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  • 1. BYMAULKNA MUFTI MUIjAMMAD SHAFI,&~J~ SJ Translated by Muhammad Shamim Revised by MaulZnZ Muhammad Taqi UsmZni Volume 7(SGrah LuqmGn, As-Sajdah, A1-AhzZb, Saba, Fatir, YZ Sin, As-SafEt, SSd, Az-zumar, Al-Mumin,l$imIm As-Sajdah, ShUrS, Az-Zukhruf, AljSthiyah, Ad-DukhGn,A l - A h k a
  • 2. S.NO Subject Page , CONTENTS1. Preface 192. Transliteration Scheme 211. Verses 1 - 9: Translation and Commentary 25 The cause of revelation 26 Islamic legal injunctions of Lahw wa Lalib(play and game) and its equipment 28 The reading of shameless fiction or poetry or writings of the propoenents of the false is also not permissible 31 Buying and seling of the equipment used in games 31 Allowed and permissible games 31 Games prohibited explicitly 33 The injunctions of music and musical instruments 33 A warning not to be ignored! 35 Reciting morally beneficial poetry in a good voice without musical instruments is not prohibited 352. Verses 10 - 11 : Translation and Commentary 363. Verses 12 - 19 :Translation and Commentary 37 The identity of LuqmZn 39 What does the hikmah given to LuqmZn actually mean? 41 Gratitude and obedience to parents is obligatory - but obedience to anyone counter to divine command is not permissible 43 Islams peerless law of justice 43 Special note 44 The second bequest of LuqmZn about articles of belief 44 The third bequest of LuqmZn about the correction of deed 45 The fourth bequest of LuqmZn about the betterment of people 45 The fifth bequest of LuqmZn about social manners 454. Verses 20 - 32 : Translation and Commentary 485. Verses 33 - 34 : Translation and Commentary 53 Special note 55 The issue of the Ilm-ul-ghayb (knowledge of the unseen) 56 A doubt and its answer 58
  • 3. S.No Subject Page The issue of the knowledge of the unssen: An important note 59 Special note concerning the words of the verse 60 SURAH AS-SAJDAH Verses 1- 3 : Translation and Commentary 65 Verses 4 - 9 : Translation and Commentary 67 The length of the day of QiyZmah 68 Everything is good in this world as is - Evil comes through its wrong use 69 Verses 10 - 12: Translation and Commentary 70 Some details about the Exacting of Soul and the angel of death 72 The soul of animals: Does the angel of death exact that too? - 73 Ruling: 74 The ~alTih tahajjud of 74 There are some crimes the punishment of which comes even within the mortal world much before the Hereafter 76 Verses 23 - 23 : Translation and Commentary 77 Two conditions for the leader of any people 78 A wise system of irrigation 79 Verses 1- 3 : Translation and Commentary 85 The background of revelation 85 Explanation of verses 87 Ruling 90 Verses 4 - 5 : Translation and Commentary 90 Ruling 93 Verse 6 :Translation and Commentary 93 Ruling 95 Verses 7 - 8 : Translation and Commentary 96 The Covenant of the Prophets 97 Verses 9 - 27 : Translation and Commentary 98 The event of the battle of al-Ah& 103 A lie is no novelty in the arena of politics! 104 A marvel of the forbearance and magnanimity of Allah TaZlZ! 105 The most lethal attack on Madinah 105 Three ingredients of Muslim war effort 106 The digging of trenches 106
  • 4. S.No Subject Page The size of the Islamic army 107 Participant age of maturity was set a t fifteen years 107 Islamic nationality and Islamic unity do not contradict administrative and social division 107 The job of digging the trenches was spread over the whole army 108 The discrimination of local and foreign in functional expertise 108 A great miracle 108 Divine reminders 109 Hypocrites throw taunts a t Muslims for believing in their Prophets promises 110 Seniors must share every trial with their juniors - Great guidance for Muslims 111 The master prescription of achieving success against something hard to accomplish 111 The selfless mutual cooperation of the noble SahEbah 112 Three and a half mile long trench was completed in six days - 112 An open miracle in the feast hosted by SayyidnZ J a i r (&) 112 The Jews of the tribe of Bani Quraizah break their pledge and join the confederate aggressors 113 A strategic plan of the Holy Prophet (%) 115 The faith, the sense of shame and the granite of a determination shown by a SahEbi of the Rasiil of Allah 116 The wound received by SayyidnZ Sad Ibn MuZdh (&) and his prayer 117 The Holy Prophet (g) to miss four SalZhs in this Jihad - 118 had The prayers of the Holy Prophet ($5) 118 The unraveling of the causes of victory 119 The event of SayyidnZ Hudhaifah (A)going into enemy lines and reporting back about conditions prevailing there 121 Good news after the ambition of the disbelievers is shattered - 123 A special note 124 The battle of Ban5 Quraizah 124 In the difference of Mujtahids, no side is sinful or blameworthy 124 The Speech of Kab, the Chief of BanG Quraizah 125 Return of favour and national pride: Two unique models 127 A special note of caution 1286. Verses 28 - 34 : Translation and Commentary 130 Special Note 134 Ruling 134
  • 5. S.No Subject Page The particular position of the blessed wives and the rationale of hard restrictions placed on them 134 Special Note 136 The reward for the good deed of an Alim exceeds that of others, and the punishment of his sin too 136 Special Instructions given to the blessed wives 137 Are the blessed wives superior to all women of the world? - 138 The first instruction 139 Ruling 140 The second instruction 140 Occasions of need have been exempted from the obligation of staying in homes 141 The offensive lapses o_f the rawafid about the journey of Ummul- Muminin Sayyidah Aishah to B a ~ r a h the event and of the battle of Jamal 143 The third, fourth and fifth instruction of the Quran to the blessed wives 148 These five instructions apply to all Muslims universally 148 What does Ah1 al-Bayt: "People of the House" signify in this verse? 149 Special Note 152 The Protection of QurZn and Hadith 1527. Verse 35 : Translation and Commentary 153 The QurZnic addresses in masculine gender normally include women: The wisdom behind it 153 The injunction of making the dhikr of Allah Abundantly and its wisdom 1548. Verses 36 - 39 : Translation and Commentary 155 A subtle point 157 A lesson to remember 158 The injunction to consider the principle of (kuf? in marriage - 159 The Issue of equality in marriage (Kafaah) 160 The second event 161 To protect oneself against taunts thrown by people is praiseworthy unless it affects some objective of the Shariah 165 Prefacing a n answer to doubts and objections 167 A wise consideration 167 A doubt and its answer 1689. Verse 40 :Translation and Commentary 168 The Issue of termination of prophethood 173 The Holy Prophets @) being the last Prophet does not negate
  • 6. S.No Subject Page the descent of SayyidnZ ISZI)(@ in the last days 174 Distortion of the meaning of prophethood and invention of new kinds of prophethood 17510. Verses 41 - 48 : Translation and Commentary 179 Special attributes of the Holy Prophet (&) 18311. Verse 49 : Translation and Commentary 186 There are three injunctions regarding divorce in this v e r s e 187 Details of Mutah to be given a t the time of Divorce 188 Islams Matchless teaching in discharging social obligations gracefully 18812. Verses 50 - 52 : Translation and Commentary 189 The first injunction 191 The second injunction 191 The third injunction 192 The fourth injunction 193 The fifth injunction 194 The sixth injunctions 195 The wisdom of sixth injunction 196 The pious life of the Holy Prophet (g) the issue and of polygamy 197 Seventh injunction 19813. Verses 53 - 55 : Translation and Commentary 200 The first injunction: Etiquettes for hosts and guests 202 The second injunction - HijZb for women 203 The special importance of womens HijZb 203 The background of the revelation of these verses 204 The third injunction 206 Injunctions of HijZb: And the Islamic system for prevention of misdeeds 207 The golden Islamic prhciple of barring the ways and means for prevention of crimes in a moderate manner 209 Important caution 211 The advent of HijZb in historical perspective 212 The difference between the injunctions of Satr-ul-Awrah and veiling of women (HijZb) 215 The second issue - the HijZb of women 216 The degrees of Islamic legal Hijab and the injunctions relating to them 218 The first degree of HijZb from people by virtue of staying home 219
  • 7. S.No Subiect Paae Special note 220 The second degree of HijZb with burqa 222 The third degree of Islamic legal HijZb about which jurists differ 223 Ruling 22714. Verse 56 : Translation and Commentary 227 The meaning of ~aliih (durood) and sallEm 228 The method of salZih and sa2Zm 229 The wisdom behind the aforesaid method of 23 1 salTih and sa2Zm 231 The injunctions of SalZh and salZm 231 Related Rulings 23115. Verses 57 - 58 : Translation and Commentary 234 Causing pain to the Holy Prophet (%) in any form or manner is kufr (id~delity) 237 Ruling 237 Hurting or causing pain to any Muslim without a valid Islamic legal justification is forbidden (E;IarZm) 23716. Verses 59 - 63 - Translation and Commentary 238 A necessary point of clarification 240 A person who turns an apostate (murtadd)after having embraced Islam is killed in punishment 241 Some Rulings 24217. Verses 63 - 68 : Translation and Commentary 24218. Verses 69 - 71 : Translation and Commentary 243 Customarily, Allah TaElZ keeps prophets free from physical defects causing aversion 246 Correct use of ones power of speech is a n effective source of correcting dl1 deeds issuing forth from other parts of the body 247 Injunctions of the Qur5n were made easy to follow 24 7 Saying what is right leads to doing what is right both here and Hereinafter 24819. Verses 72 - 73 : Translation and Commentary 248 What does!amanahWmean? 249 An investigation into the manner the trust was offered -251 The acceptance of the offer of the trust was optional, not mandatory 252 During which period of time did this event of the offer of trust take place? 254 For vicegerency on the earth, the ability to bear the responsibilities of the great trust was necessary 254
  • 8. S.No Subject Page SURAH SABA Verses 1- 9 : Translation and Commentary 259 Verses 10 - 14 : Translation and Commentary 263 Special note 266 The merit and grace of inventing, making and producing things 267 I t is a sin to take the labourers as low in rank 267 The wisdom of having SayyidnZ DZwEd (3241) trained into the making of coat of mail 267 Ruling 268 Special note 269 The matter of the subjugation of Jinns 271 The injunction of having a separate place for making a M*rZb in Masajid 274 Ruling 275 The prohibition of making and using pictures of the living in S h a s a h 275 The prohibition of pictures: A common doubt and its answer - 276 A photograph is also a picture 279 The reality of Shukr (gratitude) and its injunctions 280 The strange event of the death of Sayyidnii SulaymZn 1) -( - 281 Special note 285 Verses 15 - 19 : Translation and Commentary 285 The people of Saba and the particular blessings of Allah upon them 285 The flood of the dam (say1al-brim) and the Dam of Maarib (the sadd of Maarib) 288 Special note 292 Verses 20 - 21 : Translation and Commentary 297 Verses 22 - 27 : Translation and Commentary 297 Consideration of the psychology of the addressee in debates and avoidance of any approach that may provoke violant attitude 300 Verse 28 :Translation and Commentary 301 Verses 29 - 33 : Translation and Commentary 303 Verses 34 - 38 : Translation and Commentary 304 The age-old satanic illusion of taking worldly riches and honours a s a proof of being loved by Allah 304 Verse 39 : Translation and Commentary 308 There is no promise of a return for spending that is not in
  • 9. S.No Subject Page accordance with the Shariah 310 With the decrease in the use of something, its production also decreases 310 Verses 40 - 42 :Translation and Commentary 311 Verses 43 - 50 : Translation and Commentary 312 Call to the disbelievers of Makkah 313 Verses 51 - 54 :Translation and Commentary 316 Verses 1- 3 : Translation and Commentary 321 Trust in Allah delivers from all hardships 324 Verses 4 - 8 : Translation and Commentary 325 Verses 9 - 14 :Translation and Commentary 327 Verses 15 - 26 :Translation and Commentary 333 Verses 27 - 28 :Translation and Commentary 336 Sequence of the Verses 336 A subtle grammatical point 337 Verses 29 - 37 : Translation and Commentary 340 Good deeds likened with trade 343 A peculiarity of the Muslim Community, and that of its Ulama 346 Three kinds of the Muslim ummah 346 A doubt and its answer 347 The great merit of the Ulama of the Muslim ummah 349 Special note 350 A person who will use utensils of gold and silver and dresses of silk will remain deprived of these in Jannah 351 Verses 38 - 41 : Translation and Commentary 356 Verses 42 - 45 :Translation and Commentary 357 Verses 1- 12 :Translation and Commentary 363 The merits of Stirah I5 Sin 364 About Giving someone the name: (YZ Sin: written a s E s i n ) - 366 The effects of deeds are also recorded like the deeds themselves 368 Verses 13 - 32 :Translation and Commentary 370 The town in which this event took place 372
  • 10. S.No Subject Page What does messenger mean? Who were these people? 373 The event relating to the person coming from the farthest part of the city 375 The prophetic method of dawah (preaching) : Significant guidance for message bearers of Islam 378 Verses 33 - 44 : Translation and Commentary 381 Growth of vegetation is not an act of man 383 The particular difference between human and animal food - 384 The prostration of the sun: A look into the phenomenon of the sun performing sajdah (prostration) beneath the Arsh 388 Special note 395 The stages of the moon 396 No wonder if the Qur5n is alluding to the aeroplane! 397 Verses 45 - 47 : Translation and Commentary 398 The wisdom behind some people receiving their sustenance indirectly 399 Verses 48 - 68 : Translation and Commentary 400 Verses 69 - 75 : Translation and Commentary 408 Gift of God - not capital or labor - is the real wisdom behind the ownership of things 411 Verses 76 - 83 : Translation and Commentary 412 Verses 1 - 10 : Translation and Commentary 419 Subjects of the siirah 419 Tauhid: The Oneness of Allah is the first subject 420 Discipline is desirable in Islam 42 1 The importance of making rows come straight and right in salah 422 Why has the statement been sworn by the angels? 423 Injunctions about sworn statement of Allah TaZlZ Three questions and their answers 423 Explanation of verses 426 The Real Objective 429 Verses 11 - 18 : Translation and Commentary 429 The proof of the miracles of the Holy Prophet (g) 432 Verses 19 - 26 : Translation and Commentary 433 Verses 27 - 40 : Translation and Commentary 435 Verses 41 : 61 : Translation and Commentary 437 An inmate of Jannah and his disbelieving acquaintance 44 1
  • 11. S.No Subject Page An advice to avoid bad company 443 Wondering about not having to die anymore 443 Verses 62 - 74 : Translation and Commentary 444 The reality of Zaqqiim 445 Verses 75 - 82 : Translation and Commentary 446 Verses 83 98 : Translation and Commentary 449 The purpose of casting a glance a t the stars 451 Astrology: Its status in Islam 453 How to explain the indisposition of SayyidnZ I b r a i r n (Wl) ? 456 The Islamic legal ruling on (equivocation) 458 Verses 99 - 113 : Translation and Commentary 459 The sacrifice of a son 460 Explanatory notes on the verses 460 The proof of revelation not recited (wahy ghayr maluww) - 463 Which son was to be slaughtered? Was it SayyidnZ IsmZfl (Wl)? Or, was it SayyidnZ IshZq (%!3)? 466 Verses 114 - 122 : Translation and Commentary 472 Verses 123 - 132 : Translation and Commentary 473 Sayyidnii IlyZs (3491) 473 When and where did he appear? 474 SayyidnZ IlyZs (MI): struggle with his people The 474 Is SayyidnZIlyZs (Wl) alive? 476 Ascribing the attribute of creation to anyone other than Allah is not permissible 479 Verses 133 - 138 : Translation and Commentary 480 Verses 139 - 148 : Translation and Commentary 480 The injunction of drawing lots 482 Distress is removed by tasbih (remembrance) and istighfar (repentance) 483 Exposing the fraud of the QZdyZni imposter 485 Verses 149 - 166 : Translation and Commentary 485 An ilzami answer (based on adversarys assumption) is more appropriate for the obstinate 488 Verses 167 - 179 : Translation and Commentary 489 The sense of the victory of the people of Allah 490 Verses 180 - 182 : Translation and Commentary 492 - - SURAH SAD1. Verses 1 - 16 : Translation and Commentary 497
  • 12. S.No Subject Page The background of the revelation 498 Verses 17 - 20 : Translation and Commentary 501 The galah of ad-Duha 502 Verses 21 - 25 : Translation and Commentary 504 Natural fear is not contrary to the station of a prophet or man of Allah 509 Observe patience against contravention of established rules of etiquette until attending circumstances unfold 510 A man of stature should observe patience to the best of his ability over errors made by those in need , 510 Soliciting contribution, or event gift, under pressure of any kind is usurpation 511 Partnership in transactions needs great caution 512 By doing ruku the sajdah of tilawah (recitation) stands performed 513 The sajdah of tilawah (recitation): Some rulings 513 When warn, warn with wisdom! 514 Verses 26 : Translation and Commentary 515 The basic function of a n Islamic state is to establish truth - 516 The relationship of the judiciary and the executive 516 The first thing to watch around offices charged with responsibility is the character of the human being sitting there 517 Verses 27 - 29 : Translation and Commentary 517 The delicate order of the verses 518 Verses 30 - 33 : Translation and Commentary 519 The story of the return and resetting of the Sun 522 In the event one neglects the remembrance of Allah, some self-imposed penalty is in order as part of ones remorse 522 The ruler should personally keep watching over the functions of the state 523 At the time of one act of ibadah (worship), engaging in another is a n error 524 Verse 34 : Translation and Commentary 524 Verses 35 40 : Translation and Commentary 527 Praying for office and power 528 Verses 41 - 44 : Translation and Commentary 529 The nature of the ailment of SayyidnZ Ayyiib (ml) 530 Some issues relating to legal aspects of this event are being identified here 531 The Islamic legal status of stratagems 532 Resorting to a n oath to do what is inappropriate 532
