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Masah on socks Document Transcript

  • 1. Published by: Madrasah Taleemuddeen
  • 2. Title: Masah on socksPublished by: Madrasah Taleemuddeen 4 Third Avenue P.O. Box 26393 Isipingo Beach 4115 South AfricaTel: +27 31 902 9818Fax: +27 31 902 5681Email: darulum@alhaadi.org.zaWebsite: www.alhaadi.org.za www.ihyaauddeen.co.zaFirst Edition: Rajab 1428 / August 2007Second Edition: Zul-Hijjah 1432 / November 2012 2
  • 3. ContentsViews of leading Ulama .................................................................... 6 Shaikh Moulana Ni`matullah A`zami (daamat barakaatuhum) – Ustaaz of Hadeeth, Darul Uloom Deoband .................................... 6 Moulana Fadhl-ur-Rahman A`zami (daamat barakaatuhum) – Shaikh-ul-Hadeeth, Darul Uloom Azaadville ................................. 6 Mufti Khursheed Anwar Alkyawee (daamat barakaatuhum) – Ustaaz, Darul Uloom Deoband ....................................................... 7 Mufti Abul Qaasim Banarasi (daamat barakaatuhum) .................. 7Introduction....................................................................................... 9Is it permissible to make Masah upon ordinary socks? .............. 10 Statements of the experts of Hadeeth regarding the weakness of this Hadeeth .................................................................................. 12 This Hadeeth opposes the command of the Qur’aan .................... 12Why is it then permissible to make masah upon khuffain? ........ 14The Mazhab of the four Imaams .................................................... 16The conditions of the four Imaams for the validity of masah uponsocks ................................................................................................. 17 The Hanafi Mazhab....................................................................... 17 The Shafi`ee Mazhab .................................................................... 18 The Maaliki Mazhab ..................................................................... 18 The Hambali Mazhab .................................................................... 18 Views of Other Scholars ............................................................... 19Why did the A’immah-e-Arba`ah restrict the permissibility ofmasah upon socks with certain conditions?.................................. 20List of Sahaabah  who performed masah upon their socks: .... 21The verdict of the renowned Ahle-Hadeeth Allaamah Shams-ul-Haq Azeemabadi ............................................................................. 22
  • 4. Masah on socksUpon which socks did the Sahaabah  make masah on? ........... 23Conclusion ....................................................................................... 24Salaah - The greatest `Ibadah ........................................................ 26Principles of Shari`ah ..................................................................... 26Masah on the Khuffain ................................................................... 27The views of the Fuqahaa............................................................... 27Masah on Non-Leather Socks ........................................................ 31Mazaahib of the Ulama who restricted the validity of masah onsocks with certain conditions: ........................................................ 32 The Hanafi Mazhab....................................................................... 32 The Shafi`ee Mazhab .................................................................... 33 The Maaliki Mazhab ..................................................................... 33 The Hambali Mazhab .................................................................... 34 Views of Other Scholars ............................................................... 35Proofs of the Mazaahib ................................................................... 35Ahaadeeth which apparently permit masah on jowrabain (non-leather socks) ................................................................................... 37 The narration of Hazrat Mugheerah bin Shu`bah :.................... 37 Ulama who authenticated the Hadeeth of Mugheerah bin Shu`bah  ................................................................................................... 40 Answers to those who regard the Hadeeth of Mugheerah bin Shu`bah  as authentic ................................................................. 41 The narration of Hazrat Abu Musa :.......................................... 43 The authenticity of this narration .................................................. 44 The narration of Hazrat Bilaal  .................................................. 45 The authenticity of the first chain ................................................. 45 The authenticity of the second chain ............................................ 46 4
  • 5. Masah on socks The narration of Hazrat Thowbaan ........................................... 47 The authenticity of this narration .................................................. 47 Conclusion .................................................................................... 48 The different kinds of Jawaarib (non leather socks) .................... 49 Thakheen socks ............................................................................. 49 Raqeeq socks ................................................................................. 49List of Sahaabah  who performed masah upon their socks: .... 51 Conclusion .................................................................................... 52 Summary ....................................................................................... 54Summary of Discussion .................................................................. 56 5
  • 6. Masah on socksViews of leading UlamaThe following are excerpts of the views of several leadingUlama regarding the original Arabic treatise:Shaikh Moulana Ni`matullah A`zami (daamatbarakaatuhum) – Ustaaz of Hadeeth, Darul Uloom DeobandI have studied this treatise titled ‚Al-Mashu `alal-Jowrabain‛which has been compiled by Shaikh Moulana Zakariyya(Makda) of South Africa. The author has presented the proofsof the legalisers of making masah on all types of socks followedwith a detailed scrutiny of their proofs. In the like manner hehas produced the various views of the majority of the formerand latter Ulama together with their concrete proofs. He hasalso explained the reasons of preference for their view (themajority of the Ulama).I congratulate the author over his notable work and I pray toAllah Ta`ala to make this work a means of guidance for theMuslim ummah.Moulana Fadhl-ur-Rahman A`zami (daamat barakaatuhum)– Shaikh-ul-Hadeeth, Darul Uloom AzaadvilleI have studied this brief kitaab titled ‚Al-Mashu a`lal-Jowrabain‛ with great scrutiny. I have found it to be extremelybeneficial. After studying this book I have concluded that theauthor Moulana Zakariyya Makda had paged through manybooks with a deep sense of understanding regarding this topicand had worked tirelessly to compile this work. 6
  • 7. Masah on socksThis compilation entails a topic of great importance regardingwhich no aalim in my knowledge from the Hanafi mazhab hasever written on, neither in Arabic nor in Urdu.Mufti Khursheed Anwar Alkyawee (daamat barakaatuhum)– Ustaaz, Darul Uloom DeobandThis book which you hold in your hands is a comprehensiveand valuable book discussing the topic of masah on jowrabain.The author, Moulana Zakariyya Makda, after presenting theproofs of the legalisers of masah on jowrabain has verybeautifully proven that the mazhab of the Fuqahaa is correct andrightly guided and supported by the Qur’aan and Hadeeth ofRasulullah .I have studied and perused through the entire treatise. I foundthat the author has undertaken a thorough critical analysis ofthe proofs of the opposing group and it is filled with thevarious basis of preference for the correct view.Mufti Abul Qaasim Banarasi (daamat barakaatuhum)In the recent past under the banner of research some freethinkers have created a new mindset and understanding ofDeen. Through this, making masah upon ordinary socks waslikened to masah on khuffain and thus it was regarded as asubstitute for washing the feet in wudhu.This mas’alah which until recently was only regarded as anunpractised view which was held by certain scholars, hasgained more popularity and support after several prominentscholars attempted to prove its permissibility through the 7
  • 8. Masah on socksQur’aan and Hadeeth. This has now become a common practiceamong the Salafis.Many followers of the A’immah-e-Arba`ah (the four greatimaams of fiqh) have fallen prey to this practice of the Salafis.It was upon the instruction of Hazrat Mufti Ebrahim SalejeeSaheb, rector of Madrasah Taleemuddeen, Isipingo Beach,Durban, that the author decided to compile a treatise on thistopic.This kitaab has efficiently covered every aspect of this topicfrom all angles. May Allah Ta`ala accept the effort of theauthor and grant him the ability to progress further in the lineof academic research and studies. 8
