!J ~ j j I Y/, / (501 And call t 11eocc;lsion u ~ h c n y( as -om- 0. " - . ,/ , ,. - ,,;Y,~,.,,, ,ing out of Egypt n l l a L I I C r - h a r a o l l & ! 3 i ; ~ ~ , zr.~kfollo~vingyou, v(: p a r ~ c t lthc sc;t PI:,< @ G &?A~in such a mnnncr thal you camcout safcly a n d thc people of P11araa- got drov~?cd before your vcry cycs :itlcre wrttching(the sccnc horn t h c [51] A n d call to 111in1 tllc ,P,+ /forty nights of O L - Iengage ~1 ., T.~ ,,,,? 3d-J~ ~ ~ L S " Y I . ~ W ~ J , ~ , ~ mcnts with X,Ioscs ~ v h c n ,d i hi:s abscncc:, ye took. t o thc calf n, w&,r , :a+;p&k.s . 9I .+,5 id turnecj away fi-om the path T r u t h I :hich w:1s indeed agreat lapse on your part. [52] iYcverthelcss, IVc in 7 / ~ * 9y7/ -4 . ~our graciousness forgave you $>p. 7 G5 & . 9 y& Q G / 9that you nnight prove grate-ful. C531 i n d call to mind the occasion & ji3 / 3 .~w l ywhen We, having fulfilled the eng age- 9~ Ilnent of forty nights with Moscs, gxveto Moscs the Book (the Torah) a n d 9 > .4H.d 9 ,the Criterion ed3&$that you might be rightlyguided. . - [54.] And call to mind alsowhen Moscs, having come d o ~ v nt hhill with the Torah vouchsalrc d - .to him, ant1 finding you ctlgagcd i:the worship of thc calf, cricdout, "Oh my people! How sad that
  • 38. you have forgotten your promisc! Vcril y, yoii kavr ivrongcd yo1 it-- 5,j , SLI~.~:> 1 5 / -9-p~ 7 9 sclvcs by worshipping a c;;!f; ~.~.licrcfore to your klakcr turn EA.~ 1$7<-.9 57 H ,r/O ti.i77f$& +PA f / / ? I i n repc1it;lncc and, ;is a mark o r J&U~~~~9V9JG -/ expiation, mortify ;.oursclvcs. T h a t ill be the right tliirig e$bjfLt$g) --- . g~ for you in t11c sight of your Maker. T h c n your rcpcntancc Tvas accr:?tr< a n d Hc turned to you; for iuclccd, Hc oft forgives, thc IIerciful. T h e Israclitcs doc~btdivine Rcvclatiorr. [35] .And call to mind when youh a d said, "0 lloses! ye will not ?-% 9/ t 991 7 ~ . ¶ < 7believe until we brhold thcc openly, ; <c, , , ; C/hold converse with God." You know p&tb&&dycj;F&what thc result 1 ~ 3 s your ofimpertinence? T h e result .as that , thereupon a thunderbolt seized youeven ~ v h i l cyou wcrc looking o n ! 1561 T h e n tTe raised you to lifeagain after you icrc dead, thathaply you givc thanks. I n the waterless descrt or Sinai, the good things of lifc .ereprovided to the Israelites. But they provccl to I>c ungratefulto God. [ 7 And when it was found that 5]the lack of water and the heat ofthe sun in the dcscrt or Sinaiwere about to wipe you out ofexistencc,)l,Ve caused the clouds to &c;~$&w;@
  • 39. ~ ~ r e n d you,. and M:e sent do1i.n ovrr . upon you Mcni7cr and S(tl;iln s;?ying, " E ~ i tlieely oS ~ h gooil tliings we c " 99 /??<? / have proviiled Sor you." Still tlicy @ &* / .U +I $g did not give up thcir evil ways a n d suffered in conscqucncc. Tllcy did not hurt us by tllcir ungratcSu1 bchaviour; but they hurt their own sclvcs. W l ~ c n the Isrnclitcs r c t u r ~ ~ rtu pvwer a n u prosperlry, u illstead of cxprcssing thankfulness to God in all humility, thcy grcw arrogant. I 1 thcn, cannot thc mcmtof that ~nciclcnt bring you thc senseof contrition wlicn you werebefore thc city ancl wc comn~andeclyou: "Entcr this city triumphantlya n d cat thcrcli-o~nfrcely ~vhatcver + < A C;you like a n d ~ ~ l l you enter the cn f&~& GlXgate thereof d o so in humilityseeking forgivcncss, a n d muttering Hitatun,( O h G o d rcmovc from us theimpurities of sin) a n d We willpardon you your faults and @w& 3 3 7 9 9 < A Aincreasc the number or thosewho d o good?" [59] But it so happcncd that / <, <79 9-9the unruly among you changed &urtd&G$sthc phrascology of contrition into other than-hat was givcn them, ~ ~ h c r e u p n n , / / 9 J " FdG ! Z# $ , dk l & tle scnt upon thc unruly a scourge k /,999/79 / , -4from above for thcir clisobedicncc. @ ~r;~jki.,
  • 40. The d of springs of fre:;h water in the d.esert of a n d tk ecine qu arrels anlong the Israelite,s over th [60] And call to mind when Mosesasked of Us water for his people and Vesaid: "Smite the rock wi;h thy staff I 7 9 .!7< A #&!W.S-U l?&>and you will see that thcre iswater available for you." ThenMoses carried out the behest, somuch so, that from the rock gushed 7 p / A ? . /w 99//7/twelve fountains and all the tribesknew their dricking places. You ~A~$LI$&JSwere told a t the time: "Eat anddrink of what God hath provide ~7 ? P ,/ 4 7and do not go about creating adw&!!dWdisorder in the land." The state of subservience or s1aver.y aemoralizes a people, a n d little stamina is left in them to urge them on to high rcsolves. The Israelites freed themselves from the oppression of the Pharaohs and a bright future was in store for them. But they yearned for the petty comforts they had enjoyed in their state of slavery under the Pharaohs and the denial in the state of freedom of even the smallest comfort of yore was galling to the [GI] And then recollect mar: pnaseof your past I~istorywhi ch hasa lesson for you, when you had (sried ou.to Moses: " 0 hfoscs! we will nolt put , 1 1up with just one sort of!rood. Ca 11 w;u~%&$ $uon Thy Lord to bring foirth for uthat which the earth growern-its. .,herbs, its cucumibers, its garlic, - r -lentils and oniol3s." He answered,
  • 41. "Ah! jThat desires do yo11 entertain! Vill you cxchangc the sapcri~ foror the inferior, the high state of fi-ecdom for the satisfaction of a petty appetite 3" Wc c.:iclaimed indisgust: "If y~: ha e grown so drLgcneratc, then get ye dowr to sornc city where ye can ha.thc things ye dcsirc." The r(was that the , came tcbc amictcd I liiiationand homcles: tl drewthcm selves th e clisplcasurc of God,ancl Ithis, bec ausc they clisregardedthe cl.ircctionr; of God and sle~vtheir prophcts for no reason,and this bccause, they woulc1 notyield to the way of progress " ,lrebelled agairin ex cesses. T h:e annou t is macie that the way ation lies . . l a-long tne patn or Delier and righteous action. Kate or family 1- P 1 o r any relii~ i o u s :tionalism does not count. When the Jews sec gave u p th e way o. belief and righteous action, neither their f 1 sense of racial- superiority, nor their religious groupism was of any avail. T h e Law of God never turned to ascertain to what race or to what religious group people belonged. I t was con- cernedonly with the nature of the activity they engaged them- sel.ves in; and when it was found that they did not stand the tes t of righteousness, they were condemned and cast away. 321 Verily, they who be!lieve (in the , : of the Prophet Muhaimmad), and C% e -they vvho are Jews a n d Christians 7, / 7 L ;
  • 42. THE COI,V-.4L-B.4QARAH 21and Sabians-whoever believeth in God and theday to come when the life lived is to be accounted fand doeth thatwhich is right-shall havetheir recompense with theirLord: Fear shall not comeupon them, neither shall they 0996999 / /t 9 $grieve. oY>*+Y!&O~ 7,: T h e Jews had degraded themselves to such a state that they never observed any religious injunction in sincerity, but tried to devise various neTv methods to absolve themselves from the proper dischargc of their duties. Their religious observance was onl:y a merc 1 0 3 ~And call to m ~ n d that chapter of yourhistory also when Je had taken a cove- %~KK?nant from you (on the occasion ~ v h e n ", >>~byou wcrc standing a t the baqe)and, we had raised the (mount of) T u r highabove you. Jc had thus said: "Hold fastto ~ v h a t JVe h a ~ j c delivered to you and z/ mit;g "/ "give heed to that lvhich is therein,that you may g r - 0 ~ ~ righteous." & I ~ L A L , [6$] Yet you turned back thcrcafter.But for the grace 2nd mcrcy ton-ardsyou, you should llnvc, through your $$~a>~7;w;4 ,999 , , 9 ..3d (E/f//Jxvavered behaviour, surcly bcen l o s c r s . f l w J J f i & f G [65] And full ~ ~didl you know lthat to such of you as had committed cxcenses @G>z Non the Sabbath day by clcvising v a r i o u ~ & ~ ; ~ , ~ > 9 ~ ~ ;excuses to absolve thrmsclvcs from thereligious duties prcscrihrcl, .," - ?. 4 9 N 5 >A ~ ~ Y 3 - j 1 / .-Ye had said: "Ye be dcspisecl as E /?apes (or hunted out of human socicty)".So it happened;
  • 43. [(,GI :inti Vc made this scrvc as awarning to thosc of thcir time, andalso to tliosc ~ v h ocame aftcr them.I t lsas n cnriglitcous. It had bccomc n hatxt rvith the lsrae~ltcs r a ~ s c e n d l r c ~ to an number of unnccessnry qurstions and hair-splitting issuc in respect 01 rcligion instc:id of conSorming to the simple re gious discctions. [67] And call to nlindsaid to his people, "God clesirethYOU tc sacrifice a heifcr".Instead of carrying out this simple /</direction in a straightfor.asd 3~flLww!!k 7 9 ~ 7 / 9 ~9 9 l M 7 ~ j99/ / +go zp.way, they bcg;in to acldrcss him j9~kbJpLw@kvarious sorts of qucsries. Theyasked: "I>oest thou makc a jest of 6 3 O@&;fl&l&jJ~ . . A . C Yus" ? Said Moscs: "God lorbidthat I should (in givingcxposition of religiousinjunctions) bc onc of thetriflers." [68] Thcreupon they said: "If you b>,L;lb+&JuF,(~Li " 7 W / 9 d / / / L p 9 9 9y/are in the right, call upon thy Lordto make clear to us what theheifer is like which 1t.e have to d ga .&blJfi.isJJ1- 4 /~/~//, 54. P,A/lS zsacrifice? We want details." +ruG$h!! / B v4b -/Moses answered: "God says: She ia cow, neither old nor youn g> amiddling between. Now th.at thedetails arc given to you, d oas you are bidden." ~ ~ [69] They raised a further //(V 9 9 9 //$ / 44, , b l J&bJJ[ibbJ!J /question. They said: "Call onyour Lord to make clear
  • 44. THE COW-AL-BAQARAH 23to us what colour it is?" H eanswered, "God says: She is aheifer, brown in colour, deepbrown-and pleasing to the eye7." [7O] J ~ h e nthe -details aboutcolour also were thus affordedthey raised another issue. Theysaid: "Despite these details,it is not easy for ns torecognize the animal. So callc:r, your Lord for us to make itfurther clear what cow it is-for to us cows seem alike,and verily if God pleases,we shall be guided aright." [7 11 11-l~ereupon Moses said : "Godsays: She is a cow nrver empioyed P ~0 ~4 P ,9 ~ ( 4 ., /in ploughing the earth nor in water- 3 3~~!J&&JJ~ ,,/ GY$&+Y~~;,J&719 ".A@ = :- 9 2 -9-5, /ing thc fields, sound, Tree of anyblemistl." So crestfallen, thev J&said: "No~vhast thou given us the exact picture". Then theysacrificed her, though they 3eemed at heart disinclined to do it. [72] And call to mind the occasionwhen you slew a man and then foisted .,,rthe derd on one another. and God b c; ,, ~ . ~ ~,3 p?%,p, , / ?clisclosrd !.hat you were trying toconceal. [73] JVherefore We said: "Youtouch him (the suspect) with apart of the dead". This was done,n n d t h e iclrntity of the murdcrerl v a s confirn;ed.. T h u s doeth God
  • 45. revlvc L l l r dead a r ~ ulllahc> manifkt to you his signs that haply you understancl. lepth of spiritual and moral degradation which the 3 had rea.chcd is now refcrred to. They did not apF L" "; I .-.. d ~ ~ n ore their degradation: Their mind seer C.VCII r [74] Yet your ncarts hardened thereaftt;. s n d became hard as rocks q+,dfl&y, &2- -/+ 9 e 14Ppoqp 7//&0p. t . 9 ~ 9 MM,d-,r,a n d harder still-fsr thcre are YA3l~J~k?-& %+ 5rocks from which gush streams, , g ~/ A / *a n d some thcrr are out of which, *J~$;WI&?&J;when cleft, water issues forth, and * . . . -..ind eed somc:there a re vhich 4 GSJ+~ 1& ,; , # % 99 997/<3CGtr/dovn throu gh fear (3f God. 0 ! J b . h 3 , ~ & $ @pit? on thos c hearts which ar i - -harder than cvrn rocks! And bearin mind that (the Law of) God isnot hrecllcss of what you do. Having rrfcrsrd io tht. early history o aeli tcs, the Qurnn rcviews their s u b s c q ~ ~ c n r dccds, thc iand th eir straying alvay from the path of truth. Their basic veal<ness lay in the fact that thcy had ccased to posscss a correct know- ledge of thcir scripturc a n d had ceased t~ a c t righteously in c( c r there- I .;Lusllrns! Uo vou st111 exncct si~&$;14m L . _I j c w r t o bc mindli~l what is stat- ofrcl in l ~ h r i s own scripture a n d in # , H M 99/9/79 7w(5 9 4accorcjiir,ce therewith btlieve in!.our scrip, U ~ also, just for your C f ~ i $ ~ & ~ , &$$ksake, lvhcn .-.Pu arc awarc that thcris a party oi t , l ~ e mu.110 listento MOrCi C G ~d and !.et having uildcr- of
  • 46. stoc,tl it, t,~nil,c~r !.it11 i t , mid tllc.). /p . 7 / 7 ~ / 9C / ~ kno .II.I t t 11(.). d o ? @6 a& J ! ? ~ 3 l,rlic..~.: t11t.v s;t)., .r I)cli(.vc" j " b u t , l i c s l l t11t.y ~ ~ i (;:~:!tt. 011c ,;:!: s ~ t ;tnothc:r, tliry say, ".hy blab yo to thcni -liat Gotl bath ~.c~vc;~lc.tl to yot1? SO that thvy might tlirolv it 1);lck ;it you ;is thc very thing rccvivrcl lfonl your ni,n Gocl. <:a11 ~ O L L not undcrstantl this mucli?" [ 7 7 ] K n o ~ v t1:t.y not that Got1 -//A ~ & , d I W, 0 5) /-a.~q! .A .! iinorvcth lvilat they hitlc, as lvc.11 /3P - D I / / c I ~ ~9 ;IS vhat they disclose,? @d * l" b 3 u3z-J. rhcir scribcs trnfIicked in T r u t h , ancl thr re.liyious assets. :,i ihc common pcoplc ccrc nothing t ~ t tllc-ir sc.lS-satisfying t ,(.i;;:fs and ( ] l c x fcrvoL;r9 f;~rfirancc. ilir ;.r:ligic~ns lvilclcrs of :he JLIF i n .heir olvn~ii.l-s and tllc,l:r own bclicrs on ~ I I Ct c x ( u a ~ contc%r,:of thrirscripture- (?;,rc~!l), and said that t h r rcgu1;ttions f o r r n ~ i ; ; : ~ ~!)). ~!!c!mJ.cbrc. 5,ncrcd ns those containccl in tllc scripturc, a?;~rld -;ri tl~crelorc~r l l l , l 1 l : bincling on the pc:oplc a t 1;ir.g~. (. [ 7 8 ] ~ 2 n damc n ~ l i c r carc~~nlcttcrccl who Kll4JW nothing folkof the Book rxccpt fantasiesabout i i a n d bcguilc thcn~sclvcsvith conjccturc,~. [79] roc then to those whowrite thc Book with thrir ownhancls, a n d coin regulations tosuit their convcnicnce and pttssthem for divine injurlctions :?ndsay t h a t these are from God justto secure paltry gains. Ioc
  • 47. * ?D-$(o tlicir hands hnvc to t l ~ c n lfor ~ v h a t .rittt.n, a n d ivoc: to thcm for the -q.* L?$d!! 4 7 -/cr $u r a r n i n g s which they have nladc @ &:g+,g$JJ$i; TIlc ignorancc o f thc Jrv;:; ii:;is so g;i--,ci t i l n t thc)i firmly bciicvcd t h a t they ;i.c.rc a pcople who h a d all-cady sccurrtt ~:~lj:::ion. ?lint was 12.11y tllc)- bi.lii.vcd t h a t it was impossible for thcnl to l ~ c rvcr t h r o ~ v ninto Hcll. T h c Qr_nl.67/ contradicts this clniin ;met says t h a t the assignment of Hcll or Heaven - ro a n y i~ n o t rlonc on the basis of communities o r nations or a n y racial tlistinc[ions. 0 1 1 thc other hand, salvation dcpcncls cntirvly o n right beliefs a n d righteous actions. EIc ~ v h a rnrns evil hy fiis actions will bc givcn a corrcApo~lding chast.iscmcnt, a n d hc who earns gootl hy his actions !ill bc rccolnpcnsccl ~ v i t h salvation, whosocvcr hc rnigl ~d [I3(!] Allcl they say: "llic Fire shallnot touch us csccpt fo!. a 1irnitc.d i// ~ , w 9.5 ;.number of clays", for, tjlcy l)clicvc " bk$ & J ~ L - ~. w $; 2t h a t they > r c a pcoplc who havc $ q>&> /+ 0 9 5 y ? 9 t,, , p 5 ~ , . bb>3Wbeer! rcscrvcd Tor salvation, and 7 t, 9 <. ,> : f / 9 / v tiilat their transitory stay in ?$&pa&!&+,$Firc ;ill h r only t o burn o u t thcirslight impurities, a n d t h a t oncc % ; j . ! ~ ~/ l,~ ,~ c j ~ / /,# ,. 1 < , & 9 ~ j I ,~ #this is dine, they wiil bcrenderod fit to cntcr Heaven.Say: "Have yc rccrived any suchunconditional pronlise from God, ;trlaalso t h a t G o d wil! not go backupon i t ? O r i m p u t e ye to G o dt h a t of which ye have no k n o ~ d e d g c ? " [81] N a y ! Salvation is n o t thehcritagc of any particular r o u p of~ J < o ? I ~ : t:lal- the->?> SO n!;cjir r-njoy
  • 48. T H E (:OW-AI.-BAQAKAI-I 27llie law of God is this that whoso-ever, no matter to what group hc , e&,gw% p , 9 / / - light belong, earneth evil, tlic onsrquencrs flowing from it wil .. nvclop him; and he then bclongthose who descrvtherein forvvcr. [82] And ~vIIu.)ucIle is of the group ~ v h o UCIILproperly and acts righteously, deserves I $j79@.$ / ii<$q Y7.p 1 r~,. ,9F$,l / 9 1 70 4heaven to clwell thcrrin forever. @~&-k+,-b . &d 6 41 , , [83] And call to mind thc occa- , %7 +., , , , , <, , , ,sion when We made the children of Y&$>!$~k&&!5!9Israel cntcr into a covcnant withUs (What was that covenant? Vas it / " / s;Jlji . 5 s , ~~~L 7 3 LWI~!I;I)LWa pandering to thc racial pridc of the 3 @ ~ ~ ~Israelites? O r was it a covenantguaranteeing salvation to thembecause of their being Israelites? 5 3 wum$$;m 1 H ,yb/ / P / C I 4 99-/ /-"Nay. I t was a covenant touching 9 g J $ i ~ ~ a ~ l lright beliefs and right activity.T h e covenant was) that they wouldserve nonc:but God and hc goodto parents, and to k:indred and to , .orphans anci to thc needy, and tcspeak to others in a gentlemanner, and to observe prayer,and to pay the prescribed poor-rate. The! were the basic truths scto uphold which t:hey had given .- .their word. .but thereafter theybacked out, barrin g a f c w i~ n they are dstill back-sliders.
  • 49. 28 r ;d I 2 -t T h e indiffcrcnce shown by the scribes or the religious leaders of thc Jews to the spirit underlying religious injunc- tions had reached a stage: when religion came to br plied as a mere show and [unction as a n instl.unlcnt for f~~lfilling thcir selfish cnds. T h e inevitable result was that f c ~ v carccl to pay regard to the basic principles ~ ~ n d e r l y i n g rcligious injunc- t11r tions. O n the other hand, emphasis was laid on mere trivia- !itics or pctty dctails, although shict adherence to thc basic principles or religion would hardly have given occasion to t~ to trivialities. T h e scribes had strayed a laid down by their Scriptures. uwy&bL& , [84] And ther1 call to mind th 5 , , 4, NY # : / , 7 < 9 1occasion when you had promlsco ro -/ ,J ,;ablidc by IO u r injunctions: "You shallnc~tshed t1le blood of your orvn people, " 9 , /9?// 9 ,9#/9; 9 ,nor pxpel them from your homcs". ~ o ~ ~ , $ ~ ~ , ~this you h 3d a n d ?;ou adm /.. 4this even r mi7 T h c n it is you, the "cry L-"Jw 1.lo slay )lour own people a n d drives o me of th e m from your homes, charging ..,them wit11 sin a n d inordinacy, (andnone of you pay attention to the !G~~-~$J!~.,~~injunctions of religion in thisrespect.) And if they are brought M Y 9 / 7 9 / ,, #,/back to ydu as captives, you redeem bbdb>*.!lp,LuJ9b;them, ( a n d say that this is so ordained 499 73Pc 9 / / / /-by religion), although, (if you arc so J?%@~ CGd J$dg$F&; / 7 p 7+<b*P P d 7 c/ $ C dvery mindful of your religion) you w>~&ay ~ ~ 9 1should have known that i t was unlaw- ~;iwo&,&-J- 7 / ~ ~ 9 9 ~ / /ful for you to have driven them out. + *; .// .: /(How great is your disregard forreligion that i n the mattcr of re-deeming captives you think ofreligion, b u t that you d o not think
  • 50. T H E COW-AL-BAQARAH 2! Iof religion ~ r h c n you oppress >.our dpc[~.$g$laown people and drivc them into thc ?<- Y , v $dz+gJ , b ,HI "Thands of your enemies and connivc +j&!G!JiuJa t their being made captives.) Follow 09J,;er,z , JAyou then only certain portions of &&d1G;your Scripture, a n d neylcct thcother? So, what shall be thereturn of any one among you uvhodoes this cxccpt clisgrace in thislife, and on the c!ny of Rcsurrcc-tion n vcr). srvcsc- cl~nstiscmcnl.Iie17nclnhcr t h a t God 1s not unawareof t,ilat Y O U do. [86] Indeed, these are thepcople who have purchased thclife of this ~.orld t the cost aof the life to follow. (Therc t / 9 9 / 9 9 ~ 94 z pis no hope of i~nprovcmcntsuch people.) Neither shall for @u>&~%+ I~ 6 I.their ch;lstisement be lightened,nor shall thcy have any helpfrom anywhere. This is what usually happens in life, if truth or adherence to truth is given the go-by and one gets obscssed ~ v i t hself- interest. And that is why, those who have laid the primary stress on self-interest have always set themselves against rcfor- mers and messengers of truth. T h e Israelites tvcre engaged in counteracting the work of the Prophet with the same zeal with which thcy opposed their own prophets and even assa- ssinated some of them. [87] And indeed, 0 people of thc Book, for your 99guidance, JVe first gave to Mosesthe Rook and after him sent We . r y + ~ 4 -9 .r ~ C j j &,cG(;$~I; ec,&~~F 0 / - I H /
  • 51. messengers in su ; and to Jcsus son of 3 2 &I$ .. d " @ [ / .7 clear proofs of llis mlsslori nna alrorn- 7 ) 5+kb 9jt1 /b "" t Le&I& cd him tlic assistance of the Holy Spirit. But you opposed y.?JidZggyY3g; cvcry call. Has it bccomc a -;* - /. J ? / . , // 9~ ~ , 9 , = second naturc with you 1hat as o i,J> r . d EA~&&[ /999;/, + 9 a r as an apostle canlcx to yc)u with anything clisagreeabIc to your 9 d ~ k ! ! > rnind, you slzould gro. arrogant ivith him, ant1 that you shoultl call some of them as impostors and somc you should kill. [88] (And thcsc pcoplc pridr thcmsc1vc.s on thrir attitudc and) say, " O u r hearts arc pro- tectcd by safe coverings," (so by=3$ . oCi& - / / / 77 much so, that no nt.w thing can affect thcir minds, although such a n attitudc docs not arguc either strcngtll of belief or re- gard for truth. O n the olhcr hand,)such an attitude is a curse i l litself, (sin-- ;+-,IS disabl-1 !LL L I 11them to !listen a t tcntivcl)any vord of truth o r to pi : I ,by it.) I t 13 ..y l I Y that tllcrarely ferl inclined to paheed to t r u t h and accept [89] So whcll for t h ~ ~ u l c ~ a n c e ~ra book, ( t n,) came to them 41 1 T h e athrmatlon of T r u t h a n d rigid adherence to tradition a r e two diKc.rent thinqs. There is no virtuc in t h l t staunch adherence to some vi(t., if it 01)ligcs you to rcfusc t o listen to what others ha? to say. ,. 1 hc r c l i ~ i o uIttadcrrs of the Jrws wrrc victims t o this state of mind, and ~ were proutl of their attitudc ant1 lookcd upon it as a sign of their per- Iirtion in belief.
  • 52. THE COW-AL-BAQARAII 3ifrom God, a book which confirmed A,, 1 9 / / / % r" /-4what was already with thcm, and &3k3pUu+- / H 9 9 t / 9 / 9 7%for the coming of which thcy had,(on the basis of the prophccics - G$&c;-i)J "contained in the Torah,) fervently 3>@.FE&]49Jprayed and to the advent of which they had ardentlylooked forward, and invokedfor a victory over those who w@&9 ,. ,/ vJ P:disputed the prophccics, and - -when that came to them-andthey knew that it had-thcnthey flatly refused to recognizeit. So despisrtl of God clo theystand. ( T h c cvi~yof righteousliving a n d of progrcss cannotopcn out for t1ic.m.) Or thc obstacles which thwart the free acceptance of truth, t h e toughest is the personal, class or racial prejudice. [go] (How wicked!) For what a vileprice have they sold themselves! 7/69 NThey have refused to believe in what JT%~&~,& vGod hath sent down, and they havedone this for the reason that theProphet to whom it was deliveredwas not one of themselves. (They ju,"$G&$ 9 - d ,/ / / w< /"have not realized that Godselects for distinction whom helikes. T h e choice is n w e rrestricted to any family or class.These people had already become,through their wickedness, adespised people. Their intransigenceto accept the new call renderedthem liable to further degradation.)So they had to draw on themselves
  • 53. rept.atc.tlly tlic. tlisplcasure of God. Humi!iation is the punish- ment for thosr ivho rcfusc to follo1v ( 1 I ? pat11 ( ousncss. ( T h a t is thc law The normal attitudc: of the religious;-minded all over the lvorld is that vr~liencvera n r w form o f t ruth is revealed, they .. . invariably cry out, "Mre have a rcllglon of o u r O ~ . I Iwe d o; not nrcd any new truth", although the:y forget that the are not, in practice, trur even to the religi on whic h they say is thcir ovn. T h e O_urZ?lsays, "Religion (L&,,v l .-, 11 .-,-<I all ir >;* fnv r Clllu , , but one and the same, and my advent is not tc) rcplacc the truths rcvealcd earlier. O n the other hand, I h.ave corr~c to stimulate among mankind the right belief in tllLll, aliJ the right activity in consonance thcrcwith. [9!] Vhcn it is said to them, "Believe in what God hath sent down," they say, "Ye believe only in what hath bccn sent down to us". And they disbeliev everything else, althobgh confirms what is alrcadv with them. .-- - J 0 Prophct! say: I f you I.eally bclieve in your o uIn Book a n d . . I - rcfusc to respond ro m e call -of the Qurlci.n (simply because i tis not necessary to d o so forthose who believe in the Torah,)rvhy, if you indeed believed i nyour book, did you, of old,slay the prophets of God who h a dexhorted you to follow your ownbook, (the Torah, a n d why didyou rebel against them instpad ----of believing i n what they said ?")
  • 54. THE COW-A1 AH 33 [92] And you know for certethat Moses came to you with clcproofs of his mission. But whenhe was away from you (for forty (you took in his absence the calffor your deity and in this manneryou certainly deviated from theTruth. I%] And ca.I1 to mind when 7 4 , / J / H9H 9 /had extr;acted a I3romise from yo1 ~~>&k&A=&l~ 7 ,.. ordained byto stand by the ~ a i t hGod and raised the mountain high ,, , ;above you,. (what was your behaviour b U L b 1 - 1 9 8 ! & . .thereafter?) You had bken ordered v-to hold fast with resolution to Pwhat We had delivered to you. Youavowed with your tongue "Wp , 7 . L 5 have -listened", and a t heart yc3u saidto yourselves, "We are not preFto respond". And then it becanevident that the cult of thecalf had really seized theirhearts in consequence of theirrejection of the truth. 0 Prophet! say tc) them,"(Having disdained to respond tothe call of truth,) you haveproclaimed that you are menof Faith. Does that Faithdirect you to vileness?" If they really believed in the life-hereafter, they should never feel alarmed a t death, nor become votaries of the life of this world. T h e children of Israel, because c~ftheir v liness and greed, were blind to divine truth. (These people say that is for tlnern only.) Tell
  • 55. 34 r tidl 1.23them: "If the abode of the Here-after is meant by God exclusivelyfor you and none else, then yearnfor death without fear if you are W ../ ~ G & $ , ~ ~ J A J cstaunch in your belief (and not runafter this world or become votariesof a fleeting life.") [93] 0 Prophet! You will then seethat they will never do this, sincethey know what evil things they havewrought by their hands and sent therein advance; and God knoweth theoffenders. [96] And not merely this, but youwill also notice that of all men, / d 7 ~ 9 ~4 Pthey are the most covetous of the h @ ( f l ~ ~ @ ;transitory life of this world,even more covetous than thetheists, altough they claim tobelievers in the Unity of God.Every one of them desires to livea thousand years, although, even &@ ; & 19 /were this long life afforded tothem, they will not escape fromthe punishment of the Hereafter, and God seeth through all that they do.H e who rejects Revelation, in fact rejects the Divine Lawof Guidance. Q 9 ~ / / 7 / 9 9 &!&k$ &3uv 9 [97] 0 Prophet ! This is the Word ofGod which under His command, Gabrielhad it cntcr thy heart, the Word which a ./ $ gE /confirms the Word which was sent down
  • 56. THE COW-ALhitherto. Therein is a guidancefor man and a n announcementprosperity and success for thosewho believe in it. But if these peohave resolved to discredit Revction and in their ignorance cryout, "We will never admit anyword delivered by Gat,riel, forhe is our enemy," [98] Tell them that Godwill not befriend those who arehostile to God and His angels andHis apostles and to Gabriel and Micahel,and hav :d the truth. s@% "" ,>ihsa~i The: Yrophet is asked to annouce that the call ot J messa ge has arlways been delivered with the clear light of Truth which no truth-loving person can ever discredit. , T h a t thp ,,,ish scribes denied it, despite their knowledge TerLr of the Book of God, should not be a matter for si~rprise.rhis is not their first demonstration of disbelief: this hi1 been a. habit s with them. [99] 0 Prophet! Be assured that 7have sent to thee clear signs andnone shall deny them except those who E*. . w & F a; , -1& Ja J 4 =f -. /have placed themselves outside thepale of truthfulness. [I001 And oft as they entered intoan engagement to follow the Truth, @- . HG + i Y >Jone or other of their groups set it *$8&U9&aside. ?:he trutln is that a majoof them consist of people whose .~ -hearts are wereit 1 of Faith. ~- 1 [loll So, when an apostle (Jesus) 4came to them from God confirnzing thescripture that was with them, L:rime 6 4 4 / 4 - , . 9 ~ ~W/P % / d2whWUuw
  • 57. of them to whom it had becn given,threw thc scripture of God behindtheir back as if they knew i t not. Reference is made here to the intellectual and moral dege- neration of the Israelites. They had become victims to sor- cery, in utter disregard of the commandments of God. Inci- dentally, the Qlrln declares that the stories circulated in justification of sorcery had no foundation. [lo21 And then mark that these people, forgetful of the teach- ings of the Book of God, fell into polytheistic ways of living sponsored by the evil minds among them under the supposed sanction to Solomon, although Solomon never was given to hcresy. Thefact is that it was these evil minds who instructed ther %9~~1U??& -ii9&< "I/ # 7sorcery. And even this is nc true that anything was sent downin Babil to any supposed angelscalled Haruth and h4aruth whowhenever they taught sorceryto anyone did so by caution-ing, "We are here but to try yourfaith. So, why do you fall into dis-belief?" This means that sorcery wasso evil a craft that even those whotaught it used to admit that it iscontrary to godliness. Neverthe-less, people used to learn thingsof sorcery, especially that whichwas supposed to cause a rift betweenhusband and wife, although no such
  • 58. THE COW-.L-BAQARAH 37 hing could ever cause anyone any njury whatsoever, unless of cour! ,9P" / P A / P 9 / 9 / / 2?bb/d& 9// 3od so wished it. Anyway, ther ~9 )eoplc, forgetful of the teach- 9 //b 7 / / */ / /ing of the Book, have learnt only &3e3j36d1&%what harmeth and not what profiteth. // 9I t is not that they are unaware of c~($?J*I & + S J ~ by " C 7the commandments of God. Thty knowfull well that who so barters his <Ifaith for sorcery shall have noshare in the blessin~sof rthe , , i Q J ab $ y & ;Hereafter. So wc .Stheir traffic. Wh;thing have they purchased atthe cost of their salvation!Would that they know it! :I031 Had these people sirbelieved and acted righteously,they would have received from Ga good recompense. Would thatthey knew it! ~r -1he tollowers ot the %lrzan are lnvitea to take a lesson from the history of the Israelites and to guard themselves against the pitfalls into which the Israelites fell. The doubts and sus- picions which the unbelievers wished to rouse in the F ~ ~ A C of the : are here: allayed [10+~U ye Mushms! Wheryou wish to draw the Prophetsattention to you, do not in themanner of the unbelievers utterthe dubious word, "Rai-na", whichlends itself to a double meaning;on the other hand, utter Unzurna
  • 59. which meaks "Turn to us", audthen listen attentively to what& 2&jbzi; ~$ll& < Tp7 @&&b "ever he says, and obey him. Asfor the unbelievers, remember,there shall be a grievous chast:--ment meted out to thcm forthev do. , [:I 051 Neither the unbclic:versamor~g the people of the Book, northe 1 ~olytheists like that any1;hing -good in the form of Revelation shouldcome down to you from your Lord, m..&&3 !d 47 & ~79 &T@~ /bP . 7 7/and thus desire to keep youoff th e right traclc by creatingall sc)rts of doubts in your minds.T h e 1Law of God does not conform tothe vagaries of human desires. HL eselecteth for His grace whomsoleverH e will; and unbounded is the - - .grace. T promulgation of one law after another was necessitates 1 ,-1e under two conditions. Either a situation called for a super- session of an existing law or an existing law had fallen into desuetude or been forgotten and needed to be revived in some form. Rut the sunnat of God or His way is that every new law delivered is a n improvement on the previous one. T h a t is the demand of evolution or of the process of perfection. T h e @a% disapproves oj idle di squisition in respect of simple and clear regulations. [lo61 For whatever regulation WIlbrogate o r cause to fall into desuetude,We substitute a better one, or onesimilar to it. So, it shoul? not be
  • 60. I THE COW-AL-BAQ ARAH 39 a matter for disquiet, if a new law -I is promulgated. - Knowest tho1u not th at nothi the power of Gqd to enect. (If HI yond 0 3 4 . $ $ can, for 1 [our gui~ dance, 2;sue a rf :gula- i tion once, as circ:umstanc:es warr;ant, .. ... . He can assuredly llkewise issue regulations repeatedly.) [I071 And then knowest tho) not . that it is to God that the dominior u - j of the heavens and the earth be101 ngeth G and that for you there is no frienc1 or helper save Hi- i 1111 [ios], Would YOU P ~t your Prophet U tlle same type of question s which had bcc.1 -- 1 he past pur a.u Moses? ~ 1 . A ---4., r , PY71~-W~W , <f F 9 4 9 H other words) would you, in the manner of the Israelites adopt obstructionist tactics instead of straightforward]-- LY & $ , &,$%a L: & conforming to the Law of God without j&&$y$$$g ( indulging in unnessary, dis- quisition over it. Remember that h e 64, w/3-$L who, having once enjoyed the blc of Faith, turns against it, he hath indeed drifted from the strsicrht path and has lost the prc prosperity and success. Prayer and th,e payme ie poor-~ pro1note purity due ., of heart and mziteria?. well-uemg. Thus tne pious and the PCenerous neither grow ti1.ed of religion n 3r l e t an~y weakrless c C:reep into their c:ollective: strengtlh. [lo91 Remember that a very section of the people of the Book desire you (Muslims) to return to unbelief after you have believed; F,K-y$$$i%z
  • 61. 40 r rp-! and although the truth has become P? 9 w 9 N &I+ $9 manifest to them, they wish, out wf&fl~~Ebkr of envy, that you should not remain pw,7 99///*//, 9, 7" firm in your faith. So, do not Z&~&&L*~& 9:, 13, P4 7 /?9,, waste your time in wrangling with ~ I & C S U ~ I ~them, but exercise forgiveness andforbearance, till Gods judgment isdelivered to make manifest who werein the right and who were in thewrong. Truly God hath power overeverything. [I101 Observe prayer and pay thepoor-rate; and remember that what- bi+3;! gJ.,% 131; @ 7 W 99 . P 9 9 w / 7 I// Jever good things you do, the benefitsthereof you will find with God. M&$bwbJ ~ Y P< 9~Verily, God seeth allthat you do. 5 ~b9i!&83dq9? - -." The Qurin states that the Truth of God is but one and is meant for all and was indeed given to everyone. But in im- plemeriting it, mankind had divided themselves into numerous groups. he Qur9indesires to bring everyone back to the uni- versal and common Truth and thus put an end to all religious strife. And what is this common and universal Truth? I t is that success in life or salvation is achieved only through devo- tion to God and righteous living. I t is this law oflife which is the religion prescribed by God, and it is this which the Qurin styles Al-Islam. The Jews used to assert that so long as one was not a member of the Jewish fold, there was no salvation for him. Likewise, the Christians used to assert that so long as one did not enter the Christian fold, there was no salvation for him. O n the other hand, the QurZn asserts that salvation rests entirely on devotion to God and righteous living and not on adherence to any particular group. Every one who is devoted to God and lives righteously will get salvation irrespective of the religious group to which one belongs.