  • 13. S.No Subject Page Verses 45 - 64 : Translation and Commentary 533 Concern for a h i r a h is a distinct attribute of the noble prophets 535 The Prophet : (al-Yasa: Elisha) ($2231) 535 Consideration of matching age between spouses is better 536 Verses 65 - 88 :Translation and Commentary 536 A gist of the subjects of the siirah 538 The blameworthiness of artificial behavior 540 SURAH AZ-ZUMAR Verses 1- 6 : Translation and Commentary 543 Acceptance of deeds with Allah depends on unalloyed measure of sincerity 545 Even the polytheists of that period were better than the disbelievers of today 546 Both the moon and the sun move 547 Verses 7 - 10 : Translation and Commentary 549 Ruling 550 Verses 11- 20 :Translation and Commentary 553 Verses 21 - 23 : Translation and Commentary 556 Verses 24 - 28 : Translation and Commentary 561 Verses 29 - 35 :Translation and Commentary 562 Justice in the court of resurrection: The form in which the right of the oppressed will be retrieved from the oppressor 563 All deeds will be given against oppressions and infringement of rights, but ones ;man (faith) will not be given 565 Verses 36 - 41 : Translation and Commentary 565 A lesson, and a good counsel 567 Verses 42 - 45 : Translation and Commentary 568 The time to sleep and the time to die: How is the soul exacted and what is the difference between the two 568 Verses 46 - 52 :Translation and Commentary 570 A prayer that is answered 571 An important instruction concerning mushajarat (disagreements among SahZbah) 572 Verses 53 - 61 : Translation and Commentary 572 Verses 62 - 67 :Translation and Commentary 576 - Verses 68 75 :Translation and Commentary 578
  • 14. S.No Subject Page SURAH AL-MUMIN Verses 1- 9 : Translation and Commentary 585 SErah Al-Mumin: characteristics and merits 586 Protection against everything unwelcome 587 Protection against a n enemy 587 A strange event 588 The effect of these verses in reforming people, and a great directive of Sayyidnii Umar (&) 588 A warning 589 Explanation of verses 590 Verses 10 - 12 : Translation and Commentary 593 Verses 13 - 22 : Translation and Commentary 593 Verses 23 - 46 : Translation and Commentary 596 Punishment in graves 607 Verses 47 - 50 : Translation and Commentary 607 Verses 51 - 60 : Translation and Commentary 608 The reality of duZ(supp1ication) and its merits, levels and conditions of acceptance 610 Merits of duZ 613 Ruling 614 DuZand the promise of acceptance 614 Conditions of the acceptance of duZ 614 Verses 61 - 68 : Translation and Commentary 615 Verses 69 - 78 : Translation and Commentary 617 Verses 79 - 85 : Translation and Commentary 621 SURAH HAMIM AS-SAJDAH Verses 1- 8 : Translation and Commentary 627 An offer by the infidels of Makkah to the Holy Prophet (B) - 629 Prophetic reply to the Denial and ridicule of disbelievers 633 Are Non-Muslims required to follow the practical injunctions of Shariah? 633 Verses 9 - 12 : Translation and Commentary 635 The order of creation of the skies and the earth, and the Days of Creation 636 Verses 13 - 25 :Translation and Commentary 642 The evidence of mans limbs and organs after resurrection 647 Verses 26 - 29 : Translation and Commentary 647 It is W j i b (necessary) to listen quietly while QurEn is being
  • 15. 16 Subject Page recited; It is infidels way not to remain quiet 648 Verses 30 : 36 : Translation and Commentary 649 The sense of being upright 650 Verses 37 - 39 : Translation and Commentary 654 I t is Not permissible to prostrate before anyone except Allah Almighty 654 Verses 40 : 46 : Translation and Commentary 656 Description and rules of Ilhzd- A particular kind of kufr -657 Removal of a misunderstanding 658 Verses 47 : 54 : Translation and Commentary 663 SURAHSHURA Verses 1- 9 : Translation and Commentary 669 Verses 10 - 12 : Translation and Commentary 672 Verses 13 - 15 : Translation and Commentary 673 Establishing the dTn is obligatory duty and dissension in it is forbidden 675 Differences in the ancillaries between leading Mujtahidh is not covered by the dissension forbidden in this verse 676 Verses 16 - 18 : Translation and Commentary 680 Verses 19 - 20 : TransIation and Commentary 682 Verses 21 - 23 : Translation and Commentary 683 Respect and love for the Holy Prophets (%) family and progeny 685 Verses 24 - 26 : Translation and Commentary 687 The reality of Taubah (repentence) 688 Verses 27 - 35 : Translation and Commentary 689 Sequence and background of revelation 690 General abundance of wealth in the world is cause of tumult - 691 The difference between paradise and the world 692 Verses 36 - 43 : Translation and Commentary 694 Importance of consultation and its process 698 The moderate decision between forgiveness and revenge 700 Verses 44 - 50 :Translation and Commentary 700 Verses 51 - 53 : Translation and Commentary 703 SURAH AZ-ZUKHRUF The Gold1. Verses 1- 8 :Translation and Commentary 709
  • 16. 17S.No Subject Page A Preacher must not give up his preaching due to disappointment 7102. Verses 9 - 25 : Translation and Commentary 710 Supplications of a traveler 7133. Verses 26 - 30 :Translation and Commentary 7154. Verses 31 - 32 :Translation and Commentary 717 The Natural system of distributionof wealth . 719 The truth about economic equality 720 The meaning of Islamic equality 7235. Verses 33 - 35 : Translation and Commentary 724 Superiority is not based upon wealth and property 7256. Verses 36 - 45 :Translation and Commentary 726 .Good fame is liked by Islam 728 Teachings about oneness in the scriptures of the earlier prophets 7297. Verses 46 - 56 :Translation and Commentary 7308. Verses 57 - 65 :Translation and Commentary 7329. Verses 66 - 77 : Translation and Commentary 735 The only real friendship is that which is in the sake of Allah - 73610. Verses 78 : 89 :Translation and Commentary 738 SURAHAD-DUKHKN (The Smoke)1. Verses 1- 9 : Translation and Commentary 743 The merit of the siirah 7442. Verses 10 - 16 :Translation and Commentary 7463. Verses 17 - 33 : Translation and Commentary 754 Weeping of the sky and the earth 7554. Verses 34 - 42 :Translation and Commentary 757 The story of Tubba 7585. Verses 43 - 59 :Translation and Commentary 760 Punishment and reward of the Hereafter 761 Punishment of the dwellers of Hell 761 Reward of the inmates of Paradise 762
  • 17. S.No Subject Page (kneeling) Verses 1- 11: Translation and Commentary 767 Verses 12 - 15 : Translation and Commentary 770 Verses 16 - 20 : Translation and Commentary 772 The status of previous Shariahs for us 774 Verses 21 - 22 : Translation and Commentary 774 The Hereafter: Divine requital is rationally necessary 775 Verses 23 - 26 : Translation and Commentary 776 Reviling time is inappropriate 778 Verses 27 - 37 : Translation and Commentary 779 SURAH AL-AHKAF (The Sand-dunes) Verses 1- 6 : Translation and Commentary 785 Verses 7 - 10 : Translation and Commentary 787 Dictate of etiquette regarding the knowledge of the Holy Prophet (g) about unseen matters 789 Verses 11 - 12 : Translation and Commentary 790 Verses 13 - 20 : Translation and Commentary 792 Mother has more rights than father 795 Conclusion 796 Different views of Jurists about maximum period of pregnancy and maximum period of suckling 797 Incentive for avoiding worldly delights and luxuries 802 Verses 21 - 28 : Translation and Commentary 802 Verses 29 - 32 : Translation and Commentary 805 Verses 33 - 35 :Translation and Commentary 807 Index 813
  • 18. Preface With the name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the Very-Merciful By t h e grace of Allah Almighty, t h e s e v e n t h volume ofMaiiriful-Quran is now in t h e hands of t h e readers. But whilepresenting it to them, I am unable to suppress my sentiments ofsorrow and grief on a shocking event t h a t took place during theprocess of i t s completion. I t was t h e sad demise of ProfessorMuhammad Shamim, who h a s been the vital spirit behind thisproject for about a decade. After completing the translation of thefifth volume, he had resumed his work on this seventh volume, thesixth volume being undertaken by Mr. I s h r a t Husain. He leftPakistan for USA on the request of his sons, so that they might lookafter his medical treatment. In spite of his deteriorating healthduring his stay in New York, he spared no effort to accomplish thisvolume. He worked day and night in his fervent zeal to serve theHoly Quriin up to his last breath, often ignoring that he was a heartpatient. He s t a r t e d from s u r a h Luqman and concluded SErahMumin on 7th March 2002. Immediately after he started Siirah HaMim As-Sajdah, he encountered a severe heart attack and, within acouple of days, passed away. InnE ZiZlEhi W E inn; ilEihi rEji5n.During his illness he used to express his desire to accomplish thework he had in hand, but a few days before his demise, he borrowedthe words of the author of Maiiriful-QurZn and said "I submit toAllahs will, because t h e Holy Quran i s not something to befinished, rather one should finish his life in the service of the HolyQurZn". Allah TaZlZ has, perhaps, fulfilled his noble desire, and heconsumed his life in carrying on this remarkable service of the HolyBook. This seventh volume is thus appearing a t a time when he is nomore with us to see it. May Allah approve his sincere efforts and
  • 19. Preface 20bless him with eternal rewards in the Hereafter The translation from Siirah & Mim As-Sajdah was undertakenby my learned friend Mr. Shamshad Siddiqi, except for siirahsAd-DukhZn and AljZthiyah t.hat are translated by MoulEnZ AhmadKhalil Aziz of South Africa. Another change that took place in the course of preparation ofthis voiume is that the translation of the text of the Holy QurZn, asmentioned in the beginning of the first volume, was carried out byt h e joint effort of a committee, but when Professor MuhammadShamim left for USA, the committee decided that the translation ofthe text of t h e Holy QurZin should be undertaken by me alone.Accordingly, I a m responsible for t h e t r a n s l a t i o n from StirahAl-AnbiyZ onwards, and I am pleased to say that AlhamdulillZh thetask has now been completed to the last Siirah of the Holy QurZn.The t r a n s l a t i o n of t h e e i g h t h volume of t h e c o m m e n t a r y i sundertaken by MoulZniiAhmad Khalll Aziz of South Africa and isclose to its completion. I a m extremely thankful to Mrs. Shamim a n d h e r sons Mr.Shamail a n d Mr. Sadim whose sincere efforts facilitated t h epreservation of the script of the book and its transmission to us.Acknowledgements a r e also due to Mr, Yousuf Noor, Mr. IshZqNoor, Mr. Yousuf Ghanl, MoulGnG Abdullah Memon, Mr. RafatSaghTr F5rooqui and Mr. Ibrahim NafTs whose valuable assistancemade i t possible to present this volume. May Allah approve allthese efforts and make it beneficial for the readers. Muhammad Taqi UsmZni 6.7.1424A.H.
  • 20. TRANSLITERATIONSCHEMEArabic L e t t e r Name of L e t t e r English Transliteration -- Alif -- b5 -- t z -- thZ -- jim -- h a -- kh5 -- diil -- dhzl - -- ra - -- za -- sin -- shin -- Sad -- diid -- tz - -- ?a -- ayn -- ghayn -- f % -- qzf -- kZf -- lam (CP -- mim 39 -- nun sLa --ha 3 ~3 -- wzw s ojels -- Hamzah - LS el! -- yaShort Vowels : Fathah : Kasrah : DammahLong Vowels I :Shortened Alif : Maddah Alif LS : Maddah E j : Maddah WWDipthongs 4 : Alif and E ay (also ai in some cases) j1 : Alif and K w aw (also au in some cases)
  • 21. SGrah LuqmZn : 31 : 1- 9 25 Siirah LuqmZn Siirah LuqmZn is Makki. It has 34 Verses and 4 Sections With the name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the Very-Merciful Verses 1 - 9 Alif Lam MTm. [I] These are verses of the Wise Book, [2] a guidance and mercy for those good in deeds [3] who are steadfast in QalZh and who pay ZakZh and do have faith in the Hereafter. [4] It is these who are on guidance given by t h e i r Lord, a n d i t is j u s t t h e s e who a r e successful. [5] And from among the people, there is he who buys the d i s t r a c t i n g amusement of things, so t h a t he, being
  • 22. Siirah LuqmEn : 31 : 1- 9 26 devoid of knowledge, may mislead (people) from the Way of Allah and make a mockery of it. Such people are the ones for whom there is a disgraceful punishment. [6] And when Our verses are recited to him, he turns away in arrogance as if he did not hear them, as if there is heaviness in his ears. So give him the good news of a painful punishment. [7] Surely, those who believe and do righteous deeds, for them there are gardens of bliss [8] where they shall live - forever an absolute promise of Allah. And He is the Mighty, the Wise. (91Commentary The words: ; (pay ZakZh) in Verse 4 carry the injunction of ;5ZakZh, although t h e verse is Makki.. This tells u s t h a t t h e originalinjunction of Zakah had already been revealed before Hijrah, right therei n Makkah al-Muaqgamah. As for t h e popular assumption t h a t t h einjunction of ZakZh was enforced in the second year of Hijrah, it refers tot h e arrangement of fixing i t s nisab (threshold), providing details ofobligatory amount to be paid, collecting and disbursing it on authorizedheads b i t h e IslZmic government. This was done in the second year ofHijrah. The word: 6 9 1 (ishtirz) in: ++I&doing a n act instead of another - as in:and in some other verses.The Cause of Revelation . +G Ibn Kathh while commenting on verse 20 of Siirah Al-Muzzammil:5g-3 y:, j : (Establish SalZh and pay ZakEh - 73:20) has arrived a tthe same conclusion, because SCrah Al-Muzzammil as one of the MakkiSiirahs was revealed during the very initial period of the revelation of theQurZn. This tells us that the way Salah and ZakZh have been describedmostly side by side in the verses of the Quran, its obligation had alsotaken effect side by side. Allah knows best. , ,*,, j 3 ,. 2; (And from amongthe people who buys the distracting amusement of things - 31:6) literallymeans to buy. And on occasions, the same word is used in the sense of & lu d! 1;3 &-$ (These 29are the people who have bought error a t the price of guidance - 2:16, 2:175) This verse was revealed because of a particular event relating to NadrIbn HZrith. He was one of the top businessmen from among the Mushriks
  • 23. of Makkah who used to travel to different countries in connection with hisbusiness. Once he bought a n d brought back a collection of historicalstories featuring Cyrus and other Persian kings from Iran. Thus armed,he said to the Quraish of Makkah: "Muhammad @ tells you the stories ofthe people of Ad and Thamiid and others. I shall tell you better stories,those of Rustam, IsfandyZr a n d other kings of Persia. They s t a r t e dlistening to his stories eagerly simply because they contained no lessons tolearn a n d no work to do. I t was nothing b u t some delicious stories.Because of these, many Mushriks who had some measure of interest inthe Divine Word because of its miraculous nature, rather listened to itstealthily, found a n excuse to draw away from the Quran. (3 C3 0x5 j&I &IjA >+dl ,dl jo+ (i j 3Lj Lsl-l+U Jj$I ; +I+) And according to a narration of SayyidnE Ibn AbbEs & in Ad-Durral-Manthur, the businessman mentioned above h a d brought in a singingbondwoman he bought in a foreign country. I t was through her that hedevised a plan to stop people from listening to the QurEn. When he foundanyone intending to go and listen to the QuZn, he would have him hearhis bondwoman sing before him. He used to say: Muhammad @ makesyou listen to the Quriin, then goes on to ask you to pray and fast whichmake life difficult for you. Come, you listen to this music and enjoy thefun. The verse of t h e Quran being referred to h e r e w a s revealed inrelation to this very event. Here, the ishtirEY(buying) of lahw al-hadith(the distracting amusement of things) means either those tales of thePersian kings, or this singing bondwoman. In terms of the event in thebackground of the revelation, the word: CIS! (ishtirZ) has been used inthe real sense for buying. And in terms of the general sense of (lahw al-hadith: thedistracting amusement of things) being enunciated later, the word: . J(ishtira) is also i n i t s general sense a t this place, t h a t is, to opt for,something instead of something else, This includes the buying of things oflahw (amusement) as well. /As for the word: && (fiadith) in t-l?;jl$ (lahw al-hadith), it is therein the sense of tales told and things said and done. Then the word lahwitself literally means to become heedless. In other words, things that make
  • 24. one become negligent of what must be done are also called lahw. Thenthere are occasions when things that bring no worthwhile benefit, ratherserve as pastime or entertainment only, are also referred to as 4 lahw. As regards the meaning and exegetical explanation of the expression:&+dl$ (lahw al-hadith: distracting amusement of things - 4) in t h ecited verse, sayings of commentators differ. In a narration of SayyidnZIbn Mastiid, Ibn AbbZs and JZbir 1- p65 &J, it has been explaineda s music, vocal or i n s t r u m e n t a l (reported and verified by al-Hakim, a n dal-Baihaqi in ash-Shuab). And in the view of the majority of SahZbah, TZbih and commentatorsa t large, t h e expression: &$la(lahw al-hadith: t h e distractingamusement of things) applies generally to everything which makes onefall into a state of heedlessness as to the remembrance and worship ofAllah. Included therein i s music accompanied by i n s t r u m e n t s , a n dobscene or absurd fictional narratives as well. Imam al-BukhZri in hisbook, al-Adab al-Mufrad, and al-Baihaqi in his Sunan have both electedto go by this Tafsk. Al-Bukhari has said: Lahw al-hadith means playing music and things similar to it (whichmake one heedless to the worship of Allah). And it appears i n S u n a n al-Baihaqi t h a t opting for or buying t h edistracting amusement of things (&A$ : ishtirz Eahw al-hadith) CIS!m e a n s b u y i n g a b o n d m a n or bondwoman who s i n g s a n d p l a y sinstruments, or buying similar other immodest things which make oneheedless to the remembrance of Allah. Ibn Jarir has also taken to thisgeneral sense. The same generality is proved by a narration of TirmidhTwhere the ~ oProphet l ~ has been reported to have said, Do not buy orsell singing bondwomen, after which he said, > j j LYI OL j i i i i a J;r dk?: (About such things this verse [ i.e. verse 6 which is under discussion]was revealed)Islamic Legal Injunctions of 43 4 Lahw walacib(play andgame) and its Equipment Full details of these injunctions supported by proofs from the Quriina n d S u n n a h have been provided in a treatise contained inalpll f G ~