  • 9. Masah on socksIntroductionAfter Imaan, Salaah enjoys the most elevated status of all theactions of Deen. It is obligatory on every adult male and femaleto perform the five daily Salaah. Salaah will be the first actwhich a person will be questioned about on the Day ofQiyaamah. Thus Nabi  described Salaah as the key to Jannah. 1While Salaah is the ‚key to Jannah‛, Wudhu is the ‚key toSalaah‛. 2 Without Wudhu a person cannot fulfil this greatobligation. Allah Ta`ala has clearly declared in the Qur’aanShareef: “O you who believe! When you stand towards Salaah, washyour faces, your hands up to your elbows, make masah of your heads,and wash your feet up to the ankles.” 3Thus the obligation of performing Wudhu for Salaah is deriveddirectly from the Qur’aan Shareef. The four obligatory acts ofWudhu - washing the face, washing the hands up to theelbows, making masah of the head and washing the feet areclearly explained in the above verse. Hence all the four greatImaams of Fiqh and the entire Ummah are unanimous uponthese four acts being compulsory in Wudhu.While it is unanimously accepted that the feet have to bewashed in Wudhu when not covered by any footwear, will the1 Musnad Ahmad, 11/5092 Tirmizi, 1/33 Surah Maa’idah, aayah 6 9
  • 10. Masah on sockssame law apply in the case where the feet are covered by someform of footwear or will masah upon such footwear suffice?The A’immah-e-Arba`ah (four Imaams of Fiqh) and generally allthe Fuqahaa are of the view that masah is only permissible uponleather socks or socks of a similar nature (details of which willfollow later). Contrary to this view, a small group of scholarshave declared it permissible to make masah upon ordinarysocks made of cotton, nylon and the like. This treatise is anattempt to thoroughly examine the latter view and ascertainwhether it is based on acceptable proofs which render the saidpractice permissible or not. May Allah Ta`ala accept thishumble effort and make it a means of benefit for the Ummah,Aameen.Hereunder follows a summary of the actual treatise (that startson page 26) which will prove beneficial insha-Allah, for thosewho are unable to avail themselves to study the in-depthtreatise.Is it permissible to make Masah upon ordinarysocks?The verse of the Qur’aan clearly instructs one to wash the feetin wudhu. Allah Ta`ala states: ‫ٰٰۤیاَیُّہَا الَّر ۡینَ ٰامن ُٰۡۤوا اِذا قُمتُم اِلَی الصَّلوۃ فَاغسل ُۡوا وجُوہَكم واَ ۡیدیَكم اِلَی المسافِق وامسحُوا‬ ۡ َ ْ َ ِ َ َْ ُْ ِ َ ُْ ۡ ُ ِ ْ ِ ٰ ْ ْ َ َ ِ ْ ُْ ُ َ ُْ ۡ ُ ‫ِس ُ و ِ كم و اَزْ جلَكم اِلَی ال َ ْ َ ۡ ن‬ ِ 10
  • 11. Masah on socks“Wash your faces and your hands till your elbows, perform masah ofyour head and wash your feet up to your ankles.”However, when one studies the Hadeeth he comes across theHadeeth of Mugheerah bin Shu`bah  which implies thepermissibility of making masah on one’s socks.The Hadeeth reported by Mugheerah bin Shu`bah  reads asfollows: ‫عن سفيان عن أيب قيس عن هزيل بن شرحبيل عن املغرية بن شعبة قال : توضأ النيب صلى اهلل عليه وسلم‬ ‫ومسح على اجلوربني والنعلني‬Sufyaan Thauri reports from Abu Qais Al-Awdi, who reports fromHuzail bin Shurahbeel who reports from Mugheerah bin Shu`bahthat Nabi  performed Wudhu and made masah on his jowrabain(socks) and shoes.Some people in an effort to reconcile between the Qur’aan andHadeeth opine that the purport of the Qur’aanic verse refers tothe time when one is not wearing socks and the purport of theHadeeth refers to the time when one is wearing socks. Hence, inthis way there no longer exists any contradiction between theQur’aan and Hadeeth. However, this reconciliation based onpure logic and reasoning is unacceptable due to the followingtwo reasons:1. This Hadeeth is ruled as weak according the experts ofHadeeth.2. The purport of this Hadeeth opposes the command of theQur’aan. 11
  • 12. Masah on socksStatements of the experts of Hadeeth regarding the weaknessof this Hadeeth1. Imaam Baihaqi has classified this Hadeeth as weak. Hestates: ‚This is a weak narration (‫ .)منكر‬The likes of ImaamSufyaan Thauri, Imaam `Abdur Rahmaan bin Mahdi, ImaamAhmad bin Hambal ‫ ز ِ م ُ ُم هللا‬and an entire group of leading َ َexpert Muhadditheen have all unanimously rejected theauthenticity of this Hadeeth.‛ 42. Similarly, Imaam Nawawi states: ‚Each luminary fromamongst these luminaries of Ahaadeeth (all those who hadclassified this Hadeeth as weak) if weighed or measuredindividually, (let alone being weighed collectively) willundoubtedly outweigh Imaam Tirmizi who rules thisHadeeth as authentic.‛ 53. Hafiz Ibnu Hajar states that Imaam Bukharibrought the Hadeeth of making masah on leather socks andomitted the Hadeeth that permits making masah upon ordinarysocks on account of the weakness in the chain of narrators. 6This Hadeeth opposes the command of the Qur’aanActing upon the Hadeeth opposes the generality of the verse ofthe Qur’aan. The verse explicitly commands that the feet be4 Hidaayat-ur-Ruwaat 1/2645 Al-Binaayah, 1/4276 This could be understood from Ibnu Hajar’s statement in An-Nukat-uz-Ziraaf. (Tuhfat-ul-Ashraaf, 8/493) 12
  • 13. Masah on sockswashed under all circumstances, whether one is wearing socksor not. By acting upon the Hadeeth one will necessarily leaveout practising upon the Qur’aan. Hence, we understand thatacting upon any one of the both (Qur’aan and Hadeeth) willnecessitate leaving out the other.In view of the above, the great scholar, Abu Bakr Al-Jassas is reported to have said, ‚We cannot practise upon theAhaadeeth which establish the permissibility of making masahupon general socks independently since it is opposing theverse of the Qur’aan.‛ 7Imaam Muslim is reported to have said: ‚We are notprepared to forsake the Qur’aan on account of the weakHadeeth of Abu Qais and Huzail (who narrate the Hadeeth ofmasah on socks).‛ 8Note: Besides the abovementioned Hadeeth (which provesmasah on ordinary socks), all the Marfoo` Ahaadeeth in thechapter of masah upon socks have been ruled as weak onaccount of the same two reasons:1. Due to the narrators of these Ahaadeeth being criticised.2. These Ahaadeeth oppose the command of the Qur’aan.7 Ahkaam-ul-Qur’aan, 2/4408 As-Sunan-ul-Kubra lil-Baihaqi, 1/284 13
  • 14. Masah on socksWhy is it then permissible to make masah uponkhuffain?From the above we conclude that the Ahaadeeth which permitmasah upon the jowrabain are weak and cannot form a basis forestablishing the validity of masah upon the general socks. Asfar as the Ahaadeeth that prove permissibility of masah onkhuffain are concerned, then they have reached the rank oftawaatur.Hafiz Ibnu Hajar states in Fath-ul-Baari (1/366): ‚Theexperts of Hadeeth have confirmed that the narrations whichestablish the permissibility of masah on the khuffain havereached the level of tawaatur.‛ Hafiz Ibnu Hajar furtherexplains that some Muhadditheen (experts in Hadeeth) listedeighty Sahaabah  who transmitted Ahaadeeth in connectionwith masah of the khuffain. Included among these eightySahaabah  were the `Asharah Mubashsharah 9 as well.The son of Imaam Abu Haatim explained that there areforty one Ahaadeeth reported in support of the khuffain.Hafiz Ibnu `Abdil Barr has documented in his famousbook Al-Istizkaar that approximately forty Sahaabah reported Ahaadeeth with regards to masah on the khuffain.Allaamah Ibnul Munzir quotes Imaam Hasan Basrias having said: ‚Seventy companions of Rasulullah 9Asharah Mubashsharah were those ten selected Sahaabah  who were collectively granted theglad tidings of their entry into paradise by Rasulullah  in one gathering. 14
  • 15. Masah on sockspersonally narrated to me that Rasulullah  performed masahupon his khuffain.‛ 10Imaam Abu Hanifah is reported to have said: ‚I did nothasten in passing a judgement that masah on the khuffain ispermissible (due to it outwardly opposing the Qur’aanicinjunction) until the overwhelming narrations proving itsvalidity became manifest to me like daylight.‛ He also said: ‚Ifear that the one who rejects the permissibility of masah on thekhuffain could be out of the fold of Islaam.‛ (Due to thenumerous Ahaadeeth which establish its permissibility havingreached the level of tawaatur) 11The authority, Imaam Jassaas encapsulates thisdiscussion in Ahkaam-ul-Qur’aan. He writes: ‚The actual basisis that the injunction in the Aayah of wudhu is of washing thefeet. This is proven (by Nass-e-Qat`ee). 12 If it were not for theAhaadeeth-e-Mutawaatirah (overwhelming authentic narrations)narrated from Rasulullah  regarding masah `alal khuffain, wewould not have permitted it. Since authentic Ahaadeeth (ofmutawaatir category) have been narrated in this regard, weused it as a proof to establish the permissibility of masah onkhuffain. As for the Ahaadeeth pertaining to masah on thejowrabain (ordinary socks), we abandoned them due to (itopposing) the injunction of the verse of the Qur’aan (whichcommands the washing of the feet), since these Ahaadeeth did10 Talkhees-ul-Habeer, 1/15811 Al-Bahr-ur-Raaiq, 1/28812 Nass-e-Qat`ee is an explicit textual proof established from a Qur’aanic verse or a MutawaatirHadeeth. 15