  • 62. THE COW-AL-BAQARAH 41 rill] And - - YS say: "None shall enter Paradise i l ~ ~ a "11e is a Jew". r u I n Iike manner, the Christians say: U b 1 l<,979 &,~+,r d 9 A "None shall enter Paradise unless one 6 is a ch-:-4:..-w . Every €TOUP thinks > & ; e g i ~c 1~13L1411 , 7 9 9 , ,94 , , ,9 that sallvation in the Hereafter is Xb2 3b&@, 1 Gexclusiv,ely rese~ :ved for them, aLL - _ -.rnar unless one gets into their folu. I.__ . --2 @&!fic;,L 1 7979 9one canmot obt:~ i n salva ProphetSuch ar e their il expectations.Tell these people: 11 your L . - .-- - - - - -- - - woasr Lrests in any way on truth, then cite authority". [112] There is no doubt tha. "path of salvation is always openall. But that path is one of faith u. / / 9 (97/,f/p 9and action and not of groupism. n e eA$+83&&who sets his fac.e Godward wit1tion and does w hat is right, his . - .reward is with hu Lord; "On stfear shaI1 come, neither shall thgrieve". L11YJ The Jews say: "lhe Christiarhave nothing to lean on". "On nothinlean the Jews", say the Christians,although both read their scri~ti J~&U;and the basis of religion for theboth is but the same. Likewise, insimilar words say they also, the (polytheists of Arabia, wl10 have ,no knowledge of the sac:red scriptures.Even they think that their way of life 9 ;is the way of truth. Well! On the dday of Resurrection, God will
  • 63. - .judge between them as to twhich they differed. Group fanaticism has inc .o such a.n extent that each r group maintains its own p1act.s ur worsnlp, 2nd denies ad- lL! mission to them to those belonging to other groups. Every group desires to destroy the places ofworship belonging to others, although all thegroups claim to be devotees of God, and God is the God of all. The Qurin points out that God is not confined within the four walls of any particular place of worship that one may seek Him in prayer there only and nowhere else. He accepts sincere prayer irrerspective of the place where it is. offered. - - [I141 And think over! Who committeth a greater wrong than he who hinders t MHMG 9 $ 8 9~ 9 0 /Gods name from being taken in His +~*j.wedbl(;*., , ,. ,c p , , ,, , , , , ,places of prayer and atteml?ts to nlin ~3 ac*lb!&ugdthem? I t is not for such as these tc enter therein save in fear of P.-a UUU.Remember that for such people thereis disgrace in this world and asevere chastisement in the next. [I151 And note! Whethcr. it is theEast or the West, it is all Gods. -,5 ?-@ J !<# &&The worship of Him is notconditioned by any place or direc-tion. Whichever side you t~ ,. irn to -.God: turns 1 to you.. Without aouht Ye - 3 - 3 1 &y&&;@l~$ 4, / @God is Omn and Omniscien b & ~ 6 he error into which the Christians naa tallen was th; I having disregarded the teachings of their Scripture, they reste their Church on the doctrine of Christs Sonship of God. [I161 And look at the Christian - -say that God has taken to Himself a - - _ _ , ( /!> Y,,. -3: ~0-% ~>)lrau~~lJE;
  • 64. THE COW-AL-BAQARAH 43 to redeem humanity of their original sin, although God is too transcendent to nced +$I , LdG w . a son. Truly, whiltever is in the 1 and in the m r t h is all His , and all submit to Him. [i 171 He is the projcx t o r of the heavens and the eart h. Wher . . . 1g; b+2g ; * g& + He intendeth a thing, Hc cloth not need any assistance from any one - ... tq/// = 99 ( 9 & & & ~ ~ 0 /,9 to put His intention into action. H e simply sayetb ( R r " and forth- Urith, "It X l 3 ---. - ivian s atrituae towaras trutn a n a error nas always rcma.in~d the same, so much so, that whenever he has expr csscd hinnself against truth, he has always adopted the same sty1le and ra~ised the same slogans againsf " fir is is exactly what. Lnc firat, , .1 1 1- polytheists did in the tin [I 181 And they who rlavc 11, knowledge of the sacred scripture! as for example the polytheists c A - Arabia, say: "If this teaching is from God, why is i t that God &&c&$dlJE / speaketh not direct to us or why is i t that H e doth not send some ~w.&wbba! . 7p.P 9 c - 9/.// 7 wonderful token t.o us. Mark! ~ ~ 2 ~ ~ & ~ 9 9 ~ 9 49, What these people say is exactly what had already been said by those who had gone before then - Like minds are they. Any way, if these people are really after tokens, they will have, in the first instance, to develop the talent to recognise token: "S. vve have indeed sent many a clear token for a people of firmI faith.
  • 65. For a people who can recognise truth, the greatest token is the very character of the Prophets teaching and the life hc lived. I t is against the law of life, or the way of God to rr~rnishmiracles to suit the fantasies of the ignorant. [119] 0 Prophet! This is an un-doubted fact that We have sent theefor the guidance of men, and We havesent thee to announce to them thetidings of the blessings whichfollow faith and action, and to I 31 . G 9p warn them against the consequences / 9 +&!<P&J &3l .+ J~A,which inevitably follow the rejectionof Truth. Your call is clearly a /- @&Acall for devotion to God andrighteous living. So, if thosewho ask for tokens are really insearch of Truth, they shouldindeed know that there could beno higher token th an the call of , . -your missic>n. You are not . .,.responsible DeIore tioa torthe behaviour of those whothrough sheer perversityqualify themselves for Hell.Yckur funct:ion is but toan nounce to them the mcssage of t.Trurn. The various groups into which men have resolved themselves -Jews, . , a .. . . +. Christians and so forth-are all L L C ~ L A U Iof Jhuman r-n I perversity. Ilivme guidance follows but o zht path1. H e w ho follows it will be the rigl~tly-guidLu,wAILther ILUL L a :" a or --4. Ibrmal member of any of these groups. Croup formation engenders the spirit of exclusivism amorlg +I> rnrmbers and discourages love of tru,~ ,,-#I search for
  • 66. THE COW-AL-BAQARAH 45 reality. Few pay regard to what one believes or how one live Attention is paid only to one thing-the group to which man belongs. When such is their disposition, no argumen however true, will be of any avail. However good and sensible your beliefs and deeds, or however these are in conformity with their own approved teachings, the Jews and the Christians WI not Eb please:d with you, unless you are a member - ill e th.eir fold [I201 And the fact is ithat howconvincing the tokens of tr uth that . 7-flyou might offer, never will the Jews 9 9 99# -- 2dr~+gJ;or the Christians be pleased with thee. 3 ~ ~ ~ & & /%$lW/ / vThey will be pleased with thee onlywhen thou follow their creed, since / ,/ ,o * Gnothing is religion with them excepttheir own exclusive groupism. Tell J$ &db* d& ~ 7 Hthem frankly that the path of divine &,aLs&g;cguid/ance is the only real path ofguidance to follow and none of their 7- @MY> /./ w PI z 7 u,>&$I ,fancied creeds. And remember, th .-i i if, notwithstanding the light ofknowledge and coiviction that ha,dawned on thee, thou shouldst yieto .their desires, thou wilt 1)e :regarded as having turned awayfrom the divine guidance. Andthen, thou wilt be denied thefriendship and protection of G3d. [I211 14mong the people of the /iBoc)k there are some who read the ,../ .,. &&&I +!$,Jj I 99I7 4 A .. / -Boc)k with sincerity. They are the 99 9 . 0 9 y 9b ,/ 5 0people who have the talent to accept ~+39!+3 *% 3 , * LY3% / b the truth. But those among them 4 9 */ 3 4.t-/who disregard it are the ones ofwhom no hope of reform can be cnter-
  • 67. tained. These are the ~ e o ~ who - lest:ind to 1ose. C,. 0 chill --.~ ~ I I I C I I I U C I rrly r-- u u l > lav WIICIC;WILII +J / hi , A9. / 9PF 7 &YdJ&I favoured you and how I choseyou before all otners. [I231 And mind you the Day which --is bound to come when every one will 6 2% ., -A ~ r ~ ~ %ipj.l; - b ) d $1 + ./ .~6have to come face to face with the J--.results of hisdccds. O n that uity, & ..none shall awail another evenslightly, even when ones ancestors ZK, -3; ,/ cp.-/// -or leaders are invoked, nor shall A . D / ? p ,9any form of compensation * !accepted for the misdeeds tcd,nor shall anv intercession pl-onl,nor shall isuccoured. The ordeal of the Prophet Abraham-the conferment him of leadership-call to the way of God-construction the Kaaba-prayer for the rise of a body of people rcsietlcu " to God. A reference to these was meant to draw ;attention four distinct aspects of the prophetic mission: (i) The personality of Abraham had an equal significance for all the three groups of people who inhabited me Arab Peninsula-the Jew&, the Christians and thc " - pol,ytheist LIrabs. His mission hacI thus a kg for aI1 the th ree groups alike. (ii) Abrahams mission gave a direct lie to tlne reli~ious . groupism practised by the three sections, It is cvi- ...--1..-2 dent from history that his people resolvcu thcmselvcs
  • 68. THE COW-AL-BAQ.-IRAH into three contending groups only aftc question at issue was this: What was Abrahams of life?. Certainly it was not groupism. Thc Q I ~ therefore, invites every one of the three rrouo the way of Abraham..(iii) T h e arrogance of the Jews wa1 the rc s racial pride. They believed t:hat the 1 progeny of Abraham and it was they vho~nGot1 had blecjsed in the Torah. The fact is that this blcss- in^ was to be shared by the descendants of his son J Ismail, settled down in Arabia along with thc clcs- cendants of Isaac, another son of Abraham, 2110 -----,.,. ~ ~ Tews. So, what mattered was not: thc L U I I I ~ U > the " privilegcs of lint:age as g;ood life , since t he dispcnsa- tion of divine blessing was m eant on11y for those .A .. who livtu ~:%-II- I ~ I ~- AL Ucertainly --• C,, the wicked. -- - ~I I , " I I U L IUI For those who had given up the v,ray of fai th and ri eousness, racial distinction of every kin d was o avail. {iv) The lapse into which the earlier communities had fallen called for the raising of another set of people who would serve the cause of truth by their ad- herence to the way of Abraharn, and 1to them was now entrusted the task of offeri n g divi.ne guid ancc tne A... to the world a t large through L l . . xurcin. It l.V.:--- l$ therefore necessary fbr the Quriin to disclose the inner history of the divine mission. Hence it is that the Qur7iin refers - - - the following passage to the - - in - -. construc.tion of the HOI s e prayer, the Kaab ~ of Mecca, by Abr;2ham, a nd to the memorable pr he said there. l n d call to min d the occasion , . A. when hls Lora testea bra ham in certain things, and he stood the test. O n that occasion, God expressed, "0 Abraham! I Z& Q / / , a m going to make thee the leader of man-
  • 69. kind. The generations to come will respond to thy call and walk in thy Jg CLlv,u, / 5 ut footsteps." Asked Abraham : "What is 9 7 CS&&Y&~ //0 c2> , $ M thy decision in regard to my descendants?" God answered, "My promise does --- @@I extend to s;ch of them as follow the path of sin and injustice". [125] And call to mind the occasion wf len We (lleclared the House // 0 a t Mecca, the Kai iba, to be a U$!J&bd&5L3 .. place of frcCIucllL assemblage for mankind and a sanctuary, and ordered, "Make the spot where Abraham used to stand a station of ! u & W 9 prayer for all times". And We also commanded Abraham and Ismail that - A z , the House which had been raised in && &w l & 4 3 4 !/! 9 / ! r/F, & H Y / ~ / n o Our name, should be kept clean @ 3Ji*~1, e / for those who go the rounds there and those who sequester themselves therein for devotional purposes, and those who resort to it fordaily prayers and not to defilethe sanctity of its presincts Eany wrongful activities there [126] And call to mind the tim-when Abraham prayed to God, " 0 Lord!make this place, which is far away &ZI+DJ?IJKJ;from prosperous regions of theworld and is wholly bereft of greenery,a city of peace and, through thy grace ~+~[~ 7 H 9 9 - 5 9 1 <provide fruits to those of itspeople who believe in God and the ~;~g~~~~~Day Hereafter." God answered : "Thyprayer is granted. But to him fromamong the people who believeth notwill I extend my bounty for a while,
  • 70. although thereafter .ill I d r a ~ v him, as a rccornp, ense for :~ +9,7//9* . # 74 . 9 .! / , / / / a! / to the cl~astiscrnci of Fii nt / &;~~I~::LJ! and what an ill aboae 1s n 1 . 1 b destinatioi C 1 271 d a gi-an and 2 -. /..rr- , inspiring nlomenr i r was rhcn raising & q$ u i , /, $. y , jJ3 the foundations of the Kaaba, Abraham along with Ismail prayed, "Our Lord! , & C E , b p ! ; a t accept this from us, for, thou alone canst acccpt prayer and thou aIc g13." -&, 7 w# 8" / J / b , art the Knower of the working of ITorld. 1 251 "Our ILord! Makc us also, 1 through tlny grace , truly resigncd to , . , . Thee, and raisc irom among our progcnya body of people truly devotcd to /.. , Atrue devotion and overlook our faults.Undoubtedly Thou alonc, in Thy 7[<z$;K,Thee, and instruct us in the ways of d&jj2&0&91E;;+; A // / , / / A /graciousness, wilt ovcrlook our fatTruly there is no limit to Thy reler.,,.,,, . /&,j)+pJa&l .. [I 291 "Our Lord! Raise up t hroughThy grace among the people of thi.s city,a n apostle who ufswx, // , D / 7 7 / 9 / / / /may recite to them Tlry rr~elationsand instruct them in the Book and the ywJ&;*bbJpurposes underlying it and throughhis prophetic training purify *p&,-44m;their hearts. Our Lord! Undoubtedly - M 4Thou alone art the wise, thc ap,&&AD;Mighty". &x&! 5 D 9 "p) I0 10 1. That wa:s the palth of religion which Abr dopted J . .- - - , ,, . I~imselland what was the path which his chlldren followccl;
  • 71. and what was the religion of life which Jacob bc qucathed from his death-bed to his people? Assuredly, A . wa5 not the groupism upheld by Judaism 1 or Ch ristianit: What was cnjoincd on them was t hat natuiral and univers: - . c.l:ox.~ truth which called upon man to b~uLvL God and to OM ? , ; 1 1 1 sincere allegiance to the law of goodly life laid down by Him. I t is this way of life which the QurEn offers. For this reason, thc religion enioined bv God is styled Al-ljlum which means sul: attain; y when, rising above a Sr o and grc one u t t e-1y resigns to H i n ~ [I301 This is th c way ojF AbrahaIs t lere any one th at turne th away Zfrom , l - ~ 9;ba_ - _ - - rne way of Abraham exceDt one w ~ l o -deliberately chooseth to fool h;mselr.Assuredly, We have chosen him for 291disdnction in this world and indeed g$~g3~&~&+i& p s . +he will be among the rightcthe world to come. [131] When his Lord said to him,. . -"Resign thyself to Me," he salid,"I do resign myself to the L ord ofall Being." 3Lt45-J&I3 J [132] These were words thatAbraham said to his children, thewords which his grandson &>&&; *L,; 1 7 psps//Jacob also said to his own: " &IA ~wb+&~/ / -children ! Truly, hath Godfor you this wav of life. So dcJnot pass awz~y ere yt: be resignedto God." ,&*m8 4/98 99-079 - rJ c L - - Z& M. 11331 AIL, LILCL,, W C L C yc p 1 c a c u r r r l ~ ~ rJacob when death approached him and P s/y /~P,Y/ f ~ d ! ~ ydwhen hc said to his sons, "Whom p 2will you scrve when I am gone?" 9 " They replied, "We will serve thy C)>~L&., 9 9 7 P ~ 3 3 3 )God, the God or thy fathers, Abraham, u/Jb&@. s/ r 7 (a ; , )
  • 72. Ishmael and Isaac, uoa, the h e ; and law o t God is that it is the result of whzt one c-- AULD) n individual or a nation, which presents itself b~ :fore him as his earnings. So neither the go1od that (m e does will isate ate for the misdeeds of another, * . I + l l G evil thai L -m,. b , . - . a does wi 1 have t:o be acc 1 for by a nother. 1 rl Q A l I 1 -. ~~2 1 ~ .. .-. flnyway, rney were an L1- r/ IAT, 5 I 5 Lorder of people who have passeda way. For them, the reward of tdeeas and for you, your meed; 1~ I F Y ~ ,# ? A / / 3.. 9 / /and you .will not be Q$LJ ja7+ !questionec1 for wlhat they @ The love of the past, and tll e regar d for m ere trad ition have a strong hold over man. H e cannot extricate hi]nself 1 from this tangle, and is prone ro sanctlfy every custom ana 1 tradition of the past. Anyway the pathbf guidance is cert ainly not the path pursued by the sectarians, nor is it the excliusive heritage of any community or g ""r The true path of p.llln- rlln " 3 --- 1 ance is the one which Abraham :followed and whi~ch, fact, is in the universal divine law of salvation. Evcry prop~ h e t I was who . , 3 % ever raised anywhere a t any time In the past upheld but thic nnp " " . A " path, arid so a recognition of them all is the way tude. T o deny any one of the line of prophets amount enial ,. . ot the entire line. Whoso differentiaties between apostlc: ors recogni:;es some and denies 0th ers doesl in reality deny the entire I.ine of I~rophets. -. - . lhe XurLZn asks the Prophet to announce to the tolloTArlnm5 ". 1 1 effect: "I have come to acknowledge the universal t:ruth given to all prophets. Should you be a Jew and believe ir1 the - - Torah, then, I am here to say that your Book is truly from (God. I have come to endorse it and revive the truth it cont ains. Should you be a Christian, do I deny the Evangel? I have come to make you act truly on the Evangel. If you are a follower
  • 73. 52 td I of Abraham, then bear in mind that sion is wholly his - - own. If you are a follower ofanother prophet or of the founder of another rteligion, then it is not m;I wish tc turn y ~u away c from him. I[ should like you to be more s taunchly devoted to TTZ- L ay . .eJews s: : "Bec :ome Jev . that you may receive guiaance-- I. ; The Christians say: "Become Christians, / 4 , ~/t4 that you may receive guidance." But fl!!%&J. t~~ you say: "Nay! the universal truth &L;bw of God cannot be confined to any groupism. The way of truth is that straight way which was the way of Abraham ; and that was to turn away from every man-made plan of life, and to turn devotedly to the natural plan of life ordainedby God; and undoubtedly he was notof those who 1 t anythi~affect the sin! )f his dc to Gcld. [136] 0 Muslims! Decla:re, "Ouway is this: we believe in God andwe believe in the QurEn whic h has b~ eensent down to us and Ive belieall those trutl-u which wereimparted to tlbraham1, IsmailJacob and his children. Andbelieve also in the scriptureswhich were delivered to Moses 9 / 9 # z , u 3 $, ,and Jesus. Not merely this, u~J&>t&~,&/d but we believe also in all thost truths which were revealed tt all the prophets of the world by their Lord and we make no distinction between any of
  • 74. THE COW-AL-BAQARAH 53them. We are resigned to God / 9,&/ 91 // / 9 /(and will believe in the truth U &>*pI& & ,I f God revealed *e to nyone.) f 137) 30, 11 rney roo believe even 8 , , ,-y 3 4as you b lieve, then all dispute is c ~ ~ fl fa t a n end and they are guided aright.Rut if they turn away, then, take it hat there is no hope of their coming ound; they are not inclined to seek,he truth; they are stubborn. So,avoid them and go your way; an, God dwill suffice thee against them; forHe heareth and knoweth everytfL-.-,. linv~ f138I say, Mere baptism ,,/ ,MH- I 4 4 9putting an any cc)lour is not the t afl>~@ O *a ,;*to righteousness and salvation, athe Christians think. Along this 7 9way, one has really to put on thecolour of God; and what colour isbetter .than Gods ? And i t is Himalone that we selwe." When the God of all i: but oni:and thc:same a1nd when one s is to be judged by ones a cts, why all these quarrels in the name . . fi of God and religion? Why 1s the follower 01 one religion the -" a enemy of the follower od another religion? Why should one hate another? [I391 0 Prophet! Say to these peop Our way is nothing but one of devotionGod. Do you then quarrel with us concern-ing God? Or do you disapprove of all devotion to God, specially when you areaware that He is our Lord, even as Heis your Lord? T o us then the result of ? , uLu;cs , JI" // 19our dteds, and to you the result
  • 75. 54 rof Y Is. For <)ur part, 3are DUL n u devoteu serval inous sir [I401 " u r do you, Jews and Christians con tend that Abraham and Ismail and,--ob and his children were Jews Tact or Christians?" 0 Frophet, ask them: "Who knoweth best, Ye or God? And if it is God, then his evidence M M 3 4 45 ~ ? ? 7 / # ~ , 1 9is against you, even as recorded ,w. &3bu~?~&~, #94b 114# q 9 9 8 ,in your Book and which you haveknowingly suppressed." Now say : 7 ~ oJ, 4 ,+bk "Who is more wicked than he who & l 3 & $ 3 f e b 1 ! fsuppresseth the evidence of Gad that is in his possession and b&l+,#&p5&zsuppresses it wilfully? Andmind, God is not unware of what @ &#b&b%r; P#<// 4 vYGU do." 11411 Be that as it ma!that order of people hathpassed away. They have threward of their deeds, and ~4 H p 17 $for you is the meed of yoursAnd you will not be asked ior B&h~&Crc,Y, 5 4748 , 7what they did.
  • 76. Chapter I1CT?RAT AL-BAQARAH (Contd.)
  • 77. C H A P T E R I1 3: TRAT AL-BAQARAH ( ~ o n r a . ) Havlng advanced the idea of the unity of religions by poi nt- ing to tlle chara~ of the religion vouchsafed to Abraha.m, cter the Qur,in now t urns to advance a corollary to it. . . Abraham had come as*a leader of mankind. He had cone- tructed 2r central place of prayer, the Kaaba, and had tl prayed fc)r the rise of a body ofpeople devoted to God. It wa .. . . dispensation that a particular moment had to be part of D~vlne fixed for the fulfilment of this prayer. When that hour arriv- ed, it was marked by the advent of the Prophet ~ u h a m r n i d and as the result of his teaching and training, the promi! - sed community arose to be a model community, and it vvas entrusted with the task of educating mankind at lar gee This situation called for the setting up of a cent.* Ito radia te spiritual guidance to the people of the wor and the Kaaba, the house of prayers chosen by Abraha .. naturally furnished such a centre - : the shifting of the , Qibla to the Kaaba was an anno1 .t to this effect. 1:he reference in this passage is to thi nmation. Those iad- dressed here are the members of this model comnlunity whn a r e now to carry on the mission; they are told that the s c which brah ha* had sown has borne fruit in the formatior their order which is to serve as a model for the rest ot mankind. rdsf .& 11421 The erratic among the peoplewill say: "What hath turned the Muslims &&J ~ 4 97 8 . ~ 0 !% : 3 4from the Qibla to which they used to 3 J3 &I & ~turn for prayer hitherto?" 0 Prophet!tell them: "The East and the West isGods. He is not circumscribed by any 57
  • 78. particular locality or any side. H e showeth to whom He will the path of righteousness and success." @-Z,&b [I431 And 0 Muslims! Even as $ + @" God hath chosen to shift the Qibla for you from Jerusalem to Mecca, even so, He hath decided to raise vou to the ~ o s i - tion of a model community, so that ~ j 4 L i o ~ ~ you might be an example unto others even as the Prophet hath been an example unto you. And if we had allowed you now to continue turning to the Qibla to which you were accus- tomed to turn for payer, it was only ,% / , / / 9H Ti to test you at the right moment who Nw&,dtq /7 4 among you will in right obedience p <v/ 9 3 9-b / turn with the Prophet towards w h i c h @ * ~ d ~ j l1 he would turn to, g n d who among . - you1 through their weakness of faith 9 / 9 $2 "3dkc)lj+,&p " 7 Y ./ 4I would not do so. I t was certainly an embarrassing situation except 66s24r~ 1J , i/i for those whom God had guided aright. Anyway, let those who ~ ~ L -! & d u k b Y , / 9 A:, E D / / / - /.ex ../ have stood the test feel sure that they will receive very soon the 0 69 993 " -%%I39 ,@L&&J ,. fruit of their steadfastness in faith. God will certainly not let your faith go to waste; for, unto man God is surely most Gracious and Merciful. [144] 0 Prophet! We have noticed thee raise up thy face repeatedly J,W;&,,~ towards the heavens in expectation of some message from God. Rest assured, We will have thee turn h*&ZJjEJ ,, /q"/ / ,/ a Qibla which thou wilt like. A .y ; & - & now that the hour has come for it,
  • 79. ther1 thy face towards the holymosque (of Abraham) and wherever-- - tho^1 and thy followers be,will be incumbent on you ati~i-nyour. faces towards it_-__prayer. Iiideed, the Jews and theChristians, to whom the Scripturehath been given know well that thi-is the right thing adjudged bytheir Lord, even as prophesiedtherein: And God is not unmindfulof what they do. T h c objections raised by the Jews and the Christians to the shifting of the Qibla was the outcome of their racial and sectarian prejudices. Were they ever mindful of truth,they would not have wrangled over it themselves-the Jews declin- ing to recognise the Qibla of the Christians, and vice-versa. When this is the case, i t is for the adherents of Truth to remain unperturbed by what erring people say or do; for it is not possible to agree with those who have definitely :refused i conform to the right way. ~ n d 3 shoulc1st thou eve]advi :ry kind of justi fica- l L - uuvntion befbre LLAG p ~ -~ p ofe ti^ D,,1. -they wiIl not accept thy Qibla.Nor will thou accept their Qibla---%st common sense and LL- 9 0 4 9..agaJk n owledge of what was right, ~ LIIC wi&K*&z& //nor will one group of them accept 3 &r3s$y&jrL -~ r r cQibla of the other. Shouldstthou ever follow thcir fancies, ?zlaLwh / / /despite the knowledge that hathcome to thee, then, verily would 91thou be of the deviators. /?A [I461 They to whom We have &.*4 ,9* 9 , ,&lwJ 991?// 7 /
  • 80. delivered the Scripture knthe Prophet of Islam as i n t ~ m a t e ~ y they know thei~ own clhildren. r :t there is a bodly of pelople am . ... em who knowingly hlde the trui lout hin1. -3 [I471 Rest as: .* - . . , at what / # / M u $ 7 94 /issuern rortn worn thy u . i c .. lrrl ,.7-$$&jfl&the truth; and truth is seUr-evident. Be not then of ttlosewho doubt it. After all, the issue of the Qibla is not of the fundamentals of religion, and it cannot be regarded as a determining factor in distinguishing between truth and falsehood. Every group of people chose for themselves a particular direction for prayer. Prayer offered to Cod by turning ones face in any direction is, on its own merits, devotion to God. I t is not conditioned by any such restriction. What primarily matters is righteous living. I t is in this endeavour that one should vie with another. That is the real function of piety and devotionthere - is some side towardsevery a ,,lark! tor nrlu which B.V- r,they turn for prayer. (This byitself is not the determiningf; distinguishing betweenw rue and what is false.Tilt: 1 cal objective of prayer isrighteous living.) So one shouldstrive to vie with anothe:r in righteous living. Whereve:r you. are or whatever the direc in which you turn for prs
  • 81. God will respond to you. Verily,God hath power over all things. The general order regarding the Qibla and thc purposes lerlying if: [I491 (And 0 Prophet !) From //*/ &,d &+.-ed N / T / / 9 ./ 7 /wheresoever thou issueth forth,turn thy face for - - prayer towards z !; / %t$lL&$p / /the H O I Mosque, and rest assured ~that this is the right orderissued by thy Lord, and knowthat God is not unmindful ofwhat you do. [I 501 And mark that from wheresoever thouissueth forth, turn thy face for / /*/,,, /< 4 ?A 7 Hprayer towards the Holy Mosque. & & 9 3 ? w & 3And 0 Ye Muslims, wherever ye be, turn your faces too towards it; and remember this (that the emphasis that has been laid on the fixing of the Qibla) is for no other reason than that m m should have no ground to dispute / 9 / + - 4 ?. A * ) ,M.% with thee and that this be made 2J 3 52&+ QYl known that it is Abrahams 9 / // / ?9 7 4 / 9 . . / ~ + ~ 3 d + k W 9 own house of prayer that is your Qibla. Of course, there are + ,,9/Y/ @ d3& those who have side-tracked the truth. (Their opposition ~~ - will continue;) but do not mind them. On the other hand, you mind Me! This order has been issued for this reason also that I may complete My favours on you and that you might pursue the right path.
  • 82. [I511 T h e r--yn-** that We have shown is i! g with a like favour whi you by choosin5 l l v l r l among your- selves a n apostle for you who i announces to you our directions my g ~ ; , $ j m and through His training reforms ! you an1d instructs you in the Book and its purposes and teaches you . .L-* L : wriaL r~ithertoyou knew not. T h e teaching of the Book and ofthe purposes underlying it- the Prophets manner of education-the fixing of a central seat of guidance-and the ideal of the model community envisaged-these were the basic factors which had to be provided for to contribute to the development of the order of society promised to be raised in response to tht: prayer said by Abraham from his house of prayer a t Mecca.I I IhThen all these staees had been reached, it b~LalllL L L L a a a l > u uI1 ivite the followt:rs of the Qurzn to engage themselvesi usly in r ighteous activity expected of them. T h a t is whyI -..--."- I:""..,.+L s1 ~111; ~ V I ~ US ~ U C L I IIlorth, "Remember ~ L Me and I shall re- member you". And since the inevitable corollary to righteous activity was to face, if necessary, trials and tribulations, the call for action was accompanied by a call for patience andi pcrsevercnce ; and it was macle clear that this path was beset with inevitable incon~ s. Along with this, certain fundn- mental principles were also urought to view, by adhering staun- chly to which one might avoid the pit-falls and failures (~flife (1) Invest yourselves with the forces generated by prayer and steadfast endurance. True endurance lies in bear- ing chcerfully the trials of life and refusing to yield to unwholesome desires. True prayer lies in enriching the soul through remernberance of God and contem- plation. People among whom these two forces are at work, will never meet with failure.