  • 25. (AhkZm ul-Quran) w r i t t e n by t h i s humble writer. I t also carries a nequally detailed discussion on music and musical instruments i n the lightof the QurZn and HadTth along with the sayings of Muslim jurists andmystics. This t r e a t i s e i n Arabic* h a s been published i n volume V of&kZm ul-QurZn. Learned readers may consult i t a t their discretion. Agist is being given here for others interested in the subject. First of all, i t should be borne i n mind wherever t h e QurZn h a smentioned Lahw and Laib, it is in the context of its disparagement anddegradation, t h e lowest degree of which is k a r a h a h (repugnance orreprehensibility) (R$ ul-MZni and al-Kashshzf) and the cited verse is openand clear in declaring it a s vice. And in KitZbul-Jihad of al-HZkims Mustadrak, i t has been reportedby Sayyidna AbG Hurairah & that the Holy Prophet @ said: Every Lahw (play) of the world is false except three things: (1) that you play with your bow and arrow (2) and that you play while training your horse and (3) that you play with your wife - because these are among acceptable rights. (HZkim has said that this Hadith is Sahih on the condition set forth by Muslim.But, adh-Dhahab; and others have not accepted it as mutta~il, an uninterrupted (ofchain) Instead, he calls it a mursal (of an interrupted chain). But, in the sight of themajority of Hadith experts, a mursal hadith is also authentic). In this HadTth, every lahw or play has been declared a s false withthe exception of three. These, in reality, are just not included under thedefinition of lahw because lahw is supposed to be something in whichthere is no worthwhile religious or worldly benefit. And these three thingsare worthwhile. Many religious a n d worldly advantages a r e attachedwith them. As for archery and training of horses, they a r e part of thepreparation for J i h a d . T h e n , playfulness with ones wife serves t h epurpose of procreation. That they have been named a s lahw is simplybecause of outward similarity. I n t e r m s of reality, t h e y a r e just notincluded under lahw. Similarly, other than these three, there are manythings that yield religious or worldly benefit while, seen outwardly, theya r e s u p p o s e d t o b e lahw o r play. T h e s e too h a v e b e e n r a t e d a s
  • 26. permissible in other narrations of HadTth; in fact, some of these have beendeclared to be commendable. Relevant detail will follow. In gist, the doing of things which are lahw, in real terms, that is, inwhich there is no benefit, neither religious nor worldly, are all necessarilyblameworthy and makriih (repugnant, reprehensible) after all. Then,there are details about them. Some reach the extent of kufr (infidelity).Others are explicitly haram (forbidden) the lowest degree of which is theirbeing makriih tanzihi, t h a t is, counter to the preferred choice (khilafal-awl$. No lahw, which really qualifies as lahw, is exempt from it. Asfor the plays exempted i n HadTth, they just do not fall u n d e r t h edefinition of lahw as it has been already clarified in Hadhh itself. I n AbiiDZwGd, Tirmidhi, An-NasET and Ibn MZjah, there is a narration fromSayyidna Uqbah Ibn ~mir*. It appears in Kitsb ul-Jihad in the words: 4;; "?,&j e-$ &! L+ Sj 422 $21 -?li A% ,,"*- a( 2 3 (Three things do notfall under lahw: (1) Man training his horse and (2) playing with his wifeand (3) shooting with his bow and arrows (Nasbur-RSyah, p. 273, v. 4). ThisHadTth has itself made it clear that these three things that have beenexempted a r e simply not included in 1ahw.- a n d t h a t which is really l a h w i s f a l s e a n d b l a m e w o r t h y . T h e d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s of i t sblameworthiness follow next: 1. Playing that becomes a conduit of going astray from ones Religion, or making others turn away from it, is kufr (infidelity) - as stated , ,, j, 3 Jh 2; - 6. There it has been ,,> " 5 in the cited verse: + declared to be a n act of grave error and infidelity, the punishment of which is painful, a punishment particular to those who have disbelieved (kuffir). The reason is t h a t this verse was revealed following a n event relating to Nadr Ibn Harith in which he had used this lahw to divert people from IslTim. Therefore, this lahw (distracting amusement) did not remain simply haram (forbidden), in fact, it went to the extent of becoming kufr (infidelity). 2. The second form is that which does not make people go astray from Islamic Beliefs, but does make them get involved with something forbidden and sinful. This, then, would not be kufr a s such. But, patently unlawful and gravely sinful it shall remain - a s do all those games played with bets. In other words, these may be games where the element of gambling (qimar) is present with giving or
  • 27. taking of money on winning or losing, or recreational activities that impede t h e performance of religious duties such a s prayers a n d fasting etc.The reading of Shameless Fiction or Poetry or Writings of theProponents of the False is also Not Permissible. I n our time, a n alarming number of young people get introduced toshameless fiction, stories and novels based on plots featuring people whofancy a n d f l i r t w i t h crimes, a n d poetry composed of i n d e c e n t a n dshameless couplets. All t h e s e things a r e included u n d e r t h i s kind ofdistracting amusement which is forbidden lahw. Similarly, t h e study ofideas dished o u t by t h e wayward proponents of t h e false i s also notpermissible for common people, because this could become a n active agentin misleading them from the straight path. Should the Ulama who arewell grounded in religious knowledge study them for rebuttal, i t does notmatter. 3. As for playing g a m e s t h a t h a v e n e i t h e r a n e l e m e n t of kufr (infidelity) nor of open sinfulness, they are makruh (repugnant) in that one would be wasting his energy and time in a n activity that yields no benefit.Buying and Selling of the Equipment used in Games From the details given above, we have also come to know the ruleoperating in the buying and selling of equipment used i n games. The ruleis t h a t t h e t r a d i n g , buying a n d selling of equipment u s e d i n gamescharacterized by infidelity, error, unlawfulness and sin is also haram(forbidden). And t h a t which is used in makruh lahw, its trading is alsomakruh; a n d t h e equipment t h a t is used i n permissible a n d exemptedgames, its trading is also permissible; and the equipment t h a t is used inpermissible and impermissible activities both, its trading is permissible.Allowed and Permissible Games As already explained in detail, what is blameworthy and prohibited ist h a t p a r t i c u l a r lahw or a m u s e m e n t or play or game which h a s noreligious or worldly benefit i n it. Games played to m a i n t a i n physicalhealth and mobility, or for some other religious or worldly need, or a t theleast, are for relief from fatigue without any excessive indulgence to theextent of causing disruption in necessary duties, then, such games are
  • 28. allowed by the ShaGah. And should the participation in them be with theintention of fulfilling a religious need, then, they are thawab-worthy aswell. Also mentioned in the Hadith appearing above was the exemption ofthree game forms from the prohibition: Shooting of arrows, riding horsesand playing with ahl (wife). And in a marfi hadith (attributed to theHoly Prophet g) from SayyidnZ Ibn Abbas &,it appears: yj.Al+s_l , +J+I iiprjd , - L I (The best game for a believer is swimming and the +, Gbest game for a woman is the spinning wheel) (al-Jam? as-Saghir, from IbnAdiyy, with weak chain of narrators). According to a narration, SayyidnE Salamah Ibn Akwa &, says,"Someone from among the AnsZir of Madinah was a great sprinter. No onecould win a race against him. Once he publicly threw a challenge if therewas anyone who would run a race against him. I sought the permission ofthe Holy Prophet if I could compete against him. When he gave me thepermission, I was the one who went ahead in the race. This tells us that itis also permissible to practice foot racing. Once, when a well-known wrestler called RukZnah challenged theHoly Prophet to wrestle against him, he accepted the challenge andwon the bout (AbGDliwTid i n al-marZs2). Some Ethiopian young men used to play with spears a s a rehearsal.The Holy Prophet @ let Sayyidah xishah b hi &) see their game ofm a r t i a l skill while s h e stood behind h i s back a n d h e s a i d to t h eperformers, " 3 ; 1 13) wal-abii: have fun, keep playing) [Reported by 1(ilhual-Baihaqi in Ash-Shuab, a s in al-Kanz, Bab ul-Lahw). In some narrations, thefollowing words also appear along with it: &&A? 3 2 ;ii>1 b J l j 9 (I do not ,.,,>, 3 that people see harshness in your religion). Similarly, it has been reported from some SahZbah that they, whentired after their duties relating to the QurZn and Hadith, would once in awhile relax with Arab poetry or historical events (from Sayyidnii Ibn AbbZs4 in Kaff ar-Raa). In a Hadith, it was said: "&d &@I i ;" ] (Let your hearts rest ki g;now and then).[Reported by AbGDiiwiid i n his MarZs2 from Ibn ShihZb mursalan,that is, attributed to the Holy Prophet by the studeAt of one of the SahZbah with
  • 29. the name of t h e narrating S a h a b i not mentioned] T h i s h a d i t h proves t h epermissibility of recreation meant to relax ones mind and heart and theneed to spare some time for it. However, when doing all these things, the aim should be to achievethe correct and sound objective of those games. Playing for the sake ofplaying should never be the objective. Even that too is restricted to them e a s u r e of need. Any indulgence t h a t s t r e t c h e s t o u n r e a s o n a b l eproportions or touches the limits of excess would not be in order. Thus, thereason behind the justification of all these games is no other but that theyhave to be within their limits. If so, they would just not be counted a slahw.Games Prohibited Explicitly Along with t h e games mentioned above, there a r e others t h e HolyProphet has prohibited particularly - even though, some benefits maybe seen therein - such as, chess, backgammon and others played withcounters and pieces. If accompanied by giving and taking of money onwinning a n d losing, t h e n , t h i s is gambling, a n d is absolutely h a r a m(forbidden). And should this not be the case and they may be played justfor enjoyment, even then, they have been prohibited in Hadith. Accordingto a narration of SayyidnZ Buraidah in the Sahlh of Muslim, the HolyProphet & said, "A person who plays backgammon is like the one who $ !has smeared his hands with the blood of pig." Similar to this, there isanother narration where words of curse appear against t h e player ofchess. (Uqaili in ad-DuafE from SayyidnZ AbE Hurairah & as in Nasbur-RZyah) Similarly, the Holy Prophet has declared playing with pigeons a simpermissible. [AbE DZwEd in al-MarasT1 from Shuraih a s in al-Kanz] T h eapparent reason for the prohibition of this type of pastimes is that theplayer of these games becomes so preoccupied with them t h a t h e wouldturn heedless towards other things he must do, even to SalZh, and otherreligious obligations.The Injunctions of Music and Musical Instruments Some S a h Z b a h h a v e explained t h e expression: &&I$ ( l a h wa l - h a d i t h : t h e distracting amusement of things) i n t h e cited verse a ssinging and playing of musical instruments. Then, there a r e others whohave explained it in the general sense and consider every such playful
  • 30. activity t h a t makes one heedless towards Allah to be t h e meaning of:-412 (lahw al-hadith). But, even in their view, singing and playing ofinstrumental music are included therein. ,,,, And in another verse of the Quran: ;I,L&Y (those who do notwitness falsehood - Al-Furqan, 25:72), the word: ... (az-ziir: falsehood, thefalse) has been explained by Imam Abii Hanifah, MujZhid, MuhammadI b n a l - H a n a f i y y a h a n d o t h e r s a s g h i n a (singing a n d playing ofinstrumental music). And AbE DZiwCd and Ibn MZjah in Sunan and Ibn HibbZn in hisSahih have reported from SayyidnE AbE MElik al-Ashari & t h a t theHoly Prophet said: Indeed some people from my community will drink wine giving it a name other than the name it already has. Music will be played right on their faces with instruments and singing women in attendance. Allah Taala will make the earth sink with them, while He will make some of them monkeys and pigs. And according to a narration from Sayyidna AbdullZh Ibn AbbZs &,the Holy Prophet said, "Allah TaZlE has forbidden wine, gambling,drum and sarangi (string instrument like violin) and he said, "Everythingthat intoxicates is haram (forbidden, unlawful) [Reported by Imam Ahmad,Abu Dawiid and Ibn Hibban] I t has been reported from SayyidnZ AbE Hurairah & that the HolyProphet $ said: $ ! When spoils are taken as personal property and trust property
  • 31. a s spoils a n d ZakZh a s penalty, a n d religious l e a r n i n g is acquired for worldly objectives, and when man starts obeying his wife and disobeying his mother, and keeps his friend near and his father far, and when voices rise in mosques and the chief of a tribe becomes its worst sinner and when the chief of a people becomes their lowest of the low and when wicked people are respected out of fear for them, and when singing girls and musical instruments appear all over and when wines of all sorts are consumed and when the later of this Ummah s t a r t cursing the former - then, a t that time, you wait for a red storm, and e a r t h q u a k e , a n d t h e s i n k i n g of t h e e a r t h , a n d t h e metamorphosis of figures and faces, and missiles, and t h e signs of Doomsday following each other, one after t h e other, like a broken necklace with its beads scattered simultaneously. (Reported by Tirmidhi calling it a Hasan-Gharib Hadith)A Warning Not to Be Ignored! Read the words of this Hadith again and again, and you will startseeing a blueprint of the world of our time spread out before you. Here isa n advance warning given by t h e Holy Prophet $& almost fourteenhundred years ago, against sins prevailing among Muslims, and whichare increasing day by day. He has reminded Muslims that they have toremain vigilant against such conditions and take full precautions to avoidsuch sins both personally and socially. Otherwise, once these sins becomeaccepted common practice, such s i n n e r s will be visited by Divinepunishments. Then, the very last signs of Qiyamah will appear squarelybefore them. Since, t h e singing of women a n d t h e playing of musicalinstruments are included under those sins, this narration h a s been citedin the present context. For t h a t matter, there a r e many more authentic AhZdith wheresinging and playing of musical instruments have been declared unlawfuland impermissible. Severe warnings have been given against indulgingin these. This humble writer has cited all these narrations in his treatiseentitled: $1 -3 2 d which is in Arabic and has been published as Part V of AhkZm ul-Quran. Only some of those have been given here.Reciting morally beneficial poetry in a good voice withoutmusical instruments is not prohibited In contrast to what has been stated above, there are narrations that
  • 32. seem to hint towards permissibility of ghina" (singing). Such narrationshave also been collected and included in the treatise referred to here. Tobring t h e two kinds of narration i n harmony, i t can be said t h a t t h esinging of a non-mahram woman, or a song accompanied by musicalinstruments are forbidden. This is in accordance with what has beenproved on the authority of the cited verses of the Quran and from the&Edith of the Holy Prophet $$. However, if some poetic compositions arerecited in a pleasing voice, and the reciting person is not a woman or abeardless young man, and the subject of the poetry recited is also notvulgar or indecent a n d is not inclusive of a n y o t h e r sin, t h e n , i t i spermissible. As for the reports attributed to some revered ~Ufis, that they listenedto ghina" (sama), it is based on this kind of permissible ghina"- because,it is certain that they followed the S h a d a h and Sunnah faithfully. Thatthey would ever commit some such sin, simply cannot be imagined. Thoselearned among t h e SGfk have themselves explained i t explicitly. Thetreatise mentioned earlier carries the sayings of t h e jurists of t h e fourschools of jurisprudence a s well a s those of the SEf: authorities. At thisplace, the summary as given has been considered sufficient i n the presentcontext." Verses 10.- 11 He has created the skies without the pillars that you may see, and placed mountains on the earth, lest it shakes with you, and spread over it all kinds of creatures. And We sent down water from the heavens and caused to grow in it every noble pair. [lo] This is*. The original work in Arabic and its Urdu translation with exhaustive notes under t h e title, " I s l a m aur Mausiqi" (Islam a n d Music) h a s been published by Maktaba-e-Darul-Uloom, Jamia Darul-Uloom, Korangi, Karachi-75180, Pakistan. Those interested in a detailed discussion of the subject would find both versions useful.