  • 16. Masah on socksnot reach the rank of mutawaatir. Thus, the Qur’aanicinjunction of washing the feet was upheld and masah onjowrabain (socks) was not permitted.‛ 13The Mazhab of the four ImaamsAs we have understood from the above that since masah uponthe khuffain is established through Ahaadeeth-e-Mutawaatirah, itwill be equal in status to the verse of the Qur’aan (and itsinjunction). Hence, the A’immah-e-Arba`ah in order to reconcilebetween the Qur’aan Shareef and the Sunnah, regarded theenactment of the Qur’aanic injunction of washing the feet asobligatory in the condition where the feet are not covered byany footwear. As for the condition where the feet are coveredby the kuffain, they declared performing masah upon thekhuffain as permissible, acting upon the dictates of theAhaadeeth-e-Mutawaatirah which establish permissibility ofmasah upon the khuffain. However, due to the Ahaadeeth ofjowrabain (socks) not reaching the level of tawaatur, they areunable to establish independent validity and permission. Ifmasah on jowrabain (socks) is regarded as permissible despitethe Ahaadeeth not reaching the level of tawaatur, it will result inus abandoning the Qur’aanic injunction of washing the feet.Nevertheless, the A’immah-e-Arba`ah did not entirely disregardthe Ahaadeeth of jowrabain (socks), as is the misconception ofthe Ahle-Hadeeth. Instead, they practised upon it with certainconditions.13 Ahkaam-ul-Qur’aan, 2/440 16
  • 17. Masah on socksThe conditions of the four Imaams for the validityof masah upon socksThe Hanafi MazhabAccording to Imaam Abu Hanifah and his illustriousstudents Imaam Abu Yusuf and Imaam Muhammad , masah is only permissible on non-leather socks if theyare thakheen (thick/durable). This is the gist of the HanafiMazhab. 14What is meant by Thakheen (durable)?Thakheen are such thick socks which have all the attributes ofleather. (They are not the normal processed and refined sockssuch as nylon and cotton socks available nowadays.) Thevalidity of masah on thakheen is dependent on the followingconditions:1. It is possible to walk in such socks for more than threemiles without them tearing. (N.B. The walking is withoutwearing shoes.)2. They must be of a non-porous nature.3. They must remain firm on the foreleg without beingtied with laces, elastic, etc. (They should not slip down asordinary socks do.) 1514Sharhu Ma`aanil-Aathaar, 1/77, Hidaayah, 1/6115Ghunyat-ul-Mustamli – (Kabeeri), p. 118 - 119, Haashiyat-ut-Tahtaawi `ala Maraaqil-Falaah,p. 129, Radd-ul-Muhtaar, 1/439 - 440 17
  • 18. Masah on socksThe Shafi`ee MazhabAccording to Imaam Shafi`ee , it is necessary that non-leather socks must fulfil the following conditions for masah tobe permissible:1. They must be strong (thick) and durable.2. Continuous walking is possible in them without it tearing.3. They must be of a non-porous nature. 16The Maaliki MazhabThe jowrab has to be covered by leather in order for masah to bevalid on it. 17The great scholar Ibnu `Abdil Barr states in hismonumental work Al-Istizkaar: ‚Masah is only permissible onthe jowrab (sock) which is mujallad (covered with leather)according to Abu Hanifah and Imaam Shafi`ee , andthis conforms to one of the two views of Imaam Maalik .The other view of Imaam Maalik is that masah isimpermissible on the socks despite them being mujallad(covered by leather).‛The Hambali MazhabImaam Ahmad states regarding masah on such sockswhich do not have a (leather) sole: ‚If a person is able to walkin them and they remain firm on the feet (without anything tofasten them), then in this case performing masah upon themwill be permissible.‛ On another occasion, Imaam Ahmad stated: ‚It is permissible to make masah on socks16 Mughnil-Muhtaaj, 1/109, Tuhfat-ul-Muhtaaj, 1/298, Nihaayat-ul-Muhtaaj, 1/20417 Haashiyat-ud-Dusooqi `ala Ash-Sharh-il-Kabeer, 1/232, Jawaahir-ul-Ikleel, 1/24 18
  • 19. Masah on socksprovided it remains firmly attached to the feet.‛ In yet anotherplace he (Imaam Ahmad ) states: ‚If a person walks withsocks without it slipping off the foreleg and falling to theankles, then it is permissible to make masah on them, because ifthey are not firmly attached to the feet and continuously fall,the place of Wudhu will become exposed (rendering the masahinvalid).‛Imaam Ahmad does not consider it necessary for thesocks to be mujallad (entirely covered in leather). However, hedoes deem it imperative that the socks be of a tough anddurable nature where one can continuously walk in them.Imaam Ahmad was once asked regarding the one whoperforms masah on a sock made from pieces of thin cloth. He(Imaam Ahmad ) did not approve of it. He once said:‚Masah is impermissible on the socks unless it is thick (tough)and stands upright on the feet without falling, as is the casewith the khuff (leather sock). The Sahaabah  only made masahon the socks due to it resembling the khuff in this way that aperson would be able to continuously walk in them (withoutthem tearing). And it is impermissible to make masah on piecesof thin cloth.‛ This has been clearly recorded from ImaamAhmad . 18Views of Other ScholarsApart from the four Imaams of Fiqh, other great scholars werealso of the view that masah cannot be performed on ordinarysocks. Ibnu Qudaamah states: ‚Abu Hanifah, Maalik,18 Al-Mughni, 1/331-334 19
  • 20. Masah on socksAuzaa`ee, Mujaahid, `Amar bin Deenaar, Hasan bin Muslimand Shafi`ee ‫ ز ِ م ُُم هللا‬are all of the view that masah upon socks is َ َimpermissible except if it (socks) is muna`al (has a leather sole),due to the fact that in the case where the socks are not muna`al,continuous walking in them is impossible. Therefore, masah isimpermissible as is the case with thin socks.‛Why did the A’immah-e-Arba`ah restrict thepermissibility of masah upon socks with certainconditions?The A’immah-e-Arba`ah exercised extreme precaution in thisregard in order to ensure that none of the limits of Shari`ah aretransgressed, nor any injunction of Deen (i.e. the laws of theQur’aan Shareef or the Sunnah) be violated. (Had they –A’immah-e-Arba`ah – given general permission for makingmasah upon socks based on the few weak Ahaadeeth, theywould have opposed the Qur’aan.) As a result of thisprecaution, they had restricted the validity of masah uponsocks with certain conditions. Once these conditions are met, itwill qualify the socks to enter within the purview of thekhuffain. And since permission is granted for the khuffain,permission will also be granted for these socks which resemblethe khuffain. In this manner, independent permission is notgranted for making masah on the socks. This was considerednecessary in order to avoid any contradiction with theinjunction of the Qur’aan Shareef in relation to washing thefeet and at the same time not abandoning the Ahaadeeth of 20
  • 21. Masah on socksRasulullah  which are reported regarding masah uponjowrabain (socks).List of Sahaabah  who performed masah upontheir socks:It is authentically proven that Sahaabah  used to make masahupon their socks. Shaikh Jamaal-ud-Deen Al-Qaasimi listedsixteen Sahaabah  who used to perform masah upon theirsocks. Allaamah Ibnul Munzir mentioned the names ofnine Sahaabah  who are known to have performed masah ontheir socks.They were:1. Hazrat Abu Mas`ood Al-Ansaari 2. Hazrat `Ali 3. Hazrat Anas 4. Hazrat Baraa bin `Aazib 5. Hazrat `Uqbah bin `Amr 6. Hazrat Ibnu Mas`ood 7. Hazrat Ibnu `Umar 8. Hazrat `Ammar 9. Hazrat Bilaal We do not doubt or dispute the authority of theaforementioned Sahaabah , for most certainly we believe thatevery Sahaabi was a beacon of guidance for the entire ummahof Rasulullah . Moreover, apart from these few Aathaar(reports), other reports are also recorded in the books of 21
  • 22. Masah on socksHadeeth, some of which are classified authentic and someunauthentic according to the terminology of the Muhadditheen.However, it is vitally important for us to comprehend that themere mention of any Sahaabi’s performing masah on his sockswill not afford us the permission nor warrant us the license toexecute that action until it is absolutely certain that our actionis in total compliance and conformity with what they did inreality.The verdict of the renowned Ahle-HadeethAllaamah Shams-ul-Haq AzeemabadiThe reality is that various types of socks existed during the eraof the Sahaabah . Furthermore, the exact and completedescription of the socks upon which they used to performmasah has not been reported in any narration. Thus, for one todeduce permissibility from such reports is indeed incorrect.The renowned Ahle-Hadeeth Allaamah Shams-ul-HaqAzeemabadi states: ‚There are many types of socks (availablenowadays). Some types are produced from hides of animals,some from the wool of sheep and similarly some are madefrom cotton. Moreover, the connotation of the word ‚socks‛equally holds true on each type of socks present today. We areall well aware that the concession of performing masah (uponthe socks) can only be extended to all these various types ofsocks after authentically establishing that the jowrabain presenttoday resembles the jowrabain upon which Rasulullah  or the 22
  • 23. Masah on socksSahaabah  performed masah.‛ (But since this cannot beproven, how can general concession ever be issued?)Upon which socks did the Sahaabah  make masahon?The A’immah-e-Arba`ah – the four Imaams of fiqh (may AllahTa`ala reward them on behalf of the ummah) lived in the eraclosest to Rasulullah  and the Sahaabah . They had eithermet the illustrious Sahaabah  or the students of the Sahaabah. They did not examine the Ahaadeeth (the Sunnah) ofRasulullah by merely studying the words of the Hadeeth.Rather, they witnessed the practical demonstration and theimplementation of the Sunnah in the company of the Sahaabah and the students of the Sahaabah . For this very reason, wefind that Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal ruled that thejowrabain (socks) must be of such durable material that one isable to continuously walk in them (without wearing shoes).Imaam Ahmad further explained that it is upon this typeof jowrabain (which conformed to the above mentionedconditions) that the Sahaabah  performed masah upon, as itclosely resembled the khuffain.After studying this example of masah on jowrabain (socks), onewill undoubtedly realise that deducing Ahkaam from theQur’aan and Hadeeth is no simple task. It is extremelychallenging and poses a lot of dangers for the one who isincapable but still adopts this path. Thus, the safest path forone to adopt would be to ascribe to the verdicts of one of the 23