  • 83. (2) Death in the way of God is no death: it is life indeed and life eternal. So, eschew every fear of death from your heart.(3) Attachment to a common centre and the performance of Haj a t least once in ones lifetime, health and circumstances permitting.(4) T h e propagation of the teachings of the QurZn is a collective obligation on the part of the followers of the faith. Those who conceal them either through fear or in self-interest deserve divine condemnation.(5) T o remain steadfast in devotion to God-to profit by reason and insight-to ponder on the world of creation - to attain gnosis of the reality of things and to draw conclusions from evidences of divine benevolence and graciousness. 11521 So, now keep yourselves cngaged in the thought of Me. I too on my part will not remain J~&~-~j~~ forgetful of you. Such is My way. So, appreciate My favours r and. do not turn ungrateful. [153] 0 Muslims! Draw upon thc forces proceeding from praycr and steadfast endurance. , ///& d b I Be assured that God is with those who endure steadfastly. @ ../ & a ~ I ~ [I541 And say not of those who are slain in the way of God: "They are dead!" They are alive, although you discern &GI&& it not. [155] And surely will We test you with somewhat of fear and
  • 84. hunger and loss of propertyand lives and crops. Givptidings of a prosperous arsuccessful life to the stead-fast in patience. 11561 These are they, who,when a trouble befalleth them,do not get perturbed. O n +--blLbother hand, they strengthLen thespirit in them by the tho1xghtof God, and they say: "( 3.-..life and death, our sorrorand worries, our gains anlosses,-whatever we have,are all for God; and we areall eventually to return toHim. [I571 SO, ass1uredly, it is w $, l u & b 7 W af5on such ats these that God showers 1His blessings ana it is on such that theirateof God descends. These arethey who are to be regardedas truly successfulin life. [I581 Without doubt, Safa and y,&,g;y&w&lMarwa, are among the sign-posts , ,of Divine Mercy and wisdom. So,whoever proceeds from his home "7 / ,904to perform the Haj or the Urnra, h@2bsu&7L$it will be no fault in him A &~ b ~ * 4 A + 7 4 ~ / 4 /H 7if he goes round the two posts,and he who does . ..of his own accordsurely accords hir ..due recognition; :and Go(knoweth t he wort h ofeverything
  • 85. S~RATAL-BAQARAH 65 [I591 Let those who have,eveloped the habit of concealing,,either through fear or in self-interest, things of import, outof what We have sent down in theform of directions and guidance,despite thL clear :manner in ewh:-L TAIL A, a v c . stated them 1111L11 , 11 hl , .,fc)r the pt:ople of the Book,k now tha t God mctes out to ,.,.L u:" SLLLL I l l s displeasure. and know tl1aL they also do likt:wise IVY ho are entitled to dcI SO. ,1 , , ,; [I601 But thr; UUUI uf repentanceis always open for the sinners. So, let those who have repented and amended and, instead of concealing, proclaimed the tliuth, h o w that We accept their repentance, for, We are easily Relenting and Merciful. [I611 Verily, they who dis- believe and die in disbelief, they have now no chance of making amends. On them! will 1 rest the malison of God ana of the angels and of all mankind [I621 In that state shall th , remain: their torment shall not be lightened, no hey be given any respite rlcq] And bear In mind th LV" Y .our Go(1 is Gocd, the (h e ! Th I!5 none w orthy of worship except Y h e , the . Compassionate, the . Merciful being who sustains the enitre world of existence.
  • 86. [I641 Assureldy, in the crea-tion of the heavens and theearth and in the alternationof night and day and in thesailing of the ships throughthe ocean with what is useful tomen, and in the water whichGod sendeth down from thesky, giving by it life to theearth that was dead, andsc:iltcring over it allltir~tlso f :lnimals, and int11c. Iliovc.nic-nt of rht. winds,; ~ 1 i c 1 i l l (!I(. c~loticlswlii(~1i:II,~. III:II~SII:III(YI s(*rvic(: 10 (loI)(.( W ~ T I I I l ~ c . I~c~:lvc.~is 1.11~ ;ir~d 1h;lief in God and the love of God are interdependent; so irone should love any one beside God, then his action amounts to placing another on a level with God, thereby negating ones belief in the unity of God. A true believer in God is he who loves God above all else. 11651 Yet, there are somepcople who choose, from thosebcsidc God, compeers for Him andlove them with the love due toGod, although they know that thcrearc others, the faithful, whosemost intense love is for Godalonc. Would hut the. I ~.;iiis!:rc.ssorsrcnlisr, as (l1c.y s1i;lll Il;~vc.10rcnlisr wlic.11 c I i ; ~ s ~ i s c ~ r ~ i c ~ ~ ~ t
  • 87. SURAT AL-BAQARAH 67overtakes them, that all powerdwells in God alone, and forthose who run counter to thelaws of God, the chastisementof God i.S severe :tful resiults of following false rt Ieaders- .. . . rum ot communities in the past was largely attributable to allegian.ce to fa1.se leadership. BI eware of such allegiance, lest ye share the same fate. 99% /9 "H43 [I661 And nc)te that, when thc ee~l.pL ~$!Yjfalse leaders, in:;tead of pleadin H N 9/// ~ 9 9 4 #yfor their followers, will come [ &, J! 1JJ b&,$forward to disown them, now tthey are to undergo the ordeal cchastisement, and when all bond-between them will have thussevered and none will be in aposition to think of anolther orhelp each other! 9 [167] Those: that weremisled will cry out: "Would thiwe were given a chance to live over again, that we might disownthese false leaders, even as they are disowning us." Thus f: / 9 / ,##A r. doth God turn their deeds into ajUbq~~b/L> rvain regrets and they shall not come forth from out of the Fire. Ihe fu.ndamental principles explained, reference is now made tc certain subsidiary regulations of life in respect of which a variety of misconceptions had prevailed to an extent that
  • 88. they were encroaching upon the basic truths of the religionof Islam. Although this may form only a side issue, it has, inits implication and its detailed exposition, the force of afundamental principle. Among the misconceptions universally held, the one to whichspecial attention is drawn is in respect of what was permissiblein food and drink. Meaningless restrictions had come to beimposed and the test of piety lay in the extent of supersti-tion displayed in this matter. Progress or a free growthfor such superstitious people was evidently. not possible-This fact as well as the steps taken to set things aright is re-ferred to here in the QurZn: (1) In the first place, it was announced bx the QurYCn that it was open to man to make use, free of restrictions, of all the good things of life provided on the earth. Meaningless or self-imposed restrictions were clearly Satan-inspired. (2) Incidentally, the QurZn draws attention to the truth that the way of faith was the way of reason and insight; and the peculiarity of Kujr or negation of faith was blind imitation and lack of insight. Blind imitation, senseless adherence to mere tradition and the citing of elders and leaders against fact and reason are indeed great obstacles in the way of right thought and living. T o call upon imitators to pay heed to the demands of knowledge and reason is like addressing animals. (3) Barring the four things mentioned in the QurY5nic passage here, the flesh of animals normally used for food is permissible. (4) The observance of a number of restrictions by the people of the Book in the matter of food was due t o the fact that the directions given in the Book and the practice of its early followers had fallen into neglect. Their religious leaders in self-interest either altered the directions or did not disclose them and the masses followed them blindly.
  • 89. SORAT AL-BAQARAH 69 The Book of God is the store-house of knowledge and truthand, any deviation from the truth is prompted by ignora~a n d doubt. .So, when knowledge and truth are broughtview, differences should no longer be entertained. If, el.after the advent of the Book of God, people indulge in differ-ences an1d break .the unity of faith by splitting into sects, then, they hav e indeed drifted far away from the truth with no hopee :ing thelir steps. he supreme doc of Islam is that the gay to perfection and salvation does not lie in obse:rv- ng any particular form of prayer or in observing ;any estrictions in the matter of food and drink. O n the &her hand, perfection is attainable on~ l ythroi incere devotion to God, purity of mind a~ n d lif; a ighteous actions. The regulations of Shara toucl ces have their own value in this reg;ard. The 1~engluus misconception which prevailed universallya t the advent of the Qurln was that religion was identical withritual and the externalia of Shnra or Cannon law, and thatsalvation and perfection depended on their observance. Butthe QurZn says that religion in reality is devotion to God and 1righteous activity and that the outwardL observi theShara are also there to promote this purposie. 30 rvhatprimaril y matte the objiective 2~ n dnot themeans. 11681 U ye mankind! eat freelyof the permissible and wholesomethings of food which have beenprovided on the earth. And thefancied restrictions whichthese people had imposed onthemselves are Satan-inspired.So do not follow the ways ofSatan, for he is your avowed enem,
  • 90. [I691 H e prompts you only toevil and indecency and makes u&5w$(,,3iG~ 5you aver of God, that of whichyou have no knowledge. [170] And when it is said , , ,7, ,J49Pto them, "Follow ye what God J~~L&J&:I$,, ,hath sent down" they say, "Nay! ,,,,,/ , &/, A , , / ~~1We shall follow the way whereon / * . &i~~L$&!%dlwe found our fathers". What!even when you know they were *?~(&~$;lb Lz!not able to understand anything,o r were not on the right path? ys us=y y 39/9/ -* [171] And the fact is that those cw3&+who refuse to believe, resemble P</ &&I&LC~,$ fM7,in their blind imitation and &; (aagainst the call of reason and :s~ 9 / 9 / / 4 P 7 ~ 7;guidance, those (sheep), who, &>YJ@~~S(.~L$!when the shepherd calls 6 9 9 6 9 9rt Pthem catch nothing but the 1 e-G &d/&-b$&jnote of the call-and the cry. &j @psDeaf, dumb, blind are tht,.So they will never understand. [I721 0 Muslims! If it is Godthat you serve and think that inthe matter of food, permissible && lYIUw!~... zor otherwise, His order is the &$$,pfi4L &, / C -, . 9only order to obey, then freely / 9 9 9 7 / 9 z -919 ,eat of the wholeso me thin{ s w i t h ~ @CbL@&Jfidwhich He hath p rovided you andgive Him thanks. f1731 What God hath forbiddenyou are just these-carrion, $$/Al& L:blood and swines Wesh and that over which any name other than that of God hath been invoked. . ,, , ,,, , /4& But he, who of sheer necessity,is driven to partake of them, h&&i& $ , 9
  • 91. neither ir1 any inordinatequantity nor in clisregard of the A,&,..2 . s Ax 3L<I< q 13regulatior1 of the Shara, no ssin shall be uporI him. With-out doubt God overlooks short- E%comings and in every situa-tion proves merciful to you. [174] Verily, those who hidethat which God hath revealedin the Book and exchange itfor a mean price-these r eallyput into their bellies no thingbut fire; for, these earrlingsof theirs will one day turn,for their punishment, intoflames of fire. O n the day ofResurrection, God will nespeak to them nor will Ireform them; and theirs hall be a grievous C:hastisem lent. - -- - ri 75J lhese are they who have bartered gu~idancef or / error and pardor1 for tor-merit. What a b e h a v i ., ~alvlly the o ,I,," . ~ , Flath of t:rror! HOW reco nciled aIre they to Fire! 1-1761 All tE: UC3plite 113, A,", he fact that God hath sent clown thle Book (Torah) with I U L U . x r-..&L i ~Jormally,when the 1ight of revelation has clawned, every form of - - - -- - - . hurrlar~ doubt or suspiciur~ should have been dispel Ncverthelcss, these peoplc fell at variance. And they who
  • 92. have differed in theirapproach to the directionsof the Book of God, haveindeed drifted away fromit, splitting into sects. S CCTION 2Z I Piety d~ not lie in turning oes your faces in prayer towards the Eastor the West, or in observing any such / 9 9 P 9outward formality; but true piety is fie3 ,a 1~; this that one believeth in God, in the Last Day, in the angels, in the scriptures, and in all the messengers of God, and for the love of Him giveth of his wealth to his kindred.and to the orphans, and to the needy, and to the way-farer, and to those who ask, and for the uplift of the downtrodden, and observet h 3;1 ws$t prayer and payetkI the pol3r-rate L / +@&;+y~r / / b&i+I -05 7 0- and is of those wh.o are faiithful / I c d H <#, to their engagements -..L- they have -L- wr~cn a&%?!$/&>~@bb3 engaged in them, and endure with Y /79.79 fortitude poverty, distress and moments of peril. Such undoubtedly F&$&~/&S / / are they who are true in their faith, and such are: they who arc truly I~ious. The provision of retaliation for man-slaugh ter and the issues arising therefrom. (1) Here is a declaration that all men are eguals. The Q ~ r z ndeclares itself against the inequalities intro- duced in human society. I n the scale of human life 111 are to be treated alike, both men and women. So,
  • 93. SORAT AL-SQARAH 73 in the matter of rctaliation for man-slaughter, life for life is the law, and, no distinction oir discrin is permissible.(2) If the heirs of the slain are willing to accept wooa- - money, the slayer may save his life. d( 3 ) The principle of life forlife is (zonceive, in the iinterests of life itself. The objective is to protect human life. .., . So, when the objective is to preservt: life, it is clear that retaliation is not intended to be merely zi means of destruction of life. [I781 0 Muslims! Prescribed for 9 you is retaliation for n---l ~ - s ~ i t u s ~3w - 9 l a -1- --., -A. L,- ~rc~ + 1 7?r&4~ .., @ J; (In this matter, no distinction can be made between man and man.) If the slaver is a free ---- V! IlliLII, -nly that free man wi 1 have to pay tlle penal 1 death. ( I n defeirence to the posi -..L:-L , . WIIILII the slain had occupied, it wlii dJ+$ $ g T; ; k g ,*/F *d not be permissible to demand the lives of two persons, as was the practice among the Arabs.) If the G 2- 9 - u slayer is a slave, only he, the slayer, will be slain in retaliation. (In view of the fact that the shyer was a slave and the slain was a free man it will not be proper that two slaves .should pay the penalty.) If the slayer i$ a worn an, that very wc i will have to pay the pen;alty. 7 .. And if the helrs of the slam, .. out of sheer human sympathy, are prepared to forgive the .slayer for the deed and are will- ing to accept blood-money, (the1 the slayer be set free on payrnt of this blood-money). In that event,
  • 94. the hcirs should ask for nothing / / 7 I / .beyond the .customary blood-monrv &~Lj~~k~&J&land that theslayer should sliberality in paying it. I,% I d& 1 4 (And mark that the arrangementprescribed by the I &urGn is to takeoff the sting frorn retaliation, .0and cleanse ~t or all its harqh-ness, and make i t a n i n s t r ~promoting the sense of ju:and brotherliness among you.)This is a concession from yourLord and a mcrcy. For him who shalltransgress after this, thereshall be a sore chastiseme:n t. [I791 And for you, C men c)f g .,understanding, retaliation, n 2 c .- A"a meaning for you. Although onclife is taken for taking an[otherlife, this is not a mere takof life. I n fact, it assureslife for you; for it prevent!you from all evil. Making of a will prior to death is recommcndcd and tl is in the interest of those left beh-- " "-e follow in^ arc t aspects to be noted: Although the properry ownea ~y one passes i i ~ ~ 111..l (I ) c death into other hands, it is the duty of its owner think how it should be distributed after him to t advantage of those near and dear to him; ancl cannot by any means, divtsst himslelf of this rcspon bility. (2) The will that a dying man rnakcs is a sacrrcr trust for those who happcn to be entrusted with i t . It is their duty to execute it according to every clctail
  • 95. SORAT AL-BAQARAH 75 13) Should those who are entrusted with the task of exe- ting it t:imper w,ith its PI-ovisions: i t is the:y who a rc , countable , and rlot the t estator c)r the b zneficiariLCS. c :rcof. ] I t i s p rescribed to you that 9 / / / / N / 9 // / 91411~11u avuroacheth c a ~ ~ any of you j$ L& ~ & +. & .,a~ n d that ) leave amy wealth 9GJ~333~~1)ehind, Ii e should beque:ath equitably " : - 11tu I-:-1s ~ ~ K C I I LaIluIK I L I U K ~ . This -.A. .-, S . 1.1--I-.. ~- ~is incuml those w,ho areful of Gc [i81] But s h o u ~ uanv c:narif ------- -d // / / 9 / i / / / the b e qlest after hearin.g it, ~ J j L y L wd&j@ - the sin slla11 rest on those: who /m,change it. ( I n e cnange snoulo nor I iffect thc purpos e of the original Xemembler that God he;~ r e t hanknowern. .1 1 *99 , # / y / * 1 1-1 -- 4dwea$!$a~ ] But if any apprehend I of any wrong on the ., . .part o r the testator and reaches 1n time ; settlerlent wit1 the 1 1 3arties concernec1-that shall I . be no wrong In him; (for, thls . .. . 4 will not be altering the will but it will be a rectif ying of a possible irregularit) I c3r injus. tice.) And withc tdoubt: G.oc1 is the forgiv shortcomings, thc MercifuL. ECTION : lhc pr escriptio11 of fasl: in thc month idhan and IC princ:iplcs uriderlying; it, and the r ( of cct.iai1: .t.nrn ..-I-:-- . & Ln r - t r .l l l l ~ L u ~ l L L p L l u l ll > l L L 1 1 1 ~ L L l C l L LU. C
  • 96. 76 .,-j; kk+ T h e r e is nothing rcally good in the nlrrc : I ~ Iof starvinq or of causing uncluc exertion or cliscomfort to [11(, I)c)tly. T h a t is no jectivc of thc F ~ S~I ) I ~ ~ s c I . ~ I b y c I I ~c 7n. L I I ~ reill : is to lcacl (lie mint1 of man (11 ~~oces.; of purlncation. T h e process of f~s(i11g ) r o m o ~ S ( . I I < ~ 01. aint and a n a p t itudc fo r rigllteous t l ~ o l ~ g ;111(1 li.ing. l~t , F a,.,...l g was rescrveci , ct;r for tlir ~ n o n t l iof Rarn;1tll1;111 li)l. thc silmple reason that it was tl is m o n t l ~that t11c revel;ltions of the QlrcTjt bcg: dclivrred to t11(, P~rrnl I ,,,,,let. Incidentally, fhsting keeps 11ic mcmory ofI this event green in thc minds o r the f:1itlifi11. ) T h e r e should be easc in the obscrvancc of religious practices a n d by no means any hartlshil). I t is not proper to take the vicw that rigidit) devot-ional practices is plcasing to Gc [, .) T h e object of the clevotional pracliL> ,I ~ u r ~ l s your mind a n d heart and give a hcalthy tonr: is not only when you go through lengthy o r physical starvation t h a t you can raise voul. tr. God, as was the idea prevnlc:nt amo; cligious- minded of the days c,r thc PI -npl~(.t. ( )ontls to the cry of the needy a t all tirncs and irl C V C - I y altuation, H e bc:ing closer to m a n than cvcn liis own jugular vrin. I f yo1u raise your voicc to H i m in sincc,ii~y ant1 Saitl~, the d oor of divine niercy instantlv orlens out for you. I 1 (4) Among the Jews, thc conditions of I; sting wcrc very rigid a n d very scvere. O n c was th.is: Oncc a Jcv went to bed aftcr breaking his fast, hc was no[ :~llowc.tl to partake of any food, lest hc slioulcl wakr up tluril~g the night. Likewise, thc Jelvs wcrc absolurcly forhitltlrn all conjugal relations villi their wivrs i n the rnnr~th of fasting. Whcn fasting was prcscrihcd Tor the MIIS- lims, i t was apprchcnclcd thai thesr rc.:;trictions w t ~ c also bincling on thcln, ant1 sincc thc-se 1.c.strictions wcrc. very trying, solne of thc fc)!lowcrs of chc: Faith co~llcl liot conforln to them and hacl ncccss;~rily cor~cc:;tlt111,ir lo
  • 97. failin ersc 187 of this c hapter, Ithe Qpri in refers to th ion in the f o l l oling wor,ds: "Go d knew ~ t h a t you were cloing injury to your own selves . T h p :" ,.., PUP ose of the fast is not to deprive any on1e of his bodil y pleasures but to develop in him th e sense nf rrstraint and moderation, in order that he may u. A - 3 7 regul ate his dcsircs. The restrictions placed on food and drink and conjugaiity applied only to the day. n~iri -,..ng the night one was perfcctly free to attend to such neccls.(5) Thr conjugal relationship betwcen h~ nd wife is not anything immoral that i~ shoula DC a m a.t m 10s 0 prohibition during a month gjiven to dlevotion to God. I t is a natural relationship a1nd the couple is wedded -- -. to rach other in thcir common necessltles or lire. . . a P 1.P Anyt.hing tr;inspiring bctwet I should any manner be repugnant to n to Goc A h 1 i - - - -iLlleverin God is he avhose acrion is above ooaru. -/ A th ing may not be wrong in itsclf; but if oince you deenI it so and yet resort to it in secret, then a lthough vnil have done nothing wrong, you have verily done ong to 1your conscience and soiled the F your heart. I 0 Mu slims! a prescribe d to yc)U asf; ., .ir was prescrlbea to those before 7you that you mig h t guarcf yourselves U P 9 6 ~ 9 H 9 I + 9against your passilons. - @c,*W%& [18i] his is only for a P t / / 7// Y 9 7 9~ 7&wk&*+~~LkI Pspecific number of days, (and not ,,"fl*# 4 < A , 7 <For any lengthy period.) For him (;rS6*p&3!by // /among Y O U who may be sick or on a journeypermission is given to observe && f ( $the fast on other days andthus complete the course.As for thosc avho have not the
  • 98. 78 rsd yLLit3 capacity to bear the strain c r f - - + ~ ing, (as for example very olc people who have no t the strt -. to fast, nor could entertaln hope of fasting on other day for such the substitut e is the feeding of an indigent pcrsc,,. And he who of his c)wn accolrd does more than this, (or feeds mcIre than . . ... - one), then he shall derive additional reward for what he has done But if you are a man of und er- standing, then bear it in mi-a that to keep fast under ever: circumstance is good for yc [I851 I t was in the month 01- Ramadhan that the Q~irnn delivered-a guidance for m2 presenting clear signs of guidance, and a criterion enabling hir distinguish between right ax As soon as any of you observ,,,, that the month has begun, let himset about the fast; hut: he who issick or on a journey shall fast like number of other days. G - wisl I ease and wishe,th notdiscomfort. (The concession sho~ e sick an d those c)njoul the cou rse on other days IS for the reason t h - t the observance of fa! for a stspecific period offer s certain benefits to those who fast, anc that it is good in their own interests to complete he courseon other days.) You should therefore
  • 99. complete the course (for the sakeo~f your sy)iritual welfare) andhb in a PI e xition to extol @ 9 9 7.cthe greatness of God for showing n-),P&thc way t o it and feel grat efulto Him. [186j And W ~ r o p h e t !when anyone of my servants ask thee how * , ,, ,they could reach Me, tell them d,bW3LdL~j~3 / / / C /that I am ever present with themand that I respond to the callof him that calleth, when hecalleth Me; so if they really seekMe, let them hearken unto Me anhave faith in Me that they may aclsuccess in life. [187] You a re pcrmi.tted to ~7 --1 2 1 , > && 79 / 7 9 P. 1 /approach your wives durjing the 53 dA3fJdk -.night of the fast. I hey are yourgarments and you are their garments.God knew that you were doing injuryto your own selves by doing a - hing wh ich was in itself not 9 / 1 lad but which you were feelinn . . -&& that it was so, a i d yet you w e r e g & u + t , & z A / doing it much against your ./ c t/ ,79 7 4 v conscience. God in His mercy &Lb;&bg$Ju&b 96 4 did not choose to hold yOU , res~onsiblefor it. He tooI k + note of your embarrassm ent and f o r g a v e E ~ ~ ~ ; f i you. Now thatthk matter is .. clcared, you may without hesita &! s k 3 , go in to your wives with hopes of having what God would like you & ~ u I. !7%:;3iH e - 3 have. and eat and drink until vou see the dark line of the night &~~~;~y5,$3 9p/7. , " pass into the bright line of the
  • 100. ,./ r .. &,&Q, & &dawn, a n d then go through r l ~ e P / r ~ ? i( t ~ q afast till the night scts in. /And go not .in to your wii . . ,-&I /?q -, /.a:. 1-&jt&& 2 y J ~ Q 9 . v , /while you havc scqucs~cr-1.. 5s -?;L!j;-~JJ;-uY( in the I G J 3 . 1 ," .. /These are the bou by .-1 . -1 - .. .Guu; uo rluL L I . ~ LU CI.VSS L ~ ~ ( , I I I . L. .. - LI t is in such dctaiGod gives His inst ructions ~ +*J ( & I J . _ . ~ .~to men that they migliL 3 uard~ . I L /I L, . ... , i against This section on thc su1.1jcct of 1 .. 1 orr wlrn a n expression of a basic truth about 1sl:tmic rcligio~rs ~- -~ exercises. I t points out that iiscetic religious pr:tcticcs bring no good to one who is disregardSu1 of the rights or otlicrs, O I cannot deter oneself fi-omappropriating w h a t bclongs to ot 11c-I-s. Piety docs not lie in denying food to yourself for a p;lrtic111;11. period. O n the other hand, piety lies in denying to yoursc.llli~t- all times food in evcry forni obtained through wrong mralls. [188] And mark! consume not each $ ~ ~ j + ~others property by false pretencca n d presen~t a part oI i t to judgerthat you xnay con:jume u n j ~ ~ s t lay Jc&>j /. bs;&gL * 9 7 k;, ". irc,@2 l P ,part of other mens propcrry, knowin: - ~ $ ! ~ lfull well t h vrong to do so. !4 Here fol low the regulati ons touching thc condu ?!I! the pilgr.image to Mecca, a n d the removal of certa [HIS ... - misconceptions prevalllng among the Arab and other cornmu- nities a t -the advent of tl~e Q U Y ~ (1) 7The appr:arance c)f the new I I ~ U U Iis trtkcn LO m , ~ s k l ~ c ~ t .months of the year a n d also to spccify thc sc;~.;ono f Hajj. Anything else attributed to this ~ ~ h c n o n ~ e n o r ~ is no better than superstition. T h c supcssti t iou::
  • 101. SORAT AL-BAQARAH 81 notions prevailing among thc masscs in respcct of the muvcmrnts of t l ~ estars or olr astrology liavc, in the 1:;l;imic vicw, :tbsolutcly no r:itional founrlxtion. Tlio pc:rrorm;~ncc of pilgrimage to shrincs a n d placc: -,.d sxcrr:cl is 1lc:dged in intric;~tc:Ijrmixlitics and pil, i 1 n havc to 93 t l i r o ~ g ha nunlbcr 0 physical dis. g- 1 : ~ : conaforts. T h e truc path oi righteousness is to kcel :s inwnrcl scif or oncs rnincl i ~ n m u n cto evil. (. pcrsccutlon ~,lhich thc follo~vcrsof the Prop!le f(xrc.r! a t thc hands of the ~:nbelievcrs of Mecc; p t ~ ~ l i i c Gcc~ cntrancc to the Kaaba. So permissiol l~ ! ~vi:: gr;~ntc:dto figlrt their way to it; for, it was neces sal-y to rcscuc this IIouse of prayer from thc clutchc of ~ h c i r oppressors. J3ui :11c Muslims are cautioned that nothin;5 they dc whcthcr in thc state of war or of pcacc, should g against justice and uprightnr- . A m W a r is an evil. But disordc~ is much worse. So it be c cam? imperative to prefer a state of war to a state c disordcr in society. What Tvas the mischief wrought hy the Quraisll c Mecca? I t was to .Corm violently the adherents c *1I T - . ~ t hto give u p their faith, so tnuch so; that freedor oftlonscience was denied to them. T h c Q I L Tpoini ~ out: that this evil was worse than war. It was therefor --, :essary to take to war to put a n end to his state c ~irs. crmissio vefi to PI it was gi, rotcct th e right c ".-- .- I.-<. :- ^ -^-.-+er bctwcc.11 God and man, the oppressive hai~clof ma should have no c!lancc to intervene.., I t was thcrchre enjoined on the 3,i.Iuslirns t c ~sacrificl; thc,is belongings or ~vcaltl-rin the cailsc of this holy strr1gglc by observing that they who abstained from Dpncling their wcalth in such n carrsc truly co:~rtecl o.-n ruin; for, abstenliorl rsom figh1.ing in a jusi indeed natidizal death for any people.