  • 33. - - - the creation of Allah. Now, show me what is created by those others, besides Him. Rather, the transgressors are in open error. [ll]Commentary Verse 10 opens with the words: $ +Z& +$I & (He h a s created ; > , ,the skies without the pillars that you may see). Another verse on the same 2; s ,$,subject: 6;;: & , 9 9 1 ,, ( Allah is the One who raised theheavens without pillars. You see them. 13:2) h a s appeared earlier i nSGrah Ar-Rad ( with a different translation). Analyzed grammatically,the text admits two alternative meanings. 1. If we were to take 4;; ( t a r a w n a h 3 to be the attribute of G (am-ad) and revert its pronoun to amad, it would mean that Allah TaZlZcreated the skies without pillars that you may see, t h a t is, had the pillarsbeen there, you would have seen them. When pillars a r e not seen, i t isclear that this great roof of the sky has been erected without pillars. Thisexplanation has been reported from Sayyidnz Hasan & a n d QatZdah.(Ibn Kathir) 2. And if we w e r e to t a k e t h e pronoun of: $j> ( t a r a w n a h a ) a sreverting to: i 1 . (as-samawat: the skies) and this sentence a s standing 9independently, then, it would mean that Allah Taalii created the skieswithout pillars as you see. Then, there is yet another option i n the case ofthe first grammatical analysis whereby it could also be taken to mean thatThe skies stand on pillars that you cannot see - they are invisible. Thislast explanation has been reported from SayyidnZ Ibn Abbas, Ikrimahand MujZhid m i dl d J Kathir). (Ibn No matter what the option, the verse does point out to t h e particularsign of the perfect power of Allah TaZlZ that He has made this extensive,high and magnificent roof in a way that no column and pillar is seenthereunder. Verses 12 - 19
  • 34. And We gave wisdom t o Luqman, ( a n d said), "Begrateful to Allah." And whoever is grateful is, in fact,grateful for his own benefit, and whoever is ungrateful,then Allah is free of all needs, worthy of all praise. [12]And when L u q m a n said t o his son while h e wasadvising him, "My dear son, do not ascribe partners toAllah. Indeed, ascribing partners to Allah (shirk) isgrave transgression." [13]Wf commanded man (to be good) about his parents. Hismother carried him facing weakness after weakness,and his weaning is in two years: "Be grateful to Me andto your parents. To Me is the ultimate return. [14] Andif t h e y force you to ascribe to Him p a r t n e r s a b o u twhom you have no knowledge, do not obey them. And bewith them in this world, with due fairness, and followthe way of the one who has turned himself towards Me.Then, towards Me is your r e t u r n , so I shall tell youabout what you had been doing." [15]
  • 35. "My d e a r son, i n fact, if t h e r e be a n y t h i n g t o t h e measure of a grain of rye, and it be (hidden) in a rock or in the heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth. Surely, Allah is All-Fine, All Aware. [16] My dear son, establish Saliih, and bid the Fair and forbid the Unfair, and observe patience on what befalls you. Surely, this is among the matters of determination. [17] And do not turn your cheek away from people, and do not walk on the earth haughtily. Surely, Allah does not like anyone arrogant, proud. [ l a ] And be moderate in your walk, and lower your voice. Surely, the ugliest of voices is the voice of the donkeys." [19]Commentary . Who was LuqmZn a mentioned in verse 12: WI .I G aj (And Y rWe gave wisdom to LuqmZn)? According t o a r e p o r t of Wahb I b nMunnabih, LuqmZn, % 8 was a nephew of Sayyidna Ayytib (Job) $1wkile MuqZtil identifies him as his brother from his maternal aunt. I tappears in Tafsb ul-BaidZwi and elsewhere that he lived long, a s long asthe time of SayyidnZ DZwiid =I. I t is proved by other reports too thatLuqmZn, appeared during the time of SayyidnZ DZwGd ,%I. And t h e report of SayyidnZ Ibn AbbZs & appearing i n ad-Durral-Manthur s a y s t h a t h e w a s a n Ethiopian slave who worked a s acarpenter (narrated by Ibn Abi Shaibah and &mad in az-Zuhd, and Ibn Jarir andIbn al-Mundhir and others). When the SahZbi, SayyidnZ JZbir Ibn AbdullZh& was asked about his background, he said that he was a n Ethiopian oflow height and flat nose. And MujZhid said that he was a thick-lipped,cracked-footed Ethiopian slave (al-ZajjZj).(Ibn Kathir) An Ethiopian came to Said Ibn al-Musayyab looking for a n answer tosome religious problem. The famous TZbil consoled him by telling himthat he should not worry about the dark color of his skin, because therewere three highly revered persons from among the black people who wereregarded as the best of any people anywhere. Then he cited the names ofSayyidnZ BilZl al-Habash;, Sayyidn5 Mahja, the freed slave of SayyidnZUmar Ibn ul-KhattZb -1 /r65 hi dJ, LuqmZn .1- andThe Identity of LuqmZn According to Ibn Kath:, the majority of the elders concur that he wasnot a prophet. T h a t h e was a prophet h a s been reported only from
  • 36. Ikrimah , b u t t h e a u t h o r i t y of t h i s report i s weak. T h e n , I m a mal-Baghawi reports a consensus on the fact that he was a man of wisdomand knowledgeable in religious law, but not a prophet. (Maqhari) Ibn Kathb has also pointed out to a n unusual report from SayyidnZQatZdah about him saying that Allah TaZlZ had given LuqmZn achoice between prophethood (nubuwwah) a n d wisdom (hikmah). Heopted for wisdom. And in some reports, it appears that he was given theoption to be a prophet. But he had submitted that he would be honored toaccept it if that was a command, otherwise he should be excused. Again, it has also been reported from Sayyidna Qatadah that someoneasked Luqman, =I: Why did you prefer wisdom over prophethood whileyou were given a choice between t h e two? He said, The office of aprophet carries great responsibilities. Had that been given to me withoutmy choice, Allah TaalZ would have been sufficient to see t h a t I amenabled to discharge its responsibilities as due. And if I had asked for itwith my choice and volition, the responsibility would have been mine. (IbnKathir) Now, i t already s t a n d s established t h a t LuqmZn qil! s not a waNabiyy or prophet. This is as held by the majority of the scholars. So, wecan say that the command mentioned in the present verse (i.e.Be gratefulto Allah) could have been given to him through IlhZm (inspiration)attributed to men of Allah (awliya Allah). Before the time of SayyidnZ DZwGd Luqman $&@I used to giveFatwE (religious rulings on questions asked by people). When SayyidnaDZwiidI@&$ was invested with prophethood, h e stopped t h i s practicebelieving that he was not needed anymore. According to some reports, hewas a judge among the Bani Israa. Many words of wisdom have beenreported from him. Wahb Ibn Munnabih says that he has read more thanten thousand of these. (Qurtubi) On a certain day, while sage LuqmZn was addressing a big gatheringof people sharing his wisdom with them, there came a person and askedhim point blank: Are you not the same person who used to graze goatswith me in such and such forest? LuqmEn 1,- said: Yes, I am the sameperson." The man asked, How then, could you achieve this status thatsuch multitudes of people hold you in reverence and come to hear your
  • 37. words from far a n d wide? LuqmZn w, 1 said: The reason lies in twoihings I do: (1) Always telling the t r u t h a n d (2) avoiding t h e uselessthings. It appears in another report that he said: I tell you about a fewthings that have given me this station in life. If you were to take to these,you too will have the same rank and status. These are as follow: (1)Loweryour gaze and hold your tongue. (2) Stay content with lawful sustenance.(3) Guard your private parts. (4) Tell the truth and uphold it. (5) Fulfillthe pledge. (6) Honor the guest. (7)Protect the neighbor. (8) Observesilence against wasteful speech and leave off all useless indulgences. (Ibn~athir)What does the hikmah given to LuqmZn actually mean? The word: & (hikmah) h a s been used i n t h e QurZn (20 times)conveying several meanings such a s wisdom, knowledge, reason,forbearance, patience, prophethood, and correctness of opinion. Commentator Abii Hayyan has said: Hikmah means a statement inwords, a statement that teaches people a lesson, a lesson that goes downtheir hearts and which they conserve and communicate to others. And the famous SahZbT, SayyidnZ AbdullZh Ibn AbbZs & said:Hikmah means intellect, understanding and intelligence while someothers have said t h a t acting in accordance with knowledge is w h a tHikmah is. In reality, there is no contradiction here. All these ingredientsare included under the purview of Hikmah. Those who have seen theabridged Tafsir of moulana Ashraf Ali ThZnavi in t h e original Urduversion of the present Tafsb will notice that he has translated Hikmah inthe sense of prudence and wisdom and explained it as being knowledgethat h a s been p u t into practice. This is very comprehensive a n d veryclear. After having mentioned the giving of Hikmah to LuqmZn, on whombe peace, in this verse (12), it was said: "Be grateful to Allah." Here, thefirst probability is to take the word: (qulnE: We said) a s understood.The sense would be that We gave Hikmah to LuqmZn and commandedhim to be grateful to Allah. Then, there are others who have also said 4that the statement: $1 > (anishkur lillah: Be grateful to Allah) is initself a n explanation of ~ [ k m a h .In other words, the Hikmah given toLuqmEn was that We gave him the command to be grateful which he
  • 38. Siirah LuqmZn : 31 : 12 - 19 42carried out. I n t h a t case, i t would mean t h a t being grateful to t h eblessings of Allah TaZlZ is the greatest wisdom (hikmah). Soon after, itwas explicitly clarified that this command to be grateful was not given byAllah TaElZ to earn some benefit for Himself. He needs no gratefulnessfrom anyone. I n fact, it has been done in the interest of human beingsand for their benefit - because, according to the law of Allah, whoever isgrateful to Him, He causes a n increase in the blessings given to a person. Mentioned after that there are some words of wise counsel spoken byLuqmZn to his son. These have been reported by t h e QurZn so t h a tothers may also benefit from these. Out of these wise advices, first comes the soundness of beliefs, theprimary article of which is t h a t one believes i n Allah TaElZ to be t h eCreator a n d m a s t e r of t h e entire universe without a n y association orpartnership of anyone or anything. In consequence, one should not takeanyone other than Allah a s a n object of worship, for no injustice can be asgrave in this world a s the act of one who stoops to equate some creation ofAllah TaZlE with the Creator. Therefore, it was said: s! 3S.j3 &L , , 4 (My dear son, do not ascribe partners to Allah. Indeed, ascribingpartners to Allah is (shirk) grave transgression - 13). Later, follow otherwords of good counsel a n d wisdom spoken by LuqmZn to h i s son. I nbetween, t h e r e appears another command to highlight t h e gravity ofS h i r k a n d t h a t i t h a s to be avoided u n d e r a l l circumstances.Thiscommand is as follows: And We commanded man (to be good) about his parents. His mother carried him facing weakness after weakness, and his weaning is in two years: "Be grateful to Me and to your parents. To Me is the ultimate return. [14] And if they force you to ascribe to Him partners about whom you have no knowledge, do not obey them. And be with them, in this world, with due fairness, and follow the way of the one who has turned himself towards Me. Then, towards Me is your return, so I shall tell you
  • 39. about what you had been doing." [15]Gratitude and Obedience to Parents is Obligatory - but,Obedience to anyone Counter to Divine Command is notPermissible I n effect, t h e command quoted above means: No doubt, We haveasked children to be grateful and obedient to their parents. We have evencommanded them to be grateful to Us, and along with it, to be gratefuland obedient to their parents. But, Shirk (the ascribing of partners in thepristine divinity of Allah TaZlG) is so grave a transgression a n d so seriousa sin that it does not become permissible for anyone, not even if onesparents command or force someone to commit it. If the parents of a personstart forcing him or her to take someone as a partner of Allah TaZlZ, evenin that case, i t is not permissible to obey their command. Now, a t this place, where command has been given to be grateful toparents and fulfill their rights, also pointed out is its efficient cause. Is itnot that ones mother has undergone great trial in the phenomena of hisor her life a n d survival? She h a s kept the child i n h e r body for ninemonths remaining vigilant and protective all the time. Because of this,day by day, h e r weakness a n d discomfort k e p t increasing. This s h ebraved through. Then, even after the birth of the child, she handled thetask of feeding the child, a task that demanded painstaking attention dayand night and which also added to the already receding graph of herweakness. Since, i t is t h e mother who faces most of t h e h a r d s h i p i nbringing up the child, therefore, the right of mother has been made toprecede even the right of father in the Shariah of Islam. What has beens a i d i n : $6 2 >j ~ll;. k; &j C G$(> Gjj ( A n d Wecommanded man [to be good] about his parents. His mother carried himfacing weakness after weakness, and his weaning is in two years - 14)comes to mean exactly this. After that, in: & C 5!j (And if they force you L;- 15), it was pointed out that the matter of ascribing anyone other thanAllah with Him is serious. In it, even the (otherwise essential) obedienceto parents is haram (unlawful).IslZms Peerless Law of Justice Now in a situation under which the parents force a son or daughter totake to Shirk and Kufr while the command of Allah TaZlE tells them notto do what they say, things become difficult. One naturally fails to stay
  • 40. within limits. I n this case, while implementing the Divine injunction, theprobability did exist that the son or daughter would have used improperlanguage or manners in their response to parents and thus insulted them.IslZm is a law, just and equitable. Here, everything has a limit. Therefore,right along with the command of not obeying parents in matters of Shirk,also given there was the command: ij; G ~2IC& (And be with them, . din this world, with due fairness - 15). I t means: In t h e m a t t e r of t h e contravention of your f a i t h a n dreligion, do not obey parents. But, when i t comes to worldly matters, sucha s s e r v i n g p a r e n t s physically or financially o r i n a n y o t h e r waynecessary, do not fall short about it. Instead, deal with them in mundanematters according to recognized custom. Show no disrespect to them. Donot respond to what they say in a manner that hurts them unnecessarily.In other words, the pain you cause them by not accepting their insistenceon Shirk and Kufr is something you will have to bear by, since you haveno choice there. But, let this necessity stay within its functional limits andkeep abstaining from causing any pain to them in other matters.S p e c i a l Note As for the weaning period of two years for a child mentioned in thev e r s e , i t i s i n accordance w i t h c u s t o m a r y practice. I t c a r r i e s n oclarification concerning the injunction relevant to any additional period ofsuckling the child. A detailed explanation of this issue will, inshaAllah,appear under the commentary on the verse: I& 6 , .,,I &;4ih;; (And hiscarrying and weaning is (in) thirty months - Al-Ahqaf, 46:15).T h e S e c o n d B e q u e s t of LuqmZn a b o u t Articles of Belief One should irrevocably hold the belief that the knowledge of AllahTaZlZ surrounds every single particle of whatever there is in and aroundthe expanses of the heavens and the earth with His most perfect power.Nothing can - be it the smallest of the small not commonly visible, or be itthe farthest of the far, or be it behind layers upon layers of darkness andcurtains - simply nothing can hide from the knowledge and view of AllahTaZlZ. And He can, when He wills, cause it to be present, where He wills. 11 * > a , , 0This is what is meant by verse 16: J , 3 >+ j & $1 I &-(My dear &!son, in fact, if there be anything to the measure of a grain of rye, and itbe [hidden] in a rock or in the heavens and the earth, Allah will bring itforth. Surely, Allah is All-Fine, All Aware). T h e n , t h e all-covering
  • 41. - LuqmZn : 31 : 12 - 19SZrah 45knowledge and power of Allah TaZlZ is, in its own place, a basic belief ofIslZm - and certainly, a great proof of Tauhid, the belief in the Onenessof Allah.The Third Bequest of LuqmZn about the Correction of Deed There a r e m a n y obligatory deeds, b u t t h e g r e a t e s t a n d t h e mostimportant of these is SalZh - and not simply that i t is important by itself,it also happens to be the master deed that becomes the catalyst changingother deeds towards the better a s was pointed out in the Holy QurZnabout i t : Ql; ,-al b, 1 5, ( S u r e l y S a l Z h r e s t r a i n s f r o m y, &-& - 1> ,s h a m e l e s s n e s s a n d evil - Al-Ankabut, 29:45). T h e r e f o r e , o u t of t h eobligatory good deeds, t h e mention of SalZh was considered sufficientwhen it was-said: 3- ~7 (My dear son, establish SalZh - 17). And a s ithas been explained earlier, the expression denoting the iqamah of salahdoes not simply suggest the making or saying or doing it. Instead oft h a t , t h i s t e r m t r a n s l a t e d a s establish (in t h e absence of a n exactequivalent) includes all attending considerations, such a s performing i twith due respect to i t s essentials a n d m a n n e r s fully a n d faithfully,observing punctuality in its timings and being consistent in fulfilling itsrequisites.The Fourth Bequest of LuqmZn about the Betterment of People IslZm is a collective religion. Betterment of the community, along withthe betterment of the individual, is a n important part of its social system.Therefore, the duty of Bidding the Fair and Forbidding the Unfair (amrbi I-maruf a n d nahy ani I-munkar) was mentioned along with a simportant a duty a s the SalZh. I t was said: GI $1; ;j +;g& ;j (and bid ithe Fair and forbid the Unfair -17). Here ard two duties: (1)~ a k yourself ebetter and (2) make others better. Both need a lot of restraint and hardwork. Facing t h e s e difficulties a n d remaining firm is no e a s y t a s k .Particularly so, when those who s t a n d to serve people by telling themwhat is good for t h e m receive nothing b u t opposition a n d hostility i nr e t u r n . Therefore, while m a k i n g t h i s recommendation, i t w a s alsorecommended: $31 (/ A,)! ; x i d L j; 21; (and observe patience onwhat befalls you. Surely, this is among the matters of determination - 17).The Fifth Bequest of LuqmZin about Social Manners >#,, In verse 18, it was said: J v-Yj (And do not t u r n your cheek k ,, , away from people). The expression: w-Y (la tusa"ir) is a derivation from:
  • 42. ( ~ a a r a which is a disease among camels that causes a tilt in the neck )similar to the stroke among human beings that makes the face becomecrooked. I t carries the sense of turning ones face away (in disdain). Thus,the verse means: do not turn your face away from people when you meetthem and talk to them for it is a sign of avoidance and arrogance andvery much against the norms of gentle manners. In the next sentence of the verse, it was said: c> 2 ~2 1 Y; (and ~ do not walk on the earth haughtily - 18). The last word: (maraha)denotes walking proudly with assumed airs. The sense of the statement isthat Allah TaZlZ has given this earth the lowest profile from among theentire range of elements He created. I s it not that you were born from itand on i t you walk around? Know your reality and do not walk haughtily.This is the way of the arrogant. Therefore, after that, it was said: , ,: : !?+ ?d ,> y3> -:Y J (Surely, Allah does not like anyone arrogant, proud - 18). Verse 19 begins with the statement: 2 ;?;.pi!; (And be moderate i nyour walk). Whkn done otherwise, i n h a s t e or helter-skelter, i t goesagainst decorum and dignity. Says the Had;th: "Making too much hastei n walking r u i n s t h e radiance of t h e believer ( a l - J a m i as-Saghlr fromSayyidna Abii Hurairah 4). in a manner of walking such a s this, there Then,remains the likelihood of hurting ones own self or someone else as well.And being moderate in walking also tells us that one should not walk veryslowly either. This is the habit of the arrogant and the ostentatious wholike to impress people with their distinct class. Or, it is the habit of womenwho do not walk fast due to their natural modesty. Or, it is the habit oft h e sick i n need of u r g e n t medical attention who would do so o u t ofcompulsion. The first mode is haram, a n d t h e second too, for i t i s notpermissible if the intention is to strike a semblance with women. Andwhen no such intention is there, the thing remains, after all, a defect formen. Finally, in the third mode, i t is ungratefulness to Allah in that onestoops to feign the looks of the sick despite being all too healthy. Sayyidna AbdullEh Ibn Masiid & said: The noble Sahabah wereprohibited from walking hurriedly (as if running) like the Jews and alsofrom walking very slowly (as if crawling) like the Christians. The ordergiven to them was that they should take to a moderate gait in betweenthe two.