  • 24. Masah on socksfour Imaams since they were the ones who were divinelyendowed with the capability of undertaking such a dauntingtask.ConclusionWhile Salaah is the ‚key to Jannah‛, wudhu is the ‚key toSalaah‛. Without wudhu a person cannot fulfil this greatobligation. Allah Ta`ala has clearly declared in the Qur’aanShareef: “O you who believe! When you stand towards Salaah, washyour faces and your hands up to your elbows, make masah of yourheads, and wash your feet up to the ankles.” From this verse weunderstand that washing the feet is among the four faraa’idh.The one who does not wash his feet has omitted a Fardh ofwudhu. Hence, there is no wudhu for such a person.How unfortunate will it be for a person who continuouslyperformed wudhu and made masah upon his ordinary socksand performed Salaah throughout his life? What will he dowhen he appears before Allah Ta`ala on the Day of Judgementand does not find any Salaah in his book of deeds on accountof his wudhu (which is the condition for the acceptance of hisSalaah) being incomplete.The overwhelming majority of scholars in every era, includingthe four great Imaams of fiqh, Imaam Bukhaari, Imaam Muslim,numerous other expert Muhadditheen as well as the likes ofAllaamah Shams-ul-Haq Azeemabadi and Shaikh ‘Abdur-Rahman Mubaarakpuri (two of the most senior Ahle-Hadeeth 24
  • 25. Masah on socksscholars of the last century) have all clearly prohibited masahon ordinary socks such as cotton etc.For thirteen hundred years the entire ummah was unanimousupon the impermissibility of masah upon non-leather socks. Itwas only in the fourteenth century that this new trend wasintroduced. 25
  • 26. Masah on socksSalaah - The greatest `IbadahAfter Imaan, the greatest `Ibadah (act of worship) is Salaah. Itwill also be the first aspect which one will be questioned abouton the Day of Qiyaamah. However, no Salaah is valid withoutfirst performing Wudhu. The compulsion of Wudhu, whichincludes the washing of the feet, is explicitly mentioned in theQur’aan Shareef. Thus apparently there should be no optionbesides washing the feet, as enjoined upon us in the Qur’aan.Why have the jurists then opined that in some specificinstances (when leather socks are worn) washing the feet willnot be necessary? Rather masah will suffice. This is afundamental question which requires a somewhat detailedexplanation.Principles of Shari`ahIn order to understand the answer to the above question, abrief discussion of some principles of Shari`ah is necessary.The Qur’aan Shareef is the first source of Shari`ah. Any explicitinjunction of the Qur’aan must be implemented accordingly. Ifany Hadeeth apparently contradicts the explicit injunction ofthe Qur’aan and both cannot be reconciled, the injunction ofthe Qur’aan will be acted upon. 26
  • 27. Masah on socksThe only exception to the above rule is a Hadeeth-e-Mutawaatir19. The injunction of the Qur’aan may be qualifiedwith the Mutawaatir Hadeeth or preference could be given tothe Mutawaatir Hadeeth subject to various conditions beingfulfilled.Masah on the KhuffainKhuffain are leather socks. Leather socks were commonly wornin the time of Sahaabah  and are worn to this day. TheFuqahaa (jurists) are unanimous that masah on the khuffain ispermissible since the Ahaadeeth that permit it have reached therank of tawaatur.The views of the FuqahaaThe views of some of the eminent Fuqahaa of the Ummahclearly elucidate the position of masah on khuffain.Imaam Abu Hanifa is reported to have said: ‚I did nothasten in passing a judgment that masah on the khuffain ispermissible (due to it outwardly opposing the Qur’aanic19 Mutawaatir Hadeeth in the terminology of the Muhadditheen is that Hadeeth which istransmitted with an unbroken chain by such a large number of people in every era, that it isconsidered impossible and totally unimaginable that such a large group throughout thecenturies of Islam could have colluded and connived in fabricating such a Hadeeth. (There arecertain requirements that must be met in order for a Hadeeth to qualify as a MutawaatirHadeeth. These requirements are known to the Ulama. When a Hadeeth is clarified asMutawaatir, it is parallel to any verse of the Qur’aan in its authenticity and strength). 27
  • 28. Masah on socksinjunction) until the overwhelming narrations proving itsvalidity became manifest to me like daylight.‛ He also said: ‚Ifear that the one who rejects the permissibility of masah on thekhuffain could be out of the fold of Islam.‛ (Due to thenumerous Ahaadeeth which establish its permissibility havingreached the level of tawaatur) 20Imaam Abu Yusuf is reported to have said: ‚It ispermissible to abrogate the Qur’aanic injunction through aHadeeth of Rasulullah  provided it (the Hadeeth) reaches thelevel of tawaatur as is seen in the case of the khuffain.‛ (i.e. Dueto it fulfilling the mentioned requirements it will qualify toabrogate the law of the Qur’aan) 21Imaam Shafi`ee has explained this in some detail. Hestates that Allah Ta`ala declares in the Qur’aan Shareef: “Washyour faces and your hands till your elbows, perform masah of yourheads, and wash your feet up to your ankles.”In this verse the injunction regarding ‚washing the feet inWudhu‛ suggests either one of two meanings:The first meaning is that in all situations it is incumbent uponyou to wash your feet, irrespective of whether the feet arecovered by some form of footwear or not.The second meaning is that it is only compulsory upon you towash your feet in the situation where the feet are not coveredby any form of footwear. However, if the feet are covered bysome form of footwear such as the khuffain or that which20 Al-Bahr-ur-Raaiq, 1/28821 Ahkaam-ul-Qur’aan, 2/437 28
  • 29. Masah on socksresembles the khuffain, then masah (upon the khuffain) willsuffice and washing of the feet will not remain compulsory.Imaam Shafi`ee further contends that the latter meaningis preferred as it is supported by numerous Ahaadeeth (whichreach the rank of tawaatur) which prove that Rasulullah performed masah upon his khuffain. Hence, in order toreconcile between the Qur’aan and Sunnah, the verse of theQur’aan Shareef in relation to washing the feet will necessarilyapply to the one whose feet are not covered by the khuffain. 22The view of Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal also concurswith the above mentioned view. He states: ‚There are fortyAhaadeeth narrated by the Sahaabah  in relation to masah onthe khuffain. The Ahaadeeth are both Marfoo`23 as well asMouqoof24.‛ 25 (Hence it clearly establishes the permissibility ofmaking masah on the khuffain.)Hafiz Ibnu Hajar states in Fath-ul-Baari26: ‚The experts ofHadeeth have confirmed that the narrations which establish thepermissibility of masah on the khuffain have reached thecategory of tawaatur.‛ Hafiz Ibnu Hajar further explainsthat some Muhadditheen (experts in Hadeeth) listed eightySahaabah  who transmitted Ahaadeeth in connection with22 Kitaab-ul-Umm, 1/3223 A Marfoo` Hadeeth in the terminology of the Muhadditheen is that Hadeeth which conveys astatement or practice of Rasulullah .24 A Mouqoof Hadeeth in the terminology of the Muhadditheen is that Hadeeth which conveys astatement or practice of a Sahaabi .25 Talkhees-ul-Habeer, 1/15826 Fath-ul-Baari, 1/366 29
  • 30. Masah on socksmasah of the khuffain. Included among these eighty Sahaabah were the `Asharah Mubashsharah27 as well.The son of Imaam Abu Haatim explained that there areforty one Ahaadeeth reported in support of the khuffain.Hafiz Ibnu `Abdil Barr has documented in his famousbook Al-Istizkaar that approximately forty Sahaabah reported Ahaadeeth with regards to masah on the khuffain.Allaamah Ibnul Munzir quotes Imaam Hasan Basrias having said: ‚Seventy companions of Rasulullah personally narrated to me that Rasulullah  performed masahupon his khuffain.‛28The views of the Fuqahaa mentioned above leave no doubt thatthey established the permissibility of masah on khuffain on noless than a Mutawaatir Hadeeth, the strength and authenticity ofwhich is parallel to the Qur’aan. Thus, they applied theQur’aanic injunction of washing the feet in Wudhu to theinstance when the feet are bare. However, if khuffain are worn,masah will be permissible thereon on the basis of theMutawaatir Hadeeth.27 `Asharah Mubashsharah were those ten selected Sahaabah  who were collectively grantedthe glad tidings of their entry into paradise by Rasulullah  in one gathering.28 Talkhees-ul-Habeer, 1/158 30