  • 102. 2 r id t JJi, ( 6 ) Returning to the subject of Hajj, ..., ,dr.an aav what one should do when thc en1 I C House 01 Prayer is blocked by the enemy. (7) he H a j j begins the moment a b i u s ~ l n ~ t l ~ c (ions robe of the pilgrim. So from this momcnt onward till robe is removed, it is not permissiblc for a pilgrin go in to his wife, or to utter any thing indecent, or I u p any quarrel with any one. T h e bcst prcpnra for the performance of a sacrccl duty is the cultivn of righteousness. (8) T h e Qurin here-observes that devotion to God or picty does not conflict with worldly activity or with mrttcrial progress and prosperity. I n fact, Islam dcsircs to pro- mote a perfect living which assures for one the brnc- fits both of this world and of the next. Iilgrimagc is just a form of devotion. But as a form of devotion, it does not come in the way of the pilgrim carrying on any transactions which may bring him material good. Wealth or property is after all in the gift of Cod, and it - is but meet on the part of man to seek it can in an upright manner. (9) A serious misconception of life has prevailcd alr people all over the world with the result that tlicy 1 had recourse to extrcnies. Either onc is so oljsc: wit11 the pursuit ;:;worldly living that llc 11:~sha neglect absolutr!y the demands of the li1L to comc:, or is so engrossed in the thought of othcrworldlincss that he has imposed on himself asceticism in all its rigidity. But the right way, as delineated b y thc {&~rCtr, is the middle way-the path of moclcration in cvcry sp11c:re of lifes activity. H e alone livcth a r i ~ h twllosc: o r l a prayer to God is this: Our La c us goo this world and give us s;ood in :altcr". [I891 They ask thce of the new moons. & 3: "; >J / Say: "They are markings of time for , F " men, and for purposcs of pilgrimage. (As c&.,~,
  • 103. for the rest, the superstitions entertainedof them and the practices of diverse I 3 - //sorts followed in this connection s~,+%%have no rational foundation whatsoever.)There is no goodness, for instance,i n entering houses from over theirback sides, (as the Arabs used to doon beholding a new moon and putting &ww$&.s? /o n the robe-of the pilgrim.) ~ o o d n e i slies in the avoidance of wrongliving. Enter the houses then yJd,:""" 9/ / 4 " " by the proper door and be mindfu g .1 j9o f God that you mightprosper. [190]I And fi, ght in tli e way (God agaiinst those: who fig:ht againyou, but a o not commlt excesses.God does not like those wlho comnexcesses. [19 11 ( 1 he Llvleccans have declareciwar against yoK3 You too declart:war ag them, and slay them wherever yo^L 9 39f.4A . ;find them and eject them from where--* lever thc:y have ejected you;.s( /~,P/,H - 7 .A . - 9 - C ; , !3 /fc)r persec:ution is worse than blood- 6 ,2-rC+-&~~*pb , . , Ashea. (AS for fighting within theprecints of the Kaaba, the order 4+s, , b,W H 0 / 9 G4a&Js ,is this:) attack them not in the a&?&&p& 19vicinity of the Sacred R4osque ,.; , / unless they attack you the1:e; but if they attack you, thc:n you -. will have to hght --. Lhatis the desert of th utinq unbelieve rs . - .,. Hut it they desist, then, @$ of divine forgiveness will osed against them; for
  • 104. 84 k d+ 2without doubt God is the God nfforgiveness, thp Merciful! c 9 9 ~ [I931 And fight until there is d>no more persecution from them, and theway of lift p J by GOIprevails. Bul I desist,then let there be no more hc,,..,,,save against the aggrt 1194.1 If they trmonth as sacred, then do ye also treat the sacred month as sac:red ;even in matters sacred, the rule to be observed is like for like. If any be overbearing, then do ye behave as they have bchaved, and be mindful of God, and know / / #/+.O-f 7 , that God is with those who guard @m F -/ &d l themselves against transgression. [I951 .And spcnd i l t h e way of God and do not with your own hands work for your own ruin and do good; for ,: . js$&bd P// I ,/-., , ,c,: # 9 / * - , 1/ ; 9 999 1 A God verily loveth these who do good. c,+* , ;(l@Jt$ .$.t .$,; 1 , [I961 Perfol-~nthe Iiujj and the Pmra 3 for the sake of God. But if ye be hindered, then send forth whatsoer--- @ 3 dlu&[& 0.4 / /" 5 offering is most easily avai: and shave not your heads I 3, /3 1 the offering has reached its destination. B u t whoever among you is sick or hath a n ailment of the heaa, he should, in lieu of , 7 . R B 9 / 9 / shaving, fast or give alms or 9k&b kQdd-4 offer sacrifice. And when you /,u ,/+ 9 4 are free to move forward, th ++J,I"&G~~$J~& 9 - L 9 / 9 .< he who hath perforrncd thc and Hnjj together, let his L ~G;~$L,W/ 4~ /Hz., / < 3 ~/d/ <z P7 7 , t offering be wha.t is the most + J & ~jb &> 1 /I 4
  • 105. easily available. But if he findethnothing to offer, he shallfast thrcc days during theH a j j itself, and seven dayson return-ten days in all.This is the procedure for hwhose family doeth not resinear the sacred mosque; arbe mindful. of God and kncth;~t H e is severe iinchastisenle nt. ZCTION 2 " //. [I971 There a.re certain mont.known for pilgrim age. Whoever t t -undertakes tne pilgrimage, let him J /~ & /~ * 3 . ~ & , + .1 .1 /,/ / // - JLnot yield to sex promptings, or r, ; .,./ /T #, / 4../9P9.employ the language of abuse, or b3 b$(dJ~y3~9wrangle during the pilgrimage. A t ~ d ~ & , ~ ~ + ./whatever good you do, that God .. .. , ,knoweth. And equip yourself for d J ~ ~ g 3the journey properly, and thebest of equipment is righ Leousness. ~ 94. I,(!/ / JBe then mindful of God, 0 men ofa-nderstanding ! ~ 1 9 8 1 t shall be no hzLrm if I u seek a1iv mater3ial gain from 1 . - pl1511111a5L, -r u u l v uA,-A during t h o -:I-. T ru ^- *% .. # , . - u~~YX++@by carrying on business. So when ~you hasten back from Arafat, then 7 4 r . ,remember God near the Mashar al- &+d / 3 $BJ~E(: ; , ,./.b... , ~ Z a ~ I<- b &Har5m and remember Him in the mannerH e hath shown you, althoughwere hitherto of those who were f ~ ~ 1s /A ~ 3 42 3 ~ :, ~ going astray. [199] Thcn even as others,
  • 106. &Ipass :kly frorn the pl ace / / A ? . / ,@,./9.wherc pcuplc arc - - - LU - - quickly, &- A pass - .. " v ubb ~ ~ h + T & j - .. / ../ .9/,; 5 ,.L 3.7 !a n d seek Divine forgiveness for &dl d:d 2flyour past behaviour, for, Godis Forgiving , " " . .I"u1. lVlerClI~ [200] 1i n d wht:n you 1lave finiyour rites, c:xtol God even as you 1 , ., - 92>u9-=yL ,;g , .used to extol your own ratners pre- /viously, or with a more fervent 5 7 M~J~& . 9Y r f b, ~ y r ~ &I , lextolling. (This is really the pur-pose of Hajj.) Some there are who ~7g&~aG~r$ d .. Hout of their love for the thingsof this world seem to pray of God; a ; ~ ~ ; ~ ~ l &"Our Lord! give us prosperity inthis world". But such shall have */+% " no portion in the life of thcHereafter. 12011 r?Ind som e there ;are who ;(q;a+$jG~desire pros^~erityin both tlne .. - -worlds. They say, "Uur Lord!give us good in this world and </ / / +give us good in the vzorld tofollow, and protect us from 04a14s@ j cthe chastisement of Fire". [202] Certainly it is suchpeople that shall have, bothin,this and the life to come,the meed of what they have earned,a n d God is not s l oI ~ app. in raisingthe work of men; H:e is quic: in kaccording recompenlse for M,hatthey have done. -A. ,. 7 / 9/ /*- 94. [$03] Extol Gc)d cluring the +%-???G,&Z & 1- .:stated days of the hcyj. n-.* t ~ u if : - LPG&, &2~ //.G c *// any one, in haste returns in twodays, it shall be no blame in him,provided he does this with a reighteous A j9 9."Gbsl ,/ c -
  • 107. purpose. Be midful of God then,and know that to Him shall ye all 4, . / + 9 - 5 - i ~ ~ 79C: 75h 0w y 1 is rlot opposed to temporal life. What it is opposed to is pride or arroe~ a n c eborn of senseless devotion to worldliness. I t is th.is arrog;ance or pride which diverts the mind of man from u ~.h~ 5 1 1 ~ l l ~ s the thought of God; and when this is ,: -" .l . and s allied to political power, it works havoc in human life, as and when his self-interest or his whim prompts him to do. But thcy who are truly devoted to God, however pre-occupicd in martters of this world, never yield to the temptations of the: hcart. :rhey are only after the approbation of God for what 1they do. T h e man of the world will in his own interest sacrifice. LL^ I I I L C LIIC :rests ! - L - of otheirs, but they, the truly devoted to God, sacrifice their own interest;s to seek the pleasure of God. However much one may - try w make worldly life pleasant or claim to possess a kindly L- disposition, his test Is this: what treatment has he metec1 out to his fellow-beings through the power that he has posse:;scd ? T h e destruction of life and property wrought by man thrln u ~ h his pride and power is to be regarded as the most hei of wrongs ever done to mankind. If it is ever said to tho!se in- toxicated with power, "Fear God", they embolden themn:rives to commit greater excesses. 12041 Aniong men therc. are somewho beguile thee by their talk (the life of this world and take is$&$&@ /-God to bear testimony to their ~L&~G$I!$I&~,sincerity. Yet they are t:he mostzealous in opposition. :ul N pdJ79; Y+Q~* ? [205] Whenever they get pthey engage themselves in creati c b;g,~,g~<.t-.. 4 4disorder in the land and lay was) the fields and flocks; and God LUL, LJ&; i , t$ not likce such disorder. 120161 And when it is said t o . 4-
  • 108. them, "Pear God, and holuback your hands from tyranny",it only drives them to grcater bJ6 MM i p7 //. 9 : .sin. Vhen such is their st:are - J++s.-&d~of mind, they are not the 1 ~eoglewho will desist from comrnitting ; I &; 2excesses. Hell alorL W .,, e lllsatisfy thenn. H e who seekshell for hi s destin;%tionhas indeed sought a n evil ..destination. [207] As against thisof people, there are some whosacrifice in the way of Godtheir personal interests toseek the pleasure or God, 2God is ever gracious tothose who are dcvotedto 1171s lu wer has been a 11factor leading nations into wrong directions anct this is particularly so in moments of <ucces; and prosperity. So the followers of the faith have been specially fore-warnrd against it. The guidance of God hat11 been made manifest, and that is necessary for the upholding of truth hath bccn explair to you. With all that, should you stumble, ancl fail to kc to the palth of gui dance, yrou will be deprived of the blessi of God. Should it be reg,ardecl t llat the g uidance of the word of C cioes not suffice tliem, thcn the only alternative that rema ins ir, that Gc~d Himslelf should appcar before them and tell th c m in person : "I am your God, belicve in Me." Such a thing has not happened and will ncver happen. T o derive the benefits ancl blessings of faith in God is not enough that you just call yourself i1 Muslin1. You i have to gct into the vcry spirit of Islam. Your faith in God
  • 109. 1st pcrmeate your thought and activity In cvery sphcre [208] O lvrusllms! be ye Muslims;in arll aspects of thought and actionand do not walk in the foot-steps of Satan; for, he indeedis your avowed enemy. r 9 9 g 9 / 9 ( .b b l , % , [209] But if you waver aftcr 6 * /@ u a 1 3 3 . d &these clear instructions havcome to you, (remember thyou cannot save yourselvefrom the operation of thcLaw of Requital.) Eh o w thGod is mighty, Wise. [210J I10 these people t ome dovvn to the. 1, , , "angels, with bright clouds for acanopy, and have the matterT h e y hardly realise thatall mattersGoci. G o d stlowed the lsraelltes the way to good life, but they chose the way a~fevil. Their hi story of Fers a lesson for people of .understan#ding. 12111 Ask the children of Israel,how many clear signs did We not givethem? But if any one makcs a wronguse of the gift of God after receiv-ing, then assuredly Gods law ofrequital will deal a severe chastise-ment. (by u(Q&$,&l&Jij a# / - / / / ! , / / /
  • 110. [212] The life of this worldmay seem-pleasant to those who 3b9J3$@5 a * / / /have no faith and they mock atthose who have. But on the day , P ~ , , ~ , ,of resurrection, it is the &$G 1% 1 t3 p Zbrighteous who sh:ill rank higherthan theste disbelit:vers, an1d then 1they will nor seem to Know thatthey, who today may be inindigent condition, may tomorrow,through Gods grace, b e in afflucntcircumsta ~d God isbounteou it measure to whornHe will. The QurCn here draws attention to 2I fundarnental t: rutlx of life. It says that in the beginning, mankind were but one community and that they lived a simple life. But whcn thcy multiplied and expanded, there arose among them various conflicts result in^ in disorder and mutual oppression. I t was then th at the p divine revelation began, and what was rev ealed w,as conve:yed to them through a series of pro- -LA&.. T L - --TI ~ L I C L S . 111t: call of every one of these prophets was but one and the same, a call which advised them to live a life of right- eousness and unity. The word of God, or the Book of God as it is styled by the @~rCn,was delivered always with the purpose of settling the differences among mankind and to bend their minds to follow but one Din or one way of life. The root cause of internal differences is the sin of arrogance and self-interest which disables one to obey the call of Truth. The attention of the followers of the Faith is drawn here to this weakness only to ernphasise that the weakness of the Israelites which contributed to their fall, was not peculiar to them but was noticeable even in the lives of people who h a d gone before the: Wha t matters primarily in having Truth m. as the basis of ones lif e is not so much a knowledge of it,
  • 111. ~ h i c h already there from the beginping before mankind, is ~ u t the desire to remain steadfast in adhering to rruth. [213] I n the beginn ing, mankindwere not divided. into g:roups. O n 9, - / / /the other hand tlley were: but one ~ b G?&&& l ; / 3mmunity, and then it so happened iat they divided themselves into :parate groups. So God raisedprophets among them to give themglad tidings of the good resultsthat flow from good deeds and towarn them of the evil consequenceswhich flow from evil deeds. Withthese prophets was also sent down ie Book of Truth that they might, a7f ~~,pVe5~~ yr ? g7 / / q f 9 9 9 99 /A/ 79/9/ 9 7 , nder its guidance, resolve their ~ $ d f ~ ..be. & ifferences and unite together ) pursue but one common way ,./ 9/91 / f righteous living. But they : 1 a t variance, not because the 1 7 e ~ w A > b Q 1 / 5I /ORclear instructions of God had not ~JG /e "reached them, but because theywere envious of each other.despite th reness ofthe revel: wing re achedthem. And God in His glauuusll ess "-directed the believers tothe Truth about which theyhad differed, and God directethMsl e a trule believer, it is not enough that you simply a : faith and thus feel competent to e nter -- 3 Heaven. Un the other hand, you should bear with fortituae
  • 112. all the trials which befall you, cvcn as the adherents ofI Truth before you had borne t h c trials which befell then- ;.- their tinnes. 12141 u o y o u l a u L y ~ i l a t uy mere vert)a1 avow el of faith you will enter the Galrden, although . you have not yet passed through - . L the ordea1s throt~ g hwhich those 1 who wentt before you had passed. 1 . 1. Poverty a n a aistress ip endless fc)rms trie d them, and they were S() shakenI that the Apostle and ,- those ot the faith who were by his side had to crY out, 6 < 0 help of God! W llen will it arrive?" At that m o m e ~ f the . veil of th e unkno wn was asunder : ind the help of i made its appearance to announce, 1 "Yea! do not der e help c I God is nigh!"I,1 I jLurfEn ~ L ILlal Jies the issue of charity. I t corr I, 1 111enocion that charity is no c h a r i 11 I1~ I-glvcrl LO vrle s K I I I U I - - I r L ~ ~ is L.. A - 1.1- )- ~ ed and that it is meant only for others. The Qurcin points out that charity should go, in the first instance,, to the n eedy am 01 S l ones own kindred. o .-n r I". ) I . 1 0 .-* ! [215] They ask thee vvhat the! should spend on others. Say: Whatever of your wealth you cal spare, let it be for your parents, and kindred and orphans and th, indigent and the way-farer; and whatever good you do, God know
  • 113. The QurEn now turns to the question of fighting in defenceof the Faith and of fi-ecdom: (1) The state ofwar is never pleasant. Rut are thc pleasant ends which are gained through unpleasant means and vice versa? (2) War is an evil. But disordcr in society resulting from the high-handedncss of man is a greater evil. So, when disorclcr gets beyond ordinary conlrol, thc only remedy is to war against it. T h e unbelievers opposed the Muslims not because of any grouze against any individual or body of indivi- duals among them. I t was because of the new faith thcy had adoptcd. They were determined not to rcst untii thcy forced the Muslims to change their faith; and since this was not possible for the Muslims, thc only alternative left for them was to fight back in the cause of the truth they believed in. Being the sponsor of peace or of Islam, the QuCn does not and cannot aclvocate fighting. But when the unbelievers chose to wage a war against the Muslims, the lattcr were permitted to take u p the challenge and not take to their heels. LZI C Fighting is now ordained i j rp 09 J..? / , r Pn db!~c&J / you. But this pleases you not. May be you dislike a thing though it be good for you, and may be you 9 3 99,<94 b 9 6,</9 ? ~ ~ ryc,ag A / /, 994 like a thing which is bad for you. @,@ . 3b : God knoweth: but ye, ye know not. . *& ? yo.*,^ ,p H 5 7, =9 Ju+4L+*u warfare in the month held sacred. Say: T o war in that month is bad; but to turn away people from the b/+&~,3 @-/;@7 &3 0 E&$ &b
  • 114. cause of God and go against Hin &&& ; G 5 69 fand deny ,entry to the sacredmosque and to drive out its in- I/ .? M p//&y , Y 7Y 1 4s /.-2 ,mates is much worse in the sightof God. Persecution is more 4heinous than bloodshed. And remember that t twill not cease fighting aga..-. .you until they turn you fromyour faith if they can. But marlthat who so from among vmi wi I-" "-turn from his faith and dit:anunbeliever, he will be a nlongthose whose work shall b = Lfruitless i~ this vqorld an~d Ialso in th, next, and whc) shall ebe the companions of Fire tnI . ,abide ther ein. P I 8 1 But on. the other hand,they who have believed and haveremained steadfast in their be-lief and have emigrated andstruggled in the cause of God,may hope for Divine: grace; andGod will be gracious to them,for He is full of mercv. - .- I n cor with w;ar, three issues called for consid era- . . - A ..-- ----. .-- 73;lc tion. n. rluuurl WLIS p ~ ~ l a l e n t the past and still prek,~.~ in that wine instils in man the fighting spirit and that gambling is a means of earning money. The Qurzn discredits both the notions. I t points out that in the use of a thing it is not its benefits alone which should attract one. Relative benefits do result from the use of everything. I n making use of a thing, it is always advisable to weigh both the benefits and +Lo CIIG injuries it: offers, and discard that whi arm than good.
  • 115. SORAT AL-BAQARAH 95 T h e second question before the followers of the faith in the time of the Prophet was: How much of ones earnings should one offer towards the cost of war or towards similar needs of the community. T h e @r& does not fix any proportion. I t ad- vises to give away what remains after meeting ones necessities. T h e third tqukstion related to orphans taken under ones guardianship. Direction is given that whatever is good in their interest should be done. I n fact, it would be well if they are admitted into ones home and treated as family members. [219] 0 Prophet! they ask thee con-cerning wine and games of chance. Say:"In both is great harm and also some advantageto men; but their harm is greater than -their advantage". [220] And they ask thee whatthey should give away in the cause &,$&wl<&m, , ,, ,,,,, , , pof God. Say: "Whatever remains bL&&$ b bafter meeting your necessities".Thus doth God make clear to youHis signs that you may ponderon the life of this world andon that of the world to follow. And they ask thee concerningorphans. Say: "JVhatever is good , ,, ., , ,,i n their interest should be done". d & + > b ~ > ~ ~ ~ & ~ & And if you wish to manage their affairs along with your own by treating them as family s P 9 9 / 4 , *9< B & ( 3 3* A , b b members, you may do so. After all, they are your brothers and not strangers to you; and God knows full well who is desirous of improving thcir lot and who, of exploiting llicm. So, if you are honest in yorlr i~ltcntions,
  • 116. 1 you should nai taking the rcipolI managing thPir a: God so wishccl, 1 imposed on you1~ tions of managcmcnt, (lor, tile responsibility of safegu;~rcling the rights ancl intcrcsts OF orphans is a serious responsibility) without doubt Cod is Mighty, Wise. i L time of war wi th the u:nbclicvers, the q e~I .,l u L c , l ~ l.*.....-,,.-a ~ r ;.. . then1 was pcrn~issil,le. 1 1 L %1tr7Zn WiiLLlILl :.+ *- .. A . 1alil - rlrith stated that marriage between a believing man arid an u n h r l i ~ v -l ing woman or bet~veen believing a oman an ancl an unbc1icvir:g man was not nermissible, since it was because of thcir bc1ic.S that thc: unbelie vers had become their enemics and were an:xious to turn them a.way fronn their faith. An 3 1 relatio ns irr -I - - . -. - L . ~ z u Do not wcd women n.bo ] W/"&3, f,&Jy, $4qfs.d 9 +, !HZ/ associate othcrs with God until. 3 0 $ t k $..A /- thev believe. An unbelieving woman & & b , ~* d_-gg may be pleasing to you; but n believing woman should be pr I/ *9 ,/N~/~CL/ ~ h ~ h . ~ Cerred to her. A.nd likewise, wed not you] believi r ren to those b, G, men wmo associ:tte o t h ers with ~ o d , & . + ~ , $ % h . ,l. 1 ~ d ~ /--.. 9 9 I 9/ / dJ until thjey acce]3r: rnc k i t h . And i of a surety, a bondman who is !J/*T P , A # $G & , .. &J3fmg believer is better than a free man who associates others wit11 God, albeit hc pleases you. Thi (the polytheists of Arabia)
  • 117. desire the Muslims to turnaway from thcir faith andthcrcfore inv.ite then1 to Firc I d;l(&s%c, ~ & ~ - ~ >+ I / zvc / 9 fi -But God, by opening out foryou the path of l r u t h , invitethYOU to HcabIen and to His protection.H c Inaketh Izlear Hi, signs for the sguid ance of - men that they may behecdIful.T h e qucstion of m:arriage with the polythe ists incidentally1 - 1 1 ,- . - . - - -- . - - I . ,.-A11 as raxsea nere the issues or marriage ln gerleral ~ L I I U divorceand other piroblems a1 relatic 1 "P Lommanument is issued that no one snoula go his wife while she is menstruating. The restriction posed not because women get polluted during this p e r ~ o dand descrve to be kept out of human touch as was the idea prevalent among the Jews. O n the other hand, the restriction is promulgated because any sexual intercourse in this state was clearly unhygienic and pnsitively injurious in its results. (2) Nature has prescribed a normal procedure i n sex re- lationship. I t is not desirable to disturb it. God loves those who protect themselves from all impurities. (3) I n respect of this conjugal relationship, a number of curious practices were in vogue among the Arabs so much so that some of these were considered per- missible and some not, a n d some auspicious and some not. Thc QurEn brushes aside all such fancies and1 rccornmcnds that wh atever is normal to mans nature may be observed. 12221 0 Prophet! they question thce 9 tb. concerning menstruation. Say: "It - iS&w
  • 118. a period of strain". So, do not go in to women during menstruation d,$+"! yk & fl H until they are cleansed; and when they have cleansed themselves, goin to them in the manncr God hat11 , & a , , , ., .. ce& ,permitted you. Do not therefore 9 / / / x 9, t / 999follow any other manner which may,, ~~-QIWW? p9li % Pbe unnatural. Verily, God lovcth @ "2 ~ g l @ . % ! ~ ~ b 4 .~those who want to bc saved from(evil, and loveth those who obscrvccleanliness. [223] Your wives are your tilth.So, enter your tilth as you willin a natural manner, and this pq,;*a // 9 7 / & /I Q 5.. , 9.only to assure for yourself aprogeny; and be mindful of Godin every situation, and do notforget that one day you arcto die and have to appearbefore Him. And 0 Prophet, conveyto the faithful the glad tidingsthat they are to enjoy the facili-ties allowed to them and frcedomfrom every absurd restriction. Certain misconccptioiis relating to married life are harecorrectecl : (1) It is contrary to a right bclicf in Gocl to take a n oath in the name of God not to do a thing that is proper in marital relationship and givc that as an excuse for shirking ones responsibility to do thc right thing, or for sevcring marilal connection. (2) An absurd vow is not to be adhcrcd to. Onc will IN: hclcl rcsponsiblc for only that which hc hath under- taken to do in sinccri~yand with a full knowlrtlgr of its ilnplic:i t lons.
  • 119. AL-BAQ ( 3 ) What is to be uone wnen a man vows not to go in to h is wife a s was h e practic tm g the Armabs, the prac.ticc kno~ w nas I la ? r11241 u o not in vour oaths swear L . ,by God just to absolv; yourselves ------ 0.from doing a right thinn.Abstain from evil and pro motepeacc among men. And God hearcknowcth. [225] God wil! not call you toaccount for any flaw in your vow,but will call you to account .. . Afor what your min ds have resolvecAnd God is GraciocIS, Porbe aring. . . [226] For those who have vowed -to abstain from going in to theirwivcs, a respite of four m mths c . .is prescribed. If they elect to go - back upon their vow duri ng this $ 9 <#79**./, <4period, then, verily God is ~B!$?JJ,~U~Gracious, Merciful1. [227] And if t hey resoIve on adivorce, then they should not for- &;get that the fact of their I----:-- lavlugdecided upo n sepalration will not gunnoticed by God, for, He Aheareth anu 1 ~ I I V W:111. I LL C Here follow the regulaticDns governing ciivorce, and therestrictions with which this permission is heagea: - 7 (1) BY fixing a s: ... pecific p :fore the expiry ()f which .. - the . A .- . Aixrnrce will not be regarded as v a l ~ d , Q?irEn a m s ring 1101ne to every onc: concerined the sanctity ~e n ~ a r rage lie; thus it ;afeguarcis the in.terest of i . .. . - -. cluld that may be i n t h ~,,, of the divorced . c ,,,, y.,,,-h
  • 120. 100 ; >$ + Y woman, affording hcr nt the samc time hciliry 01 time for her remarriage ~vithanother. (2) The principle envisaged here is that the li~lsbnnd, w110 has resolved to divorcc, has tlic prim;lry riglit to rc.c;~ll his decision; for, the provisions of law have n bi;~s in favour of a re-union rather than of n 1ot;11scpi~ration. (3) I n so far as the rights of women arc concerned, ;I definite principle is laid down that women have rights over men, even as men have rights over women. (4) The procedure to follow in thc pronounce~iicnc 01 divorcc is as follows: The pronouncement should br made thrice in tlircc distinct sittings in thrce months succcssivcly. T11c divorce becomes absolute when it is prono~1ncc.d lbr the third time in the third sitting in tlic third montll. Till then the opportunities for a return to cach otlicr or re:union remain. So, the marriagc tic is not so flimsy that it can be broken any nloment as one likcs. Tc -,,,k it, it is necessary to pass through scvcr:~lstngcs; a t e:ich stagc it is necessary to rcflcct deeply ovcr th(. cons equences to follow. Every succeeding stagc is tlir respite allowed for retracing a stcp wrongly takcn. I t is only when all hope c?f rcconciliation is given up that a final decision is to be rcachccl. (!j) , I t is not proper for the husband whcn divorcc is pro- nounced finally to take back from the divorcctl Ivoman what he had given her in the past or to deny hcr wh;tt hath been promised to her, as was the custom among the Arabs in pre-Islamic days. (6) But a situation may arise whcn, without any dcsire on the part of the husband and for no weakness 01 his, marital relations between the two do not sccm to I.un on smooth lines, and it is fcarcd that the two may not be in a ~ositionto discharge their obligations t o each other satisfactorily, so much so, that thc woman offers to give up the right to her dower or a part ol it in lieu of a divorce from her husband and thc husbiintl
  • 121. agrees to it, then the arrangement sought is permissible. Such a settlement is called Khula in Islamic law(7) i e c t of marriagc: is not to force a womz or vice versa a nd bind them ir1 this re: 1 . . . ... , at all costs; nor is it its object to make a w v u l a n just n-0 a victim to mans selfish desires. Its real object: is to give to a couple the opportunity of a happy and I~ n i t e d marriei3 life. Such a c.onsummlation is possible: only when nlutual re:gard ant1 affecticIn subsit between them, and thc:bounds of God c)r the prc)prieties of life enjjoined by re&;ion are willingly respected. Where this is lack- ing, th e object of marriage is unattainable and it be- comes necessar y to open out the door for each of the two to seek frd :dom. Not to do so, even when it becomes evident that the object ofmarriage is absolutely unattainable, will be a denial of freedom and positive cruelty. I t is contribc ;integration nf society. - r ----(8) I t is the duty u~ rrlarl elLrlttr LV auvw rlis wife a l l LIIC privileges of a wife or open out for her the way to free- dom by means of divorce. I t will be certainly improper for him neither to accord to his wife tKe privileges of a wife nc)r to givi3 her the chance of severing her connec- tions vqith him and deliberately to keep her in a state " 1 1 1 - ~ ~ or nelpless suspension as the Arabs of the pre-Islamic ~ ~ days u.sed to d 0 out of sheer malice. (9) The piroblem o~f marita:1 life is a very del.icate oni3. The woman nas very orten been a victim to man-s Ilassion F. and seIfishness. That is why the followers of the Faith have t)een enjoined to be specially careful in the dis- charge: of their duties towards their wives. They should iber tha.t they have been raised. through the nic trairling to the status of a model society. . . . So their behaviour should be worthy of the great teachi~ of their Book which they have imbibed. They ngs should. furnish to the world at large, by their behaviour, ,..,,mple ~n e v ~ of a true wedded life- a wedded life mark-
  • 122. - ,4/ 7,.102 *I ed nners born of a sinccrc n to God. . , Inciaenra~lyit is also poinrca our. rnnr a community long whlom the sense of mutual devotioin bc twcc*n in and vvife has not dcvc:lopcd oin sound linrs, wiill t attain a prosperous sra.te.(10) When a woman h as been d and thc period of waiting is also ovcr, s1: libcrty to marry T . .. ; whomsoever she like-. .t I.-11 not be proper to prcvcnt -9 he1 from c,xercising this right or subject licr to any 5 form of d uress. This injunction is emphnsisecl for ., ,: the fear that men rnight be tempted to tllrvart the free exercise of a romans right. Thc Q I .6n vanns I~ against its violation in these words: "Hcre i:; a counsel - for him among you who believeth in God anci tile last 7 , . Day." t . .(1 1) An importa~ n issue arose out of the t What was to pe thc arrangement 01 maintaining tl of divorc young ones when the parents were. separated? Idany were the apprehensions held in this connection. Thc motherly love demands that her child should not be taken away from her and that she should suckle i t herself. So it was ordained that till the child lived on the milk of the mother, its expenses should be borne by the father and a period of two years was fixcd for this purpose. In respect of this provision, two things were to be taken into consideration. Ncjtller the mother was to bc, made tc suffer on accolunt of the child, nor the father, and tha t nothin: 5 was to 13c charged - - . to the father which was beyond his means to providc. [228 ;] The clivorced women shall C;rnot feel eL-,mnl., I 4.ool L L t nntn.. ~ L I r-" rr ~ C~ I L L A ~ g/m; l CV I 9-Gf-q" ~ / / 3$0-04& ~ ~ ~ ~ ~into marriage w ith anoi her until & u &A3bg39they have had th~ e i r coursc thrice;and if they really -. l.,.1:.-.., in Godand the Last Day it will not beproper for them to conceal the
  • 123. knowl(.dgc of what God hath created in thcir wombs. And their husbands / I ,. / ,& / /C/PP, , p p , who had divorccd them will have d54(3???&*~ a right to claim them back within this period if they desire u, &.;bg%G$Jl&! ,, !, ,g to improve thcir re lations. ~t is &393,,dE$~$ but fair t h-a ~ ---. * wu111en should have - G . / o.!, 4 6./ / # = 7 4 ~ rights over men evc:n as men have * J > ~ rights ovcr women, albeit men 1 rank a clcgree awove them; 2nd remember that Goc wise. [229] n I-CLUI.II L W each other is .,,I,.-,,,, , , . , permissible even after divorc:e has been pronounced twice (in t wo succt months). Thereafter two ways ar- , V open before the husbands-an f honourable retention or a graceful parting, (after the pronouncpmpnt of divorce for the third tirne in the third month). And it shall not .. be proper for you while divorcing -. your wives to tak e away anythin out of what you Ihave g iren then~ .- - - It will be different if the t u a u a u u and the wife agree to any such arrangement out of a fear that the cannot keen within +I.-L C L-. LL uu~lnds set by God. hen, if you fcar that I b thc tivo c2 ep withiin -.. thc bounds sct uy b.oI a , no blame ,- . shall attach to either for what t11c ivonlan herself gives away Sor her rcclcmption. Thcse are
  • 124. thc bounds of God; thcrcforc, H .. +,+ I, W # ~ovcrstcp them not, for, thry 11.hoccrstcp the bounds olr God 3sindccd transgr [ 21301 But 1x1 (docs not : 1reclainn the w I c r the 7-pronouncerncnt 01 inc aivorce tnlce, L p-,z, ,,f,and) prorlounccs divoscc for thc third ,p$dctime (in the third month), thcn divorce 9becomes absolute. Thcreaftcr it is bi%E// ,,J K ~0 /not lawful for hiin to take hcr again ~I;Wuntil she shall have married anothcr; 7and if this another man to whomshe is married also divorces her, gs <,. ufw "M - /and the woman cares to come backto the first husband, then there qw A L L ~shall 1)e no bl:ime on them if they : , &;& .return to eaclh other, trusting that 919they will .... keep within the bounds a! >>dset by God. And these are thebounds of God, clearly ordainedIUL - a people who understand. @sx5 C: !31] Anc3 when yrou have . . -your Tv v i ~ an~ the p~ e d . . eriod ofwaitjn g is nearing irs end, 1 / v s J l d m i, flyou h ave only t:~o ways open beforeyou. 1zither. retain them with due propriety or part from them with t 9 9 P y /TI Y* P due propriety. But retain them c;.d~p,,r +w not just to cause thcm hurt and & ,< 90 9 ]Jdq2v 99 9 commit excesses by neither claim- ,, , ,,, . : , ,, M ,.&.J< ing them back, 110s letting them ~ 3 ~ > $ - ,Jxc go, but by kecping thcm in a state of suspense. Do not make the commandments of God a jest marrying a woman today an( divorcing her without causc the
  • 125. SI~RATAL-BAQARAH 105 ,, / /Yj< I* 9 H9very Ilent day). Remember the & @a 7 / # / /t favour of God shown to you. He hath r cvcaled to vou the Book along with its underlying pur- E;~&~),J$, .. A ! , / / 7 * 9JZ poses wherewith to counsel you; and b~e mindful of Him and know /yJ , 9, /a " j , ,~ f l J 3 f - / that nothing that you do is,outside the knowledge of God. - [232] And when you hav~.divorced your women, andthereafter completed the N / PD /9/ / 9 96prescribed period of waiting, l&+~~~!,~l&~hinder them not if they want to fl,+9, ,,b ,p9, ,,, J, marry others when they are agreed ~ 3 u b ~ / 3 $ & ,b , 4 ~ d on it in due propriety. Here is a counsel for him among you w.ho believeth in God and the Last :Day. For you this is the way to dece and purity. A nd God knoweth, but ye know not. L r2331 If a woman who is divorced J has a child in her lap, and the mother wishes to give suck to it, she can do so for two year and it falls on the per:son who is the fa ther o f t :he child to meetand clothing of the mother andthe child; (and the cost thereofshall not however be beyond his 3. The 1 is that) shall be chargedI beyond ones .1...--... Neither rne mother shall 5. r,9;, ,, ,, # +bc made to suffer for the child, ,429 b d&$-$y;lJ< *id,, i 6,
  • 126. I nor .r. Should the father die during this period, the rcsponsihlity for the maintenance of the child devolves on his heir; but if the father and thc mother 1 choose to wean thc child in mutual I consultation and wiih the consent of b blamr shall rest on ther f you choose to have a nursc for your child, no blarne shall rest on you prc3vidcd 1 you pay to t he mother with due proprlcty what you have prc3- 1 misc 4ncl be mindf~ilof God ow that God seteth I , whaL uv. [234] And if any or you die leaving wives behind, these women should 0 -.r,yr 9 1 wait for four months and ten days; and I when this p pires, yc3U "all g &LbJ + .,<*c Q Y7f 1 ~J 434 ~ : ~ 911 not be ansv or the I which they snau nispose orr themselves with propriety. And God is aware or what you do. /< , , /I I [235] n d then, no : lame shall &~&(&,&b * / " h / / - / U 1 attach to you, if during the period of waiting. you make proposal of marriage in some indirect or informal1 manner or (lntertain in you1 hearts f+$&&&gg; .. eeI any such wi sh. God knowet h t h a t ~ ~ ~ ~ 5 ~ , $ & +.. . you have kcPL +lLCol-l l 1 1 1 YVUI. thoughto L l But d o not hold out any promise tc &bGFh $J&I // M c them in private dxccpt in conven- "--a1 terms. and resolve not on LlVIl - 4 A:dJJ,g&.,& * t . 3 . I 4 / 0 < 9 9 ./b 3 . 4 ~ mar riage until the period prescrib- e d i s completed, since it is not 7 t.<94* 19;.,Yy5d, 9 9 j *29 CJ3 3 9 9<. H / b 9 9 9 7 A 9 < necoming for a widow to make 1 3 bb&y> ~ 3 3
  • 127. narrliiqc: prc.pnra tions clul-ing urh a pr riotl; an(:I know t :hat God .novctll thcs innc r ~vcakn, of rsscs .o11r hca rts. Thcrcforc, bc not ~nminclf~of Him and know that 11 ; Forgiviing, Forbcaring. e -A;~+&IW 9 / 599.4 #?I ~ ~ - 9 4 1- 1 B. : ECTION : lwlng arc tnc r cgulatio~ w hiclI goverr1 the pr ns :nt of divorce bcf ore the (:onsumn lation of marriag the -ileIzr or dower had not been.fixed a t .the time arriage, the man should pay to tlle woma n as mu ; his lncans permit. the :14ehr had b een fixet3, he shall pay a half of " tllc woman, but: it will t)e a sign of goodrless in h: 1 c pays more. 1 (3) In view of the Fact that in marital relations, the man has a n advantage over the woman, it becomes him to show to the woman a greater degree of forbearance an what is possil~ l for hf:r to show to him e NO blanlc shall atracn r.:o you J LL. . -7if you divorce yo^tr women before you ,/ 4 9 9.9."*9 / W uhave touclled themI or settled the dower I ~~~~or -1,lehr o n them. But make provision fort 11 t in circ:urnstances:I ( - 1- :- ~. - - - . . - - ~ to his mLeans ant3 the straitened ~ / w 9 9P lu/~ L L U I C I I I ILU 111s rritari~, as considered L ~Lir. This is a n obligation on those~vlio kindly. act [237] And if you divorce thembchrc yon have touched them b~aticr you lnvc settlcd a dower -01. .llc,hr on them, then rive them;L h:~lS what you ha:e settled or ~2GY~ $& ; ; .