  • 43. - - - When Sayyidah Kishah L+.s hl p~ saw a person walking very slowlyas if he was going to fall dead, she asked the people around, Why does hehave to walk like that? They told her, He is one of the Qurra. The word:+I$ (qurra) is the plural of: ~ ~ C k(al-qari: one trained to recite the Quriin llin accordance with its Phonetics). In those days, someone who combinedthe twin mastery of reciting the Quriin with authenticity and observanceof due etiquette a s well a s being a perfect scholar of the QurZn was alsocalled a Qari. So, by saying what they did, they meant t h a t h e was somebig Qari and am, therefore, he walked like that. Thereupon, SayyidahEishah 1 3 d & said, "Umar Ibn ul-KhattZb, may Allah be pleased 9. l ,with him, was a lot more QZri than he is. But, his habit was to walkswiftly when he walked (not in the sense of post-haste walking which isprohibited, r a t h e r meaning a functional swiftness i n it). And when h etalked, h e talked i n a m a n n e r t h a t people would h e a r h i m well (notspeaking a t a pitch so low as would compel his audience to ask: Beg yourpardon, what did you say)? At the end of the fifth recommendation it was said: A:> *I;(and lower your voice - 19). Lowering means: Do not Yaisk your voice anymore than necessary. And do not shout - as it appearkd i n the case ofSayyidnii Umar &&J immediately earlier. He talked in a manner that hisaudience would hear him without having to put any strain on their ears.Thereafter, it w a s s a i d : g +;$Y 1 51. (Surely, t h e ugliest of $voices is the voice of the donkeys - 19). Regarding social manners, four prohibitions were mentioned here: (1)The prohibition of t a l k i n g to a n d meeting with people face t u r n e darrogantly; (2) the prohibition of walking haughtily on Gods earth; (3)the instruction to be moderate in ones walking; and (4) the prohibition oftalking very loudly. All these virtues were already part of the habits and traits of the HolyProphet $&. As i n the Shamail of Tirmidhl, Sayyidnii Husain & saysthat he asked his father, SayyidnZ All al-Murtada & about t h e mannerin which he interacted with people he sat with. He said:
  • 44. ~ - ~ L ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ $ I - & . I... A $ ~ ~"He was always cheerful, naturally obliging, gentle. Neitherimpolite, nor rude, he was not clamorous or immodest and nofaultfinder and no miser. He would remain indifferent to whathe did not like, yet would not make others become distractedfrom i t (if halal a n d desirable to have) a n d would not s a yanything that would stop others from having what he did notwant (instead, would observe silence). There were three thingshe had left out for good: (1) Disputation, (2) Arrogance and (3)Indulgence with what was unnecessary, not worth doing." Verses 20 - 32
  • 45. Have you not seen that Allah has subjugated for youwhat is in the heavens and what is on the earth and hasperfected His blessings on you, both outward a n dinward? And among the people there is one who debatesabout Allah with no knowledge, no guidance and nobook to enlighten. [20] And when i t is said to them,"follow what Allah has sent down," they say, "instead,we would follow what we found our fathers on." Is it so- even though the Satan has been calling them to thepunishment of the flaming Fire? [21]And whoever submits his self to Allah ,and is good indeeds, he does, in fact, hold on to the strongest ring.And towards Allah is the ultimate end of all matters.[221And whoever disbelieves, let not his disbelief grieveyou. To Us is their return. Then We will tell them whatthey did. Surely, Allah is All Aware of what lies in thehearts. [23] We let them enjoy a little, then We will dragthem to a heavy punishment. [24]And if you ask them as to who has created the heavensand the earth, they will certainly say, "Allah." Say,"Alhamdulillah" (Praise be to Allah). But most of themdo not know. [25]To Allah belongs what is in the heavens and the earth.Surely, it is Allah who is free of all needs, worthy ofevery praise. I t is Allah who is All-Independent,Ever-Praised. [26],And if all trebs that are on the earth were to be pens
  • 46. Siirah LuqmZn : 31 : 20 - 32 50 a n d t h e ocean (converted into ink) is s u p p o r t e d by seven seas following it, the words of Allah would not come to a n end. Surely, Allah is Mighty, Wise. [27] Creation a n d resurrection of you all is no more (to Allah) than that of one single person. Surely, Allah is All-Hearing, All Seeing. [28] Did you not see that Allah makes the night enter into the day, and makes the day enter into the night, and He has subjugated the sun and the moon, each r u n n i n g towards a n appointed time, a n d t h a t Allah is fully aware of what you do? [29] That is because Allah is the only Real One and what they invoke other than Him is false and Allah is the High, the Great. [30] Did you not see that the ships sail through the sea by the grace of Allah, so that He shows you some of His signs? I n that, indeed, there are signs for every man of patience and gratitude. [31] And when they are covered by waves like canopies. they pray to Allah, having faith purely in Him. Theq, once He brings them safe to the land, some of thcm r r e (still) balanced. And no one denies Our signs except every ungrateful traitor. [32]Commentary At the beginning of the Siirah, the KEfirs and t h e Mushriks wereadmonished for still persisting with their Kufr and Shirk despite that theyhad seen the manifestations of the all-encompassing knowledge and themost perfect power of Allah TaZlZ. And in contrast to their condition,obedient believers were praised and mention was made of their good end.In between, the description of the bequests (wasEyZ) of LuqmZn, peace onhim, was in a way a complement of the same subject. In the verses citedabove, the text reverts to the subjects of Allah TaZlZs all-encompassingknowledge and power, His bounties and favors showered on the creationswith a n exhortation to believe in the principle of His Oneness. ,,, I , The expression: yw (sakhkhara lakum: translated a s subjugatedfor you) in verse 20: ~ ; Y 2 C; +$I 2 6 $ I I , +I (Allah has subjugatedfor you what is in the heavens and what is on the earth) is well knownand means to make something subservient to someone. This raises aquestion a t this place. Is it not that, first of all, not even everything on the
  • 47. earth is subservient to human will and command? In fact, there are manythings that act counter to human choice. As for things of the heavensp a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e r e e x i s t s j u s t a b o u t no probability of t h e i r beingsubservient to h u m a n beings. The answer is t h a t subjugation reallymeans to force something into doing a particular job in a state of virtualcompulsion. So, subjugating the entire creation of the heavens and theearth for human beings means that the whole range of such creationswas yoked in their service to bring all sorts of benefits to them. Out ofthese things, many were put in their service by subjecting them to theircommand a s well, in t h a t they could use them a s and when they wished.But, there are other things that have been, of course, commissioned toserve them - which they are doing all right - but, such was t h e dictate ofDivine wisdom, t h a t they were not made subject to t h e command ofhuman beings, for example, t h e heavenly creations, p l a n e t s , s t a r s ,lighting, rains a n d similar others. Had they been subjugated to followhuman orders, these elements of creation would have been affected byhuman temperaments, tastes and varying conditions. One human beingwould have wanted t h e s u n to rise early while t h e need of t h e otherwould have it rise later. Someone would have asked for rains while theother, being in travel through a n open field, would have opted for norains. So, these divergent demands would have triggered operationalmalfunction in the workings of the universal heavenly system. Therefore,Allah TaZlZ did put all these things into the service of human beings butdid not make them subject to their will and command. This too is, in away, subjugation. Allah knows best. The word: LL-1 (isbzgh)in the next sentence of verse 20: ;$$ $ij L;&~:;ijad (and h a s perfected His blessings on you, both outward a n dinward) means to perfect, make complete, provide in great abundance tothe last fill. The Arabic word: IC;: (niam)means blessings which humanbeings recognize through their senses, for instance, the beauty of shapeand the symmetry of human limbs made into such proportion a s wouldallow maximum functional movement causing no disfigurement of onesshape a n d looks. Similarly, provisions, property; wealth, avenues ofeconomic opportunity, h e a l t h a n d well being a r e also o u t w a r d a n dPerceived blessings. I n the same way, making the religion of IslZm easy tofollow, being enabled to obey Allah a n d His Rasiil, t h e ascendancy of
  • 48. Islgm dver other faiths and the support given to Muslims encounteringenemies also come under the same outward blessings. As for inwardblessings, they relate to the human heart, such a s , l m ~ n(faith), knowingAllah (marifah), intellect, reason, good morals, t h e good fortune ofhaving ones s i n s left unexposed a n d of ones crimes not punishedinstantly and many others. The manifestations of Allahs knowledge, power and blessings a r eendless. These cannot by encompassed by anyone through speech, norcan any pen write them comprehensively. This has been stated in theverse: ; i$ $ > 3 L: 51 >j (27) t h r o u g h a similitude. S a y s t h esimilitude: If all trees that are on the earth were to be pens (or pens wereto be made of all branches on them) and the ocean (converted into ink) issupported by seven seas following it, the words of Allah would (still) notcome to a n end. The expression: d akl( (kalimatul-Eah, i.e. the words of lAllah) means His knowledge and wisdom (RW ul-Ma%; and Mazhari) whichincludes the manifestations of Divine power and Divine blessings. Then,the seven seas referred to here do not mean that there are seven seaspresent elsewhere. Instead of that, this is a manner of saying: Suppose ifthis ocean were to be replenished with seven more oceans, still then, allthese words of Allah could not be committed to writing. Even the numberof seven a p p e a r s h e r e a s a p a r t of t h e example. No restriction i sintended. Another verse of the QurZn proves it. There it was said: Say, If the ocean were to be ink for the Words of my Lord, the ocean would have been consumed before the Words of my Lord are exhausted, even though we were to bring another one, like it, in addition - Al-Kahf, 18:109.In this verse, by saying: & (bimithlihi: like it), a clear hint has beengiven that, no matter how many oceans a r e supposed, their collectivewriting fluid cannot circumscribe the Words of Allah. Rationally, t h ereason is obvious. The oceans may be added one after the other and bethey seven or seven thousand, they shall still remain liniited while theWords of Allah (knowledge) a r e unlimited. How, then, can somethinglimited make an all-encompassing coverage of what is unlimited?
  • 49. As it appears in some narratives, this verse was revealed in responseto a question posed by Jewish priests. The reason which prompted them toask this question was the verse of the QurZn where it has been said: G je , ,, 3 , , # ,> Y! ,&I 2 (and you are not given but a little from the knowledge -~l-Isra, 17:85). When t h e Holy Prophet came to t h e blessed city ofMadinah, some Jewish priests visited him and it was about this verse thatthey confronted him by saying, "You say that you have been given a littlefrom the knowledge. Is this what you are saying about your people, orhave you included us too therein?" The Holy Prophet said, "I mean all,"that is, our people a n d the Jews a n d Christians a s well. Thereupon,increasing the tempo of their opposition, they said, "To us, Allah TaZlZ , * I * , ,has given the Torah which stands out as: $2! dG (an explanation of J& .everything)." He said, "That too is b u t a little a s compared to DivineKnowledge. Then, even the total knowledge contained in the Torah is notknown to you either - what you go by is no more than a certain measureof what you need. Therefore, as compared to the Divine Knowledge, thecollective knowledge of all Scriptures and Prophets is also nothing but alittle." It was to support this statement that the verse:I(, rr r > j:j;;il d $jyMjIi>- (And if all trees that are on the earth were to be pens ... - 27) wasrevealed. (Ibn Kathir) Verses 33 - 34 0 people, fear your Lord and fear a day when no father will suffice his son, nor will a son be sufficing his father in the least. Surely, the promise of Allah is true. So, the worldly life must not deceive you, nor you should ever be deceived about Allah by the Deceiver.