  • 31. Masah on socksMasah on Non-Leather SocksMasah upon non-leather socks, which includes cotton, nylonand socks of similar materials has recently become a verycontentious issue. Hence, a brief discussion of the historicalbackground to the prevalence of this practice is appropriate.In 1332 A.H. Shaikh Jamaal-ud-Deen Al-Qaasimi received aquestion from several universities in the Arab lands pertainingto the validity of masah upon ordinary socks. The questioncited difficulties experienced by students in winter in washingtheir feet due to extreme cold. As a result many studentsdelayed their Salaah and performed it much later as Qadha,while many others omitted their Salaah completely. In answerto this question Shaikh Jamaal-ud-Deen wrote a treatise infavour of the validity of masah upon ordinary socks. The Fatwaof the Shaikh in this treatise was based upon several Ahaadeethwhich apparently permit the performance of masah uponordinary socks. This Fatwa was largely responsible for thispractice becoming widespread, though many others issuedsimilar verdicts later on.Thus it is barely more than a century that the practice ofperforming masah on ordinary socks became prevalent. Priorto the said Fatwa being issued, only a handful of scholars wereof this view. Among them were Ibnu Hazam Zaahiri (d.426 A.H.) and Allaamah Shaukani (d. 1250 A.H). Thesetwo scholars did not subscribe to any Mazhab. However, twonotable and high ranking Ahle-Hadeeth scholars, AllaamahMubarakpuri and Shams-ul-Haq Azeemabadi, have flatlyrejected the permissibility of masah upon ordinary socks 31
  • 32. Masah on socksdeclaring this practice as having no basis in the Qur’aan andSunnah.Hafiz Ibnu Taymiyyah (d. 728 A.H.) and his studentHafiz Ibnul Qayyim (d. 751 A.H.) also held the view ofmasah being permissible on ordinary socks. While both thesescholars belonged to the Hambali Mazhab, their viewcontradicted the view of all former scholars of the HambaliMazhab who believed that masah on ordinary socks is notpermissible. Apart from the above-mentioned scholars, evenafter an extensive search nothing could be found about anyother notable Muhaddith or Faqeeh having declared the practiceof making masah upon ordinary socks as permissible.Mazaahib of the Ulama who restricted the validityof masah on socks with certain conditions:The Hanafi MazhabAccording to Imaam Abu Hanifah and his illustriousstudents Imaam Abu Yusuf and Imaam Muhammad , masah is only permissible on non-leather socks if theyare Thakheen (thick/durable). This is the gist of the HanafiMazhab.29What is meant by Thakheen (durable)?Thakheen are such thick socks which have all the attributes ofleather. (They are not the normal processed and refined sockssuch as nylon and cotton socks available nowadays.) The29 See Sharhu Ma`aanil-Aathaar, 1/77, Hidaayah, 1/61. 32
  • 33. Masah on socksvalidity of masah on thakheen is dependent on the followingconditions:1. It is possible to walk in such socks for more than three mileswithout them tearing. (N.B. The walking is without wearingshoes.)2. They must be of a non-porous nature.3. They must remain firm on the foreleg without being tiedwith laces, elastic, etc. (They should not slip down as ordinarysocks do.)30The Shafi`ee MazhabAccording to Imaam Shafi`ee , it is necessary that non-leather socks must fulfil the following conditions for masah tobe permissible:1. They must be strong (thick) and durable.2. Continuous walking is possible in them without it tearing.3. They must be of a non-porous nature.31The Maaliki MazhabThe jowrab has to be covered by leather in order for masah to bevalid on it.32The great scholar Ibnu `Abdil Barr states in hismonumental work Al Istizkaar: ‚Masah is only permissible onthe jowrab (sock) which is mujallad (covered with leather)according to Abu Hanifah and Imaam Shafi`ee , andthis conforms to one of the two views of Imaam Maalik .30 Ghunyat-ul-Mustamli – (Kabeeri), p. 118-9, Haashiyat-ut-Tahtaawi `ala Maraaqil Falaah, p.129, Radd-ul-Muhtaar, 1/439-44031 Mughnil-Muhtaaj, 1/109, Tuhfat-ul-Muhtaaj, 1/298, Nihaayat-ul-Muhtaaj, 1/20432 Haashiyat-ud-Dusooqi `ala Ash-Sharh-il-Kabeer, 1/232, Jawaahir-ul-Ikleel, 1/24 33
  • 34. Masah on socksThe other view of Imaam Maalik is that masah isimpermissible on the socks despite them being mujallad(covered by leather).‛33The Hambali MazhabImaam Ahmad states regarding masah on such sockswhich do not have a (leather) sole: ‚If a person is able to walkin them and they remain firm on the feet (without anything tofasten them), then in this case performing masah upon themwill be permissible.‛ On another occasion Imaam Ahmadstated: ‚It is permissible to make masah on socks provided itremains firmly attached to the feet.‛ In yet another place he(Imaam Ahmad ) states: ‚If a person walks with socks,without it slipping off the foreleg and falling to the ankles,then it is permissible to make masah on them, because if theyare not firmly attached to the feet and continuously fall, theplace of Wudhu will become exposed (rendering the masahinvalid).‛Imaam Ahmad does not consider it necessary for thesocks to be mujallad (i.e. entirely covered in leather). However,he does deem it imperative that the socks be of a tough anddurable nature where one can continuously walk in them.Imaam Ahmad was once asked regarding the one whoperforms masah on a sock made from pieces of thin cloth. He(Imaam Ahmad ) did not approve of it. He once said:‚Masah is impermissible on the socks unless it is thick (tough)and stands upright on the feet without falling, as is the casewith the khuff (leather sock). The Sahaabah  only made masah33 Al-Istizkaar, 2/253 34
  • 35. Masah on sockson the socks due to it resembling the khuff in this way that aperson would be able to continuously walk in them (withoutthem tearing). And it is impermissible to make masah on piecesof thin cloth.‛ This has been clearly recorded from ImaamAhmad .34Views of Other ScholarsApart from the four Imaams of Fiqh, other great scholars werealso of the view that masah cannot be performed on ordinarysocks. Ibnu Qudaamah states: ‚Abu Hanifah, Maalik35,Auzaa`ee, Mujaahid, `Amar bin Deenaar, Hasan bin Muslimand Shafi`ee ‫ ز ِ م ُ ُم هللا‬are all of the view that masah upon socks is َ َimpermissible except if it (socks) is muna`al (has a leather sole),due to the fact that in the case where the socks are not muna`al,continuous walking in them is impossible. Therefore, masah isimpermissible as is the case with thin socks.‛36Proofs of the MazaahibIt would have already been ascertained from the discussionthus far that overall there are three views with regards tomasah on jowrabain (non-leather socks).34 Al-Mughni, 1/331-33435 N.B. This is not the preferred opinion of the Maaliki Mazhab. The details regarding theMaaliki view has already past.36 Al-Mughni, 1/332 35
  • 36. Masah on socksIbnul `Arabi has explained the different views and theirproofs in detail. He writes: The Ulama have differed regardingmasah on (ordinary) socks. There are three opinions:1. The first opinion is that one can make masah on it providedthey have leather covering up to the ankles.2. The second opinion is that if it is of thick material togetherwith being muna`al (leather sole), then masah upon it ispermissible (even though it may not be mujallad [covered byleather all around]).3. The third opinion is that it is permissible to make masaheven though it is not mujallad or muna`al nor is it thickmaterial.Those Fuqahaa who have adopted the first opinion base theirview on the fact that all the Ahaadeeth which establish thevalidity of masah upon socks are weak. However, in the casewhere the socks are mujallad, due to them resembling leathersocks, they will also be included under the purport of theAhaadeeth of the khuff. (Hence, masah upon them will bepermissible considering them as khuffain.)The proof for the second view is that such socks are worn onthe feet, and cover them up to the ankles. Furthermore,continuous walking is possible in them (due to them beingmuna`al (leather sole) and of a durable and thick nature).Hence, masah upon such socks is permissible. 36
  • 37. Masah on socksThe proof of the third view is the apparent meaning of someAhaadeeth.37Ahaadeeth which apparently permit masah onjowrabain (non-leather socks)Those who are of the view that masah on ordinary socks ispermissible present four Ahaadeeth as proof. A detaileddiscussion of these four Ahaadeeth is necessary since it is thecornerstone of the proponents of this view.The narration of Hazrat Mugheerah bin Shu`bah :The first Hadeeth presented in this regard is the narration ofHazrat Mugheerah bin Shu`bah : ‫ قال : توضأ النيب‬ ‫عن سفيان عن أيب قيس عن هزيل بن شرحبيل عن املغرية بن شعبة‬ .‫ومسح على اجلوربني والنعلني‬Sufyaan Thauri reports from Abu Qais Al-Awdi, who reports fromHuzail bin Shurahbeel who reports from Mugheerah bin Shu`bah that Nabi  performed Wudhu and made masah on his jowrabain(socks) and shoes.This Hadeeth is recorded in Jaami`-ut-Tirmizi (1/5) and manyother books.3837 The details of these Ahaadeeth will follow.38 1)As-Sunan-ul-Kubra-Nasai, 1/92 2) Sunan Abu Dawood, 1/24 3) Sunan Ibnu Maajah, 1/42 4) Musnad Ahmad, 14/103, Hadeeth No. 18122 5) Saheeh Ibnu Hibbaan (Al-Ihsaan bi Tarteebi Ibni Hibbaan), 2/314 37