  • 128. 108 YSS~ ~ 3 3 ~ for Ll.,l.l, ~,iless woman by hcrsrlf a , :*/La, eR9/9 497 9. - Y forgoes i t or he in whose hands r .. C;r+f 41 1 is the marriage knot chooscs to s b I % , W$S$ remit the whole of it. And if .H,~ ,-c o 0 " - you so remit, it will :r to py3d@,+>l I+ piety. And do not f; cmulate L 5 & 1 , bG&,& ... each other in kindliness. aurely i +& gy " / -~ - Goc1 watch(:th over wh:it you dlo. How is man who is subject to passions and sclfish desires to develop in him the sense of moral responsibility in social relations which alone will make him fit to discharge satisfactorily the obligations which his marriage imposcs on him ? 1 This is possible only when he cultivates the spirit of truc , devotion to God; and this spirit is stimulated only through sincere and humble prayer. I t is therefore upto man to bc strict and steadfast in his prayers. H e should not givc u p this habit even on the battle-field. [238] Be mindful of prayers, especially, the middle prayer (Ayr), ~ ~ / ~ ~ ~ ~ and stand irt utniost reverence yey3 U&J 99p-0- 179 to God. @ ../ / / 4 [239] If you in any v feel alarmed for fear of the enemy attacking you, then, I Pra.y in the manner possiblc for you either afoot or moun n t when you feel safe, the ~y to God in th- manner had taught you which you knew not before., A dying man In:ly lcavc behind a ,nt to the cffc.ct t hI 1 1 his ~vife h o u ~ a s . stay in his house for it , - - -1 .,. , . c . n ~L ~ I ~ CI ICL~ivcmaill-
  • 129. tcnancc for this period. But it is up to the woman to stay " Itusbands housc for a ycar as was the custom among the L or if she dcsircs shc may quit it after the compulsory p prcscrihccl hv thc Olirin, of four months and ten days, iri over. 4 , / jG,ll)95 M CO] And ic and . . 81c;xvc wivcs Dcninu sllall ~ e q u e a t l l 1 1for thcir wivcs a years maintenanccwithout requiring thcm to quit thcir I& 9 B&I;J~ J ,,houses; but if thcy quit them voluntari- Z< , < ,tz /, < , ,,ly bcforc the expiry of the ycar and $ -!YC,~ 71 p> - . -with a vicw to making any arrangement Z . / N /,Ior thcir own future (in the forrr1 ofrt possiblc marriage) in a n appropriate 5&iO~$;E ,995 3 .- ,-..manner, no blame shall attach tn vnii &I3 ! /b $ ~ 4: & y p ~K you do not insist 011 thcir stayilor the whole period.And God is hlighty, IYisc. Al~hough provisions touching ma1rriage a rtd divorc.e have the . . 1 :-- bccn alrcady stated, the Qi~rCntakes occasion to re-empnasisc that proper consideration should be shown to the divorccd woman in every circumstancc. This repeated call for con- sicleration to woman was for no other reason than that 1lc.r position clescrved due attention, since she was com- paratively weaker than man and her interest s needec1 to be propcrly safcguarclcd. [2+1J n n a for the divorcecwomcn, Ict there be a fairprovision. This is anobligation on those who arenlindrul of God. [24,2] Thus doth God ma1clcar His commandments tovou that you may understand.
  • 130. , irl I I I ~ cause of God, and po ints out rhnt a ( .l1ic.l1 it!. 1i.nr.s death is neve r successful in lili T h c i . 011 is li~rnishcil ..... "1 t11c 131 from the histo1 -r +I. 1...,,.-1:,L I L L I L C S . lvho. <t<->r>llr-tlic.ir n11rnl)t.i.. ed fghti: . ,- ., LZ+YJ # . - T. u ~ r o p n c t !J O S ~ :know of thosc who forsook thci I t ~ i ~ nn l l ?9 & ? C d - I ! Z & , g 3 s /= . 9 ,/., 7, / , //homes for fear of death althougl , ,j Jf +@24?, -0 4 ,-/they were in thousands, and ca,UIC1 b,.9 /,/,Y~.. L - 0 v; pbravel:y have rnet the enemy ? God rP.. ~ I ~decreed that siince the!i wcrc , . . .running away lrom death, dcatt) Ishougd pursue them and moralthey should perish. B u t Godhowevcr chose to give them nfresh life: so much so, thatin their revivified condition,they fought their enemicssuccessfully. God indeed isfull of graciousness to m a n ;but most pcoplc do not showgratitude in return. [244] Now remember! 110 notfear death if you have to 173i.~5&l&3&E; / 4fight in the way of God, and 9 7 $77 . A / ; Z /know that God heareth all that "fl43lyou say to each other in thisconnection an :tllwhat you do, contriblute to t he cxpensc or Jelind or (!r liyliri cause o f Gad i s, according to th? Q U I . t~ ~ , o loan to Him.
  • 131. r245] TtTllois it, who enters into 9 7 4 . d t ~ 7 / 1 / / lctions with God, and wit h Lc>&I&@~@ i f f LJ L b~,/fi - 7 L H7 ! < , 9,, - ~good cheer offers Him a loan ? Let ~ - / , , .hitn k;now that God in His turn repays , ,,,py-, ps ,/9, , . /it to him by doubling it over and w?dbovcr again. ( I n other words, by,,,,,,nx ;even a thing of sniall, "-avalue in the vday of God, he gitl11sin re turn collntlcss benefits, both material and spiritual.)Let rlot the fear of lesseningyour wealth c)n that actount (letcr,, ,,,fi,, irom making your contr,ibu- Ition to the war fund. Remember,it is God who lesseneth orincreaseth ones wealth; and reme mber th m you a rctur.n. I1ere are explained certain truths c)f life dc:duced fi?om the flap penings in the reign of Saul and the SItruggle 13etwcen t h e Palestinians and the Israt:lites : ) I n a community whiclh lacks the true spirit of patience and endurancce, what1ever the fervour for exertion ex- hibited every now and then by its m c n~bers,it has been ~ found that, in the hour of trial.,few arc: found who can endure steadfastly the inciden tal orde:ils.. 2 ) He alone is fit for leadership, who has a natural 1 taler~t for it, no matter that 1LC posses!3cs no wealth or does not hold a high place in society. I n other words, it is the mental or bc~ d i l y tlities of a persoln which qu: qualify him for lead.ership a.nd not mere w ealth or lineage or family staitus. 3) Once a person is cho:;en leade,r, it becc3mes the d u t y of y membcr of his commu:nity to c)bey him whole- ,tcdly. A c o m m~nity .rvlhose members have not ~
  • 132. Jer succ ced as stence. i c- :--:A- -c -r C- IIICIUCILL 1 3 4 1 1 1 UI ~ ~ ~ I I follo~crs his I P not to t;11;~. L, ter from the river, they ~ vrc to cro: and thr conduct c qs, his follovcrs off ers a Ic: dccp signific;~ncc. .. rnis. A -_le lesson is L1.!- :x pcvplc ~ 1 1 0 ,cvcn in a s~n;ill ~nntrcl. like quenching theiir thirst, rill not excrcisc rcstr;~i~lt. for a little while, cannot b 3 cxpectrd to cndurc .it11 c steadfastness the stresses of the battle-ficlcl. How often has not a small band of pcoplc gninctl .ic- tory over a n enormous force. I t is not thc nunibcrs which decide the issue of a battlc but thc strcngth of will of the belligerents. Divine aid gocs always to thosc who are firm of faith and stcadfast in their resolves.. . Desiring a thing from God is of little valuc unless onc ha! the talent to deserve the thing asked for. Thc 1oy;ll s followers of Saul did not ask for mcre victory. On thc ntt ,,~ierhand, they asked also for the grant of thc strcngtl~ D bear the strain of the fight with firmncss; for tlicy new that Divine help was granted only to those in dhom the spirit of steadfast endurance was strong. H a d not one section of humanity contented with ano- ther section to see that justice prevailed among thcnl, & 5 r ewould have set in an endless scrics of internal terlsions resulting in a never-ccasing oppression of the ;tk and general disorder allowing little chancc ror her truth or justice to assert itself for the good of . man life So it is part of the divine schcmc of thir1gs d a sign ()f divine mercy and graciousness that whcn- ever mischier " a .~s its head anywhere, a counter f0rc.c. r m tlready there provided to thwart the rising mischic.1: is thus that a balance in life is sustained. 30 the institution of war is a necessity. I t keeps inter- national injustice in propcr check. I n different timrs and one after another, prophets were raiscd among mankind to preach thc cause of unity and truthfu1nc.s~
  • 133. S~~RAT AL-B ZQARAIr 113 in lifc. Hat1 mankind follo:ccl thcir advice properly not dividcd themselves i: nto cont ending or rival IS, thcy would not havc: involvc: thcrnscl:/cx i n d nccinc warfare. id God so willcd, 1 . 1 ~colrld ~ have c -c in such a fashion that the tend ency to I . . . - -.tl not have bccn a constituent element 01 11, press-. f. ing 1. :by to a dull unifi~rmpattcrn. Rut the PLlrP ration was otherwise. Man was cvt:atecl, not to D a mcre automaton. O n the othcr hand, he tvas e madc with a will to pursue any path that hc may cl~oost: for himself. So, many arc there among mankind xvho ..-. haxir, adoptcd the path of righteous living, anti rrlany b are t here who havc preferred the wrong way TIle Prophet of Islam was told that it wa..; tho I-Iivine scheme to ask him at a certain. stage 111 the Lll,, L cour:;c of his mission to take t:o war since that ~21,s tltc only way by which injustice could ble rcdrcssecl and tJ<nLL ,,,I T.r.-,. ., ,uilu "i-der restored. (9) When war was thus inevitable, the followers of thc Prophet were enjoined not to close their eycs t.o i t s ----~sity and not to spare anv means to hcrht i l l thc :of God(1C ation in the lifc: hereapter depc T .. . - I ~ ~ L Iand acuon. I here, neiLner car1 salva.Lto1: . u c : .:Ll- purchased, nor any friendship of this world ca intcrccssion by anyone be of any ava il. 0 Prop hct! Ha: thou stthc the eldf :rs of t he~ 7.fe74H!lJJJ2, aclltcs 121110 alter Moses asked Q ~ ! J @ ~ - = " ,- > r a prophet of theirs: "Set up us n king that vc mightt~gIitin the way of God". Hcs;~icl:"If to fight were you ordained,i t Inn) hc that you could t fi~1:t. Thcy said, "And I
  • 134. 114 r~s?; nu!what aileth us that urc shouldnot fight ih the lvay of Godwhen we have been torn fromour homes and our children?"But when fighting vas actually orderedthcy turned hack s a w a fc. iof them. B u t God knew t1.t.offenders. [247] And tlieir Pr ophct s;. ,-- ."Sow God hath made I-alut ( S h u r , y v u r king,obey him and be prepared for war, undcr hiscommand". They said "How shall he 7 / 7 9 6 /99 u~ ~ ~ k , W J / / /,r~lle over us when we are more ~vorthvthan he to rule and he doth not possess f,& l@~& k&:wealth in abundance? H e said, / 9 9 9 99"Verily God hath chosen him to be .. @&fdC,$gover you by virtue of his talents, and 3 / 9 1 fl14&~&hafh increased him in wisdom and ./ ,b?,stature; and leadership or kingship ~ ~ b & J ~ ~ & ~ ~is not a n office which you can giveto whomsoever you like. O n theother hand, it is God who delegates ; u & @ &L His authoritv to whom H e pleaseth,and God is Liberal and K:lowing." .. .. [248] And their Prophet s:them, "If you really want totest Sauls title to rule, then / / 994,/.9 9/a token of i t will be furnished to + & + b l ~ # JL,you. T h e sacred Ark which you had ,,. $ ,,.lost and which is i n the posses- ~.&%u~.M!&J "/.. ,9, u /-?< - / Lsion of 1your ene:mies, w ill bebrought back to you thr ough .-.-..-,..-- lent. I t willDivine al 1 a l l s ~ lbe borne by angels. Therein lies a n inward peace that willcome upon you as the result of the victory that you wi 11 have
  • 135. ovcr your cncmy and therein also lie therclics left by the family of h,ioses 3 / $1 9 , < @ r P 9 +/ ! 79;:nd thc family of Aaron. Truly + P J ,. L & J,%/v ~ w ~ / /in lhis is a sign for you, ifinclecd you are men of faith." ":9953.iy&J j&$J .r 6&$ ,k r24.91 And when Talut (Saul)marched-forth with his forces,hc said: "God will test yo1.1 bymeans of a river. He whodrinketh of it is not of me .+But he who shall not drirlkof it, excepting him who takes g&a"-+9 9 7 / 9 9 / 5but a han dful, is i ndeed of me."Yet barrirlg a few , all drank ofit. And wnen ne crossed it 93 " 4 9&"&&9e. 9 1 ,#Ad94 @ 4 @ /..a. fa good m any of hsaid. "Wc : have r . <this day against tiollatn 2 $ ( / A ?9/..Y ~ x ~ b l ~ , ~ 4 $s a s/p (/, , i giJhis hosts". But they who werefirm in their faith that they Jg.~vouldinect God, said: "How / & 9 / r ? -1 9 4oftcn hat11 a sma 11 host r - 1 ~ & ,, $ & b 8 > ~ ~ 4.. . r , d4 -prevailed against ;a large 1 ..b y Divine d~speosation.iGod is villi those "a" ", g.a;q&steadfastly depend +../+ 4upon Him." [250] And ~ v h c nthey went / /./ rlli against Goliath and imc Sacc to face vith his rcc.5, thcy said, "Our L3rd! I O U sccst that 1I.e arc the c3:tkcr of thc t1i.o forccs andsin;tll in nunlbcr, and thc fight
  • 136. 116 ~ 3r va&~is tl 1 those 11tho arc POI -1d arc 1,nrgc in - .. . number. So, Vur Lord! Inc.j( us with due steadrastncss andset our feet firm that ~ v cmay not falter and turn back, and then help us against thisracc of unbelievers." [251] Then they routelthem by the will of God,And David slew Goliath,and God gave him kingship and -wisdom and taught him IY hatH e desired him to krlow. - - 9GL,f&d/m; bf..., 3 , 9 9 6 9f// // ~,woiLil&t~>yj /,9/Should God cause Ilotsome men to keep someothers in check, t r 11y the ~earth ~ ~ o u fall intl ldstate of disorder; bl gJJ&; @;& ,# LGod is gracious to 2His creations. [252] 0 Frophc:t! these arethe revelations of Ciod. Werehearse them to thee intrue form. Assuredly, thouart of the order of apostles!
  • 137. P A R T I11 Chnpter I1AL-BAQARAH (Contd.)
  • 138. AL-BAQARAH ( Contd., r$ [253J T h e ApostIes! At the levelof prophethood, all are of equaI ,P.,C~.?/MP~< 4 7 rank; but from the standpoint of p . l w ~ ~ L b d d 4 ~the speciaI roles attached to them 7 ~ I ~ e -/p * Q + $ / * ~severally, God has bestowed on some more distinctions than on rorne f/?/ /b .,//,.,, // 4 9 q +fJw->HFJ3Otlhers. Of these, a few they- , b A /? / / -// ? :re with whom He held clonverse @te~db deliveri ng to them His Book. lllere are others whose fiwere wider than those of caccordance with the times r 99 , ! / t / r 9 7 &~-ifLe&&~ Ycircumstances in which they hadbeen called upon to functionas prophets. T o Jesus, son of --Mary, l y e granted clear signs . 7#&79? "/and conveyed our aid to him =@pew4through the holy spirit ofrevelation. And if God had sowilled, the generations whichcame after them would not havewrangled ztmong tlhemselveit was so cLecreed 1:hat ma1should not be pres:jed intoa single pattern and that evervone should be left free to pursuethe path one cared to choose himself. So, it so hap^)ened rt mankind fell into displutes; ne followed the path ofbelief and some of unbeliet. 119
  • 139. of violence and disorder, anctakes to thc way of God (andpeace) he has surely takenhold on a strong handle thatshall not bre,ak. (He cannotthen L-..- a fall.) Remember that navcGod is Hc who hearteth andknowreth. I. I12571 God is the guara~anofthose who believe. He bringethout of darkness into light thosewho sincerely believe in Him.As to those who belic:ve not, .the Taghut variety, tlieir false .deities and their miscnievousagents are their guardians, wbring them out from light i~darkness. These are thecompanions of fire; therein Ithey dwell. Reference is made here to an incident in the life of Abraham which demonstrates that succcss attends sincere persuasion. Abraham preached truth in a land where he had none to stand by him and presented the truth before a king who was well- known for his arrogance. Alone he faced the man and suc- ceeded in his mission. Incidentally, the great truth is cmphasised here that the call of truth always takes the form of preaching and pursuasion and ncver of hate and controversy. The method of the prea- cher of truth is not to pester his audience with subtlt dis- quisition. O n the other hand, he desires that the truth he bears should make its appeal in a straight-forward manner. When Abraham found that his first argument was too high- - flown to be appreciated by the king, he offered another, such as the king could easily comprehend, and the efYect was in- stantaneous, and the king had to yield.
  • 140. IV ; thee I of him Abraham about / -. %r&J 9y ~JJ~ - ~ :l 2 P 9 9his Lord on whom God had confcrrcd > " l ; ! ? f el & , d & 7a kingly statc a n d ~ v h o ,puffcclwith power, used to qurstion the P F. qlci ~9 7 J& ~ ; J s ~ Y ; J ~ .: b9 7 / 7.0 " 8 r u 9 9 4~ :ry powc:r of God? hen Abraham ../s ~ ~ ~ w ~ .id: fil? Lord is Hc 12.ho givcth re and tzlketh it awav,- he . ,replied, "I too gilge life andtake it a1,,vay." A braham said :"IVell! n :vcr mir~ d Rut God c ! ~akcththe Sun rise in the East: ill thou make it rise in the Vest?" hen the disbeliever ?as confounded, Ir God not the pervertes . An cvc:nt in tht I.:,.&,.-..L j 1 y of the Isi 11LhL CC- &b111L3 1 1 1 1 1 3 L 1 c I I c . 3 1111 ful nature of missionary work carried on by thrir prophjrts. The reference is to thc rebuilding of Jerusalem. Thcrc ura ;1 .S stage in its history when it had fallen into ruins and thr Jewish communiiy had been reduced to sucll straits, that. onc could dreain ihat the to:rn t ~ ~ o u lbe rebuilt, h ~ i tit d happened that three of the powerful monarchs of thr t i ~ n cur so captiva,ted by rllree of the prophets of the Israclitcs t lhey came to their rescuc and not only revived thrm a colnmunity but enabled them to rebuild their ruinrtl to The three kings who had come under thr influcncr of thc orophets were Cyrus, Darius and Plrtazcrxcx, and thc propklets ~vere,Daniel, Hajji and Ezra. It Mias due to onc of t hlrsr prophets that Jerusalem was rebuilt. The Q g r E ~ t rcfc,rs 1 0 this story of Jerusalem in the following ~vords: God cau ccd him to lie dead for one hundred years". Or bet hink thee likewise* - -o him who had passed by a town f
  • 141. 1; which had lain in ruins. "How 1) shall God," said He "give it lifk after its death? And God czused him to lie dead for one hundred years and then raised him to life, and asked him, Hotv long did you lie in is state?" He replied, "A y probably or a part of a y". God rejoined "Nay! thou lidst lie for one hundred years. Vow look at thy food and thy Irink, they have not petrified despite the passage of time; and look on thine ;ass and : :" what its c o i ~ u ~ r ~ ,Ye ~ r.i. u ~ have done all this only to make of thce an example to mcn, and of xvhat you have come to know now will inspire in 0th.ers the belief in God and give you insight into life. And pontll on the hones in thc body, hc JVc set them togcthcr and .c clothe clicm xvith Acsli before the body develops into a full-fledgccl living oh-ject." TVhen this becam snanjrcst to him hc cxclnin < L I now know with certnii that lvithout doubt Cod lla powcr ovc .% l.tztu given n Sscsh lifc to dcnd naliotu, and retorrncd and civilized those who Iiavc livcd in ignorance and bnslnrity. Ihc Quuldt~1; here rrlifr.;to thc advicc offr:rctl by God to .braham. Ahrahaln1 II I
  • 142. .%L-B.XQQRAH 125 appcarcd a5 prophet when there was hardly a community which was prepared to pay heed to thc call of Truth. Looking at the prevailing condition of society everywhere, Abraham prayed: 0 Lord! show me how wilt thou transform this condition of death into one of life?" Verse 260 given below suggcsts the manner whereby reformation is wrought in a peoples life. It points out that when birds can be trained to respond to thc call of one with whom they are made fami- liar, cannot a wavered people, given to wild ways of living, be so trained as to respond to the call of Truth and live a new life altogether? So it happened. This preacher of Truth, Abraham, gave so good a training to wavered souls that his achievrmcnt is hailed as the mightiest of revolutions ever wrought in the history of man; so inuch so that generations after generations of men followed the way of life marked by him, and, despite the lapse of three thousand years, countl- numbcr of people throng even now evcry year in respc - to his old call at the House of Prayer set up by hirr Mecca.life to the dead. He said, "Hastthou no faith?" He said: "Yea!I havr Sull faith in Thv a o w e r : , ~ b&ma;g .- / Abut thc situation before me isso~hopclcssthat I feel perturbed , 7 ~ 9 7 0~ 4 Dancl it is 1 of this that my &+kJ&J&+@ / 4 990.soul ycarr well assured?"FIc sirid: ,.Latch some four -/..w, 7&!3bbb 7 0 / 9 / / 7 H 4 D9,birds and nl;lke them grow familiarrvith thce, tlicn place cach of them ,on cach oS thc hills and call them and Ctliry ill romc s.c.iftly to thcc,and know that God is Jfighty,ltise".
  • 143. Hcre cllua L1l :t of Jehad or of striving in the c ause of God. The Qlir6n now turns to other issues of life. The QurEn makes it d e a r that the obligations or duties prescribed by it in respect of fasting, honest earning, Hajj, Jehad, marriage, divorce, the caring of orphans and the fail. treatment of vvomen- folk, the making of wills prior to death and the like, carmot be satisfactorily fulfilled by any one unle:s he develops in him the urge to spend out of what God had given him in t: way he of God or for the good of others. That is why the subject is given special attention in the Qzrin. [261] Those who spend their 1 9q PPU /9/ +e.d& 7& / -90 c 7I / wealth in the way of God are like a grain of corn which puts *tqyJ&~, 9 Z09C 4 / /-2 forth seven ears, each ear con-/ taining a hundred grains; God @ 99 -C " P1 grants a hundred-fold to those who spend out of their wealth $&&sb *&,b in His way. Indeed, He @ ~..~ I ; ~ J ; L $ @ 4 multiplieth for whom He pleaseth, since He is Liberal and is cognisant of all that one does. [262] T h ose who spend their wealth in the way of (>od and never brag of it thereafter, nor taunt or hurt the feelings of any cC ) * J J ~ ~ ~ & # 79 z9< ~ 9 ; A /-0 one on that account, shall have flr&gj g & p $ their reward from their Lord; no fear shall come upon them, nor shall they grieve. AI act of ( 3 of vanity loses its va lue, for he who )ern does an act ol to be praised by others is one whc3 really does nothing for God.
  • 144. Tilr @ i r i . ~ z dra1j.s pcrtincnt sinlilitudcs liorn Nature to suggest h o ~ v.orthlcss is the charity whicli is offered with such ulterior rnotivcs. It also furnishes from the same source similitudes of good results floving fro111 charity offered to - please God. The emphasis is on sincerity of purpose. All that is done for t11c sake of sho~v .ill in the cnd bring regret. That is the truth brought homc in this section. [263] A ltindly ~ o r d and lor-bearance is bettcr than nlmraccompaniccl by taunts. And donot forgct that God is aboveall ncccls, and remember thatHc is Forbearing as wcll. [264] 0 i2luslims! hlakc not)our alms void by braggingof it, and inflicting taunts,like hi121 who givcs to o t h e ~ sout of his wealth only to hcseen of men and bclieveth notin God and in the Last Day.He resembles a smocth rockwith a thin coating ot soilupon it ~llicrcin sced hath abeen sown. On it falleth aheavy rain and lcavcth it justI. hard rock. So it is withthose ~ v h omakc a show of hat thcy call their charity. KO profit shall thcy derive fromwhat they do. The fact isthat God doth not show theway of goodness to those who do not do a thing for God. [265] O n the other hand, those who spend their wealth single-mindedly from a dcsire
  • 145. 128 to please God, resemble set upon a high ground. O n it I fallcth a heavy rain and the garden yieldeth two-fold its fruits; and should no heavy rain fall thereon, even the dcw over - @Ha$&babb$ $79 / / / /74 / yk / G it sufficeth. And God Y , 9 , ,/ / 9 0 / $ 9 / / ~ 1 watcheth over what you do. ~ & C J>,?I. ~ ~ ~1 [266] Desireth any one of you a garden of palms and vines, with streams flowing therein, in which you may have all kinds , of fruit and flowers, eventually struck with a violent fiery wind and burnt down at a time when old age hath overtaken you ? Mark how God maketh plain gns by these - illustr lat you may1 reflectI N D o rlot offer ty anything which you have discarded- [267] 0 IVLU~L~~IIS! Give to others in charity of only the good things which you have earned and also of that which We have broug.ht forth for you out of the e: ~ r t h , 1 do not think anc of selecting only the useless stuff such as you would not yourselves accept except with closcd eyes. And know that C.od is above all needs, thc Praise-worthy. O n the :?thcr hand, it is you who arc
  • 146. in nrcd ol salvation u.liich xccpt s unatta inablc r: hrough rightc.0~1 living. s I t is Ihl- nlarI lvho (:arcs to li >py lili* I bctwee:n what is good lor him ; I is not. - the rig:L L L-,.:-L. X S ~ L ~is indeed blesscc IL &: LL [268] Satan frightrns -)-ou 01poverty and therefore inveiglesyou into indecent means oflivelihood; but God invites youto a way along which He holdctout to ycI b His fpardon and pro: And LlllLIIIULl tho+c ~ IS Indeed 0.. LLIU.L d dliberal, and knoweth what you nee 12691 H e giveth insightto whom He will, and he to i . horn insight is given hath had ample fortune given him.But none will ilnderstand thisexcept men of insight. 12701 And mark that whatever you spend ir? charity and what- ever offerings you offer, of a bl ,//A < 4 7 6 " 74.94: truth, God knoweth. But they & d ~ ~ k ~ & t & w! d who fail to fulfil oblications shall have no h c Charity giver1 vruy to show off is d i s c o - ~ ~ But that does ~ not me:an that you should make a fetish of secrcc:y in chiarity. What is expected of him who offers charity i! sinccri ty of s -.. :.. , ._e. DllrDOS It should not take the form of a show. Tp- rr~vcanv- _.-, Io thing i: charity,is a neccssary conconiiiant of dcv n God. T h e a.c:t does nc)t imply any favour clone to anybc~ d y nor docs , r~ it call Ior any formal approbation.
  • 147. 130 [271] I t is quite right to gi;~lrns openly if only you do notintend to make a show of it;but to givc: charity withoutpublicity will bcdccidcdly bcttcr for you; itwill wash off somc of your sins,--.-- --.mcrnber whatever you do t bc concealed from God. aware of what you do. LL72J 0 Prophet! T o makethese people take to the rightpath is not thine affair. I tis God who puts on the right $;+$J grbB&-path him whom He pleaseth.So, tell them that whatcver J pt//b -,yf,y athey give to othcrs in charity !&&>$&>+~M!will cvcntually redound tothcir own crcdit, provided A [,fitgj&& 99 97 ~ " P ..//-they do so to seek thepleasure of God. Tell them @&-gthat thcre is a law ofGod at ~vork such matters, inand that is, that whateveris given in charity willbe measured back to himin full, and that there will bc no defrauding in the transaction. (1) One of the purposes of issuing the injunctiorl to give to others out of ones wealth is to make provision for those who, giving up their own occupa~ions,arc cngagcd in the service of Truth; they hnvc no inclepcndcnt mcans of living. Day and night, they are engaged in thc xvork of soci;d, spiritual and snoral uplift of othcrs. Thcsc soci;~l ~vor.k(:rs in a statc of ;LSC irlcligcnce, and yct tl1t): put on the: vis;~:~: of those 1~110arc
  • 148. above want. Sincc e duty of society to look after suchworkers in the cauobvl ""J, the Qurin draws special attentionto their needs. (2) The emphasis is laid on t :ds for t.he simplereason that charity goes very often to the clever pLuLti33,ulLal t)eggar a] not tc3 the tru.ly needy.. I t is suggested, therefor e, ndt hat thos~ who a :e in a ptosition to offer charity slhould set: e r k ,, .t ..." l,. ,,,,I, Give in charity t.o the L,.l-* ~r;~t;ctgured r u a L air; it1the cause of God and are hinderedthereby from going about theworld to earn their living.He who knoweth them ncmistaketh them for well-t~folk because of their senscof self-respect. Thou wouldstknow them by their visage;they ask not of men withimportunity; and bear in rnindthat God will assuredly knc)Wwhatever you may give in charity such p . . who. give ,away of They . . elr wealth in .chanty by night ?.99/7 *c%l$Iand by day, in private andpublic, shall certainly ha 9 9 tPPS/their reward with thcir Lo u ~ Y ! ~ d j ; c ~ xN o fear sh.all come 5; 3n E:ither shaill they g - 3 The ulrge to g le needy out of Iones ow.n earnlngs or wealt:h is sust eadily only wheri one p~ a check its
  • 149. 011 tc.nclcncies which run counter to it. So while rccommcnd- ill!:thc usc of ones wealth for the good of others, thc Q~rd*l t;~Jtcscare to prohibit usury which was practised in Arabia as clscwhere. Islam desires to promote fellow-feeling betwcen man and man. So, it calls on its followers to attend to the needs of the needy and even regard their needs as their own. But the urgc for profit-making by usury runs counter to fellow-feeling. Tile usurer exploits the distress of the man in need only t o incrcasc his wealth. Selfishness of this nature if left unchecked, dcvclops into tyranny. The @rcin likens this mentality to epilcpsy which the superstitious Arabs regardcd as the toucll of Satan. Thc similc is offered to suggest that usury dcadens all tenderness in man arid dcvelops in him a sort of lust for money. Further, the system of lending money on i ~ ~ t c r c t c n d ~t.0 st concentrate wealth in but few hands. Islmn recommends. the increase of wealth by all fair means; but it enjoins that it be distributed equitably among the members of society. The injunction runs: "God desireth abolition of intcrest and en- courageth spending for the good of othcl-s". The idea is to keep every member .of society free of material ant. [275] They who take to usuryshall not stand aright even asone afflicted by the touch ofSatan (or by epilepsy). (Theyshould remember that such is theresult of oppressive exploitationof the weak.) Such people contendthat selling is just like lending monieson interest, whereas God regardsselling lawful and usury unlawful, &,9d&LT$* L& / 5 ?9% -since the two cannot produce thesame result. Then he who ,w 3 ,,/.zibabstaineth after this advice 8 / /has come to him from his Lord, gsgbxr&&i+j
  • 150. lav retain ~ v h n the has h r ~ u 111 0 17 0 0 ,, 0 -AA,, I le past a1nd his affair shall I~,%>L@> -L, /hc: !.it h C;od. But thcy ~ v h o~ ..,...-.,.l ~.1Ir. r - 111.i~cticc.~11;~11 ~-su h~[he comp;u~ionsof 1 % ~ thcrc.in ;shall thcy rcymnin. [276J C;od dcsireth abolition ---of interest and encouragethspending for thc good of others. $k-&z;@$c&~& 9 ~ ~ 9 P 0 9 / 7 0 r9 9God cloth not like those who @$bb$$c&j&$ gar 4cannot appreciate the gifts orGod and fccl thankful to Himfor what hath hcen given to them. They L rho believe and doI ;ht and o~bserve prayer pay LL.. ---- I I C puu~-due.~,shall havethcir reward with their Lord; fearshall not come L I2on then11, neithc:r ~h a l l they grieve. [278] 0 Muslin~s!FI ye ( ear and forego all balances of interest,if vou are indeed h f u s l i ~ : I Hilt if 1:e d o it not, then b .ed tar w ar with God and His prop he^; lur, .that is thc r-.. only course left if you disobey a clear commandment; but if you withdraw your claim, then, you .. . si hall havle your principal 3 and not the interest tr~crcor~. that vou wrong not, so i ronged. ] But if one be iln H~ -/9,9 J X F 7 R -: I srralceneu c i r c u r r ~ s ~ a ~ ~ c c s . - L - - - A - %&8+Wk.J3 r r/ and cannot at once repay the L= / 4 ! loan advanced to him, then let W c there be a respite till things
  • 151. go easy for him; but if youremit it by way of charity, itwill be good for you if you butunderstand. f281J Beware of the day onwhich ye shall return to God; . 1 9 J 9 % / / 9 / ~ , U F ~ L i l A 90% c5. J A & ~ & I S $ fC:% %/&/9.then, every one shall receivein full what he hath worked 79 / 79 / 7 /// /for, and no injustice shall be &&ae~&3& Ldone to any. l Since usury was a form of transaction, the Qurzn now turns to the subject of transactions in general and shows the way t o avoid the irregularities which people used to commit out of ignorance and lack of morality in business. - [282] 0 ye who believe! Whenye contract a debt for a fixedperiod, let it be committed towriting, and let a scribe writeit down justly between you, andlet not a scribe refuse to writein the form God hath fixed forhim. So let him write. Let himwho incurs the liability dictateand let him fear God, his Lord,a n d not diminish aught thereof.But if the one who oweth, be = &,,g;$;- ,witless or infirm or if he benot able to dictate himself, lethis guardian dictate withfairness and let two witnessesbe called from among your men,but if both be not men, then a d 1../ f -h l / > /9 9 7 / 4 7 J ~ L /bman and two women of those ye
  • 152. AL-BAQXRAHapprove, as ~vitnesses, so that,should one of the two women 1state. the other might cause hc- ~&g$Jl&&- . . .. .to recc~ l l e c t ;a.nd let not thewi tnesrses refus e to give evidcncc, u~& g> ; 1wnen summoned and do not show slack-ness in writing down the transactions, be it large or small,during the term of contract. r,.Ls,is the fairest procedure in thesight of God, and the most suit-able for evidence, and the bestfor avc$dance of doubt. But ifit is a matter of give and take , vou E ~ ~ I ~ ~ U I L on the swot, it is- - - e n d not 01Aigatory on you that you shouldI write it: down. And have .. 1 1- wlrnesses wnen you nave any trade dealin gs. And let no harm be done either to the scribe . or the witness, for, it will be wickedness on your part if you do so; and fear God. God giveth you iristructions, and God knowetth everything. !83] If ye be on a journey and do not find a scribe, let pledges be taken. But if one of you trust the other, let the one who is trusted fulfil his trust, and let him fear God, his Lord. And ye shall not hide evidence; for the heart of him who hidel- it is verily sinful and God k n o ~ all that ye do.
  • 153. 1 36 *6 3 ; .&$!& - [284] Gods, whatsover is in the -heavens and whatsoever is in theearth! And whether ye disclosethat whiqh is in your minds orconceal it, God will call you to 9. ? & a +& ~ 9 7974.account for it, and thereafter He >, .,bW 9will forgive whom He pleaseth, andwhom He pleaseth will He chastise. 7 9 9 /9And God hath power over everything @~Jl)j~cs;f*&&G I n thc ng passage with which tne chapter closes, the QurEn reverts to the subject of belief and rightconls activity with which the chapter started. [285] The Apostle hathbelieved in that which hathcome down from his Lord, ashave the faithful. Everyone of them hath believedin God and His angels and HisBooks and His apostles. Thedemand of their faith is to affirm that they make nodistinction between any of His apostles, or to give recognition to some and deny recognition to others or to recognise all but one particular apostle. They affirm that all are apostles of God. These are the people who, when the messenger of God calls them, say: "We have heard and we have obeyed. May Thy protection be vouchsafed to us, 0 Lord! for, we know that it is to Thee that we are to return".