  • 50. Siirah LuqmZn : 31 : 33 - 34 54 [33] Surely, it is Allah with whom rests the knowledge of the Hour; and He sends down the rain and He knows what is in the wombs. And no one knows what he will earn tomorrow and no one knows in which land he will die. Surely, Allah is All ,Knowing, A11 Aware. [34]Commentary In the first of the two verses cited above, the address is to commonpeople, believing and disbelieving both. They have been served with anotice that they will face Allah and be accountable before Him for theirdeeds on the day of Judgement and that they should be prepared for it. It , ,was said: &, l r j l ,:s J*, 2 $0 (0 people, fear your Lord - 33). At this place, thetext has not gone by the name of Allah TaZlZ or His some other attribute.Instead of that, it has elected to mention the attribute of Rabb (master,sustainer of all, usually translated as Lord with this sense includedtherein). This serves as an indicator towards the nature of fearing AllahTaZlZ. Hence, the command to fear given here is not the kind of fear onehabitually has from some beast or enemy. The reason is that Allah TaZlZis your Rabb. He nourishes, sustains and cherishes you. He is thecompassionate master. Why would someone apprehend this kind ofdanger from Him? Instead of that, the fear mentioned at this place is theparticular fear that is necessarily generated because of the sublimity andawe of ones elders. It is in that sense that a son fears his father and astudent, his teacher. They are no enemies. They are not going to hurtthem. But, their affectionate sublimity and awe reside in hearts and it isfrom there that these two make one obey a father and a teacher. This iswhat is meant at this place and it is being said that the sublimity andawe of Allah TaZlE should reign supreme over your hearts so that youcan obey Him, perfectly and easily. The next sentence reads: ?41, j49 >,Jy Y; ?J; i i j &+C I&; 5 j . r ,.>*>,, ;j i < ; (and fear a day when no father kill suffice his son, nor will a son besufficing his father in the least - 33). It means the father and son out ofwhom one is a believer and the other, a disbeliever. The sense is that abelieving father would neither be able to remit or reduce the punishmentof his disbelieving son nor would he be able to bring any benefit to him.Similarly, a believing son will be of no avail to his disbelieving father. The reason for this particularization lies in other verses of the nobleQurEn, and the narratives of Hadith. There it has been clarified that, on
  • 51. -the day of Judgement, parents will intercede on behalf of their childrenand the children on behalf of their parents. Then, this intercession willturn out to be successful as well. Says the Qur7Zn: eJi >>~d,,.,~, ,++,d , ,$: ; ,&mi (And those who believed a n d their children followed ,, dL;.bthem in belidf, w e will join their children with them - 52:21) even thoughtheir deeds may not match the ranking of the deeds of their parents, butsuch would be the barakah of righteous parents that they too would bemade to reach where their parents are. But, this is subject to the conditionthat the children should be believers - even though, their deeds may havesuffered from some shortcomings. Similarly, in another verse, it was said: &; I) >fi6 >j &$2 dG &&$ij ,+jjj (the eternal gardens they enter, and the righteous A theirffathers, spouses, and progeny as well - 13:23). Qualification refers here totheir being believers. Both these verses prove that, should parents and children and, in thesame way, a husband and wife, share the common denominator of beingbelievers, then, they will receive benefit from each other even on the dayof Judgement. Similar to this, there a r e several narratives of Hadithwhich report children interceding on behalf of their parents. Therefore,this rule set forth in the present verse (33) - that no father can bring anybenefit to his son and no son to his father on the day of Judgement - canbecome operative only in a situation when one of them is a believer whilethe other, a disbeliever. (Mazhari)Special Note: Here, it should be noted that the statement declaring the inability of afather to bring benefit to his son (&; 3 2 s Y - 3) has been madethrough a verbal sentence, but two changes were made while mentioningthe other side of it. Firstly, i t was described i n t h e form of a nominalsentence. Secondly, the word: >Jr(maulEd) meaning the born one, thatis, a son, was employed instead of ( ,:walad) which is more common for dson. There is a wise consideration a t work here. A nominal sentence ismore emphatic as compared to a verbal sentence. By this change in thesentence, a hint was released towards the difference between a father andhis children. T h e love of a father with his children is more intense.Contrary to this, the love of children does not reach this level of intensityeven in the mortal world. However, the likelihood of either of the two
  • 52. Siirah LuqmZn : 31 : 33 - 34 56bringing any benefit for each other on the day of Judgement has beennegated in the case of both, but the childrens lack of ability to bringbenefit h a s been described with added emphasis. Then, t h e r e is aparticular wise consideration in electing the word: >J,A (mauliid) insteadof AJ, (walad). The word, >Jrmauliid denotes ones own son or childrenonly. As for the word$, walad, it is general and includes the children ofones children as well. Thus, it is from another angle that the same subjecthas been strengthened. I t is being virtually said, when even the son fromthe very loins of t h e father would be of no avail to t h e father, a n yexpectations from the grandson and the great grandson are futile. In the next verse, the knowledge of five things has been declared asAl-Aniim: $! &-+exclusive to Allah Taiilii and that no created being has that knowledgeexcept Him and a t this ends the SErah LuqmEn: Surely, it is Allah with whom rests the knowledge of the Hour, and He sends down the rain, and He knows what is in the wombs. And no one knows what he will earn tomorrow and no one knows in which land he will die. Surely, Allah is All Knowing, All Aware - 31:34. Though, it has not been made explicit in the first three things that noone has their knowledge other than Allah, but the style of the statementis such that it seems to give the impression that the knowledge of thesethings rests limited to Divine Knowledge. As for the other two thingsmentioned later, there it has been explicitly said that no one has theirknowledge other t h a n Allah. These very five things have been called"keys to the Unseen" ( 1L : mafitih al-ghayb) in a verse of Siirah > -, >, 4F Y 41 &j (And with Him are the keys of the &&Unseen. No one knows them b u t He - 6:59). I n HadTth, i t h a s beenreferred a s eL (mafatih al-ghayb). Both(mafitih) are the plural forms of cL elk. (mafatih) a n d , blocks. It signifies sources of the Unseen that unravel its information.The Issue of the Ilm ul-Ghayb (Knowledge of the Unseen) Necessary details about this issue h a v e been given u n d e r t h ecoramentary on verse 65: $ 1 j 3 ;gR 2 ,fLL? Y 2 (Say, No one ,,,, , > 3 + (miftah) meaning key which opens
  • 53. Siirah LuqmZn : 31 : 33 - 34 57in the heavens and the earth has the knowledge of the Unseen exceptAllah. - 27:65) of Siirah An-Naml (Maariful-QurZn,Volume VI). That theknowledge of t h e unseen is particular to Allah TaZlZ i n t h e absolutesense has been explicitly mentioned in this verse - and this h a s been thebelief of the entire Muslim community from the earliest to the succeedinggenerations. As for the description of only five things particularly - thatno created being h a s their knowledge a n d t h a t i t i s Allah alone whoknows these - it is not meant for particularization. Otherwise, it wouldpose a contradiction with the verse of SErah An-Naml quoted above. Thefact is that these five things have been mentioned here to highlight theirspecial significance. There is a reason for this specific treatment and marked attention.Things of the Unseen that one is generally keen to find out are justthese five. Then, there are astrologers and their kind who lay a claim tothe knowledge of t h e unseen. Things they usually pick u p to informpeople a b o u t , a n d t h e r e b y prove t h a t t h e y a r e possessors of t h eknowledge of the unseen, are again these very five things. And in somenarratives of Hadith it has been reported that someone had asked theHoly Prophet % about these five things whereupon t h i s verse wasrevealed and wherein it has been stated that the knowledge of these fiveis particular with Allah TaZlZ. (R* ul-Masni) As for the statement of the Holy Prophet % reported on the authorityof SayyidnZ Ibn Umar and Ibn Masiid 1- r . I , += ,+ hi p in Hadith: , , ,-> $! j y (I have been given the keys to everything except thefive) (reported by ImTm Ahmad - Ibn Kathir), t h e word: sji (I have beengiven) itself makes it all clear. I t shows that the knowledge of unseenthings other than these five which came to the Holy Prophet came inthe form of revelation (wahy) from Allah TaZlZ. Therefore, i t is notincluded under t h e definition of t h e knowledge of t h e unseen (Ilmul-ghayb) because t h e news about things unseen given to t h e blessedprophets through wahy (revelation) and to t h e men of Allah (auliya)through ilham (inspiration) come from Allah TaZlZ. I n terms of theirreality, they are not the knowledge of the unseen based on which theycould be called t h e possessors of the knowledge of t h e unseen (Zlim ,,,- ,>ul-ghayb). They are, rather, 41 (news of the unseen). This is a n area sL;~of Divine prerogative. Whenever Allah TaZlZ so wills, and i n whatever
  • 54. measure He wills, He would bestow such information on His angels, , ,-,,, ,messengers a n d favored s e r v a n t s . These a r e called 4 ~lcl (anba 1<ul-ghayb)in the noble QurZn, for instance: a! -B;-;$1 &i & >(These are some reports from the Unseen (events) which We reveal to you- 11:49). Therefore, t h e Hadith quoted above means t h a t , no doubt, AllahTaZlZ has made these five things so exclusive to Himself that no angel ormessenger has been given their knowledge even as news of the unseen.However, besides these, a fair amount of the knowledge relating to otherunseen things is given out to the blessed prophets through the medium ofwahy (revelation). Thus, from what has been discussed above, we now know one morereason why these five things have been mentioned specially.A doubt and i t s answer The cited verse proves t h a t even in the absolute knowledge of t h eunseen which is a n integral a t t r i b u t e of Allah TaiilG t h e r e a r e fiveparticular things the knowledge of which is not given to any prophet eventhrough wahy (revelation). This demands that these things should neverbecome known to anyone. However, countless events relating to men ofAllah (auliya) in the Muslim community have been reported to the effectthat somewhere they gave the news of rain, or pregnancy, or someonedoing or not doing a deed in the future, or someones exact place of death.And this foreboding turned out to be true as well when observed. Similarly, there are some astrologers or people well versed in the a r t ofdivination through what is known as Jafar and Ramal who would comeup with some bits of information about these things and these, a t sometimes, would turn out to be true as well. This raises the question: How,then, cbuld these five things remain exclusive to Divine Knowledge? One answer to this question is the same as has appeared in detailsunder our Commentary on SErah An-Naml (27:65, Mazriful-Qurzn, VolumeVI). A brief one has been given above to the effect that the Knowledge ofthe Unseen, in its real sense, is knowledge without the mediation of aphysical cause - t h a t is, s a n s medium, by itself. If t h e s e things a r ereceived by the blessed prophets through wahy (revelation), by men ofAllah (auliya) through ilhEm (inspiration) and by astrologers and other
  • 55. claimants to divination or prediction through t h e i r calculations andphysical causes, t h e n , t h a t i s no knowledge of t h e unseen a s such.Instead, these a r e news of the unseen. If someone from among thecreation of Allah were to receive such news relating to some partial orpersonal matter, it would not be contradictory of t h e cited verse. Thereason i s simple. According to t h e substance of t h e verse, t h e totalknowledge of t h e s e five things, a knowledge which comprehendseverything created a s well as every relative condition, is something notgiven by Allah TaZlZ to anyone, neither through wahy (revelation) northrough ilham (inspiration). That someone gets to receive some partialknowledge through ilham (inspiration) in a stray case is not contradictoryto it. In addition to that, when we say ilm (knowledge), it means absoluteknowledge. That no one has except Allah TaiilZ. The knowledge a man ofAllah (waliyy) receives through ilhiim (inspiration) is not absolute. Manyprobabilities of error or false perception exist in it. As for the informationgiven out by astrologers and their ilk, it is a common observation thatthey hardly come up to the level of a single truth out of ten lies. How canthat be called absolute knowledge?The issue of the Knowledge of the Unseen: An important note My respected teacher, Shaykh ul-IslZm ShabbTr Ahmad UsmZnT hasmade a brief but comprehensive comment in his explanatory notes on theHoly Quran which helps remove all doubts and difficulties of the naturementioned above. He has said that there are two kinds of al-Ghayb (theunseen): (1) Injunctions of the unseen (al- ahkam ul-ghaybiyyah), suchas, t h e injunctions originating from revealed laws t h a t include t h eknowledge of the Being and attributes of Allah TaZlZ a s well and arecalled the knowledge of beliefs (al-aqaid). Also included therein are allinjunctions of the Shariah or revealed law which tell us as to what sort ofconduct meets the approval or disapproval of Allah TaZlZ. I t goes withoutsaying that all these things belong to nowhere but the unseen. (2) Cosmology of the unseen (al-akwEn ul-ghaybiyyah), t h a t is, theknowledge of the events occurring in the world. The knowledge of theunseen things of t h e first kind h a s been given by Allah TaZlE to Hisfollowing words: 3;: >>;I 3 $ Y! I& -prophets a n d messengers. This i s mentioned i n t h e QurZn i n t h e ,,- , 3%% : (He is the) Knower of
  • 56. Siirah Luqman : 31 : 33 - 34 60the Unseen. So He does not let anyone know His Unseen, except amessenger whom He chooses (to inform through revelation) - 7226-27. As for t h e unseen events and occurrences of the other kind, theirknowledge - the whole of it - is just not given by Allah TaZlZ to anyone.That remains categorically exclusive to Him a s His intrinsic attribute.But, He gives partial knowledge of particular events when He wills andas much He wills. As such, the real knowledge of the unseen - all of it -remains exclusive to Allah TaElZ. Then, as is His customary practice, Hereveals to the blessed prophets the knowledge of the injunctions of theunseen from o u t of His knowledge of t h e u n s e e n - a n d t h i s veryknowledge i s t h e purpose of their mission. Then, there i s t h e partialknowledge of the events and occurrences of the world. That too is givenby Allah TaZlZ to prophets through revelation (wahy) and men of Allah(auliya) through inspiration (ilham) a t His discretion and to the measureof His choice. Thus, the part of knowledge so given is knowledge that hasbeen bestowed on them by Allah TaZl5. In the real sense, this cannot becalled: r_LE (ilm ul-ghayb: the knowledge of the unseen). Instead, it iscalled: 41 : "an[m]bE il-ghayb: the news of the unseen."Special note concerning the words of the verse I n this verse, t h e objective is to describe t h e exclusiveness of t h eknowledge of these five things with Allah TaElZ in a manner that showsmarked care a n d attention. This objective obviously required t h a t fivethings should have been enumerated under a single head saying thattheir knowledge is exclusive to Allah TaElZ and that no created entity hasbeen given their knowledge. But, in the cited verse, this was not done.Instead, as for the knowledge of the initial three things, it was mentionedpositively as being exclusive to Allah - while, in the later two things, thestatement was negative declaring that no one other than Allah has theirknowledge. Let us go back to the initial three things. Here, a variation instyle becomes fairly visible even i n t h e s e t h r e e . We s e e t h a t t h eknowledge of the Hour has been mentioned in the following manner: 5 : 1! p~+ J , a& (Surely, it is Allah with whom rests the knowledge of the CIHour). Then the mode changes. The second thing has been taken up in 3" *>the form of a verbal sentence by saying: J3 (and He sends down therain). I t simply h a s no mention of t h e knowledge of rain. Instead, i tmentions the sending down of rain. The third thing was mentioned with a
  • 57. changed mode once again and it was said: rd;~l G &j (and He knows $what is in the wombs). This change of modality can only be taken as asampling of versatility in eloquence of speech. If one were to ponder, thereare other elements of wisdom embedded here. The respected author ofBayZn ul-QurZn has described these in his Tafsir. In brief, the last two things - what will one earn tomorrow and inwhich land will one die - are states connected with the human person. I twas probable that one would try to seek the relevant knowledge aboutthese. Therefore, in both these cases, the acquiring of such knowledge onthe part of anyone other than Allah was negated. Also proved effectivelythrough this statement was t h e absence of the knowledge of t h e firstthree things for anyone other than Allah. The argument was simple. Hereis someone who does not know about his doings and earnings tomorrow.Then, he does not know the end of it all, the point when and where hewill die. How could he, then, be expected to know the heavens and thecoming of rains and the thing hidden in the dark layers of a motherswomb? Finally, when mentioning the last thing, it was said t h a t one doesnot know the place of ones death. Yes, the text mentions place only -although, one does not know ones time of death too just like the place ofdeath. The reason is that the place of death, even if not known definitely,is something one can guess in terms of ones outward living conditions.One can naturally assume that the place where one is settled would bethe place where one would die, and a t the least, the place where one is todie is, after all, present somewhere in the world. This is contrary to thetime of death. This time is in the future and the future is not here yet. So,a person who cannot know about his place of death, despite t h a t it i spresent actually, how can it be imagined about him that he would come toknow his time of death which simply does not exist then? So, t h e negation of one thing here makes t h e negation of othersobvious in the first degree. Therefore, the text takes up both these thingsin the negative mode. As for the first three things, they are by themselvesoutside t h e scope of h u m a n access under perceptible conditions. T h a thuman knowledge has nothing to do with it is all too clear. Therefore, apositive mode was chosen to describe their exclusiveness to Allah TaZlG. Before parting with the subject, a few words about the use of nominalform in the first sentence and the verbal one in the later two sentences
  • 58. S i i r a h LuqmZn : 31 : 33 - 34 62-- -- - -- -may be useful. P e r h a p s , t h e wisdom t h e r e i n is to suggest t h a t t h eQiyZmah or the Last Day is a definite imperative with no change in it.This is contrary to the coming of rain and the period of pregnancy. Theirconditions keep changing - a n d t h e verbal sentence is suggestive ofchange. Therefore, that is what was used in both these cases. Then, wenotice a delicacy of treatment within these two a s well. When dealing withthe conditions of pregnancy, what was mentioned was Divine knowledge:{ G ; ~& i &j (and He knows what is in the wombs - 34) while in taking Iu p t h e s u b j e c t of t h e coming of r a i n , t h e r e i s j u s t n o m e n t i o n ofknowledge. There is a reason for it. Here, by mentioning t h e sendingdown of rain, i t was tacitly suggested t h a t t h e r a i n to which a r e tiedthousands of human benefits is something that comes a t the bidding ofAllah alone and that no one else exercises the ultimate control over it. Asfor t h e essential exclusiveness of i t s knowledge being with Allah, italready stands proved from the very context of the statement. ... Alhamdulillah The Commentary o n S i i r a h LuqmZn Ends here
  • 59. Siirah As-Sajdah :32 : 1 - 3 65 SGrah As-Sajdah [TheProstration] Siirah As-Sajdah is MakkF It has 30 Verses and 10 Sections At this place, the word:verse of the Qur7Zn:; & Verses 1- 3 With the name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the All-Merciful Alif Lam MTm. [I] (This) revelation of the Book - wherein there is no doubt - is from the Lord of the worlds. [2] Or, warn a people to whom no warner has come before you; may be they take the right path. [3]Commentary (nadhcr: warner) in: $+ 3 : ,-, ,,? > a + i s i t t h a t t h e y say, "he h a s f a b r i c a t e d it." On t h e contrary, i t is the t r u t h from your Lord, so t h a t you 2 L (to whomno warner has come.. -3)means a rasiil or messenger.The sense is that nomessenger had appeared amidst the Quraish of Makkah before the HolyProphet @. This does not mean that the call of the messengers had justnot reached them until that time, because it was clearly said in another % <! G; j $!j (And there was no communitywithout a warner having passed among them - 35:24). In this verse, (i.e.the verse 3524) the word:>& (warner) appears in its general lexical sense,t h a t is, one who calls people towards Allah, whether a messenger orprophet or one of their deputies, hhalifah or the Zlim of dtn. So, from thisverse, it seems that the call of pure monotheism (tauhrd) had reached all ,
  • 60. Siirah As-Sajdah :32 : 1 - 3 66communities a n d groups. That is correct i n i t s place a n d certainly thedictate of universal Divine mercy. Commentator Abu HayyZn says thatthe call to tauhid and %man has never ceased in any time or place orpeople. And wherever a long time passed after t h e appearance of aprophet, it resulted in the dearth of those having the knowledge of thelegacy of prophethood. Thereupon, some new prophet or messenger wassent. This requires that the call to tauhid should have reached the Arabpeoples definitely, and much earlier. But, for this it is not necessary thatthe call should have been brought in by some prophet or messenger inperson. I t i s possible t h a t i t may have reached through t h e learnedserving a s deputies to the prophetic mission. Therefore, the verses of thisSiirah, SErah Yii Sin and others which prove that no nadhir (warner)had appeared amidst the Quraish of Arabia before the Holy Prophet & $ !must be approached with the necessary consideration t h a t the word:( n a d h i r ) used t h e r e should mean a prophet a n d messenger i n t h etechnical sense denoting that no prophet and messenger had come amidstthose people before the Holy Prophet - even though, the call to tauhidand irnan may have reached there too through other means. Before the period of i i j fatrah, that is, before the appearance of theHoly Prophet g, it stands proved about some blessed souls who firmlyadhered to the faith of SayyidnZ IbrZhIm and I s m 3 3 rMUJi u. Theybelieved in the Oneness of Allah and were averse to the worship of andsacrifices for idols. Riih-ul-MaZni reports from the MaghZzi of Miisii Ibn Uqbah aboutone such person whose name was Zayd Ibn Amr Ibn Nufayl. He had alsomet the Holy Prophet $& before he was ordained a s a prophet. But, it wasstill before his prophethood that he died in the year the Quraish had builtthe edifice of the Baytullah - and this happened five years prior to hisprophethood. About him, MEsZ Ibn Uqbah says, He used to stop t h eQuraish from indulging in the worship of idols. He opposed the offering ofsacrifices in the name of idols as an evil practice and would not eat themeat from animals slaughtered by the Mushriks. Abii DZwEd TayZlisi has reported from SayyidnZ SaId Ibn Zayd IbnAmr &,the son of Zayd Ibn Amr Ibn Nufayl, one of the celebrated ten i s ) among the noble SahZbah, that he had submitted before theHoly Prophet saying: "You already know about my f a t h e r t h a t he
  • 61. SZrah As-Sajdah : 32 : 4 - 9 67adhered to pure monotheism and rejected idolatry. Can I, then, pray forhis forgiveness?" The Holy Prophet said, "Yes, for him the prayer offorgiveness is permissible. He will, on t h e day of Qiyiimah, rise a s a of his own." (R3-ul-MaZn?) Similarly, Warqah Ibn Nawfal & who was present during the initialperiod of t h e prophethood a n d t h e revelation of t h e Q u r a n w a s a nadherent of pure monotheism (tauhid). He had expressed his resolve tohelp the Holy Prophet but he died soon after. These examples provethat the people of Arabia were though not totally deprived of the Divinecall to faith and monotheism, but that no prophet had appeared amidstthem as such. Allah knows best. All three verses cited above carry a n affirmation of the veracity u; theQurEn and the Prophet of Islam. Verses 4 - 9 Allah is the One who created the heavens and the earth a n d a l l t h a t is between t h e m i n six days, t h e n He positioned Himself on t h e Throne. Other t h a n Him, there is neither a guardian for you, nor an intercessor. Would you then not observe the advice? [4] He manages (every) matter from the sky to the earth, then it (every matter) will ascend to Him in a day the measure of which is a thousand years according to the way you
  • 62. SGrah As-Sajdah :32 : 4 - 9 68 count. [5] That One is the All-knower of t h e unseen a n d t h e seen; t h e All-Mighty, t h e Very-Merciful, [6] w h o made well whatever He created a n d started t h e creation of man from clay. [7] Then He made his progeny from a drop of semen, from a despised water. [B] Then He gave him a proportioned shape a n d breathed into him of His spirit. And He granted you the (power of) hearing a n d the eyes a n d the hearts. Little you give thanks. [9]CommentaryT h e l e n g t h of the d a y of QiyZmah ,, 4 it: dio;l& ;d t%2 (in a /, The text in verse 5 cited above says:day the measure of which is a thousand years according to the way youcount - 5). And it appears in a verse of STirah Al-MaZrij: ... (in a day thee x t ~ ~ l which is fifty thousand years - 70:4). of t A simple explanation of this is what appears in BayEn-ul-QurZn -since this day will be horrendous, people would find it very long. Then,this length will be felt in terms of ones measure of faith and deeds. Bigcriminals will find t h e day longer while t h e s m a l l ones will find i tcomparatively shorter, so much so that the day some would feel to be of athousand years, to others, it would appear as of fifty thousand years. Tafsir Riih-ul-MaEni reports several other explanations from t h eUlamE a n d SGfiyE. B u t , a l l t h e s e a r e n o t h i n g b u t conjectures.Something which can be traced back to a proved meaning of the QurEnor something which can be believed in is just not there. Therefore, themost sound approach in this matter is the same as was taken by the earlye l d e r s of I s l a m , t h e S a h Z b a h a n d t h e TZbiin: T h e y h a d left t h eknowledge of this difference of one and fifty to Allah without explaining iton t h e basis of h u m a n whims a n d , on t h e i r p a r t , they h a d found i tsufficient to say, we do not know. About it, Sayyidna AbdullZh Ibn AbbZs ~$4said: They are two days mentioned by Allah TaaZ in His Book. Allah TaElZi knows best about them and I dislike to say in the matter of the Book of Allah that which I do not know.