  • 38. Masah on socksThough many books of Hadeeth record the Hadeeth of HazratMugheerah bin Shu`bah , the narrators of this Hadeeth havebeen severely criticised by the Muhadditheen. Foremost amongthem is Imaam Muslim . He says: ‚We are most certainlynot prepared to forsake and abandon the Qur’aanic injunctionon account of the weak narration of Abu Qais and Huzail.Moreover, they have also opposed the rest of the expertMuhadditheen who narrate this Hadeeth in regard to the khuffain(and not jowrabain, as narrated by Abu Qais and Huzail).Hence, this Hadeeth is deemed weak.‛39The crux of this statement is that Abu Qais and Huzail haveerred in the narration of this Hadeeth and have mistakenlymentioned jowrabain instead of khuffain, as has been narratedby many high ranking Muhadditheen.Imaam Baihaqi has also classified this Hadeeth as weak.He states: ‚This is a weak narration (‫ .)منكر‬The likes of ImaamSufyaan Thauri, Imaam `Abdur Rahmaan bin Mahdi, ImaamAhmad bin Hambal ‫ 04ز ِ م ُ ُم هللا‬and an entire group of leading َ َ 6) Saheeh Ibnu Khuzaimah, 1/99 7) As-Sunan-ul-Kubra lil-Baihaqi, 1/284 8) Musannaf Ibnu Abi Shaibah, 1/171, Hadeeth No. 1973 9) Sharhu Ma`aanil-Aathaar, 1/76-77 10) Mawaarid-uz-Zam’aan, p. 7139 As-Sunan-ul-Kubra lil-Baihaqi, 1/28440 Similarly, Imaam Nawawi states: ‚Each luminary from amongst these luminaries ofAhaadeeth (all those who had classified this Hadeeth as weak) if weighed or measuredindividually, (let alone being weighed collectively) will undoubtedly outweigh Imaam Tirmizi . Apart from this it is a well accepted principle amongst the scholars of Hadeeth that in thesituation where some scholars have criticised a narrator and others have declared him asreliable, the opinion of those discrediting his credibility and position will be regarded as thefinal verdict. (Al-Binaayah, 1/427) 38
  • 39. Masah on socksexpert Muhadditheen have all unanimously rejected theauthenticity of this Hadeeth. ‛41Another great luminary and expert on Hadeeth, Imaam Yahyabin Ma`een , has also highlighted the error of Abu Qais inthe above narration. He writes: ‚All the narrators of thisHadeeth report this narration regarding the khuffain. We onlyfind Abu Qais reporting this narration in regard to thejowrabain.‛42 (Hence Abu Qais has contradicted the rest of thenarrators).43With regards to the narration of Abu Qais, perhaps the mostnotable statement is that of Hafiz Ibnul Qayyim . Thoughhe held the view that masah on jowrabain (socks) is valid, henevertheless states: ‚We do not regard the Hadeeth of Abu Qaisas authentic.‛44To sum up the view of the scholars of Hadeeth with regard tothe narration of Abu Qais, the words of Hafiz Ibnu HajarN.B. This is not a general principle. There are exceptions to this. However, in the abovementioned situation where we find the majority of the scholars hold to one opinion andImaam Tirmizi holds to another, this principle will most certainly be accepted.41 Hidaayat-ur-Ruwaat, 1/26442 As-Sunan-ul-Kubra lil-Baihaqi, 1/28443 The verdict of Imaam Yahya bin Ma`een with regard to the error of Abu Qais in thisnarration is very significant. Imaam Yahya bin Ma`een has elsewhere declared Abu Qais as areliable narrator. This general declaration is misconstrued by the Ahle-Hadeeth group as anauthentication of the Hadeeth of Hazrat Mugheerah bin Shu`bah , as reported by Abu Qais.However, this is incorrect. Imaam Yahya bin Ma`een’s declaration of Abu Qais as reliable is ageneral, overall judgement on him as a narrator of Hadeeth. This does not preclude him fromever making a mistake. Hence, despite having declared him as reliable, the Imaam hashighlighted Abu Qais’s error in the said Hadeeth.44 Tahzeeb-us-Sunan (Mukhtasar Sunan Abu Dawood), 1/95 39
  • 40. Masah on sockswill suffice. He says: ‚This Hadeeth has been authenticated byImaam Tirmizi . However, Imaam Abu Dawoodreports that the great expert of Hadeeth, Imaam `AbdurRahmaan bin Mahdi had condemned the reporting ofsuch a weak narration. Furthermore, Imaam Baihaqi hadconfirmed that this Hadeeth was adjudged as weak in the viewof Imaam Sufyaan Thauri, Imaam `Abdur Rahmaan binMahdi, Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal ‫ ز ِ م ُ ُم هللا‬and a large group of َ َexpert Muhadditheen.‛ 45,46Ulama who authenticated the Hadeeth of Mugheerah binShu`bah While the overwhelming majority of Muhadditheen havediscredited the Hadeeth of Abu Qais, some scholars havenevertheless declared it as authentic. It is therefore necessaryto closely examine the declaration of these scholars.Foremost among them is Imaam Tirmizi . After reportingthe Hadeeth of Abu Qais, he has declared the narration as“Hasan, Saheeh” (authentic). Imaam Ibnu Hibbaan hasalso recorded this narration in his ‚Saheeh Ibnu Hibbaan‛.Since he had undertaken to record only Saheeh Ahaadeeth in hisbook, it follows that according to him this Hadeeth is Saheeh(authentic); hence, he has included it in his book.As for the narrators Abu Qais and Huzail who narrate the saidHadeeth, several Muhadditheen have declared them as reliable.45Hidaayat-ur-Ruwaat, 1/26446Other scholars of Hadeeth who concurred that the Hadeeth of Abu Qais is not authentic are:Imaam Ali bin Madeeni, Imaam `Uqaili, Imaam Nasai, Imaam Abu Dawood. 40
  • 41. Masah on socksImaam Yahya bin Ma`een affirmed his reliability.47Imaam `Ijli also declared Abu Qais as well as Huzail asbeing authentic narrators.48,49Furthermore, Imaam Bukhari has narrated a fewAhaadeeth in Saheeh Bukhari which have been transmitted byAbu Qais and Huzail. This confirms that Imaam Bukhariregarded them as reliable and authentic. Hafiz Badr-ud-DeenAl-`Aini has also confirmed this. He writes: ‚Abu Qaisand Huzail both have been ruled by Imaam `Ijli as wellas Imaam Yahya bin Ma`een as reliable narrators.Furthermore, Imaam Bukhari had accepted theirnarrations.‛Answers to those who regard the Hadeeth of Mugheerah binShu`bah  as authenticA fundamental principle which is unanimously accepted bythe Muhadditheen must be clearly understood in order tounderstand the matter in its proper perspective. The scholarshave all affirmed that the reliability of all the narrators of aHadeeth is not the only criterion for the Hadeeth to be regardedas authentic. Instead, together with establishing the reliabilityof the narrators, several other aspects are also closelyexamined.Among these aspects is that the Hadeeth, though transmittedby reliable narrators, must not contradict any explicitQur’aanic injunction. Furthermore, the narration must not47 Tahzeeb-ut-Tahzeeb, 6/13948 Tahzeeb-ut-Tahzeeb, 6/13949 Tahzeeb-ut-Tahzeeb, 11/30 41
  • 42. Masah on sockscontradict what has been narrated by the majority of otherexpert narrators of Hadeeth.50While the Hadeeth of Hazrat Mugheerah bin Shu`bah  isexamined in the light of the above principle, it falls short ofboth requirements. Firstly, it contradicts the clear injunction ofthe Qur’aan with regard to washing the feet.Secondly, Abu Qais and Huzail, who narrate the Hadeeth fromHazrat Mugheerah bin Shu`bah  have indeed been declaredas reliable narrators by several Muhadditheen, contrary to otherMuhadditheen who have criticised them.Nevertheless, despite their reliability as narrators according tosome Muhadditheen, they are the only narrators who report thenarration of Hazrat Mugheerah bin Shu`bah  with regard tomasah on jowrabain. In doing so, they have contradicted theoverwhelming majority of expert Muhadditheen who narratethe same Hadeeth, but with regard to masah on khuffain, notjowrabain. Thus, due to this contradiction, this specific Hadeethwhich they have narrated will be declared as weak accordingto the principle unanimously accepted by all the Muhadditheen.Therefore, contradicting the narration of the majority of expertMuhadditheen itself weakens the narration of Abu Qais andHuzail. The contradiction of the injunction of the Qur’aancompounds the weakness. It is for this very reason that ImaamMuslim clearly stated: ‚We are not prepared to forsakeand abandon the Qur’aan Shareef because of the weaknarration of Abu Qais and Huzail.‛5150 Sharhu Nukhbatil Fikar, p. 7151 As-Sunan-ul-Kubra lil-Baihaqi, 1/284 42
  • 43. Masah on socksHafiz Ibnu Hajar states that Imaam Bukhari agreedthat the Hadeeth of jowrabain is weak, though he has regardedAbu Qais as reliable. He explains that Imaam Bukhari relatedthe Hadeeth of Hazrat Mugheerah bin Shu`bah  regarding thekhuffain. He did not relate the Hadeeth of jowrabain nor did hetitle any chapter in his book on this issue. In short, ImaamBukhari did not relate anything to establish the validityof masah on jowrabain (socks). When one considers this in thelight of Imaam Bukhari’s unique method of relating Ahaadeeth,this clearly indicates that Imaam Bukhari concurred withthe overwhelming majority of Muhadditheen that the Hadeeth ofjowrabain is weak.52It is interesting to note that those who have rejected taqleed(following one of the four Mazhabs) and earnestly wish toestablish the permissibility of masah on ordinary socks cite theauthentication of the aforementioned four Muhadditheen asproof for their view. However, though these Muhadditheenhave authenticated the Hadeeth of jowrabain, none of them is ofthe view that masah on jowrabain is permissible!!!The narration of Hazrat Abu Musa :The second proof of the Ahle-Hadeeth is the narration of AbuMusa Ash`ari : ‫ توضأ ومسح على اجلوربني والنعلني‬ ‫ أن رسول اهلل‬ ‫عن أيب موسى األشعري‬52This could be understood from Ibnu Hajar’s statement in An-Nukat-uz-Ziraaf. (Tuhfat-ul-Ashraaf, 8/493) 43