  • 154. AL-B.4QARAH [286] God doth not 1responsibility on any onebeyond his capacity. Heshall enjoy the good thathe hath worked for and sh allbear the evil to acquire ,,I.;#-I. VV,,,L~Ahe hath laboured. aycrof those truly devlto God is always thls: " V a - rLlord! Ca 11 us notif : forgotta n y t h ~ n g have fallen Into or error. Our Lord! Lsy not on us a burden such asThou hadst laid on those gone befo re us. C Lay not (In us th, we cannot bear except w hardship, and ove rlook ou: faults; and forgiv e us, an -. have mercy on us. hnlq ...II"U a U.& L "-A Protector.; help u? then as;ainst ; the oppre:ssors wh10 have deniedTI.-- "
  • 155. God is he Livirig. There is neither deatl I :ay for Him. .n ". H e is tLL ar;ll-3absisting Sustainer. Thear; L W V attributes of "al#- Him argue that H e should provide all the ies of human life. The necessities of man are of two )hysical and spiritual. Provision has thercfore been I L L ~ U Clor the onc, as for the other. T o meet the spiritual needs of man, two things a led. - i v~itsb, literally One is styled Al-Kitab, the other Al-Furqan. f n cl - 1a the Book, is the term used for Revelstiol I from (2od or what is revealed by Him for the guidance of nnan in order that hc .. . might live a good life. Al-Furqan is that inrellecrua! talent in 1 1 man which enables him to understand t hle Divinc:Revelation and to accept it. The first is the teaching, t:he other is the talent to assimilate it. The dne is generative in quaury, the othc.1- 1.. receptive. The law oflife is that those who run cou nter to tl furnished by Revelation and do not profit by their sense 01 understanding and discrimination, inevitnk~ly meet with failure in life and suffer in consequcncc. r c ) ~ J ~ &Sl& [l] Alif, Lam, Mim! [2] God! There is none worthy ofworship except He, the Living, theself-subsisting Sustainer. $lg~,a&& b P,o=~ [3] H e hath sent down to thee op,+i(the Book, bearing the Truth, andconfirming the Scriptures which $L M 0 . *I<L . WApreceded it. Prior to this did / 5 29He send down the Tornfi and the J +w+ &u & k
  • 156. 1 1 c:Evangel for mans guidancr, and &;y.Gyf 6&JiC ?Il . rsent down the Criterion. + D P rd.1 Verily,. for those who rrirct - - . the revelations of God, thcre sh ;dfadoGAbe a severe chastisement. And (is Mighty, the Awarder of puni:ments. c51 God! Inothing in the earth or in the a,%&~a 6f% Gb;$1 (heavens that is hidden from Him! r [6] H e it is who fashioneth you $q&[ / " - A 65 l / ; $ mj4&~in your mothers wombs as Hepleaseth . There is none worthyof worsklip exce1~t He, tl-le Mishtthe WislC. T h e iteaching!s of the Q~rcin have been expressed. in two fcOne is styled II. luhkarn the other Mutashabih. IVl-. fall u )at -Muhkarr air; ~ u ~ l d a m e n t to Islam and are basic in chara aland for- that r c e expres;sed in plain a n d intelligiblelanguag;e, as for : statcmf :nts touching the unity of God ..*I- - - arlu - -. - - -1and p r o p r ~ c t ~ ~ u o u currlr~lanllmentstouching thinas la....I-.. u l .-1- -. " " 1 WLand un.lawful. What cc)me under A4utczshabi/i ztre all rthoscaspects of life t v hich are beyond the rcach of the hunlan i ntel- -7 - ~ - . elect, anu cannor D perceived through the senscs. UI L--#ugh - 1 . . . -. .. . -- . -> I J ~ U - twithin the purview of positive kno~rledge Thcse aspects T .to the being of God, the life after death, the nattand punishment and similar subjects. kcrerencc to surd -. Psuch as these is made nnore or less in a figurative l a n g ~not totally i n c onprehen sible for man. H e who v cnturcs 1 ~ . .any disquisition In these zubjects very often involvcs nimsc.,-- - - - 3 .varying misap1 tns. So men of right understan dingregard the Mu1 r the perspicuous as what prim arily .-matter in the field ofthought and action and do not run ..A L.. >the J 4 u tnshn bihrzth or the figurative, sincc no probe into themwill bea rfruit. I realise through their knowledge and in sight heythat t h t, Lr;nllLy ..--1:+.. behind the Mutashabihath is beyond the reach
  • 157. of human apprehension. These Mutashabihath are certainly not repugnant to the intellect of man, but they decidedly ore beyond its grasp. Man can believe: in them; but he can- not catch thcir re:~lity.So people of right understanding say, "We believe in all that the: Book of God contains", and go no further. O n the o,ther han d, those who are perverse, entangle themselve. in the Mutasha bihath and thwart the developmc s of faith i~ t.hem. n - . / A. 171 He ~t IS, v krophet! Who ~. ~. J ~ ~ J , ? m /hath sent down to Ithee -the Book;some verses of it are uous- fthey form the core ot the Book-and some arcfigurative. Butthey whose minds are perversetake to the figurative seek-ing discord and crave togive them their own interprets-tion, although none knoweth their ~;%~,t,y .? dL fi??J. .$true interpretation exceptGod, since these rf:late to i -.- .state of ex- istence 1 beyond the: comprc:hension man. But men of right understanding say, "We b elieve jn it; the whole of it is frclm our Lord". But none will understand these except t hose gifted with insight. [8] Those who underaitand sa)r , "Our Lord! Suffer not our hear ts to swerve, once thou hast show.n us the path, and favour US1-. with -. Thy grace. Verily,, Thou, alone art the Give] r. [9] Our Lord .! tVhetk the things of the world to come
  • 158. are comprehended aright by us,this at any rate is certain && &51Z&;g ../ ..- /that Thou surely will gathermankind one day; there is nodoubt about it. I n fact tfis thy promise. Surely Gcnever goeth against HisPr . wrlv riavc rnalicio~slyopposed tnc rcacn~ngsor the Book (Al-@irZn) have simply followed the method of the peo- pIe of Pharoah who had set themselves against Moses; and the time is not far off when they also will meet the consequen.ces which the peoplc:of Pha:raoh we1re fated to meet. The wa will certainly cc,me to Iknow wlho, in r eality will triun in the end. ECTION 2 [lo] :Surely riothing shall avail m g~ $ 3 J ~ 1 , / 1 that d:t y those who d e~y the ~ Gg&<yJ 3;. essage- neither their w zalth cof which they may be proud, northeir children. These! these )>~;~w,f, / - H - - L rg-5. .:shall form fuel for the Fire, [ 11J Even as did the people 9 9 4 /of Pharoah and those who wentbefore them and treated Our EK!J kP ; -c b, / M 999 bH 99 xsigns as false. God laid hold * & , & & &!on them for their sins, andGod is severe in chastisement. @+QlLgG [I21 0 Prophet! Say to those & H ~ xwho have denied the mes"Anon shall ye be worsted the call of Truth, and to IHellshall ye be driven,-to awretched bed indeed !"
  • 159. 142 r1S c+ 1 &vU~ The battle of Badr marked the beginning of the last phase of the Prophets mission. The circumstances which eventual led to this may be recalled. It was when the persecutions the Meccans had assumed a distinctly virulent form that tl_- Prophet decided to migrate from there and betake himsc to Medina. But the Quraish of Mecca would not give him rt even there. The very next year after the Prophets migratio they chose to collect a large force and attack Medina. In self- defence, the followers of the Prophet at Medina came out of the city to meet the foe and had an engagement with them in the vicinity of a well called Badr. The Muslims were but 31 3 in number and the enemy thrice their strength. But Divine help gave the Muslims a decisive victory. I t was an utter defeat for the enemy. Had the enemy the talent to read the w n the wa.11, this defeat of theirs would have been taken to hear t. [13] There was assuredly a PC+. 7* ! C t . d ~ 9 5 meaning for you in the encounter a - d +~,,%!&i&Jk& between the two hosts at Ba.dr, one fighting in the cahse of God .1 and to uphold His trutn and the C *- other fighting against it. They (the Muslims) beheld them with their own eyes to be clearly twice their number; still they triumphed, since God lends His help to strengthen whom He @4Gii will; and in this lay truly a lesson for men of insight. The followers of the faiIth are advised IIUL L W lcel worried .I 1 1 P , over tne lacK 01 aaequate material resources. Faith and action .- form the real wealth of a people. If these are assured, ;all else that matters in worldly life will come forth aut:o-I matically.
  • 160. O n e may posscss all that may be expected to contribute to ones comfort. But what really matters in life is the charac- ter one develops through right beliefs a n d right actior 4 $ 9 - w R [ I 43 Fair-sceming to men is ttic: love of pleasures derived &A wv.U,e~liorn womcn, sons, hoarded trc , I 1 .oigo~uanu sllvcr, horses of rn;irk, catilc a n d corn-fields. &j$.$J>,m / / /1l:csc are the things to enjoyin thc life of this world. God! &g;GS$& /" with H i m lie:s a good ly home . . z rctur n to. @ y9 7 0~L -7 ~ ~ u 9 6 - 3 -, I., m. .. / b9 1 9 b 7~ 9 ~ P N ~ J ol tliings better than thcsc? g$&a+&kgl$ // i LTl~c sightcous shall have from -[hcir Lord gardens in ~ v h i c hstrt:ams of water flov1. Therei ,.&they shall clvcII an(I have lj / ? / /7* / 7 b,/<cornl);~nionsof stainless purity ?$&z~~bh&t&anrl thc plcasurc of God; for ($7 /9 C b L / " 9God knows those dcvotcd to Him- M&b4u1&~@$ [I61 Thosc who say: "Our Lord!bVc bclicvc!, pardon us our sins. &.J$L ./ // /cSavc. us li.oni tllc chastisementof Firc.." c LLL ijJ////979//7 GJ@l~$b;&"~~$~ [ 1 71 TI11osc who arc stcald- ,Iilst in trials, anct ;ire tr~ltllr~ll~ I I lo~vly,a n a c~lilr.,, , .. . g; l w 1 I ~ it:ihli~i ~ l l dp r i l y Ior iorg- ~vcncss / C/ ITllc way of lifc prcscribcd by God is in conformity to the Ilivinc 1;tw 01b:tlnnce n[ ~ r o r k thc Universe. A comprehen- in sion 01 this l);~l;t~lct, N;tturc is obtainable by a study of the in c*vidcncc.s u.irll ~.hicllnl;ul is s ~ u r o u n d c d .T h e Q~rrinrefers spc*ci!ic;tlly to tllscc ol. chcsc. O n e is the system of ;evelation
  • 161. rhrough which thc truth is brou: e to mankind. T h e sc-cnndis that hotly of Sorccs at work both in thc earth and the skics which thc O,.trc.-~stylcs as r n a l q ~ i k ,and thc third is thc insight of thc Icnrncc!. Thcsc three e~iclcnccs dcmonstr,-tc that the clltirc Universe is susiaincd by onc supr.emc BclLlg> 1 who holds i t in a ba12nced ordc Thc Ivny of lifc cnjoined on m the ver]J bcginnling - . .. . . .. - . has becn -but one and thc samc, thc w2.y of life stvled Al-Islitm. Every leiadcr of rncn in c very age hat11 of to men ; ind en.joincd on thenn not to diffcr therein. Thc cliffercnces which arose anlong the Jews and the Ch.xis- :ians rcsiulting in their breaking u p into different groups ,vcrc ducc to their turning away from this basic way of life. :s thatthe >rship,cxcept Hjmself and that it is Hewho upholds the entirc Universcin a balanced order, and so bearwitness the angels and so domen of learning endowed with menequipoise. There is none worthyof worship but He, thc Mighty,the Vise. [I91 Without doubt, the wayof life acceptable to God is Al-Islam (the way of devotionto the Divine will).And they to whom the Scriptureshad bccn given, differed (notbecause they had been shownany other M-zyor because therecould be any other way; theydiffered) only after the way of Islam had been shown to them, and this they did through mutual jca.lousy. And remember
  • 162. whosoever dcnieth the injullctions L*sd, .scr ( / .7 / / bAa* 9 ~ ~ r ~ 7 9 *.-of God-thcm God I-ill surelynot be slack in reckoning with. 5Eh . / What thc Jews and thc Chl-iqtians arc nskcd to ;uImit is that the bayis of religion licc in dcvotion to God. Should they admit it, then all disputt: should bc at an cnd, Sor that is the quilztessencc n. O n t r hand, should 1 not adnlit this, 1 argumen lonst ran(:e will a1 r201 So, if th ey dispute1 ith % thee, say: "I have entirely -:.. . . -1 ...--. . ~ 1 , - resigrlea myselr to God, and -so have those who follow me".And Fay to those who were giventhe Book, and to the Arabs whohad not received the Book, "Doye also resign yourselvesto God?" I f they do rcsigr,they are in the right patha n d there is no occasion fora dispute with them; but i f thcvdecline, and regard their orvn3roupism as the true religionthen, no amount of good advicewill avail with them. Yourfunction is after all but topreach, and God is cornizant-of what hiLS servan~ t s do. Drawing; attenticIn to the wrong way of li ich thc jcws . - - had taken to as a community, the QurE~lobserves that no hnnrb could be entertained of a people who had lost ofjustice and truth and were addicted to excesses. 10
  • 163. 146 rd+~l .AS& The Jewish.scrihes knell- that thcy hnd been given tlicl3ook of God. I n fact, thcy claimcd to believe thcrcin. Rut wlicn askcc! to act upto the tcach ltai~lcdin the Rook, thcy would not do so, as that go against their pcrsonitl intcrcsts and cvil cl~lsil-cs. T h e Jews k!clicved that salvatior1 was rlxcrvcd for then1 and that they vould never bc throw n into I?[cll. Thcy hardly realised that I he law of salvation d id not take into account to tvhat gr : hclongcd or what creed one followed. Salvation r. rtrd of a.n implicit faith in God and righte- ous living. r L for thos~ lisrcgardt l ~ e L L L l u l l a of God cLLICL > I L * ~His tillprophcts :uljus(fy and slay nliiliosc ~ v h ocnjoin justicc ancfair dca.lings among thcm, a n n u ~ u ~ ~ l ;to such as tlrlcsc that thcy have noaltcl-nacivc IcSt for thcm otherthan ;L. painful chacti:;cment. [22] Thcsc arc tile); whose works:ha.ll come to naught i l l this worldand in tlic ncxt, and thcrc shallbe none to help thcm. M 9 [233 0 Prophct! Hast thou not I~YZ A /noticed thosc who have been givena portiori of the Book? Their learned men arc summoned to the ... /Book of God to settle thcir differcnces. But a party of , , / 2~:e . O M ~ M P0 &> C+&+?@~ l I them withdraw and thcsc arc a j people who have turncd away from the Book of GC [24] This bccau "Fire shall not touch us excck, for certain days; rl-e arc a pcoplc alrc redeemed. If pcrchancc any of us
  • 164. is throlvn into the Fire, we shallnot be thrown by vcly of punish-ment. We shall be put in only . . 79 /</_to cleanse oursclvcs of any / 95 :/signs of sin that might be C>. !%attached to u;." I t is wishfulthinking of this naturewhich has deluded them in their faith. [25] But what will be their ..// */ * P I 7~~ - condition when We shall gathe & ! ! y $P % ! ~ I/ 9 ?, , 9/2 9. them together on the Day of Resurrection, of which there a&$L$/3, 4 9, is no doubt, when every one shall @ &=$g&. be paid what one had worked for, and none shall be dealt with unjust13Y. T h e issue be tween thLe true a1nd the false cannot be lef t over . ,. . . . 7 . . to the day ot- Kesurrectlon. Lven in the life of thls world the issue is resolved. Me who has equipped himself for right living prospers; and he who runs counter to the way of truth ) strength to stand and has eventually to " ^ 0 w.. I Iartairs to God a n a say: - uGod! Lord of authority! thougivest authority to whomthou wilt and thou takest awa.7authority from whom thou wiltThou exaltest whom thou wilt,and whom thou wilt thou dostabase. I n thy hand is allgood! Verily, thou hast powerover everythin!3. [27] Thoui causest the nightto pass into th.e day a nd causest
  • 165. the day to pass into the nightThou bringest the living oulof the dead, and thou bringestthe dead out of the living, andthou givest sustenance to whom q--+ 5&,%;3; L. /"Lthou wilt without measure." Since the time has now arrived tc :cisions, the follo~ ers of the Faith were counselled to be u p and doing and to show no weakness in the pursuit of their mission. Tlhat was of primary importance to them was that they should not give to their own personal interests preference ov er thc in- terests of the community and should not c:hoose friends Sron1 the enemy camp. T h e situation was serious. I t was possible to distinguish easily between friend and foe. I t had bccor imperative for every one to choose his side; and once t: choice was made, he had to adhere to thc side cliosen ar abstain from keeping secret contacts with the othcr. [28] Let not believers takefor friends unbelievers, Whosc ; *1< &u 4 g g Zf z 99 9Pshall do this, shall have *,91qB&6nJf "-nothing from God, unless ont /3yt/ 1 9 / 7 ? / / ~chooses to guard himself against &?v?-.45&~3 ,p ,P"$<~.TJ 54." gg;,Fex1wh3,4f 9any harm from them. But do notforget that you have to beware i ?,<P / 99 g u : / 9 / 4 I 9of God also, and rem.ember a Iso ~~ili(dJig-3~ b "that eventually you have all toreturn to Him. [29] 0 Prophet! say to thosepeople: "Nhether you concealthat which is in your breastsor whether you disclose it,God knoweth what it is. Not 9&"b&a ~ ; ; G j l merely this, He knoweth all thatthere is in the heavens and in 9 ~ Kja b u $j, ,d %la,[the earth, and nothing there
  • 166. is which is outside of Hissphere of control. 1301 And do n :t thethought of the comlng uay. O nthat day every soul shall fiw .. . pre:sent -befc it wh.atever good )re / <7/$/, pW//"* -9 9 it Elad done: and ala10 whate ver of - ~ . had wrought. I t w ...l l . . L+.u!J>9qy& evil it Ppq,9, //9/ fi//f/// then wish that wide were the & q $ h b 1 ~ l ~ l % 3 Q?@[JJS&!, 8 gulf between itself and the b (/<9 dreadful evil in front. ~ u t God would have you beware of Him so that you might abstain tiom . . evi 1; and k: now thalt God is - ver y kindljr to His servant 1 laims to Ilove God should necessarily obey tlhe Proph for, the love of God and disregard for him who showeth the way to God cannot co-exist in anyone.. I t is the law of God to raise prophets among people to offer the right guidance o them. Those w,holisten to them and follc)w their iinstructic3ns ilways p.rosper a1nd those who reject or o:ppose them deny .1 1 hemselves tne nelp of God. Refere nce is m ade to the proph ets, Yah ) and Je knd also to Mar)r , mother of Jesu .S. [31] 0 Prophet! say to these people t "If you love God, then b9 9 . t / 9 99 9 7 9 follow me. If you do so, God $yjfl&~dI& will love you and forgive your 9 /$19.< 9 , sins. He indeed is Forgiving ~ 2 ~ 9 Merciful !" [32] 0 Prophet! tell them: "The ith of progress and prosperity r you is but one; and it iS &gzl
  • 167. that you obey God and the apost If, however, they turn back, then God liketh not those who turn ai C331 Verily God chose Adan nd NoalI, the family of Abraha: and the f amily of Imran for high . . . distinctiox1. C 341 The ont: is the 1 of the 0thler; and God he; knoweth. 1351 Call to mind the time when the wife of Imran prayed to God: I vow to dedicatc the exclusive service of tll Y sacred House (Haikal) th e child that is in my womb. Accept it for me; for verily thou @PLJ;~I&~-~~I&J~~ p? / PY .G ~ Y " $ ~ v Y 1 heareth prayers and knoweth the intentions of those who pray. [36] When it so happened t hat1 instead of a male child, she gave C * 6 9 7/9k z& ; / 9 7 / /I birth to a female child, she raised her voice to God and said: " 0 ILord! Le plS~ab Hbl:. &K,--43 9 / / / I have brought forth a female chi1.d. I& f l s ; b u 3 )I .. What am I to do now? (G.od knew full well what she was to ha.ve1 brought forth) I have V L . . .- 7wtd my vow in expectation of a male I % - 0 child, and now! a female child @ ,*/ & - I & ! ,1 has come. A female is not the same as a male that she might function as a dedicated servant of Haikal. Be that as it may, I have named her Mary an(- I commit her and her offspring to Thee for protection from Satan, the accursed."
  • 168. 1Zary was dedicated to the service of Haikal when she bAr-c but a child. She was brought up under the care c a n d showed even in her young years marked pie So wit11 gracious cccptanc:e did EL r Lord accept e .ner ana w . t h goodly growth did ~ aHe make her glow under thegoodly c; re and tutelage ofZachariah. Whenever Zachariahvisited he:r at the: sanctu:try7he alway:; found her ther e -..-..- . W >omeengaged ~ L Ly l a y u. ..,:4.l.l L l l ",sort of food kept beside her,whereupon he asked her: "0Mary! whence come these thingsto thee". She said:. "Theseare from God; for, God giveth"astenance to whomsoever He 1il1eth w neasure." Zachit~lal~ s prayer and the bir LII VL I dhya as t l l ~ l b G u l x r t V of Christf ,-An. LY8J Forthwith did Zacnarialpray to His Lord, saying: "0 &*J&jL>au /,// / / / YMy Lord! Grant me from thee a oodly offspring who shall be 0,& 3s/ UP / 79 e! J&J/4 s pious and as devoted to thee s Maiy; indeed thou alone @g$ .. earkenest to pray.er." 1391 Then diid the a! ngels cal 3 him even while he stooc I the sainctuary, saying, "God nnounceth thee the advent of ohn (Yahya) a testifier of he word from Gc)d, who will be -
  • 169. 152 r + d J &S&+ , p H < + u 4 / 0 0a leader, 3 man of purity and ~ ~ 3 l ~ ~ @ J l ~ r oa prophet raised from among the righteous." 1401 When this was announced ->to him, Zachariah cried out: "0 ,/<$, 9 , 9 ,,; , ~ J ~ S ; L J CJ & ~ I ~ J k / MMv Lord! How shall I have a son ~when old age hath already creptover me and my wife is barren." * / , . I /H/tr/He said: "Even so, (:od doeth a~~~~~~ ,,J,Y/what He pleaseth. [41] Zachariah r;aid: (C Lord !vouchsafe to me a token". He JG~~IQ++~Jsaid: "The token for thee shall 4 /I/. / 6 / / 9 4be that thou shalt nor s ~ e a k to &bvu&-yl&g / / ,men for three days saveLbysigns.And remember oft thy Lord, and &~+j>~l;~,;f~u ,, /,9 W / / / 4,. / 7 /glorify Him at even and at morn." Q & ~ $ Ir @ ~ Ma~ysreaching the age of maturity and Gods conferment on her of high distinctions. Certain details of Marys life are furnished here which could have come to the knowledgc of the Prophet only through revelation. 1421 Thereafter it so happened &l,$Eml&>J .. u 5 Gf /that the angels said to Mary: "0Mary! God hath selected thee fordistinction and sanctified theeand chosen thee above all the . @@l~pg~ /women of the world. [43] " 0 Mary! Engage thyself t ~7 / W / 7-9% 9~7,in devotion to God and adole Him u~b$?d*k*and bow down with those who bow." [44] 0 Prophet! This is of , .. * (*l&ui &$/Jcfthe facts not generally knownwhich We reveal to thee, for . / L / Zthou wast not with them when the ~J&:.J&L,~&~J /jP / / /
  • 170. mother of Mary brought her to p fl ,999 9the sanctyar,y and .v,hen the &.L~-@!J%IU& 99/ ?//9J"cust odians vvere cas ting lots ... . . . ,with quills w h ~ c hof them . . aL;LPeO,p / 9 Lshould have chasge of hlary,nor was thou with them when disputetd aboult it. given th e tiding: of the coming 01 [45] TIlerea fter it so pened tlhat the angels &Jg&q-h~wyJu a, - - le to Mary and r;aid to h.er : G I $ ~ ~6 , j ~ % H ~ Mary! God givc-th thee the 2 4 d tidings of a so~n by m : a n ~ c @sj7g /.I ? / / / . -of a. word from Him. whose nameshal1 be Messiah, Jesus, andwhc) shall be known as son of.-Mary. He will attain anillustrious rank in this worldand in the next and be one of se whom God draws to Himself. [46] "And he will preach to I from the cradle even ns he IwillI preach when g .own up and r he will be (>f the rij;hteous." 14.71 Mm y , gre:atly amazed a t the tidings, exclai nled. "Lord! Ho.w shall tllere be a.son to m e when nlo man h.ath touched me?" He said : "Even so doth God create what He will; when H e decreeth qL @A 5EM~ A; a thing, He only sayeth to i t ? wg;rd&-Gpfl Be and it is. [48] "And H e will instruct him in divine knowledge and the wisdom underlying it, as well 6&$
  • 171. as in thc Torah and the Evangel ,491 "And he shall be an a] postlcto the children of Israel. And 9:to them will he say: I havecome to you with a sign fromyour Lord: out of clay will Ifashion for you a thing in thelikeness of a bird and then Iwill breathe into it, and by Godsleave a bird it shall become;and I will heal him that is bornblind and heal the leper, and bringthe dead to life by Gods leave,and I will tell you what youhave eaten and what you havestored up in your houses. Un-doubtedly in this there shallbe a sign for you if ye are menof faith. n like tkL other prophets, Chris,t did not come to set e asiue rne reacnlngs or the prophets wno wen[. oerore him. . I . 1 r 1 7- - P- - He came to confirm them, since the basis of religion was but one and the same in every age and ainong every people. i50:] "And I have comc to / G, / / / 9 ~ ,rew RJHconfirm the Torah that was fi,ud&&&@3delivered before me and makelawful for you certain d $I s Q s$<l&~$ ,, ,things which were forbidden you,so that the Law may ope:n outto you the way of easy conformto it. And I have broul;ht toyou a sign from your Lord asprophesied in the previousscriptures. Therefore, be mindfcof God and obey me.
  • 172. [51] Undoubtedly, God is my G3w~&19~,;Li,(~ 9 9 9 9 1 / 9 P//+kLord and your L x d , so serve Him. li?"<Yte @ .:IThis is the straightpath. " @-%~IU Christ came with his mission t l ~ c scribes, " . 1 .. cauers 01 rne Jews, set themselves against h1111. Only a lLw i o m among the poor responded to his call. [52] And when Jesus fe!tthat the Jews would not accapthirn, he cried out: "Who is therewho would help me in the cause Ju b,3,34u&Jkof God?" Thereupon, the b~ ~ ~ $ ~disciples answered: "We will be lpers in the cause of God. p[Lz?Jz&Ki r 9 e have 12elieved in God, and . - a r thou witness, 0 Preacher the lruth, that we are those lo are resigned to God." [53] And they also exclaimecI: "OurLord! We have believed in whatThou hast sent down and we ~ $ ~ > q; ~ ~follow T h y apostle. Write us - wn, therefore, with those lo testify to the Truth." The Jews intrigued against Jesus. God thwarted their eviI ichemes against him and gave him protection. The Diliinc , ~ o m i s e Jesus was that: to )d woulc1 enable him to fulfil hi s missio n and d - - . 4 111111 LV u: nlrnself, )d would bring to nought the machination ists tractors; and >d would give his followers asccndency over triosc lo had rejected him.
  • 173. [54] The Jews who opposed himresorted to many dcvices in ,y b; *secret to defeat his mission, 7, &kibb P I dbJkb$G 4 /0but God likewise devised, in waysunknown to them, to bring theirdevices to nought and God isthe best of devisers. [55] (It was a t such a juncture , T I ,+ , ,A , 1in the history of Christs mission .. &;pGl@&)lL ../.. I:<that God said by way of hearteninghim and his followers:) " 0 Jesus! &g x ; s ! & , 0Verily, I will complete thy courseof time and will raise thee up to dQ&..&yL- -. ,, ,, , ,/ 6 7 9 /Myself and will absolve you of ~>&+&!$I~~A~.ZIall the accusations levelled a tyou by your detractors and willgive thy followers for all timesascendency over those who haverejected thee. And ei.entuallyall have to return to Me and I @ , ; = ...will decide on thc day ofresurrection on matters whereinpeople have .entertained differences; [56] "And I will- chastise those who have rejected theewith a severe chastisement bothin this world and in the next, and there shall be none to help them; , , ,9/ 4 9 / / 1571 ;And I shall reward in full I&,~ & $ i b ~ b b measure those who have believed a n d b 7 ) zt99 7 - ? ~ 9 < , +~~+9$+. l+iJworked righteously, and know thatGod doth-not like the unjust." 1581 0 Prophet! This which we &&J&$..&g -/ rehearse to thee is a revelation dgl>O&{&ai .. d .. M and a significant admonition.
  • 174. The @crYclnhere denies divinity to Christ. It states that he was but a human being, and that he had beell chosen to be a Prophet of God. The Qicrcln asserts that despite the rides spread belicr entertained by Christians in the divinity of Christ, the QurBnic assertion will in the end prevail throughout the world, since the belief in the divinity of a human being is repugnant to the very concept of Divine Unity. [591 Verily the creation of d~~ I , , , I ,, Y~ AJesus is for God just the same @$L+L~% 4as that of Adam. He created him %Ul/39.&Gsi/ (Adam) of dust. H e then saidto him, "Be" and even, as God Q @&G$=?J J @wished, he was. [60] 0 Prophet! Whatever hasbeen said here touching Jesusis the truth from Thy Lord,and what issueth forth fromGod is definite and unalterable.Be not therefore of those whoentertain doubt. [61] Should any one disputewith thee in this, even after L : , , e& . ++ - f & & ~y ? / / .this assertion of the Qr~rlnand the knowledge that hath 14 $JJl&3;E / /come to thee, then, say to + p; & ; G& F ftwthem: "For my part I amconvinced of the truth that ;m;@&; tzL;Jesus was but a human being;if you people however feel convinced of his divinity,then, let you and I agree tocome out into the open andbring with us severally oursons and our womenfolk, and this done let us together
  • 175. 158 rd+S1 .&>Apray and invoke the malislof God on those. who questic ~ & & ~ & @id.*>, /the truth." [62] 0 Prophet! what Ibeen stated here is verily Pthe truth. There is noneworthy of worship except CAnd God! He alone is Mighty,Wise ! [63] But if even thenthey turn away (as did the 6, 5 ,p p , :. ,/ h gJ"$ k b u./ z -1 /Christians of iyajran wheninvited to this test), God ..knoweth well those bent c,,mi:ichief. A ity is given to the peoplie of the Book, t Jews ~ I I U ~ r ~ ~ . i s t i ton composc differerices and to cor LLIC a s .. . . - . -. . to an agreement with the Prophet. If their oppositic to the teachings of .the @~rEn was not prompted by a] prejudice or ill-will, and if they still retained any love for trut-., they were askec! t o put by all matters of controversy a d to agree to affirm at.]( t those basic truths which they themselves -as I ecognizec.t hllt which they had neglected in practice These ale ( I ) None 1s worthy or worship except God. (2) None shall be associated with God in all that is attri- buted to H:im. . . (3) No human being shall regard another human bein.- so holy and sinless as to be looked upc Such was the religious outlook of the Prophet, the outlook "I Abraham himself. Whatever was a deviation from this puire concept of the unity of God in the Jewish and Christian the:o-
  • 176. logy was a later dcvelopmcnt. So, whcnevc.r the Jews ;lid theChristians contend sevcrally that the way olthought and Jivinguhich they followcd was but the way oSAbrtha~n,thcy do soin sheer ignorance. The icligion oS Abraham was split u pinto sectarian creeds l~unclrcdsol ycars itlier hirn arid illis.a$ don? in thc name of lloses :lnd Jcsus. 1641 0 Prophet! say to the .Jctvsand the Christians: 9 pcoplc ofthe Book! Lct us no1 wr;ingl& ovcrwhat may bc rcsg,~idcclAS controv~:rsi:~lsubjjccts. I,ct us at 1ca.s~;i.grc::: or) (liat which is q ; ; 5 -5 , & J .s ... y q u y ..rccognisccl a1ikc by you andby u,, i.c. (hat we worshipnone but Gocl and associatenothing with Him, and take noteach other as Lord to theexclusion of God." If even then they turn away, say: "Bear ye witness that the refusal conles from your ~ i d e and that we are those who are resigned to Gocl alone. - [63] " 0 pi:oplc of the Book! ~,&%ZJ~ 3% wherefore do ye dispute about Abraham, whether his religion -$ + ~ ~ @ $ ~ ~ ~q,fl.J 4 7 / 9. ?as Judaism 01 Christianity, when you know that the Tor~il and the Evangel on which you base your different sectarian creeds, were not sent down till after he had passed away? Can you not understand this much? [66] "Behold! Ye are they who ~ ,. p ~ s . .., A)/ dispute in respect of what was known to you already in some
  • 177. I form or other, as is clear fi-om 9 t/9 L&$b&, * B */1 the way in w h c h you refer, however wrongly, to what is > ; &.; g yJ1;I 1 lawful and what is not. Why then do you dispute in respect of what you know not? I t is God who knowetll and ye are those who know not. [67] "Abraham was neither a few nor a Christian nor a follower of any sectarian creed. O n the other hand, he was one staunch in faith, resigned to God, and one who would not let anything @ Ng&GigL; -4 C affect the singleness of his devotion to God." [68] Of men who should claim the closest relation to Abraham are those who followed him in his time, as well as this Prophet, and those who believc 1 in him, and not those, who have split up his faith into I Judaism and Christianity and denied in practice the unity of God. And remember that God is tllc protector of the faithful. [69] 0 Muslims! there is a section among the people of the Book who would fain turn you away from I the path of Truth SO that you should waver in your p u r b ~ i t of the religion of Abraham. But remember that however much "--, may scheme to mislead you, thCy will nl O n the other hanu, trlt-r~~st-~vrs
  • 178. do they mislez ugh intheir ignoranw a ~ l u i l l i ~ l n c s s - ~they (lo not realise itXAL.- r; 701 0 people of . 1 1 l i y deny the signs of u v u k!when you yourselves sec t hrmbefore you ? T h e basic defect in the position of the pcoplc of 1 ~c Boob 1 was-that they regarded the privilege of knc]wing if IC tr11tl1 of religion to be exclusive to their own pcoplc 01- thcir grouj>. ~ - ~ ~ - Their contention was that none who did not brlong to tl~c,~n could be a repository of truth, or. olanything higher than wIl;tr ~hey possessed, and that all that was to have heen given t o . ~ n ; ~ r ~ had been given to them, ancl that thereafter the trcasurc.-housc of divine graciourness had been sealed forever. [71] 0 People of the Book!Why do ye clothc what is truewith what is falsc and knowinglysuppress the truth? [72] T h t w is a section among.thc people of the Book; who sa.to their compeers just : to misl DI . J--.the Muslims: " D -C:l-J- -C- .V t. d l C1d)-UICrLK - Lin wh at has b een sent down tc) thcMusli ms and deny it at the cllose 1 -. . . .of the uay LL m t percrl;rncca J-.. rr .they rnay also retract 1your example 9 1731 And rney say anlong rnemsclves:trust none except him who followsyour way. T o these pcoplc, 0
  • 179. 162 ~&JI rs31& ; Prophet, say: "Verily, the true 7 ~ 1 v way is the way of God, and that is not the exclusive heritage of . ~~I@IG&~~,~$I&I J!-+$~~L&LL~~c 7/7C,..79 / f w 4 . M 594 any particular group or race;and that he who follows i t will be the rightly guided." They further &&74. 9 b@<&.$-yg 2say among thcn~selves: "Do notadmit that the like ofwhat hathbeen imparted to you may also beimparted to others, nor do youadmit that any plea advanced byothcrs will prcvail against youhcihrc your Lo1cl." Say 0 Prophet to thesepcoplc : "Thr 1)cstowal of favoursis in thc gift of God. Hc bcstoweththcm in abundance on whomsoever Hepleascth; and is liberal anddiztinguishes the cle,ervingFrom the undeserving. [74,] "He singleth out for Hisgrace whomsoever He liketh,and God is undoubtedly greatin His liberality." The people of the Book said that whatever had been enjoined on them in regard to the observance of honesty in business transactions should be observed only in relation to the people of their own faith, and that it was not necessary to observe them in relation to othcrs. They rcgardcd it lawful to defraud others in every way. But the Qlr2n statcs that tlishoncsty in_, .. any form is after all dishonesty and misapl~ropri;~tion anyin form is after all misappropriation. The c1ifrc:rc:ncc: in rcligion does not alter the nature of good ant1 c:vil. IIc who commits -- an act of dishonesty, whatever his religion or sc:ct, he has indeed committed a great sin ant1 hc: will, on thc day or judgement, be denied forgiveness.