  • 63. Stlrah As-Sajdah : 32 : 4 - g 69E v e r y t h i n g i s good i n t h i s world. Evil c o m e s t h r o u g h i t s w r o n guse. In verse 7, it was said: & %> , * > ,, $&I :"Who made well whateverHe created good. The reason is that Allah TaZlZ has made whatever Hehas created in this world under the dictate of His wisdom, and under theessential consideration of w h a t i s beneficial for t h e whole system.Therefore, everything has a beauty of its own. And the most beautiful ,,and better than all is the making of man as it was said: 3 Z L Y l k& , ,>, a$2 &T (Surely, We did create man in the best of symmetry - 95:4). L ,Then t h e r e a r e creations other t h a n m a n t h a t may outwardly betaken a s b a d . I n fact, dogs, pigs, s n a k e s , scorpions a n d wolfs a r ecommonly considered bad because they are either poisonous or beastly.But, in terms of the expedient benefits of the world as a whole, none ofthese is really bad. A proverbial poetic observation in Urdu puts it as: There is nothing useless in the world There is no one bad in the workshop of nature. , / J > 3( The author of Bayiin ul-QurZn has said, the texts F,& (whatever)includes all substances a n d accidents, t h a t is, also things which havecorporeal substance, such as, animals, plants and minerals etc. a s well a sincorporeal things which include even morals and deeds. So much so thatmorals which are identified a s bad - anger, greed, desire and their likes -are not bad in themselves. The bad about them emerges when they areused out of place. If they stay in their proper place, there is nothing badin them. But, the sense being driven home here relates to the objective oftheir creation ( t a k w i n )and introduction of these things - for t h a t isnothing but good according to divine wisdom. However, the qualities ofgood and bad are attached to them in relation to the human acts andtheir effects on individuals. We can call it ones right or choice employedin doing something. Then, in those terms, everything is not good, in fact,it is circumscribed by a little detail, that is, whatever has not been allowedby Allah TaZlZ is not good, but is, rather bad. Allah knows best. The sentence that follows next reads: > ) ) , ) al-I;Y j 1 , (and started L 4 , ,,the creation of man from clay - 7). ~ a r l i e iit was said t h a t Allah TaZlZ ,has made everything good in this world. Mentioned thereafter was man,
  • 64. Siirah As-Sajdah :32 : 10 - 22 70the most beautiful of all. Then, to give expression to His most perfectpower alongside, it was also said that the making of man a s the mostsuperior form of creation was not because the essential ingredient of hiscreation was most noble, elegant and superior, which may have made itso. I n fact, a s for the essential ingredient that went into his making, itwas something a s mean and lowly as the semen. Thereafter, the rest wasa masterpiece of His perfect power and profound wisdom. I t was this greatcombination that took something so low to such a height t h a t man wasrated a s the most noble Divine creation. Verses 10 - 22
  • 65. Siirah As-Sajdah :32 : 10 - 22 71 And they said, "Is it that when we disappear i n t h e e a r t h , shall we really come into a new creation?" Rather they are ones who deny the meeting with their Lord. [ l o ] Say, "The angel of d e a t h who h a s been assigned for you will take you in full, then you will be brought back to your Lord." [ l l ] And (you will wonder) if you see the sinners hanging their heads before their Lord (and saying,) "Our Lord, we have now seen and heard, so send us back, and we will do righteous deeds. Surely, (now) we are believers! [12] And if We had so willed, We would have given everybody his right way (by force), but the word from Me had come to pass: "I will certainly fill the Jahannam with jinn and human beings together.: [13] So, have a taste, because you had forgotten the meeting of this day of yours. We have forgotten you. And taste the eternal punishment for what you used to do. [14] Only those people believe in Our verses who, when they a r e r e m i n d e d of t h e m , fall i n p r o s t r a t i o n a n d pronounce the purity with praise of their Lord, and they do not wax proud. [15] Their sides remain a p a r t from their beds.They call their Lord with fear and hope, and spend from what We have given to them. [16] So no one knows what delight of eyes has been reserved for them in secret, as a reward of what they used to do. [17] So, can one who is a believer become like one who is a sinner? They cannot become equal. [18] As for those who believe and do righteous deeds, for them t h e r e a r e gardens to dwell, an honorable hospitality, for what they used to do. [I91 And the ones who disobeyed, their abode is the Fire. Whenever they wish to come out from it, they will be turned back to it, and it will be said to them, "Taste the punishment of fire that you used to deny! [20] And We will certainly make them taste the nearer punishment before the greater punishment, so that they may return. [21] And who is more unjust than
  • 66. S i r a h As-Sajdah.:32 : 10 - 22 72 the one who was reminded of the verses of his Lord, then he turned away from them. Surely, We have to take vengeance upon the sinners. [22]Commentary In verse 11, it was said: $J lJ>Jla$,:, YJi(, ,* > 9 - 3 (Say, "The angel J of death who has been assigned for you will take you in full" - 11). In theverse previous to it, t h e deniers of the QiyZmah were warned and a nanswer was given to their wondering as to how would they be broughtback to life once again after they had died and become dust. In the versecited above, such people are being reminded, Think of your death whichis, in itself, a great manifestation of the perfect power of Allah TaZlZ.Your heedlessness and ignorance make you think that ones death comesall by itself, just like that. This is not how it is. I n fact, fixed for yourdeath there is a time with Allah and for this there is a standing systemrun through angels. SayyidnZ Izra?l l l is the foremost among them,t h e one who is t h e master-manager of death throughout t h e world.Whenever and wherever a person is destined to die, it is precisely a t thattime that he draws out his soul from his body. This is what has beenstated in t h e cited verse. I t should be noted t h a t uLh a (malakul-maut: angel of death) has been mentioned in the singular form. It meansSayyldna IzrZTl MI. Please compare it with another verse where it is - .sald: WI I - $5 341 (the ones to whom the angels brought death - 16.28).Here, the word: 4-3 (malaikah: angels) h a s been used i n t h e pluralform. This releases the hint that SayyidnZ IzrZil does not do thisalone. Many angels under him take part in accomplishing this duty.Some details about the Exacting of Soul and the Angel of Death Tafsir authority, Mujahid has said, before the angel of death, thewhole world is very much like a n open tray before a h u m a n beingsprinkled in which there are grains and he picks up whichever he wants.The same subject has also appeared in a marfi hadith, that is, traceableto the Holy Prophet $&.(As mentioned by al-Qurtubi in At-tadhkirah) According tq a hadith, once the Holy Prophet $ saw the angel .ofdeath standing behind the head of an AnsZs ~ a h a bon his death bed. He isaid, make it easy on my 9ahEbi. The angel of death said, Rest assured. Imake it easy on every believer, then, he added, just imagine the numberof people living in towns or villages and in forests, mountains or waters, I
  • 67. SGrah As-Sajdah :32 : 10 - 22 73see every one of them five times a day, therefore, I am directly acquaintedwith everyone of them, young or old. Then, he concluded by saying, 0Muhammad $&, all t h i s I a m telling you about is nothing b u t w h a thappens with the will and command of Allah. Otherwise, if I wanted totake the life of even a mosquito, I do not have the power to do so - unlessthere comes the very command of Allah TaZlZ that I have to do it.T h e s o u l of a n i m a l s : Does t h e a n g e l of d e a t h e x a c t t h a t t o o ? From the hadith report mentioned above, it seems that i t is the angelof death who, subject to Divine permission, exacts the soul of a mosquitotoo. Imam MZlik $c; d l -J has also said this while answering a question.But, some other reports show that this exacting of the soul is particular tohuman beings - because of their nobility a n d distinction. As for t h eanimals, they will die under Divine will without the medium of the angel.(Mentioned by Ibn Atiyyah from al-Qurtubi) The s a m e subject h a s been reported by Abii a s h - S h a i k h , Uqaili,~ a i l a m and others on the authority of SayyidnZ Anas & narrating it ifrom the Holy Prophet @ . According to this report, the Holy Prophetsaid, "All animals and insects keep glorifying Allah (for this is their life).When this glorification stops, Allah TaZlZ takes their soul. The death ofanimals has not been entrusted with the angel of death". Another relatedhadith has been reported from SayyidnZ Ibn Umar .&a. (Mazhari) I t appears i n yet another hadith, when Allah TaZlZ handed over toSayyidnZ Izrail the charge of managing the death of everyone inthe world, he pleaded, " 0 my Lord, You have put such a service in mycharge that the entire race of the children of Adam living in the world isgoing to give m e a b a d n a m e to t h e e x t e n t t h a t every t i m e I a mremembered, I shall be dubbed a s evil." Allah TaZlZ would say, "We havetaken care of t h a t by placing some obvious diseases and causes of death inthe world due to which everyone will attribute death to these diseases andcauses and you will remain safe from their adverse comments." (Al-Qurtubiin his Tafsir and Al-tadhkirah) And I m a m al-Baghawi reports on t h e authority of SayyidnZ I b nAbbZs & that the Holy Prophet said, "All diseases, and things likepain a n d wound, a r e t h e universal message-bearers of death. Theyremind every human being of his or her death. After that, when comes
  • 68. Siirah As-Sajdah :32 : 10 - 22 74the time of death, the angel of death turns towards the dying person andsays, 0 servant of God, how many notices have I served on you and howmany message-bearers have I sent to you one after the other! All thesediseases and accidents delivered at your doors were simply to warn yout h a t you should get ready for death. Now, h e r e I a m after whom nobearer of some message will come to you any more. Now you have got tosay yes to t h e order of your Lord necessarily, w h e t h e r willingly orunwillingly." (Mazhari)Ruling: T h e angel of d e a t h does not know t h e t i m e of anyones d e a t h i nadvance - until he is ordered to exact the soul of a certain person. (Deducedby Ahmad and Ibn Abi ad-DunyZ from Mamar, Mazhari) ,,,, > Before approaching verse 16: a; +, b p FJ , ,z, 3pk & d l , J p+ j r ll, G , ,(Their sides remain apart from their beds. They call their Lord with fearand hope - 16), it should be borne in mind that disbelievers, Mushriks andthe deniers of the day of QiyZmah were warned in the verses previous to , ,, ,zit. After that, starting from: 66 ~3 L! (Only those people believe in Ourverses - 15) mentioned there are special attributes of sincere believers andthe high ranks reserved for them. Pointed to in the cited verse is one suchattribute of these believers: They leave the comfort of their beds, rise andget busy with the remembrance of Allah in submission and supplication -because, they are apprehensive of His displeasure and punishment whileremaining hopeful of His mercy and reward. This very combination offear a n d hope keeps t h e m returning to Dhikr a n d Dug$ repeatedly,anxiously and animated a t the same time.The SalZih of Tahajjud The majority of commentators t a k e s t h e expression denoting t h eleaving of beds and getting busy with Dhikr and Dua to mean the SalZhof Tahajjud and NawZfil that are offered after rising from sleep (which isthe saying of al-Hasan, Mujahid, E l i k and al-Awzai). And it is supported bynarrations of Hadith a s well. According to a report in the Musnad of Ahmad, at-Tirmidhi, an-NasZiand others, SayyidnZ MuLZdhIbn Jabal & narrates: Once I was in thecompany of the Holy Prophet & on a journey. One morning during thecourse of the journey when I was near him, I requested: "YE Rasiilallah,
  • 69. SZrah As-Sajdah : 32 : 10 - 22 75tell me to do something which helps me e n t e r Paradise a n d keeps meaway from Hell." He said, "You asked for something very difficult. But, forwhomsoever Allah TaZlii makes it easy, for him it becomes easy." Thenhe said, "This is what you should do: Worship Allah and associate no onewith Him, and establish Saliih, and pay ZakZh, and keep the fasts ofRamadan, and perform the Hajj of Bgytullah." And then he said, "Here,now let me tell you about the gateways of righteousness: Fasting is ashield (that saves you from punishment). Sadaqah puts off the fire ofones sins - so does ones SalZh in the middle of the night." And afterhaving said that, he recited the cited verse of the Holy QurZn: dd , j ~ p(Their sides remain apart from their beds - 16). >,>> - Sayyidnii Abii ad-Darda, QatZdah and DahhZk -1 +J ld J dhave said t h a t t h i s a t t r i b u t e of sides remaining a p a r t from beds alsoapplies to those who make their SalZh of Isha with Jamaah a n d then goon to m a k e t h e i r SalZh of F a j r with JamZah. And according to anarration of Sayyidnii Anas & appearing in Tirmidhi with sound chainsof a u t h o r i t y , t h i s verse: @+ >G(Their sides r e m a i n a p a r t ) w a s > >>>I >revealed about people who do not sleep before the SalZh of Isha andkeep waiting for the Jamaah of Isha. And according to some other reports, this verse is about people whooffer nawEfil between Maghrib and Isha (reported by Muhammad Ibn Nasr).And about this verse, SayyidnZ Ibn Abbas & said: People who would, onwaking u p , r e m e m b e r Allah - lying, s i t t i n g a n d on s i d e s - a r e alsoincluded therein. Ibn Kathir a n d other Tafsir authorities have said t h a t t h e r e is nocontradiction in all these sayings. I t is correct to say t h a t this verse isinclusive of all - while the late night SalZh remains the superior most.BayZn ul-Qur7Znhas also opted for this approach. And S a y y i d a h AsmZ b i n t Yazid k h l pJ a r r a t e s : T h e Holy nProphet said, when Allah TaiilZ will gather everyone from the first tothe last, a proclaimer whose call will be heard by the entire creation willcall: This day everyone on the plains of Resurrection will find out a s towho is really deserving of honor and compliment. Then, the proclaimingangel will proclaim: 0 people assembled on the plains of Resurrection, letthose rise from among you, those whose a t t r i b u t e was: 9 v+ && . ,,>,
  • 70. Siirah As-Sajdah :32 : 10 - 22 76c will stand up, though theirfrom theirwill be- small. (Ibn Kathir)thesez (Their sides remain apart number beds 16). At this call, And dpeople lsome words of the same narration say that these people will be sent toParadise without reckoning. After t h a t , all others will s t a n d a n d facereckoning. (Maghari) In verse 21: (And We will certainly make them taste the nearer punishment before the greater punishment, so that they may return),the word: j i i ( a d n q has been used i n the sense of nearer and j > Y l + I d 1(al-adhiib-ul-adnii) denotes diseases, sufferings a n d calamities of t h eworld that are made to befall a lot of people by Allah TaZlZ in order towarn them against their sins. The purpose is to chasten and alert themenough so that they leave off their sins and thus earn their deliverancefrom the Great Punishment of the Hereafter. Hence, this verse seems to tell u s that all these sufferings, accidents,diseases and pains that inflict sinners in the world are nothing but a sortof mercy for t h e m i n a s much a s t h e y h e l p t h e m g e t o u t of t h e i rheedlessness and save themselves from the punishment of the Akhirah.However, for people who t a k e no lesson even from such unwelcomehappenings and fail to turn to Allah, for them, this punishment becomestwofold - first, the cash punishment right here in this world and then, theother being the Great Punishment of the Hereafter. As for the hardshipsof many kinds t h a t come upon prophets a n d men of Allah, t h a t i s aseparate matter. These hardships are a trial for them and trials are thesource through which their ranks are raised. What is the hallmark of thistrial? How do you recognize the quality of their response? If one were toobserve such people even under the stress of calamities and hardships, itwill be noticed that they have a kind of peace and tranquility emanatingfrom their trust in Allah TaSlZ. And i t is Allah who knows best.There are some crimes the punishment of which comes evenwithin the mortal world much before the Hereafter. 2 The last sentence of the set of verses cited above reads: 391 (!i,+ 3 -"> (We have to take vengeance upon the sinners - 22). Obviously, theword: > g l (al-mujrimin: the criminals) includes all kinds of criminals.