  • 44. Masah on socks“It is reported on the authority of Hazrat Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari that Nabi  made Wudhu and performed masah on his socks andsandals/shoes.”53The authenticity of this narrationThe Muhadditheen have generally declared this Hadeeth asweak, thus rendering it incapable of being used as proof toestablish any law. The weakness of the narration stems fromtwo aspects. `Eesa bin Sinaan, one of the narrators, has beendeclared weak by many expert Muhadditheen. Some of theMuhadditheen who have discredited him are Imaam Nasai54,Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal, Imaam Yahya bin Ma`een, ImaamAbu Haatim55, Imaam Abu Dawood56 and Imaam Baihaqi57 ‫ز ِ م ُ ُم‬َ َ‫.هللا‬Another serious deficiency in this narration is that the chain ofnarrators has a missing link (i.e. one of the narrators is un-named). Such a narration cannot be used to deduce anyinjunction according to all the scholars of Hadeeth.Hafiz Ibnu Hajar has summed up the discussion on thisHadeeth. He says: ‚The Hadeeth of Abu Musa  which ImaamAbu Dawood indicated towards is documented in IbnuMaajah. However, the Hadeeth is classified as weak apart from53 1) Sunan Ibnu Maajah, 1/41 2) As-Sunan-ul-Kubra lil-Baihaqi, 1/284-285 3) Sharhu Ma`aanil-Aathaar, 1/7654 Tahzeeb-ul-Kamaal, 14/54455 Meezaan-ul-I`itidaal, 5/37756 Sunan Abu Dawood, 1/2457 As-Sunan-ul-Kubra lil-Baihaqi, 1/285 44
  • 45. Masah on socksthe fact that there is also a missing link in the chain ofnarrators.‛58The narration of Hazrat Bilaal The third proof of the Ahle-Hadeeth is the Hadeeth of HazratBilaal : ‫ ميسح على اخلفني واجلوربني‬ ‫ قال : كان رسول اهلل‬ ‫عن بالل‬It is reported on the authority of Hazrat Bilaal  that Nabi  used tomake masah upon his leather (socks) as well as his ordinary socks.This Hadeeth has been transmitted through two separatechains, both of which have been documented in Al-Mu`jam-ul-Kabeer of Tabraani.59 However, the majority of theMuhadditheen have denied the authenticity of both the chainsin view of various discrepancies therein.The authenticity of the first chainIn the first chain the narrator A`mash is seen to be reportingthis Hadeeth in an unclear and incoherent pretext by using themethod of ‫`( عن‬an) which conceals the defect of the narrator nothearing the Hadeeth personally from the one who he isreporting from.The experts of Hadeeth have unanimously affirmed theesteemed position of Imaam A`mash and bore testimonyto his expertise in the field of Hadeeth. However, together withall praise being accorded to his credit, the Muhadditheen havealso admitted that Imaam A`mash was discredited on account58 Ad-Diraayah, (Hidaayah, 1/60)59 Al-Mu`jam-ul-Kabeer - Tabraani, 1/351 45
  • 46. Masah on socksof his Tadlees i.e. he used to narrate certain Ahaadeeth fromsuch personalities regarding whom he either never met, orthough he met them, but never heard those Ahaadeeth fromthem.60Since the Hadeeth under discussion fits the above mentioneddescription, it will enter under the purview of criticism of theMuhadditheen, thereby rating it as inefficient and incapable ofbeing presented as an argument.The authenticity of the second chainIn the second chain, two narrators Yazeed bin Ziyaad and IbnuAbi Layla, have been criticised by the Muhadditheen. AllaamahZayla`ee states that Yazeed bin Ziyaad and Ibnu AbiLayla are regarded as weak despite being attributed withtruthfulness.61 Allaamah Mubarakpuri has also declaredYazeed bin Ziyaad as one who is deemed ‚weak‛.62Hafiz Ibnu Hajar described Yazeed bin Ziyaad in thefollowing words: ‚He is a weak narrator. After he attained oldage, his memory began to wane. Hence he had to becontinuously reminded and corrected. Together with this, hewas also a Shi`ah.‛63Therefore, from the above mentioned declarations of theMuhadditheen we conclude that the Hadeeth of Bilaal  isclassified as weak according to the experts of Hadeeth.60 Meezaan-ul-I`itidaal, 3/316, / Tahzeeb-ut-Tahzeeb, 4/20361 Nasb-ur-Raayah, 1/18662 Tuhfat-ul-Ahwazi, 1/28163 Taqreeb-ut-Tahzeeb, 2/365 46
  • 47. Masah on socksThe narration of Hazrat Thowbaan The fourth proof of the Ahle-Hadeeth is the Hadeeth ofThowbaan  which is reported in Sunan Abu Dawood,Musnad Ahmad and Mustadrak Haakim. ‫ سرية فأصاهبم الربد فلما قدموا على رسول اهلل‬ ‫ قال : بعث رسول اهلل‬ ‫عن ثوبان‬ ‫أمرهم أن ميسحوا على العصائب والتساخني‬It has been reported on the authority of Hazrat Thowbaan  thatonce Rasulullah  dispatched a group of Sahaabah in Jihaad. Duringthe journey, these Sahaabah experienced extreme difficulty due to thecold weather conditions. When they returned to MadeenahMunawwarah, they related their hardships to Rasulullah .Rasulullah  permitted them (in such circumstances) to performmasah upon their turbans and tasakheen.64The authenticity of this narrationThis Hadeeth has been authenticated by Imaam Haakimbased on the fact that it complies with the conditions ofacceptance laid down by Imaam Muslim. The authenticationof Imaam Haakim has been further corroborated by ImaamZahabi . The Ahle-Hadeeth define the word tasakheen inthis Hadeeth to mean socks. They attribute this definition toImaam Ibnul Atheer , the author of the famous kitaab An-Nihaayah fi Ghareeb-il-Hadeeth wal Athar.Our response to the Hadeeth of Thowbaan  is that we do notdeny its authenticity in any way. However, an in-depth study64 1) Sunan Abu Dawood, 1/21 2) Musnad Ahmad, 16/291, Hadeeth No. 22283 3) Mustadrak Haakim, 1/275, Hadeeth No. 602 47
  • 48. Masah on socksof the word tasakheen in the Arabic lexicons will reveal adegree of injustice perpetrated by the Ahle-Hadeeth in thismatter.The Arabic lexicons are explicit that the word tasakheen meanskhuffain and not jowrabain. Even the author of Nihaayah,Allaamah Ibnul Atheer, to whom the incorrect meaning oftasakheen is wrongly attributed, has confirmed that theintended meaning of ‚tasakheen‛ is khuffain.The following Arabic lexicons clearly establish that tasakheenmeans khuffain:An-Nihaayah fi Ghareeb-il-Hadeeth wal Athar (by IbnulAtheer), Majma`u Bihaar-il-Anwaar fi Gharaaib-it-Tanzeel waLataaif-il- Akhbaar (by Muhammad Taahir Al-Patni), Al-Faaiqfi Ghareeb-il- Hadeeth (by Zamakhsharee), Ghareeb-ul-Hadeeth (by Abu `Ubaid Qaasim bin Sallaam Al-Harawi),Taaj-ul-`Aroos (by Murtadha Zabeedee), Lisaan-ul-`Arab (byIbnu Manzoor Ifreeqi)ConclusionEach of these lexicons proves that the correct meaning oftasakheen is khuffain and not jowrabain (socks). Similarly, allthese lexicons also quote the verdict of the author of An-Nihaayah which clearly reveals that according to Imaam IbnulAtheer also, the meaning of tasakheen is khuffain. 48
  • 49. Masah on socksThe different kinds of Jawaarib (non leather socks)There are two types of Jawaarib (socks) made of material otherthan leather. The two kinds are called: Thakheen and Raqeeq.Thakheen socksIn the terminology of the Fuqahaa, Thakheen are socks of suchdurable and tough material which renders them in thecategory of the khuffain. (The properties of Thakheen havealready been explained).Raqeeq socksNon-leather socks which do not possess the properties ofThakheen socks are called ‚Raqeeq‛ in the terminology of theFuqahaa.Allaamah Shams-ul-A’immah Al-Halwaaee is reportedto have said:There are five types of socks:Firstly, those socks which are manufactured from the wool ofsheep.Secondly, those socks which are manufactured from spunthread.Thirdly, those socks which are manufactured from the hair(hides) of animals.Fourthly, those socks which are manufactured from thinleather.Fifthly, those socks which are manufactured from cotton. 49
  • 50. Masah on socksAllaamah Shams-ul-A’immah Al-Halwaaee thereafterexplained that each of these types was at times made of thinmaterial and at times of durable and tough material.Sometimes people would attach leather to the sole of thesesocks or leather was sewn on the entire outer layer of the sock.At times they would sew leather on the inner layer.65Allaamah Tibi66, Allaamah Ibnul Manzoor67 and AllaamahZabeedee68 ‫ ز ِ م ُ ُم هللا‬have defined the jowrab to be a general َ َcovering (cloth) which is used to cover the feet. However,Allaamah Tibi added that the cloth be of leather material.Allaamah Qadhi Abu Bakr Ibnul `Arabi states:Jowrab is any type of footwear produced from wool in order toprotect the feet from cold.69Imaam Nawawi states:Jowrab is footwear made of strong (tough) material which willenable a musaafir to walk a considerable distance (withoutwearing shoes). Hence, masah will be rendered invalid ifperformed on thin socks or even that which is made fromwool.70Shaikh `Abdul Haq Dehlawi states:Jawaarib (socks) is a material that is worn above the khuffainwhich covers the entire feet (including the ankles). The65 Ghunyat-ul-Mustamli, p. 11966 Sharh-ut-Tibi, 1/28267 Lisaan-ul-`Arab, 1/58468 Taaj-ul-`Aroos, 1/18169 Tuhfat-ul-Ahwazi, 1/28270 Roudat-ut-Taalibeen, 1/239 50
  • 51. Masah on sockspurpose of the socks is to prevent water or dirt reaching thekhuffain and to protect the feet from cold.71,72Note: All these various types of Jawaarib (socks) werecommonly used during the past centuries of Islam. However,the validity of masah upon the Jawaarib (socks) is dependentupon the explained conditions.List of Sahaabah  who performed masah upontheir socks:It is authentically proven that Sahaabah  used to make masahupon their socks. Shaikh Jamaal-ud-Deen Al-Qaasimi listedsixteen Sahaabah  who used to perform masah upon theirsocks.73 Allaamah Ibnul Munzir mentioned nineSahaabah  who are known to have performed masah on theirsocks.74 They were:Hazrat Abu Mas`ood Al-Ansaari  75Hazrat `Ali  7671 Ghaayat-ul-Maqsood, 2/3772 Apart from these above quoted excerpts there are many other definitions which are found in thecommentaries of Hadeeth (some of which have been recorded by this servant in a treatise titled Al-Mashu `alal-Jowrabain). The Ulama explain that there is totally no contradiction between thesedefinitions. Instead all these definitions entail the various types of Jawaarib which were in vogue incertain parts of the world throughout the different centuries of Islaam.73 Al-Mashu `alal-Jowrabain, p. 5274 Tuhfat-ul-Ahwazi, 1/27775 1) Musannaf Ibnu Abi Shaibah, 1/171, reported from Hammam . 2) Ibid, p. 172, reported from Basheer bin `Uqbah . 3) As-Sunan-ul-Kubra lil-Baihaqi, 1/285, reported from Khaalid bin Sa`d . 4) Musannaf `Abdur Razzaaq, 1/199, reported from Khaalid bin Sa`d . 51