  • 180. AL IMRAN 163 [75] Among the people of the-Book a1.e some, every one of o 9 / v O,d,J >C ; : y$ l &whom 1will restore even a largetreasure: to thee shouldst thouentrust it to hirn ; and 2imongthem a lso then: are so1me, non,of who]n wilI r( estore to thee ai&"X& / 4," *y 9 -3 LT / - -.even a dinar, shouldst thouentrust it to him, unless thouart pressing in thy demandon him. This is because theysay: "We owe no responsibilit to keep faith with the pagans," and thus they foist a lie God and they do it knc [76] Every one is responsiw~for what he does, be it good or evil. That is the law of God. Whoso fulfilleth his engagemenr, being mindful of God, let him know that God indeed loveth those who are mindful of Him, whatev.er their religion Ior group affiliati on. -- -- .. - . r 7 / -I Verlly, tor them who barter for a pa:ltry worldly wp~>p?,& 9~ ~9 gain tlle prom ises they have h * /LL ..// / ,s +J u &k ,? / , LO , , made t,. P--A + be upright .r. / and hc)nest, an d their own , oaths Inever to misappropriate anothe -I.>, b -..-- , for I vluvertv. I I them t here sharll be no portior1 in the Hereafter ; God will .- U b-eIi- t ~. LL :11 - L IL . -- ~p * LU Luem on the Day of Resurrection, nor even look a t them, much ---_ 2solve them of their less F
  • 181. sins; and for them is a pain-ful chastisc earned thc people of the Book had divested it of all religious nowl ledge of the spirit under lying it. They no doubt recited its verses and commented thereon, but in self-interest they very often misinterpretcd its contents. The masses took their word for thc: word of God. O n the othcr hand, what they used to say was nothing but their own invention. Thc learncd among the people of the Book regarded t h c lllasses as thcir tools or slaves with the result that the latter looked up to them for guidance cven in religious matters and imagined that it was they who possessed the key to heaven and Iiell, although it was not proper for any human being to obey the word of man as against the word of God. [78] And among them, there are 6 Lgs,&l; & - - - rcertainly some who alter thephraseology of their Scripture(while reciting it) in order thatyou may take it to be a passagefrom the Scripture, whereas itis not from it; and they say,This is from Cod, whereas it isnot froin Him. They foist alie on God, and this they doI<nowingly. [79] I t bcscerneth not manthat God should give him the 4 99 J&& "P$ .tp. ~ SW//9 /Book and authority andprophcthood, and that thereafterhe should say to men: "Be U H$ &? g&$Fum, $1~vorshippcrsof me instead of God".H e should rather say : "Be men ofGod, since you have been teachingthe scri~turesand studying it".
  • 182. 1801 Nor will he bid you takethe angels and the prophets foryour Lords. What! will he bid "/ u, $$Ba; 5 w~ D %/ /--9you take to unbelief after youh: iigned yourselves; to Goc @-----. The Q!drZn here draws n to a fundamenital doctr.ine of T.1 . . .. . - . ~ m g - - islam that all the prophets sponsored bur one way of life. l n a r L ~ is wh)r every siucceeding prop1let had to affirrr1 that h e was ~ncrclj confirnning what had EIeen don e by his predeci::ssors. J . - . - .mhrts So, when iIn e way of God is but one ana the different pro,---._ 1 hnvc together formed 1but one chain 01 : one lin.e, to diflferen- tiittc one from the othc3r or to accept aIne and 1?eject an.other P is to deny the entire line or propnecs Ior those who came ro 7 . .. ~~ - -he tight guidanc manity. 2 "?.:A Lv. 1 L ~ I L mind what Gou b n ~ u towhcn He cntcred into a covenantwith you (the Israelites) regard-ing thc prophets. (He had said) :"This is the Book and the wisdom $ w - c6 JFJ~FG / 99/ Qwhich I givc you. Hereafter, 0 -should n prophet come to you ling that which is alreac ,P 9/9//4 / ~5997" lu, yc. shall sursly believe Jiib&~on hlnl and ye shall surely aid him. 1.rc you .resolved and do 1 yo11 ;1c cvpt thc covena nt on .s -% r.7, t l l c ~ c - tcrnls : J, 11cy said: "IVe arc +I $; + GaG JG ppl I {c. then C d3 , those T,vho turr surely b c rcg.~rd .nt
  • 183. 166 rd,+J~ r&!t a; The way of God or religion is nothing but conformity to the laws of life at ,work in nature. All that there is in the earth and heavens, every thing created, scrupulously obeys these laws of God. Is there any other law which governs the universe except this divine law of nature? What objectio.1 have you, asks the Qyrin, to follow the law on which alone depends thc working of this vast system of the universe. I t i$ this law of life which offers universal guidance to mankind. It is a matter of regret that men have constituted them- I selves into groups, one contending against another. and every one following its own way. The kurril states that it has come to rid hmanityof this waywardness and turn them to the common path of truth which all leaders of men, I the prophets, have uniformly endorsed and enjoined upon I man to follow. [83] Do they desire to follow , ,p , 1 c 9 ./ ,< ,,,! ways other than the way of God, *IA~UA$~?~ II when all that is in the heavens or the earth doth submit to Him willingly or unwillinglyI and hath to return to Him? 1 [841 Ve believe in ~ o d a$Tc;&b~f$ and in th; I has been sent / , H / 79 / / / ,, down to us and toat which was sent down to Abraham, and Ishmael and &2~&J2L>L$ Isaac and Jacob and his descendents, and in that which was given to - Moses and Jesus and the prophets . from their Lord: no distinction do we make between any of them H~ / 9 4 <, j 9 ? , . and to Him are we resigned." +* W @ ,~ V [85] No way of life, sought after Q & ~ 9 ~ -. . by any Ohe, other than the way of i i. ?.I ; acknoqledging all prophets who 1 , 2.: ,, have $pr,mored t h e way ,of. tr+th, , i "9.y: ; ,- $S-,-s~z&. bk acceptable and,he who . . j ~ + &- / , ... , ~ , . , . ? .L. ., < .- . C -; - . . . $ c : 3. ; -^ . % : ... .- . t . . . . . . 2 :. ;. . . : ? . , . : .. - . . . . . .
  • 184. follows any other way shall inthe nexl: world t :the lost. hsy who having acceptcd the Fi~ithturncd a.aF lic))n it rould not entertain any argument or sign oi Got1 and ven now persist in their opposition to the cnlloSTn~tlr, x L a v G 0 hope for reform. They have chosen for thcmsclvcs thv 1 path of degradation in this world and of ctcrnal chastisement in the next. T h e law of returns is always at work in life. Evil will Icacl to evil results and goodness to good results. I n this world, onc may escape punishment by offcring monetary compcnsation - - - evil done; but in the court of God, no such compcnsation for is accceptable. The only way out is the way of rcpcntancc. which liquidates all sin, provided it is sincere. Of course, thc cffering of wealth for the good of others stands on a diffcrcnt footing. I t is itself a good act and no one can succeed in the path of goodness unless he sacrifices in the name of God that which he holds dear or r c ~ a r d s precious to him. This also will count in the final evaluation of ones life on the Day of Judgment. [86] How shall Cod open outthe path of succcss for a people /wHd79 5.4 9 .r/7 /7/who, after they had accepted t - 91 bw34,kLwFaith and affirmed that thea~ostle was a true amstle. andafter clear signs had reachedthem, retracted? God guidethnot the people who are faitl~lcs! [87] On such asthese shall rcst the malison of God,of angels, and of all men, 1881 Under which shall they remain ;their torment sha? not be lightened, 9 9 s / 93/9/ 49. / 7nor shall thcy have any respite, +&&yTbcr&c u / /79/9979 e r 9 - / / // @U,&~Y,
  • 185. [89] Save sucll as shall rcpcnl thereafter and amend; for, God --indeed is Forgiving, Merciful ! [90] As for those n7ho have * ~7 / 7 / ,9/4 ~7 A 6 -retracted after accepting the faith &, b b d & g ~ t& 4 Ul + $$yI~j/$ 2and have grown hardened in un- / /?sC belief, mere (verbal) repentancefrom them shall never be accepted. - . @&?$!~$$,$j3 C, [! As for those who have refused 9] 9 9 / 4 / / 39to believe and died in unbelief, fromnot one of them shall be accepted even A, 3 L b+r;Jl .. , / &Jthe entire gold that the earth containethif he were to offer it in redemption. &&osjg ..These are they for whom shall be apainful chastisement, and for whomthere shall be no helpers. t A 7 +&gL; I ; I
  • 186. P A R TIV Chapter I 1 1AL-I-IMRAN (Contd.)
  • 187. C H A P T E R 11 1 AL-I-IMRAN (Contd.) !ou shall never at tain to - 4 9~ :11 )vU .:-.,.goourlcm LM -.-.- p~ L" uthers &- -2 @$--~~out of what you cherish. i d.soever you give ayay, GO( surelywill know i . @W+& A .The , . mission : vo objec ;ainst the Prophets (1) They said that if th really confirmed the preklious .. . -- ---r~ptures, how was it that it did not prohibit all that as prohibitcd among the Jcws. the religion of the Qr~ranwas not differ1ent from the ligion of Abrah,am and his descendants, why was it lat KaBa in R ~ C I was chosen as the Qibla in placc cca ( Jerusalem whit h was tlrle Qibla of all thr prophets 0 Y the Israelites. 1 I n reslpcct of the first objectioin, the QI forc the advent of the Toyah, all -cvholcsome food was lawful to the children of Isracl; so much qo that all propliets from Abraham downward to Moses considered then1 lalvhl. And then, thc Torah cz top the use of certain foods, not bccausc thcy were in any wa)I unclean but bccausc it ~ v a s found ncccssary - :. . to check Ltne inordinate usc the Israelites madc of thcm. As - l . - for the rest which thc Jews considcrcd as unln~vful, was not it the law of God which prohibitcd thcir usc but the pcoplc themselves had developed a dislike for them. Tliis {hc Torah itself makes clear in certain passagcs. 171
  • 188. As for -the objection touching the appoi11tmc.nt of Knba a3 Qibla, the JCIYF should know that it Ivas .4br,ihaln ~ - l l o constructed the housc of pr,lycr in lfcccn. Hr did not act LII, any housc of pr.tyc~.I Jt,rusalr.ln. [93] All forms of food ~rsuallyagree- able to man were made lawful to the children of Israel ere the Torah ~ , < & ; ~ 4 ~ .as sent do~vn,except what at a certain stagc Jacab (or Israel) 4 $49 7 / 9 q denicd to liimsclf of his own &a u~&&d$ accord. If the .Jclvs dispute this vith you, ask t h a n to bring thc Toomlr and to read out the r c l r v a n ~ passages from it if they speak @3*3~z$g *+/ / the truth. [94] Even after this, the Jews do not desist from their false assertions and invent a lie on God, then, thry deserve to be branded as~nischief-mk ers. a .J [95] Say: God has revealed thc truth. 1):Follorv therecore the faith ,)f Abra-Iiam, the staunch in faith, and one 1 $. cC , ~ G / J ; A / / , c I jLh4d; hd/~vho would not let anything affecthis single-minded devotion to God. ? [96] The first house of prayer that was rr / / 0. / . / 0 /ever appointed for men was the one &guQ+3*J>b!at Bccca, the blessed and n source ,, 9 9 .9 P/ /~of inspiration for all mankind. @C/#i~r~jkfi* [37] Therein are sign-posts includingthe station of Abraham and he who entersit has entered the abode of pcaccAnd pilgrimngc to this House is $sgg . I whomage clue to God from thosc ...--a1.e able to jo~lrncy thither. j&,kO! & &KG;And if any onr sho~ilclclrclinz
  • 189. to offer it, then, (bethat) God ib above tnc numcLrc:of cvery human being. - - - ~ D , &&g - M 7 [98] Say: " 0 People o~f thc Rc ,, ,,,, 0 - . /Why do you deny the signs of C o d ?God is witnessing all that you do." 1 ,& 4 G ,,. %>& & I d L I - [99] Say: "0 People of the Book! 1411~ you hinder the believersfrorn taking to the way of God frightening them of fanciccloustacles lying ahcad, whilc ----- YUUare perfcctly awarc (that t k1e pi~&&& W,/A 4 7 & / Ma/way is clear) ? And G.od is not - L~f.~*l;&fi&: ~rdless xvhat yo11 do." of le pcople 3ook, thc Q t ~ r Z anow turnr to rhe of the faiirl ul UI Islam and draw5 their attention t(- I I V ~ Y C I ~ rtain important issues of the faith: (1) Thc @r& points out that thc iniquities of the J C ~ V S and the Christians referred to in thc prcvious passagrs should open their cycs and offer a lesson for them. Should the Muslims follow their ways or let their lninds d by them, they will ;is! return t (> evil life. of faith unless you cling to God tenaciously an1d exprcs:i your faith in Him in appropriate action. - - . ( 3, Protect yourselves from internal dissensions ~ I L Us L v ( o . ) rival ry and be steadfast in your faith in Gocl. Do not :t that you were a clividcd pcople and that God ir graciousness has now wcldccl you into onc pcopl(: So do not disturb this unity. (4) Remember that a band ofpcoplc shoulcl rise fro1 77n.1to lead mankind to thc path c,r g""". -nnrlness anc; .n the ri ght and forbid the wror~g and kccp t h c ~le close Ito the pa!th of rightcousnc!SS.
  • 190. (5) Rifts in the body of religion are as fatal as rifts in the bbdy politic. The greatest ~vcakness the pcoplc oltllc of Book was that thcy disturbed tile vcry basis of their religion and divided thcmsclves into groups. I.ct the: h,luslirns beware of such a dcvclopmcnt among thcm- selves. [loo] 0 Ye ~v ie ! were gg.;J4$ ( Qr ;a .."ye to obey some of those whohave been given the Book, thcy a G,G> >fGd / J " 0 0 -.will turn you into unbelievcrsafter you have believed. ,,.. o~$~~l$$~9~ .,/0 . PA. [ l o l l And how can you retractyour faith when the messages ofGod are recited to you mW 4g99 p-1,j <4,,, 9 ,9,9 J/ 0 7 0..3 &and His apostle is still in your +p..dYJ&;&&$midst? And whosoever clingeth 6 * - ~ 9 q ~ 0 0to God, he indeed has entered on , , w , J Y u l[&&L.)&j& N V 6 ,the straight path. ,. ., C) Ire -who believe! Be regardf~God as He deserveth to be regarded >&@~~(~and die not except in a state ofresignation to God. , S 1. D ge E + ,; I F;J,>$ . . .." 0 :1 . [lo31 Arid hold fast to the cable of God, - -all ye together, and be not divided, 6 $9and remember Gods goodness toward.; Y ~you, that when ye were enemies,one of another, He united your hcartsin affection, and by His favour yebecame brethren; and when yc were onthe brink of a pit of fire, H e drew ye % rd?l<.7;s$.&i$ * , .back from it. I n this way, doth God makeclear to you His signs, in order thatyou may take to the right path. > : . . / ? J r / 4/ 3 9 + 9 / 5 p& 4 1 @&;G533&/:~ / " Pa # I
  • 191. [lo41 Let there be a band of people amon. G-fi@&fMfi;you who shall call men to goodness, andenjoin the right and forbid the wrong.And these are they who will be a formfbr progress. 93& l sw4~bm&5 . [I051 And be ye not like those WE 10 fell in,factions, and differed among themselvLa .a ." ;guafter clear signs had come to them. Andfor these awaiteth a severe chastise-ment. [I061 On the day of resurrection, the faces of those who have lived righteously shall " 9 p p ~ 9 c ~ ~ 9 49 / 7 y H q " ~ turn bright, a n d the faces of those who lived unrighteously will, in dread of 8 E U $ s 9 ? % > P 7 / / ythe awaiting doom, turn bl ack. And theywhose faces will have i u ~ r-i 2 u e black willbe questioned, "What! Did you retrac 9 - 3 u ~ 9 Y-, 9 / 13 & & ~ ~ ~ 9 /, /,A / ?. 1 ../-what you had believed i n ? Taste cltisement for having retracted." /,99/ 0 &fi2<1 u, 979 / a [I071 As for those whose.faces shall have turnedbright, they will live reposed in Divine 9+<799 9 9 9 9~ ~9 ~9 .+,-,./,graciousness : therein they shall abide. &T@~?~W!@+;G~ I [I081 These are the revelations of God! 99 b, 1 ../ / :recite them to thee in right form. And D- +Q +I %God doth not deal unfairly with His crea-tures. [log] Whatcver is in the heavens and whateveris in the earth is Gods! Ana to b o ashall all affairs be refcrrcd back. 1 . PI 1 ornu Z /1. 9 9390; :// *$.dL3 C r n - ~ ~ ~ 12 t 9799 9/2 11 $ r T h e Qurcn now ad dresses the immediate followers of the Prophet. It S L Y l I ; > +I. , V I I L L I ~ Wasnta or a middle o r model "&..l," LIICLIl TT,"I ~ ~ community, and points out that they.have been raised up to thli.join the right and Forbid the wrong. The ideal placed before them was not that of a community
  • 192. 176 .C;,>~I !J1k-7,J -I10 ~houlcl a ~ p i r c to 1 c militarily 1 stsongchr s o . I S I,, t l i c b ;lssumc thc dominant position of tlic~;itorsliil). litt~ ( . ~ I I . , ; ; ? )nden~ns arbitrary povcr :u~ldrc,g:~rds i l e , 11rgt~ ; I ~ ~ I . . I I I ( t !;)I. rnlcnt as r c p ~ ~ g n a n t t l ~ bcbst intc.rc.sts 01 Iir~nl.ini~yI I ~ II to <~ ;I ic establishnlcnt of pcb;icc ; ~ n d cqunlit!. ;llnolrs 1 1 1 ~ . 1 1 . 1 .. liphasis is on col1~~1i1.e goodncss acl~ic,.rtl thro11g11; I I ~ in- ard rcgard for morality and purity of thouglit ;111(1 li.i~ix 011 lc part of individuals. 1 con~munity insl>irc.tl I!,- such . i l l - leal -ill necessarily attain psc-c~nincncc, in lili. ;rntl .ill 1:ver fall a prey to thc tc~nptationof]>o.c.r, ~)~.itlt.. ;itit1 ~ . ; ~ c i ; i l ,,ggressiveness. The @ ~ r C u points out that tlic. Jcrvs ant1 t l ~ ( . (:l~l.i.;[i;~~ru .auld have played this rolc of ;I ~nocl(.lsociety il ;I ~il;~,iol-ity -"them had not givrn up !I,c spirit of faith and gooclnc~ssl l th(ir i ly-to-day activirics. Thr grcatcst opl)osition to t11(* (.;ill o K 111thhad come from thc Jews who, bccausc of their inirlui~ icx, ,,,id earned the displeasure of God and trcrc rcclucctl :it tli(% ~imc- to a slate of abasement in every part of thr tvorld. rl~(,!. xSrc. neither in a position to live on thcir own as in :1ral?i;l, I I ~ I . lvcre they politically a privilegrd pcoplc anywh(%rc. in t l ~ c : ;IS Pcrsian and the Roman Empires. Tho Q ~ r i i n th(~rrfbrc~ asks the Muslims of the timr not to lvorry seriously o.csr rllr opposition from the Jc-,is. They vcrc assured t 1 i ; i ~ t11r t i l l tvas not Fdr ofivhen w e n the little influcncc t l ? c y sc~rmrclI ci~joy Arabia would disappear. in Thc truth is brought home here that the: @ucirl loo1 clown upon political dependence of one communit! I I I X : ;unothcr. Thc Jcws were living at the timc as a sub~jc~cr I.;I( in the Roman Empire. Evcn in Arabia whcrc thry livc.tl i colonies of their own, they had ceased to bc ;L politic;~lc,ntit. [110] Ye (the immediate Sollowcrs of thvProphet) are a band of good pcoplcraised u p to be a model for mankind. 9 .p./ /.pp1/Ye enjoin the right and forbid the d+J+344i;2AroGwrong, and ye repose faith in God.And if the people of the Book had ,? * 9$d~,33&+q? gIb; , -T.H //?g Ir
  • 193. believed, it would surely havc hccn better for them. And of them, some there ar who no doubt arc belicvers, .: ( but mo st of them are perverse. [ I 1 1 1 They cannot inflict on you anything save a trifling harm; and if they ever d o battlc with you, they ~ 1 i l I , , 9 p ,r, F1I d o only to turn thci: back5 on you. They sl la11 then receive no help from anywhere. , ~ ~ J Y I - @ & [I 1 Ql TI-,.-. -L-l1l l L , covcred with ir 1 blln ~e wherever they are, except where they are promised protection, even which e ~ p d J M"5. ~ . -. , 7/ + 3 9 position is one of abasement. They have 9 &--~l&>d11* / . / 1 5 / G -9 increase:d the d ispleasure of God / / urn - and are covcrcd with disgrace, and &&~@“&l& this is 1 uccause they had not bclieved in the commandments of God and had slain the prophets for no rcason, and this because they had rcbelled and bec omc trar on ,the iniqui t-ies of the J t :ws and thc Chr. e QtuZn docs not mean to, sugg;est that I ~ ~ L Ldl~long them who were upri . 1 -1 vvblr. C crc rvcrc: ccrt- ainly s:omc am( Ing thcrn who were uprig also cnjoinccl the ri?;ht and t i~ r b a d c wrong and wci the ;ly cngag;eel in ,.-LU 0 dcvoti~,~l uod. ?11c numhcr of such pcop~cwas, nor(:vcl-, & . limited; a largc majority oSth:.~nhad lost thc spirit ol. fait h and action. Thc reputation of a n a ~ i o n ;~l.ays gocs by thc bc :h;ivi- our of thc majority of pcoplc a.mong them. Of course., among the people of the Book ~ v h oposscsscd the strcnf faith would assurcdly obtain the rcward of thcir good c The Divine law of rcturns docs not opcratc: only in favr particular communities. Its univrrsal opc:ration yir~ld.;a rcturn to cvcry one m.ho qun1ilic.s himscltfor it hy his L I ~ character.
  • 194. 178 r& - , ,1 Y & [113] .Yet are thc .all al"iKe. m n.ong the - - people a!&T& , . bsyOl c F 2 - *rq YG of tht:Book, t here are up- right persons who recite the t~&&% L! 1 9 +. -46j" 5 n - . word 01 ~ i o d during n i ~ h t hours and berid in ad( C. . Th ey bclic 114.1 - and the last Oay and enjoin t right and forbid thc wrong, a] are eager to do good. ~ h c s e a of the righteo US. [I151 An d whatc ver ~ O O1Cthey do shall by no m eans go unacknc @ &&&a$; - // A and God k n oveth tho se who ~ are righteous. [116] As for tho:;e wno 1 , not believed, neither thcir possessions, nor their children shall avail them against God. - These are the: compa: nions of Fire tc3 abide t herein. - - .. [I 171 WliaLL v L i S U C ~ C O P ~ C P may spend in thc life of thisworld is like that freezingwind which bloweth upon anddestro~eththe corn fields.They are a people who have been hurtful to themselves. God hath not done any in-justice to them; on the otherhand, they have been unjust to themselves Since the people or tne DOOK, even as irle x u awl, Lrlc p ~ y - theists of Mecca, are now determined to oppose violently the followers of the Faith, the latter are advised to be rather careful of their opponmts. They should not take any one of them into
  • 195. confidence. Their very words betray enmity and reflect that which is deep-seated in their hearts. Should the followers of - - - -. the Faith develop in them the spirit of steadfas t devotic3n to righteousness, their enemies can do no harm to them; 1nuch less shall they ever succeed against them. .. -31 0 ye who believe ! Donot rcpose confidence in any-one outside of your own circle.They will not miss any opportinity to harm you; indewill gloat over your suflings. Hatred is clearlyrnanifest in what they say.But what they conceal in theirbreasts is something morevile. W e have assuredly cafforc!ec 1 you c1.ear cauif only ye can understar.,. [119] Mark! Ye love them; but they love you not, althoughye believe in their entire Book. And when they meet you, theysay: "We belie re !" but when they are by thelllauvw, they swear at you in rage. Say: "Perish in your rage". God knoweth truly what is at work ir1 (their) breasts. [I 2!O] If anything good hzlppens to yuu, i r grieveth them, a m ... ..-...A LC $rLuilJ -...a -11en any- 99<P/// fl ?/<, thing untoward befalleth you, they rejoice over it. But if ye be steadfast and cautious, their guile will in no way harm you: verily, 7/ 7 9 97/ 79 9 9// God is well aware of what they do! bk+&$&+$La~.,
  • 196. T h e battles of Badr and ~ h a h prove that sriiccss attcnds only those who are steadfast in their faith who strenuously persevere in their resolves and abstain from things undesir;iblr. O n the occasion of the battle of Badr, the followers of thc Faith possessed both these qualities; so much so, that thcy dc- feated their enemy force, fhough it was superior in numbrrs. But on the field of Uhad, the followers of the Faith did not rise equal to the occasion, and failed in displaying the qualities which made for success. The result was that they suffered losscs and could not inflict a defeat on the enemy. Several important issues arising out of this experience call for attention: (1) At the time of Uhad, the general opinion amvng tlic followers of the Faith was to go out of the city to mect the enemy; but the hypocrites among them schemed against the proposition with the result that two of thc tribes declined to follow the rest. So they entered on :ir campaign with the spirit of r c [ed 1 the result was what it had to be. (2) However hardened in disbelief 0ne.s lollowers are, the leader a t any rate should not lose hope of th reform, but should continue to entertain the hope their receiving divine gracc and rorgiveness. I n the battle of Uhad the enemy repcatedly attacked the person of the Prophet and desircd to kill him. But the Prophet never wavered in his deep concern for their spiritual welfare. Notwithstanding the strain a n d suffering, he continued to entertain in his heart no thought other than that of thc rt id the SF~iritual welfare of his enemies. [I 2 11 And recall to mind the 9- 9 r Y rr 9 4occasion when thou did5t ! ~s*lfla>&jI)forth a t early morn from thome that thou mightest ~ A ~ L CLAC L Jw&,E&3gl / / 0 - 0 J
  • 197. faithful in their proper posi- tions in the battle field-and God is the Hearer, the Knower. [122] Remember how some of your men were on the verge of losing * & , hcart, although they knew that God was the protector of both. I t is meet that the faith- ful lay their trust in God alone. 05$gf$m41 19G 9 [123] (As you are aware) ~ o d & > j ~ ~ U 9 /+Or: 1 #< had already succoured you at Badr . a 9 4 *> 95, 6 "".vhen yo1 were in a miserable I. ! d1 , 2 & )Ik)light. Be mindful of Godt I..-*.---.- l YiV ~ may grow thankful! ~ U ~ 11241 0 Prc~phet!R.emember theoccasion when yc)U were Lthe faithful: "Is 11 IIVL cnough - - A &Jfgl&.w,u, - saying to ..//& ../ .. -for you that your Lord aidethyou (against the three thousand A & 4 &g o / J -men of the enemy) with three . . QaBar&thousand angels sent do1from on high. - -- [I 251 "Yea! But if ye nrsteadfast and be nnindful cIFGod, though the f oe come uponyou this very instant, yollrLord will help yo11 evenwith five thousan~ angels d A> A ~ f iin full array." @ y 3 & 4 [126] And God hath not J.reminded you of this except that 23 L ? 3 it should serve you as gocJtiding, and to let your h eartbe at rest. A? for help, J U $K&& ; .& , s;it cometh not except frolrGod, the Mighty the Wi [I271 Except also tk
  • 198. ~nigl~t disable a section of tE* ,73<:$ w;l~& disb~~lirvcrs humil iate then (Ir d. so that the-y might retrcat i fiu$tration. @E &.. >& [128] I t is no1ne of th concern (0 Prophet.) wheth turn to them (in ~ O-I-L-~,L-V.-,~ L C S S J " . .. , C -94 ,9/*dJ,/, 7 , . . . l 3 . $ ~ ~ . O f ~ , ~ & or (.hastise 1them-a Ithough / it is clear tkiat they arc the .- - . . - - . aggressors. [129] Vhatever heavens and the ear1 He forgiveth whom n e will, and whom He will, H e chastiseth, a n d f / 9 L /9/3<.= cr*++?J>sqc; /* ". -2 ? God indeed is Forgiving and 0 ye followers of the Faith! The blow that was dealt you on the field of Uhad must afford you a painful lesso Ir must bring home to you that you should cleanse yourselv~:, of all the impurities which have weakened your hearts. Of tlirse the greatest weakness is your inordinate love ol rnoney. So long as these exist in you the spirit of sacrifice f--- good cause will not arise in you. The Prophet of Islam had stationed a grc s followc . I -1 . on a. hillock. He had asked them not to budge rrom tne placc. - k t when the Muslim forces successfully withstood the on- slaughts of the enemy and the latter were falling back, the party stationed on the hill, barring tcn of them, grew restless in their tlcsirc to loot the spoils of war. So leaving their post of duty,I thay engaged thcmselves in loot. The enemy taking note of this,1 ridlied back quickly and took them unajNare. I was t l t/ incident which turned the victory of the M:uslims i to defea x The real cause for the defection of thosce stationed on tl -.1 hillock was their inordinate love for money. since tnepractlcc
  • 199. of usury in those days was an attractive means of increasing ones wealth, the QurEn, in this passagc, dwells on the evils of x.e7-y.multiplying of interest without end had proved U3U1 The a so1lrce of great hardship for the debtors, and since the credi? tors were not inclined to give up their interest, the order was -"".-..I ~ ~ I ~ S L by the QprEn that should the creditors desire to ~ u r i f v theii? hearts, they were to give up the interest due tc them. T h e Quriinic order was that they must relinq uish thei;r claim L- U -1 ----- L I I: absolutely. The battle of Uhad had de~rlur~s~rateu J 1 - -1. L.--L lacK of sf :If-discipline among the followers of the Faith. By issuing this order the QurEn desired to deve:lop in th.em the :sense of -.I,- , P 1 .1 _se~r-discipline and restraint. I t was very nara lor rnem to I "obey God and the Prophet in this respect. A T h e way to prosperity lies in cultivating righteousness. The 9 - Wran points out that the truly righteous are those who, Dotn ., . in a ffluent and straitened circumstances, spend in the way of God out of what God hath given them ,who cointrol their anger . , and who forgive others, and who repent tor any sin committed a n d seek for of God. L1 3UJ O Ye who believe!Do not practicc:usury, J-%A 4 / / , % 4 r /doublilng the in&rest ov.er and .-- f91ybbL I& I ,over a: ;sin. Bu t be mindfulof Goc1 that y :may F~rosper. c C1 311 And. dread the Fireprepared for the unbe lievers ! [132] And obey Giod and the~ ~ o s i that ye may b :blessed 1 le c z. / 3~ 9: @ CJyy [I331 AndI hasten 1Yr forgit ofrom your Lorc1 and foi7 a paracvast as the he;wens antd the .Earth ~ r e ~ a r e d those who A forare mi:ndful of God- &m,: " f ; 8 ! 1- d ~ ~ e + U, , & 11341 For those who give to / d 9 & , 9 9 d 9others, alike in affluent andstraiterled circi~mstancc and :s, a..