  • 52. Masah on socksHazrat Anas  77Hazrat Baraa bin `Aazib  78Hazrat `Uqbah bin `Amr  79Hazrat Ibnu Mas`ood  80Hazrat Ibnu `Umar  81Hazrat `Ammar  82Hazrat Bilaal  83ConclusionWe do not doubt or dispute the authority of theaforementioned Sahaabah , for most certainly we believe thatevery Sahaabi was a beacon of guidance for the entire Ummahof Rasulullah . Moreover, apart from these few Aathaar(reports), other reports are also recorded in the books of76 1) Musannaf Ibnu Abi Shaibah, 1/172, reported from Ka`b bin `Abdillah. 2) Ibid, 1/172, reported from `Amr bin Kuraib / p. 172, reported from Khallaas. 3) As-Sunan-ul-Kubra lil-Baihaqi, 1/285, reported from `Abdullah bin Ka`b. 4) Ibid, reported from Ka`b bin `Abdillah with two chains of narrators. 5) Musannaf `Abdur Razzaaq, 1/199, reported from Ka`b bin `Abdillah.77 1) Musannaf Ibnu Abi Shaibah, 1/172, reported from Qataadah. 2) Ibid, reported from `Abdullah bin Dhiraar. 3) As-Sunan-ul-Kubra lil-Baihaqi, 1/285, reported from Sa`eed bin `Abdillah. 4) Ibid, reported from Raashid bin Najeeh. 5) Musannaf `Abdur Razzaaq, 1/200, reported from Qataadah.78 1) Musannaf Ibnu Abi Shaibah, 1/172, reported from Isma`eel bin Umayyah. 2) Ibid, reported from the father of Isma`eel bin Rajaa. 3) Musannaf `Abdur Razzaaq, 1/200, reported from the father of Isma`eel bin Rajaa. 4) As-Sunan-ul-Kubra-Baihaqi, 1/285, reported from the father of Isma`eel bin Rajaa.79 1) Musannaf Ibnu Abi Shaibah, 1/171, reported from Khaalid bin Sa`eed. 2) Ibid, p. 172, reported from Abu Waail.80 Musannaf `Abdur Razzaaq, 1/200-201, reported from Ibraahim An-Nakha`ee.81 1) Musannaf `Abdur Razzaaq, 1/199, reported from Abu Julaas. 2) Ibid, p. 217, reported from Yahya Al-Bukaa`. 3) Musannaf Ibnu Abi Shaibah, 1/173, reported from Yahya Al-Bukaa`.82 Al-Awsat fis-Sunan wal-Ijmaa` wal-Ikhtilaaf - Ibnul Munzir An-Naysaaburi, 1/46383 Al-Awsat fis-Sunan wal-Ijmaa` wal-Ikhtilaaf - Ibnul Munzir An-Naysaaburi, 1/463 52
  • 53. Masah on socksHadeeth, some of which are classified authentic and someunauthentic according to the terminology of the Muhadditheen.However, it is vitally important for us to comprehend that themere mention of any Sahaabi’s performing masah on his sockswill not afford us the permission nor warrant us the license toexecute that action until it is absolutely certain that our actionis in total compliance and conformity with what they did inreality.The reality is that various types of socks existed during the eraof the Sahaabah . Furthermore, the exact and completedescription of the socks upon which they used to performmasah has not been reported in any narration. Thus, for one todeduce permissibility from such reports is indeed incorrect.The renowned Ahle-Hadeeth Allaamah Shams-ul-HaqAzeemabadi states: There are many types of socks (availablenowadays). Some types are produced from hides of animals,some from the wool of sheep and similarly some are madefrom cotton. Moreover the connotation of the word "socks"equally holds true on each type of socks present today. We areall well aware that the concession of performing masah (uponthe socks) can only be extended to all these various types ofsocks after authentically establishing that the jowrabain presenttoday resembles the jowrabain upon which Rasulullah  or theSahaabah  performed masah. (But since this cannot beproven, how can general concession ever be issued?)8484 Ghaayat-ul-Maqsood, 2/40 53
  • 54. Masah on socksSummary* The A’immah-e-Arba`ah – The Four Imaams of Fiqh (May AllahTa`ala reward them on behalf of the Ummah) lived in the eraclosest to Rasulullah  and the Sahaabah . They had eithermet the illustrious Sahaabah  or the students of the Sahaabah. They did not examine the Ahaadeeth (the Sunnah) ofRasulullah  merely by studying the words of the Hadeeth.Rather, they witnessed the practical demonstration and theimplementation of the Sunnah in the company of the Sahaabah and the students of the Sahaabah . For this very reason wefind that Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal ruled that thejowrabain (socks) must be of such durable material that one isable to continuously walk in them (without wearing shoes).Imaam Ahmad further explained that it is upon this typeof jowrabain that the Sahaabah  performed masah, as it closelyresembled the khuffain.85* The A’immah-e-Arba`ah exercised extreme care andprecaution to ensure that none of the limits of Shari`ah betransgressed, nor any injunction of Deen (i.e. the laws of theQur’aan Shareef or Sunnah) be violated. As a result of thisprecaution, they had restricted the validity of masah uponsocks with certain basic requirements which would qualify thesocks to enter within the purview of the khuffain. This wasconsidered necessary in order to avoid any contradiction withthe injunction of the Qur’aan Shareef in relation to washingthe feet. Imaam Muslim is reported to have stated: ‚We85 Al-Mughni, 1/331-334 54
  • 55. Masah on socksare not prepared to abandon the Qur’aan Shareef because ofthe weak narration of Abu Qais (which establishespermissibility of masah upon the socks).‛86* We have previously explained that since masah on thekhuffain is established through Ahaadeeth-e-Mutawaatirah, it willqualify the generality of a Qur’aanic injunction. Hence, theA’immah-e-Arba`ah in order to reconcile between the Qur’aanShareef and the Sunnah, regarded the enactment of theQur’aanic injunction of washing the feet as obligatory in thecondition where the feet are not covered by any footwear. Asfor the condition where the feet are covered by the khuffain orthat which resembles the khuffain, they declared performingmasah upon the khuffain as permissible, acting upon thedictates of the Ahaadeeth-e-Mutawaatirah which establishpermissibility of masah on the khuffain. However, due to theAhaadeeth of jowrabain not reaching the level of tawaatur, theyare unable to establish independent validity and permission. Ifmasah on jowrabain is regarded as permissible despite theAhaadeeth not reaching the level of tawaatur, it will result in usabandoning the Qur’aanic injunction of washing the feet.Nevertheless, the A’immah-e-Arba`ah did not entirely disregardthe Ahaadeeth of jowrabain, as is the misconception of the Ahle-Hadeeth. Instead, they practised upon it in the case where theexplained conditions are existent.* The Authority, Imaam Jassas encapsulates thisdiscussion in Ahkaam-ul-Qur’aan. He writes:86 As-Sunan-ul-Kubra lil-Baihaqi, 1/284 55
  • 56. Masah on socks‚The actual basis is that the injunction in the Aayah of Wudhu isof washing the feet. This is proven (by Nass-e-Qat`ee87). If itwere not for the Ahaadeeth-e-Mutawaatirah narrated fromRasulullah  regarding Masah `Alal Kuffain, we would nothave permitted it. Since authentic Ahaadeeth (of the Mutawaatircategory) have been narrated in this regard, we used it asproof to establish the permissibility of masah on khuffain. As forthe Ahaadeeth pertaining to masah on the jowrabain, we leftthem on the basis of the injunction of the verse of the Qur’aan(which commands washing of the feet), since these Ahaadeethdid not reach the mutawaatir category. Thus, the Qur’aanicinjunction of washing the feet was upheld and masah onjowrabain was not permitted.‛88Summary of DiscussionThe crux of this discussion can be summarised as follows:1. The most important act after Imaan is Salaah. The key toSalaah is Wudhu.2. The Qur’aanic injunction explicitly commands the washingof the feet in Wudhu. This injunction dictates that the feetshould always be washed in Wudhu.3. Since the Ahaadeeth which mention the permissibility ofmasah on khuffain (leather socks) have reached the level of87 Nass-e-Qat`ee is an explicit textual proof established from a Qur’aanic verse or a MutawaatirHadeeth.88 Ahkaam-ul-Qur’aan, 2/440 56
  • 57. Masah on sockstawaatur, the scholars are unanimous that masah on khuffain ispermissible.4. The Ahaadeeth which apparently permit masah on jowrabain(non-leather socks) are weak and cannot be used to establishpermissibility of any aspect in Deen.5. If the Ahaadeeth of jowrabain were authentic then too itwould not be permissible to restrict or qualify the explicitinjunction of the Qur’aan on the basis of these few Ahaadeeth.6. The overwhelming majority of scholars in every era,including the four great Imaams of fiqh, Imaam Bukhari, ImaamMuslim, numerous other expert Muhadditheen as well as thelikes of Allaamah Shams-ul-Haq Azeemabadi and Shaikh`Abdur Rahmaan Mubarakpuri (two of the most senior Ahle-Hadeeth scholars of the last century) have all clearly prohibitedmasah on ordinary socks such as cotton etc.May Allah Ta`ala accept this humble effort and make itbeneficial for the Ummah. Aameen. 57