  • 200. 1 ,i.ho mastcr their anger, and M G~ g i v ot c ;ocl inclcc ~l~b~&t&~+,Wl~ - .+d,a . -GI&< -../ 0-J4 . 4 I I(~)vctllthc do good I r i 2 - . x u u )1110 havillx : . .. /1, L lJJJ Ltu111 Y . G. M a bare clvcd or :onlniitl( 4 >&ZO 3 wrong against th rir olvn P,,1 , , sclves, remember u v u Lllu implore f their sins forgive sill> U U L uuu L L I U I I C : - and who do not 1 ~crsist wilfully it1 any co ursc of lvrong act 1011. Pardon fr r Lord shall be . . -..- - - - -1 - - . . . . . thc:lr recunlpcnse anu garucr~s in which streams flov; thc shall they abide! The Qvriin points out that what had happcned was nothing peculiar to them. The Law of God always takes that coursc:. Those who conf~rrn the cliritctions of Gad always prosnc.r~ to and those who go agairl-t them perish. rhc battlc of 1 should serve as an eye-opener; but it should not dishcz them. JVha?. really matters in the struggle of lifc: is tnc: strength of faitlh. Should that b e gained , the en1d will al, ways be bright. 7 7 . . : 3 . The battle of utlaa had clearly uist~nguishcdbctwccn thosc who were sincere and those whlD were rlot. I t h.ad giver1 thc fjithful the requisite experience,, painful though it was. This experience did enable them to discard cvcry form 01 weak , . and prc:parc thc resolutc: and stead fast in momcn crisis. i 11371 And goodly is the w: of thosc who lab our. Mzmy wen . - , - the systems ~n torce Delore you. 3 , 39b<:<< J %pd b Y -<;,i,;y <
  • 201. Go about then in the land andsee what hath been the cnd of @Gal . g -- -.> SK; / / "those who disregardcd them. [I 381 Tliis is a manifesto tomankind and a guidance andcot~nselto those mindfulof( God. -. - - - L I S Y J And do not loscheart and be not sorrowfulfor if ye be men of faith,you shall surely gain theupper hand. [143] If ye have received a vvound(at Uhad) a like w ound ha.th beenrcc eivcd b) others (at Bad.r).I I T c: make t hese mo.ments gc) round long me]!I, that (3od ma:y know .o they 2ire who are menI of fnitE 1 that Hle may select from :ong you those who shall examplc: to others-an s d love th not the wrong-dc [I411 That Gob may ( through d rd trials) bring out. the rth of those whc are me:n of failancd expose: those ; ~ O N are not. Mere lijp profess,ion of faith will not give you thc: blessings l d good results that nati )w from sinccrit!J in filit!l. -- Liccess dc:pends on steadf: 1 the fie1d of acti on. 114" 0 Muslims! Think yr tlnatyou would enter Paradise tYsimply avowing your faith &$lg&&, .. . ,;-a. / / / 7 ,.a,f/ 9: 1 /- -WY"~?Pand without proving a+>&? "E3before God which of youhave struggled hard in Hi:
  • 202. ne and have endured ? %dfastly [I431 You hacd yearn ed fordezith in t h cause of God, Ze... h .. . -.,Ale you were still in ~ e d i n aand made much of your wish to ~dfgy~~ , / 99,?9/99, r/ / / 9 99 ? I?come out of Medina and face @ ~ 3 + ~ 3 5 ~ 1 ,&the enemy, U U L IIt that you I -3w 0are faced w~ i t h :h, you are deatsimply daz, ed. The things that matter in religion arc L I ~ Cprincipks arlu ILllC values of life which it upholds, and not the personalities wrho. expound it, however high placed. A personality is of importarice .. . - onlv as one who expounds a principle of life, or shows ---4 --- t:he way to truth. We cannot tur.n away from tr, uth siml?IY tbecause t he person directing our a.ttention rbsent frc3m --.. --. -. !-1 . is Decause or rne rrurn one . 1 . -_-.LL- our mxasr or has ceased to exist. Ir I sponsors that we recognise his personality. Truth jis not trtlth simply because some one says it is truth. I t is so, on its o.wn merits. In the battle of Uhad, someone f lad raisecd the alarm that the Prophet of Islam was killed. Man y of his 1followers felt highly . . depressed on hearing this. Some oi them exclaimed that there. ,was no good in fighting on any further. Indeed, some of them who were not sincerely attached to the Faith openly asserted that a true prophet can never be killed o n any battle-field. The Qi~rZnrefer:s to this developlment in this passage. The Prophet of Islam was in(leed a Enessenger of God and it is ... .. evident that even like all other prophets, he was to pass away from this world. So, if he were to pass away, would they whc had believed in him till then, give up the path of truth as if the love of truth was not for its own sake but for the sake of a parti- cular person. If he had died on the field of Uhad, would the love of God which they professed also die out? O n theother
  • 203. hahd, if they were fighting for the cause o then, th; .. truth held good while he would be no more even as 11 nela 1 I good while he was alive, and would hdd so always as Trut h. [144] Moharnmad is no morethan an apostle. Apostlesbefore him have pass$ away. / -zJ,~% " @ ,9/ / w~;If he die or be slain, willye then turn on your heels?And he who turneth on hisheels, shall not in the gJ"~s; - ,-., - - 0least injure God: and Godwill soon reward the grateful. I [145) No one dies except t Gods leave. The hour xed. He who desireth $KGhis reward to be of thisworld, that We will give $jbsPw&l J: pL /d 4 @/him; and he who desirethhis reward to be of theworld to come, that will W give him; and t swiftly will rardthe grateful The trule believer is he who does not get disheartened wlhen facec1with hardships, or ~ i e l d sto tyranny. The Qyr6n asserts that such a person never loses heart, nor shows any WIeakness on the b d, nor 1 lys downI his armIS in abject 2 hl~mility. [146] Many were the prophets ,, L U % 9 w &~&~&dl$; 9on whose side fought a large 4 ,0,gW ,p&b&f&$? 4 4number of godly men, and theylost not heart because of what ,t9< JI ,. *, @ ,pHbefell them in the cause af God. bb9l&3/d*Lr //Neither did they weaken nor did
  • 204. . .they 1T l V C bl1,-those ~ . h o,cnl h stead-rastnc SS- [I371 :Yo r, vhcnpressed hard by trialtribulations d id they s tiing cxc . - .this: "0 Lord! f0rgi.ius our sins and anythin //. , / ,499 9 ,9 7. ,/done in any of our a( LbJJkgjLl,@k; 9and set our feet firm and / // / 9 9 4 / , ,/<.help us against the un- ~~~~~~~~~~~~I~believing folk." [148] Then God hcm arclurn appropriate tolife of this world, ancc:xcellcnt return appropriate ; ~ ~ 9 % r //.pi ~ 9 9 l V ~ + 9;. / ", 1,; , 9 ~?J+$+L-LW 7to the life of thc Hereafter. dl>A I ~ C I GO^ lovrth those W ~ dogood. O ., 6 F,U~G- r t r cnelnic:s 01 )our Faith, in your present. rrl sta[ct, uld likc ) 7 0 ~ . i1:o fcel tired of your pursuit 1 , and so . . . the). try to ovcr-awe you by reciting to you wilcl storics ol-t t 1 c . i ~ strength. But if you remain steadfast, a n d lay your trust on Divine help rather than on any human strength or aid, you .... . !ill find that the d a y is not 1a r off wlhen thc t ill brgin lo tremble at the ve,ry thous;ht of yo u. Those who have bcforc tltlrm no serious c born ol aincerc bclicfq can h avc no h igh resol VfS rou5ccl in thcm. T h i s is a privilege especi: illy reser vcd for t hose w ho are attachcd to ~ truth. And whenev cr a bocl y of wc :ak-mincled pcuplv comc: out into tll e field against a peoplc: inspirc:cl by I iith ant1 con~viction,they ne vcr ove:rcome, Idcspitc their po m p and POI,ver, the bclievin~ folk. Such was thr situation at the time of the advent of thc QjirC)~
  • 205. when a small band of its followers had to colltcnd against a- huge body ictors. But however few in number ancl howcver po xrces, they had the strength of their belieG and c o n v i c ~ ~ v r ~ ssustain their spirit. The rcsult was that LO t hc: multiti abia had evcntually to yield to the:m. [I491 0 ye who believe!If you pay heed to whatthe unbelievers say, theywill cause you to relapse (into t ,9 ~ 9 4 9 4your old ways) and you will @&&lJ&_bi;[;;? / / / H I then turn losers. [I501 Mark! I t is God v.is your liege Lord, al:td Heis the best of helpers ! [151] Anon, Vt : shall c dread into the hearts of those 1 1 who have not believeu, Decau! they have associated others with God for which H e hat11 issued no sanction; and Fire shall be their abode--and s,y3waj$ vile this dwelling place of I., ,r seducers ! The hypocrites are frightening you by reminding you of tllc ll;~ppcnings Uhad so that you should no longcr muster cour- at ;I!:(: t o cngagc with the e n e n ~ y once again. But you know ~vcll .II;I 1 c:x;tctly happened at Uhad: Even on that occasion, tllc .ic.(ory was on your side as had been promised by God. I n 1111.1 I llc: c:nrmy had fallen back. I t vas only what you did at- I 1 1 1 . c . l . i t ical 1no.ment by disobcjring the order of the Prophct I I I : I I !:.;~vc. wrong impression to the hypocrites among you. ;I 7011 11.1i 1111- post of your duty and turned to gathcr booty. 1111 ( . O I I I . S I 01111(: battle took a different turn and you clid not ; ~ t . l ~ i t . . ( , I I I ~ : SLICCCSS that was anticipated. So what eventually
  • 206. 190 rd w, JG~ happened was not due to the strength of the enemy or their nurn be]:s of whic:h the hy pocrites frightcnl O n the other hand, t he result: such as it was, was due disobcdicnce and we,akness c)f heart. You should never lcel cowed down by the enemys strength and numbers. What you should do is tc cultiva te and develop in you the spirit of stcadfast endurarIce. lark! TIle fact is that , .. And IT TT.Goa aia lnaeea Keep HIS promise ofsuccess to you so long as you were gengaged i n puttin, down the enemyin accordance w ~ t hHis directionstill you blenched and began todispute among yourselves about theorder whether they should stick tothe post which they had beenordered to guard, and eventuallydisregarded the order of the Pr~p;rkLand this at the moment when thtprospect of victory was in sightand you were shown that (booty:for which you had a traditionalliking. For among you therewere some who desired this worldnamely the spoils of war, andsome who desired the next byremaining steadfast and court-ing martyrdom. 1 order totest you, He diveyour attention from them so as to give your victory the iof defeat. Yet hath He forgiven you; for God is indulgent to the believer! 11531 Remember the occasio:when the Prophet was from the
  • 207. rear calling you, and you were rushing up the heights taking no heed of any one! Then, you had to go through trial after trial that you might not &$$yJS, .. , , *#d/Nb.. M hereafter rue the loss of any- &;b$LLy3&k thing or bemoan over anything that might beiall you. God is aware of what you do. When a large body of Muslims began to run away from the field of battle in a perplexed state, the Prophet who was surrounded by a few loyal adherents cried out: "Creatures of God turn to me! Creatures of God turn to me! Wither are you running away !" I t is to this incident that the QidrEn refers in the following passage. Those who were sincere in their loyalty to the Prophet but were at the moment in a state of alarm, consequent upon the new development among the Muslims, suddenly realised the danger in which the Prophet was placed and straightaway fell upon the enemy and not only drove them out of the field, but pursued them till they reached Hamara-Al-Asad, a place eight miles from Madina. But those who were either timid or secretly disloyal to the Prophet lagged behind to save their lives. They saw thereafter that they were not responsible for what had happened. I n fact they even bragged that had i t been the wish of God to give them victory, what happened would certainly not have happened. The Qurin, however, points out that such thoughts .do not occur to those whose hearts have been truly enlivened by the teachings of Islam. I t states that victory lies always with God. H e just grants it to those who are staunch in their faith and abstain from evil. Even as the success on the field of Badr, the temporary set- back on the field of Uhad also served as,a lesson for the follow- ers of the Faith. I t is not enough that one who is practis- ing running should acquire the capacity to run smoothly. H e should also learn how to resume his steadiness after clearing
  • 208. 192 ~34 -J %LC:obstacles or on having a fall c The bntilc 01 ikitlr 11;~s-1- - - . .-SIIWWII hov stcaclv cndcavour nlcc:L> lth good rc~v;rd. Thc and the tidings of divinct aicl to lollovhad cr :Is of thc followers of thc Faith a ccrtain .amount ur i I l ~ 1 l i ~ ~ ( : ItoC the rcalitics of lifc; SO ~nucll that- - - - l ~ sothey had bccomc complacent and thought that, cndcnvouror no endeavour, succcss was .their portion in lifc. Suchmcntal lapses do nlanifcst themsclves very oftcn aftcr the firstround of success, and that is a very dangerous turn in lifc. .The:inevitable result is that men bccomc proud and ncgligcnt, andin the fitness of things this tendency has to bc art-cstcd. So:he battle of Uhad had to makc it clcar to the Muslims thatthe divine promiseof succcss always held good and wasthcrefor them to enjoy. So every moment in life is subject to ccrtainlaws peculiar to every action, and these produce good resultsonly when one conforms to them. Any body of people whochoose to neglect these laws dcny to themselves in conscqucnccthe benefits of their operation. That was why the Muslimshad alrcady been forewarned of this law of life. The temporaryset-bat: at Uhad was to cleansc the Mx[slim mir~d of the dross kthat klad corn e to clog lt. Thc &~ir En points 01 . i that a true be:licver is he who is not ~afraid of death. H e does not falter a t the thought of dcath.He knows that it is unavoidable for a living being and that itis part of his function in life to welcome it in the way of truthor of God whi.ch surel.y is the road to divine protection andapprobation. O n the othe:r hand, thcy wh.o laugh .t those who sacrifice:their lives in the way of God and brag that thcy would haw:been better off had thcy not followed that way, arc thc pcvplcwho have indccd denicd thcrnsclvcs the grace of Faith. Thcyseem to fancy that death faces onc only on thc battlc-fic:ldand that those who stay at home are to have no dcath. I t isto these aspects of life that thc aurE?z draws our attcntion in . llowing. vcrscs.
  • 209. [154] ter t!:is tribulati God caused calmness to descend up them, and the senee of szcurity seized a section of you while . >eg*ab;lr / another section who were self- obsessed indulged, in sheer ignorance, , in unmeaning suspicions against , ,, , u & & ~ ~ , C ,, ,, ,,, , God. They said: "Did we have any voice in this affair?" Say : "Verily the affair rests entirely with God" I n fact, they declare not to thee what they have hidden their hearts. They only sa! 07/-. , , p 9 ~ I - . "Had we had anv voice in this L &( u .b , G $ +. $ 0 affair, none of us would h ave 4. 79 . 9 ;3uJ*b(illu,*9 3 00 been slain here". Say: "Ev en p&4$< ,/ were you in your homes, tho , fly31G,W&!g who were destined to be sla: would surely have gone fortt .Lu gg&,zj$ d the places where they now lie. And (all this has happened) that "p $ < lg & & d; God might make manifest what was in your bre;asts and to purijfy your ,.- 4 9 d f &lw5wd $,9s, ,/ / hearts." Anld God Iinoweth what th~e &.2 4~ &>Ocls& ----- breasts harluul-. [I551 Truly it was Satan who, advantage of some of their doings, @&&l ~~~~~~~~ had sought to make those of you to @ ? s i , fail in duty who had turned back on / the day when the two hosts :met. Bult -- - God hath pardoned them; for . b o a is 9~ 1 1 - 1 1 y3z& &~ y. For! ?iving, Forbearin &&z$ 2 a i SEC thos . 1 ye whc believe! Be not: like l:"L,.l:--.* W l l U U.l" l~.. . .--a IU I -. .I WIlU, .- 11. L C ,s- .- . .a , ? [ ,r* I ! ... ypj&J@t " Z
  • 210. pcct of thcir brcthrcn who had goncon travel in the land or had been c r & ! ? j 3 - 3 33 /, . ~ & .,1 .; q$ ~, * ,.,gaged in fighting, say : "Had thcy sl;lycdwith, us, t hcy would not h a w died or ? kJt J,[~+*pO . ! :been slain", in order that God migllt z,$Lqy? , . r r ~ 7 +* ,rouse (in you) regrets like thosc they , J#L L&+$~>L~;sentertain in their own hearts. It is + 7 H , 9 4 ,,,/ / 3,i+ - dM ,God who causeth to live and causethto die; and God seeth all that you do. [157] Should you be slain or dic i n .&, 9 , 9 ",.. . + /? " 3 :.A$ /*f, / 9the cause of God, (then the reward) ofDivine protection and mercy,surely, shall be of grcater -%;T&,G~WS A /-z , 5 3 " value than what they had hoarded UP. 6 . c ~ Jv ~ $1G,ap-1 Tp / 7 , @&s& [158] And whether you die or bc slain, to God shall ye be gathered! e&;~&-jpj&R~r7~ , 3 - $3; , / I n this connection the curdn addresses the P r o ~ h c t to draw his attent ion to t.he function of leadership (1) I t is a ~ ~ L > W (V;I ~ , I God that you are by naturc g and tender-hearted. Had it bcen otherwise, pcoplc would not have bcen drawn to you and thcy would not have developed such strong attachment to you. (2) Some of your follo~rcrsbetrayed serious wcakncss on the field of Uhad. But it becomcs your gcntility ant1 forbearance to forgive them. (3) Your procedure in matters of PI eacc anc1 war shou!d not be to decide on anything excer)t in con5iultation with those who are competent to advise. (4) The procedure may take this form. First, hold consul- tations and then make up your mind to dccidc on somc- thing definite. Once you are rcsolvcd in your mind on anything, stick to it with firmness. Consultation at the proper moment is necessary, and resolution at thc proper moment is equally necessary. The qucstion of
  • 211. resolu1:ion or decision does n jnsultation is over. but oncc ri thinc is definitelv ~ G X J I V C in mind. ~,~ " ~ not:hing shc allowed :ct you from yo1 restolution. 11591 I t is part of divine mer that they are to deal with one SO soft-hearted as thou art. Wert thou h ar.sh in spleech or , c~f hard heart, they i ,, SJ&<? / WOiild haw: broken. away from thee; so, &b~@g&,,&5/- --..I par-don them, ana also ask for them -- 9 -9 $, $ $b, - y.?<7 999, divrine forg iveness and consult them in matters of importance, and whe~ thou arc resolved on any course (g byA, ah1tad) and trust in God, for, God lovceth those who lay their trust ( iI~Him). [I601 If God helps you, none ca.n overco you. But, if He forsakes you, who is it z ~fla~$&3&c . then who can help you thereafter? I n ,9/4 0 9 9 t 9 , # God then Let the faithful place their t r u s t _ d ~ 3 & 5 c r ) ~ * k ) !41r7gnnow addresses the I V L U J I I I I L J . LLlla them that : Prophe:t takes Icounsel of them before deciding on tny line of actio~ it shot~ l d 1, behove them to obey him impli- LALLY. u? .:+I%, ~ r isi the ~ .Ah-. + I I "f God. I t is impossible for a prophet .-,. V ~ n ~ L of God, who offers guidalncc to Glods ci-eatures, e:vcr to play false with them. T h e wa.y of life of the uritru thful is so fund- a m e n t a l ~different from L1lL w a y of lifc-t.Ul *I.- .L l ~ t h f ~ l , LILb . t that there is a bsoluteljr no charIce ofmistaking the one fo: the 0ther. r However* pious the outw, ard bearing of a wicked person, his I*,,:.., ,e . He will certainlv do something .. pose can -0.rn.. r LILLblVL m 1or other inadvertently which will assured1 expose: him. .y How (:an one who draws the iattention. of his f bllowers to the way of God, who explains tcl t hLnl lm t . Lll l L V ,,,,Im ~ ~ ~ ~ A, LLJ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~f God and the purposes; underlying divi:nc injunmctions, a nd who exerts hims elf to pilrify their hearts, ever fail in his a,, ,,A Junction as a leakcl allu play false with t h ~ l7l ~ ; . ,
  • 212. [I611 A prophet never plays false. Alldhe who shall play false shall bring G;b$:J@,&gL; ewith him his earnings on the Day ofResurrection. Then shall every one c@ $GL;,-+ymbe paid in full what he hath worked , A 3 < 9 9 *,9",%for, and none shall be dealt with wQ&J &d9+unfairly. @ Gay9, z t P r gGod to be placed on the same footingas he who hath drawn on himself the faT [162] Is he who seeketh the pleas1Jre of &@,@$displeasure of God and whose abodeshall be Hell?-and how wretched L;L;&~~; //the abode! @Mie, - / "b! [I 6:31 Thest: vary ir1 rank in the estima- -- -. - .t ~ o n >,,A ~.-.-A ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C ; ~ d i ~ a / w ta r e o @ a ~ /l * 9~ o G /gl b d j f ~ ~that they do. &$&I> &-vJ># [164] God was indeed gracious to the faith-ful, when He raised up for them an apostle @ zwwqout of their own people, who rehearses &-gJ$&$ato them His revelations, and reforms / .J 33. ,them, and instructs them in the Bookand its objective-and hitherto they ~,3y!&,~. j1 9 , 9 9?/were in a state of rank ignorance. G b -,. & W & ! 1 I / The battle of Uhad was a decisive factor in cxposing the hypocrites who used to intermingle with the faithful followcrs of the Prophet as if they were one with them. O n this occasion, the veil of hypocrisy was lirted. From beginning to end, from the time when consultations were being held tofight thc enemy, even till after the battle was over, there was harclly an occasion when the hypocrites did not try to create disaxection among the rank and file of the faithful. When thc majority view among the faithful was to go out of thc city and fight the encmy in the open, the hypocrites tried to prevent them from taking such a step as their alternative was to stay in the city, which meant that arrangements should be made to defend it. So, when the hypocrites were asked what measures should be
  • 213. ~ K C I I1 0 aeIenu I.-- ---,, they oyerea aiverse excuses on t--- round that they did not expect any fighting at all. Else th lrould certainly have agreed to make the necessary preparatio 3r defence. This was their attitude before the battle of Uha lut what was their attitude after the battle hhiclI, throu; he defection of a party among the faithful, was rlot quite .. .. ictory? They conceived of fresh mischief. Sometimes tn-, aid that the result was due to an utter disregard for t dvice they had offered. Sometinies they said that no use1 wrpose would be served by frequenr nghts and that safe ,. . ay in reconciling with the enemy. Their only PIlrpose u o create diffidence and dejection in the minds of the fait ul and reduce them to a state of indecision and inaction. -. nay be stated th at while retreating from the field of Uha he enemy had a.nnounced that they would come back a b . - ight a decisive battle. So, in the following year, the Musli~ wepared themselves for another battle and, in fact, car but of the city to meet the enemy. But it so happened tt he enemy was not to be found. They had not the coura o stir OLI t :of Mecca. So the Mu:ilims, ha ving carnped for ~ ew days outside Madina, .returned to the city elateld in spiri 2..t lur n. , .n vL.l on this occasion, the IiypuLIL L D V Y l l U I V Y L ~ ~ leag in vith the Ienemy, tried to create all sorts of mischief among t ~ u s l i m sby spreading false stories about the comparatiive +ro- I1cllsL1l , * . of the enemy calculated to depress the faithful. T!LC. -I ,I.., LurZn refers in the following ve: rses to t hese tactics of t he iypocrites, and announcc: that u~nlesstlzley desist from th cir s :vil pursuit. their veil oi ,.l Y p " t , l l , Y :-.,.,Will be taken off th a. r, . I l : I 1 , . aces. LLUJ1 1 v ucll a u u c l u l s w a a Laua~d YOL to Uhad, Jrou forgc)t that you had caused ice as m uch to t he foe at Badr, and 9/. L - - - .- -- -*-:---Iu ,vet y o u c x ~ l a l ~ r ~"Whence is this?" c &+%I- --&. Prophet! Say to these people, t is what hath been brought W,~Z you by your own selves, since
  • 214. 7 9 you fell into a lapse and disrege-ded the orders given you by God. Had vnll ~7 ~ ~ 9 1 / / 7 4 but obeyed these orders, you woul $-&&I&L @~@cp not have brought on yourselves th suffering. Verily, God hath powerover all things." [I 661 What befell you on the day when the two hosts met, was certainly by thewill of God, in order that He migh 6&.&PImake it known who were the truly 11 ~ e ~ ~ 11671 And when they (the hypocrites) hadbeen told: "Come ! fight in the way ofGod or defend yourselves," they had gl& ?: $ &7 I. a$$ 1jGanswered: "If l v c are certain that 3 > ( +&&3j4d; & * PS //$ / 7 X 79 " / r 14 * / pthere will be a fight, we wiltainly follow you." Neareithey that day to faithlessness than / p t / A p YP:, /to hithfulness! What is on their @ I b l C& &a,lips is not in their hearts. But Godknew what they had concealed. ,g < [168] They who had stayed a way spol .their (slain) brethren : <Had they liS-tened to our counsels, they wouldnot have been slain." Say: Keel backdeath from yourselves, if ye speak rthetruth." t3 l L J -7 I ,. .cause of Goa as aeaa. n a y ! a w e are tney, . ri 691 And do not reg: trd thosc:slain it1 the . (L V .with their Lord, well provided with sus- $ /J-A7.09 f ,. u.-tenance, @ c ; , Y j ~ ~ ~9 +/.- ~m F 3 ; ,. f170J Rejoicing in what God hath vouchsafed gedJ44~L*3 , . 9 D D It-$, ,7 &&;msw - A ,to them in His graciousness, and feelinghappy a t this that on those who are left .. fl , *behind and. have nc~t :let joined thefear shall (:ome nc)r grief. p /99/Y 1 [I711 They are filled with joy at the favoursof God and a t His bounty and (at the know- / * */ @ / t ~$9 9. 3 k - 9:YY 4 c? * 1% > ~ 2 ? ?
  • 215. ledIge) that (::od doth 1not allow the wageof the faithfi11 to go tc) waste. [172] F 3r those wlho responded to the call cof God and LUG ~ ---*I u ~aftere the reverses &I . , . A lp t~that befell them-for t hose who actedrighteously and were :mindful 01 f God,there shall be a great r.eward. [I731 W hen men siiid to these, "They (the enemy) dj#&gJ& /have musterc:d strong against you:. so beware . . .of them,. it only increased their faith,and they saic1, "Sufficil s is God,the Excellent Protector &l gk J @s ;$ j 3 & ; [174] T;icy I c r u l u c u L I I C ~ C I U L C W I L I I U I C I I ~ I I ~ ~and favours from God, untouched by any 1and they abided by what was well pleasing 9/.# &34& . w -47 9 /?, 9to God. And great is the munificence ofGo was none but SatarI who hat1 ".. j&m1sai~laffrighted you ot his adherents;wherefore feiir them nlot but feiMe, if ye be men of fai th. The Divine scheme of things is so devised that good and evil, truth and falsehood, justice and injustice, are allowed to oper- ate, and the divine principle of mercy is to give the utmost latitude to either of these contending forces. The struggle sihould not depress I; IS. What we have to mark is the result, 1.e. which Iof the two eventually gets the upper hand; and you 1 ill find tliat right iilways prevails in the end and wrong is .. . vanquishec [176] LC not thcx;e grieve t hee who :t - . - . - . -- ..hasten towards ~nhdel~ty. Verily,no harm can they ever do to God.
  • 216. 200 Y !& $y 9 P 1 -q 99%God desi&th not to provide forthem any share in the life of the $ !J 1=g~~~r 4 / ,9// / + / /PI 9; 9Hereafter: and for them shall be IE;?.I*~IA!+~,~@a great chastisement. e9b;@~a,$ [177] Truly, those who purchasc un- "faithfulness at the price OF F~ith-fulness shall not hurt God in the m il e q t ; and fdr them there shall Ea,g$(.JLgL " , .,* .. @ rbe a painful chastisement. @ ) / ~ ~ [I781 Let not the unfaithful imagincthat the respite hTc give them is +,p ?/ , &,j +* / m-9;good fbr them! Ye give them rcs-pite that they may increase in ~ y ~ Ta$:;2,aJ$ //sin; and for them there shall 9&$+sa;be a shameful chastisement. / The hypocrites have by now been givcn ample rcspiic. T l ~ t - time has come to discriminate the faithful froin thc unl;iillllr~l. I t is certainly not the way of God to single out thcsc hypocri((.s one by one. He who docs not desist from the rnisc111t.l he is engaged in, will find his cry mischicf at thr p mome nt discIc!se 11i.s i( tity. len & > $ r$,2 * / /ful remain in the state in which thcyare; H e will sift the bad from thegood. Neither is it the way of God todisclose to you what is kept in secrct. ~~~~~~~~ [179] I t is not in God to let thc fr~ith- , , / %!, &,& L3b H +- , -Y .. 9 / ,994 / /But God chooseth whom He will of Hisapostles to know it. Believe there- / , *,&k Y$ 70.fore (ye hypocrites in God and His ~IGC;~"&apostles; and if ye may yet bclievc J >IJ ! L 33 , land are mindful of Him, then shall c , U J , , 9 9, I ~there be for you a great reward. - @j)&pJlfi / 4; & I t was a trying task f o r t h e hypocrites ~vho, part o r dis- as cretion, had accepted Islam to contribute to thc war ILIr i d
  • 217. A L-I-IA.IRAS 201 or spend anything in the cause of God. Themselves niggardly, they ind uced 0th y niggar l Qm rLV"J L -- Let not thosc $vho are niggard 01 9what God hath v ~uchsafed to thc:m it1 c 1 3 ) C J - = Y ? ~ ~ ! ~His bount! r think t hat it will bring $@&%MIL vthen1 any t eood. Kay! I t will augu.r illfor them. That which they have ;stintedshall soon turn into a halter round i;heirnecks on the Dav of Resurrection. Allthat the h :avens a nd the e arth con cis Gods. A~ n God is well a7 d ivare of atliat 17e do ! Having dealt .vith the doubts raised touching the engage- ment at Uhad, the QzlrY&now turns again to address the people of the Book, and announces the triumph that a ~ a i t ~ its th mission of truth. The turning is but natural since the admcmi- tion afforded to the hypdcrites through the passages ab, ove tIras in reality addressed to the people of the Book from wh.ose ranks most of the hypocrites coficerned h: ld been drawn. T h e early stage in the proplictic mission, :as in ever.y other nnis- sion c ~ ~ g a g e d the propagation of truth, was marked by ad- in ~ ~- ~~ versity and lack of funds; and f ~ ~ n were required even in thc ds propagation of truth. But tllc hypocrites among the faithful,. nlostly of Jclvisll origin, did not like giving contributions 10 .- the fund mission. They expressccl surprisc that C;od sliould b c 1 of money, and that so frequently, and used to exclaim, --rlavewe any, imnleas~lrable wcalth tliat vcslio go on sq uanderirig it without end?" The c ut incident: z n refers he:re to thf : love of money which seemed ingrained the very nature of the Jews and to the fact that it was c this lo^Je of mloney thzit they had o p ~ S ~issiona1~d even assassin; ated many a prc
  • 218. //./ [18 1J God hath surely heard the ~vord,taunt) of thosc ~ v h o said when approachedfor contributions in the causc of God,"So! God is indigent and we are rich." - 2 . 7 fjbyr> / - 9Anon, Ire will record what they havesaid, and t l1c fact o their unjust slaughter fof thc Prophets, an(I Mre will say : "Taste :ye thc ~ha.s~~,~..,,,,..tthe Fire- .+>rrrrnnn of . / // 4.399 9P-7: +l&y3 J , j 9 w - % w , / s/ // 4- i. [I 821 This, [or what your hands have scin advance! For, verily, God doth not- I - 2 1 uniustly with His servants." J .. 1 T h r Lcwish . scribes of Mcdina b i n g failed in a11 tllcil t,tctics to thwart the mission of the Prophct, rcsortcd to embarrassinq the Propllet by asking hinl to pcrfor~n miracle-- a the sacrifice known a ~ n o n g .Jews as Burnt Sacrifice. Thcy - the said that they vould accept him only when hc iuccccdcd i l l doing it. This sacrifice is described in Leviticus 1 :9 in dctail. Thc fire to which the sacrificial animal was consigned ..as rcprt~senied sent dovn from heaven. Referring to this t radi- as tional ritual of the .je~-s, (luriin asks thcm: Evcn ~c-hen the such burnt sacrifices Ivcrct offcred by theiruror,hct.s, why did 111cy kill the111 ~vilfully? [I831 T o thosc ~ 1 1say: "God hat11 ochargccl us that we bclievc notin any claiment to prophethoodiintil he brings us ail offeringvhich a fire (from heaven) shallconsume." Say: "Already have apos- ~,~8~&x~@@ 4 /tles come to you before me withclear signs and .it11 that of which>.on speak. IVhercfore then didyo11 slay thcm, if ye be men oftruth?" [I 841 Thcn if they dixrcdit thcc, do 9 9 9 4 d 9 7 / 0 / < 9 /not lose heart, for apostles be- &~+,+c3;hjd9.&b ,
  • 219. .~1,-1-1311<.~~fore thee have been equally cliscrcditcda1thougf ame .it proofs ,and scri .nd thc .tins 4law. Thc low turn!; to tlie follovers thcm ot the situation in which they are placcci a t thc vs their z to the fact that the pcoplc ofthc Book, J , the Ch and the Jews, and thc infidel Arabs arc IIICL.IIL rr- " 1 1 ~ . mlsslon. They arc subicctinc then1 . . 11 U ~ L I C L L I I I ~ l ~ e i r rr.."er ry form of persecution. But they :ill ha ey are to triumph in thc cnd; and t r i u m ~ "h steadfast cndurnncc and strict abstcntic,~lI I U J I L evil thcmght an~d deed. The people of the Book have been cnjoincd .,-L L I > -A:---I ~ I I Saliu LC) i cqard it their duty tu - ..tach ancl ul I I ~ LUU L-- - -1 ..A. , - pl - - A. < its teac:hings. Elut they havc fallen into wrong ways and havc disreg; lrded thceir coverlaxit with God. lthat is strange about thein i:. r Li- LLI ..C still pride themselves to be "the Pcoplc of tllc --- j La L rL L I . . -L!ll ~ Book," a n d expect the world t o .praise th em for w,hat they havc not done and to do ~vhicht h r y do no t possess thc rrq ujsitc A- 1 -.- ,~ ialeilr. Jentally, 8 - an warn: olcers of the Fait 11 not to devc:lop the ; ntioned s of the people c)f thc n 7 ] Every onc sha.I1 taste c ,, Fyou snau recelve your lull recorr-IIense on ly on th e day of Resurrc mt ion. H e who is savecl fro. Fire a . ..is lea into Paradise has attainedSuccess- ,And the life of tl>is world1s nothin g but a] illusor!y asset! n I 18bl - ., .. ...,-.- - Assuredly shall ye oe tcstca t ~ y . 3 . he loss c)f your 1 : 1s and y our "j, ives, an(1 yc sha ~ u b theaLirom those who were glven the Book . r . - 46;723&4~ /
  • 220. When this truth takes hold of ones mind. the s ~ i r i within 1 t ~ - him is charged with a love of dc:votion t.o God; so much1 SO, that he bows his head in humi:lity, and. he asks of God his 8 mercy and forgiveness. Nay of God is that He never I bod deed1 go :ed. A good deed never soes to 3, those .who ., . .., 1 Iace and bear with steadfastness tne [rials ana t r l ~ ~ u ~ a a n n s . crossing their path of life, surely will not go un-re J :-:-. [I891 And to God belongeth u -.--l i ~ ~ iuvcr LI o~r ur~heavens and the earth and God hat1I power ~ v e r (all things. [I901 Verily, in the creation b u$ygu /I4 lplof the heavens and of the earthand in the alternation of night &~Nw&&&!, 7 hand day are signs for those giftedwith understanding, [I911 IVho, standing, sitting creclini