  • 71. SGrah As-Sajdah :32 : 23 - 30 77Then, t h e word: ! @ (intiqarn: revenge, retribution, r e t u r n ) is also Igeneral. I t may be in the mortal world or in the Hereafter or i n both. But,from some H a d i t h accounts i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e s i n s t h epunishment of which is experienced - before the Hereafter - right here inthis world too. They are: (1) To strive against what is Right and Truepublicly with f l a g s a n d slogans; (2) To disobey p a r e n t s ; (3) To helpsomeone unjust or oppressive. (Reported by Ibn Jarlr from Sayyidna Muadh IbnJabal 2,) Verses 23 - 30 And We did give the Book to MGsZ, so do not be in doubt about receiving it, and We made it a guidance for the children of IsraTl. [23] And We appointed leaders from among them who guided (people) under Our command, when they observed patience, and kept firm belief in Our verses. [24] Surely, your Lord will judge between t h e m on t h e Day of J u d g m e n t i n what t h e y used t o differ. [25] Has it not been a source of guidance for them as to how many generations We have destroyed before them who used t o walk in their dwellings? Surely in this t h e r e a r e signs. So, do they not listen? [26] Have
  • 72. Siirah As-Sajdah :32 : 23 - 30 78 they not seen that We drive water to the dry land, then We bring forth crops thereby from which their cattle and t h e y t h e m s e l v e s have food? S o , d o t h e y n o t observe? [27]And they say, When will this decision take place?" [28] Say, "On the day of decision their belief will not be of any use to disbelievers, nor shall they be given any respite." [29] So, turn away from them and wait. They (too) are waiting. [30]Commentary The word: d-2 (liqa) in the first verse (23) cited above: 2 $3 3 $ %$$ (SOdo not be i n doubt about receiving it) means meeting. Whosemeeting with whom? I n determining it precisely i n the verse, the sayingsof commentators differ. According to one of these, the pronoun in: $4(liqEi&i) has been taken to be reverting to: &$i(al-hitab: the Book),that is, the QurZn, which releases the sense that the way Allah TaZlZgave the Book to Sayyidna MGsE mi, you too should entertain no doubtabout receiving your Book. This is supported by similar words used about d,,, dt h e Quran i n a n o t h e r verse: ;I$ r ipw &!j (And i n d e e d you [0Muhammad] do receive t h e QurZn - An-Naml, 27:6) (BayZnul-QurZn,Khula~ah Tafs;r) On the other hand, its tafsir from SayyidnZ Ibn AbbZs and QatZdah1- d d J a s been reported a s follows: T h e pronoun in: $$ i h(liqaihi: read a s meeting him) reverts to SayyidnZ MGsZ and giveni n t h i s verse i s t h e news t h a t t h e Holy P r o p h e t @ will b e meetingSayyidnZ MGsZ 85& and it has been said that he should have no doubt inthe eventuality of his meeting with SayyidnZ MusZ m. Accordingly, ameeting i n t h e night of al-MirZj (the ascent to t h e heavens) s t a n d sproved on t h e authority of S a h i h AhZdith. Then, also proved i s t h emeeting on the day of QiyZmah. And H a s a n a l - B a s r i JL d l -, explains i t by saying: T h e waySayyidna Miis5 was given a Book, then people belied and harassedhim, the prophet of Islam too should anticipate that h e will have to facesimilar treatment a t the hands of his people. Therefore, he should notgrieve over the pains inflicted by disbelievers. I n fact, h e should take thatas the blessed practice of prophets, and endure.Two conditions for the leader of any people In the next verse (24), it was said:
  • 73. Siirah As-Sajdah :32 : 23 - 30 79 (And We appointed leaders from among them who guided (people) under Our command, when they observed patience, and kept firm belief in Our verses). I n t h i s verse, two reasons have been given a s to why religiousleadership w a s bestowed on some of t h e s a g e s of B a n i IsrZil: (1)Observance of patience and (2) the certitude of Divine words. I n terms ofthe Arabic usage, the sense of doing ~ a b or patience is very wide and rgeneral. Literally, i t means to tie or to be firm. At this place, sabr means tostay firm on the implementation of Divine injunctions a n d to hold onesdesiring self in check against the infringement of what Allah TatZl;i: hasdeclared to be haram (unlawful) or makriih (reprehensible). This coversones obedience to all injunctions of t h e Shariah which i s pragmaticperfection a t its best. The second reason lies in their certitude - they arecertain of the Divine words. This includes the initial understanding of thesense of the verses a s well a s the resulting certitude which emerges fromsuch comprehension - both. This is intellectual perfection a t its best. In short, in the sight of Allah TaZlZ, only those who a r e perfect bothin i l m (knowledge) a n d a m a l (practice) a r e w o r t h y of religiousleadership. I t is interesting here that perfection i n practice h a s been madeto precede perfection i n knowledge while, usually ilm (knowledge)precedesamal (practice). This arrangement releases a strong hint, that is,a knowledge which h a s no corresponding practice with i t i s just notcredible in the sight of Allah. Ibn Kathir has reported the following saying of some Ulama in histafsir of this verse: ~ ~ l ~ - -,~ * ~, y l ~ ~ $ One can arrive a t the station of leadership in religion only through ~ a b(patience) and yaqin (certitude). r The word: ; (al-juruz) in verse 27: c+ j ; > * ", I > , d! . $ >;YI ;L.h j Li + j l + I . I , a, , , ,, ,GJj 7 (Have they not seen that We drive water to the dry land, then Webring forth crops thereby - 27) means barren land where trees do not grow.A wise system of irrigation Usually t h e Quran mentions t h e irrigating of d r y l a n d s a n d t h e
  • 74. S i i r a h As-Sajdah :32 : 23 - 30 80growing of crops t h e r e i n by saying t h a t t h e l a n d receives r a i n , a n dbecomes moist and growth-worthy. But, there is no mention of rain in thisverse. Instead of that, it has been said that water itself is directed to moveaground towards t h e dry land a n d thereby bring forth t h e growth oftrees. .In other words, the rain is made to fall on some other land and it isfrom there that water is directed to move in the form of carrier channelson the ground all the way to the dry land that receives no rain. There is a h i n t embedded here. Some l a n d s a r e so soft t h a t theycannot withstand rains. If regular rains were made to fall there, buildingsmay collapse or trees may be uprooted. Therefore, nature has made itsown arrangements for such lands. As for the rain itself, it is sent on aland which is capable of holding it. After that, water is made to flow fromhere all the way to such lands which cannot withstand rains - like theland of Egypt. And there are commentators who have pointed out to somelands of Yaman and Syria as being referred to in this verse. (as reportedfrom Ibn Abbas and Al-Hasan) And as for the correct position, this subject includes all such lands,w i t h t h e i n c l u s i o n of t h e l a n d of Egypt k n o w n for s c a n t y r a i n sparticularly. But, water from t h e rains i n t h e Abyssinian territory ofAfrica comes into Egypt through the Nile bringing with it particles of theindigenous red soil which is good for the growth of crops. Therefore, thepeople of Egypt, despite t h a t they have no r a i n s i n t h e i r country, dobenefit by a supply of new water and soil every year. .-, ,, &_-I 1 -. h s;G:(So, glorious is Allah, the Best of creators - 23:14). Verse 28 carries a question posed by disbelievers: 3 1 i;L; ,, / >, ~b a , J S j ( A n dthey say, "When will this decision take place?)Here, they a r e referring tot h e victory of believers against disbelievers a s promised by t h e HolyProphet @ and are wondering about it since they see no traces of thislikelihood anywhere around. Instead, they see Muslims a s a group ofpeople, scared, hiding, />,, ,,, ,*> >! To answer that, Allah Taala said: $41 1 5 7 3 1+Y +I r, & (Say, 4On the day of decision their belief will not be of any use to disbelievers,-29) This amounts to saying: Why are you asking us about the day of ourvictory while t h a t day is going to be a day of trouble for you? Whenvictory comes t o u s , you would h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n o v e r t a k e n by
  • 75. SZrah As-Sajdah :32 : 23 - 30 81punishment. May be, right here i n this world - a s it happened in thebattle of Badr - or, in the Hereafter. And when the punishment of Allahseizes someone, then, no profession of faith a t that time, no declaration of%Ginat that stage is accepted. (as mentioned by Ibn Kathir) There are some others who have interpreted the day in: $ i h >("When will this decision take place?") as the day of QiyZmah. Thesummarized explanation of this verse in Bayan-ul-QurZn appearing inthe original edition of MaZriful-QurEn is based on t h i s tafsir. ( Thetranslation of a l - f a t h a s decision as given in the text admits bothprobablities) Alhamdulillah The Commentary on SIirah As-Sajdah Ends here.
  • 76. Siirah Al-AhzZb Siirah Al-Ahzab is Madani and has 73 verses and 9 sections. With the name of Allah, the All-Merciful,the Very-Merciful Verses 1- 3 0 Prophet, fear Allah and do not obey the disbelievers and the hypocrites. Surely Allah is All-Knowing, Wise. [I] And follow w h a t i s revealed t o you f r o m y o u r Lord. Surely Allah is All-Aware of what you do. [2] And place your trust in Allah, and Allah is enough a s a guardian. [3]Commentary This is a Madani Stirah. Most of its subjects feature is the loveablepersona of the Holy Prophet $$$ and his special place with Allah. There ithas been variously emphasized t h a t showing reverence for him isobligatory and that causing any pain to him is haram (forbidden). Thenthe rest of the subjects taken up in the Sllrah also serve as complementsto the ultimate perfection of his station.The background of revelation Some n a r r a t i o n s have been reported outlining t h e c a u s e of t h erevelation of this Stirah: 1. When t h e Holy Prophet @ came to live in adi in ah after his
  • 77. Siirah al-AhzZb : 33 : 1 - 3 86hijrah, the environs of the city were inhabited by Jewish tribes, some ofwhom being Quraizah, Nadh and Banii Qainuqa. Being the prophet ofmercy for all, h e wished and tried that they somehow embrace Islam. I t sohappened that a few men from among these Jews started visiting himand posing a s Muslims hypocritically. There was no faith in their heart.The Holy Prophet % took this as sufficient to begin with in the hope thatthe incidence of some people becoming Muslims would make i t easier forhim to invite others. Therefore, he used to welcome everyone from amongthese people particularly a n d warmly, so much so t h a t even if theyhappened to do something bad, h e would ignore i t a s a m e a s u r e ofreligious expediency. I t was because of this event t h a t the initial verses ofSiirah al-Ahzab were revealed. (al-Qurtubi) According to another event reported by Ibn Jarir from SayyidnZ IbnAbbZs &,i t was after hijrah that Walid Ibn Mughbah and Shaibah IbnRabTah from among the kuffir of Makkah came to Madinah. They madea n offer before the Holy Prophet that they would let him have half ofthe entire wealth of the Quraish of Makkah, if he were to withdraw hisclaim of prophethood. And the hypocrites and Jews of MadTnah gave hima threat that they would kill him, if h e did not withdraw from his claimand call. Thereupon, these verses were revealed. (R* al-MaZni) The third event has been reported by Thaalibi and WZhidT with noascription of authority. This event, according to them, goes back to thetime when a no war pact was signed between the pagans of Makkah andthe Holy Prophet $& a t Hudaibiyah. It was a t that time that Abii SufyZn,Ikrimah, Ibn Abi J a h l and Abii al-Awar Sulami came to MadTnah. Therethey said to the Holy Prophet @, You stop speaking ill of our objects ofworship - or simply say that they will also intercede on our behalf andbring benefits to us. If you do just t h a t much, then we, on our part, willforget about you and your Lord - and the dispute will be all over. What they said was very unpleasant for the Holy Prophet and forall Muslims who wanted to kill them. The Holy Prophet said, I havemade a peace pact with them, therefore, this cannot be done. Thereupon,these verses were revealed. (RZh al-Maani) Though, t h e s e reports a r edifferent but, i n reality, there is no contradiction therein. These eventscould also be the cause of the revelation of the cited verses.
  • 78. In these verses, the Holy Prophet % has been asked to do two things:(1) h i i ! s&i (ittaqillah), that is, fear Allah. (2) Y (la tutiiZ-kafirin),that is, do not obey the disbelievers. The order to fear Allah was givenfor the reason that killing them was a breach of trust which is haram(forbidden). As for the order of not obeying the disbelievers, it was givenfor the reason that the demands made by the infidels in all these eventswere unacceptable. Relevant details follow.Explanation of Verses * > * In the opening verse of the Siirah: 5 $1 2 CC0 Prophet, fear Allah 1. 1 ( ,- I), the wording of the address to the Holy Prophet % is significant. Thisis a singular honor given and the high regard shown to the Holy Prophetg.Nowhere in the entire QurZn, has he ever been addressed directly byhis name - as has been the case in addressing other prophets. They havebeen addressed as ;3 G ( 0 Adam), ; ; G (0 Niih), +>!I; ( 0 IbrZhim), G2;:( 0 MiisZ) a n d likewise, repeatedly. Contrary t o t h i s , whereverthroughout t h e QurEn a n address was made to t h e l a s t among t h eprophets, may peace a n d t h e blessings of Allah be upon him, h e wasaddressed by some title, like nabiyy (prophet) or rasiil (messenger ofAllah) etc. The only exception is that of four occasions [3:144; 33:40; 47:2;48:29] where the very purpose was to declare that he is the rasiil of Allah.It is there only that his blessed name has been mentioned - which wasfunctionally necessary. In this address, two orders were given to the Holy Prophet @: (1)That of fearing Allah in the sense that the peace pact entered into withthe Mushriks of Makkah should not be contravened. (2) T h a t of notyielding to what is said by the disbelievers, hypocrites and the Jews. Atthis point, a question may arise. Is it not that the Holy Prophet $ is, after $ !all, protected from all sins? Now, a breach of solemn pledge is obviously amajor sin, a n d similarly, it is also a great s i n t o accept t h e offer ofdisbelievers and polytheists, quoted under the background of revelation.Since the Holy Prophet was already protected from all kinds of sins,what was the need for such a n order? According to Riih al-Masni, theseorders have the sense of instruction to abide by this conduct in future aswell - as he did in the event concerned. And the order of: + (ittlaqillah: !fear Allah) was made to come earlier for the reason that Muslims wantedto kill the Mushriks of Makkah with whom a treaty of peace was already
  • 79. - -in effect. Therefore, the instruction to avoid a breach of pledge was made g!to precede through the expression: hi (ittaqillah: fear Allah). As for theinstruction of not yielding to the kuffir and mushrikbz, since no one hadeven wanted to do that, it was mentioned later. And some respected commentators have said t h a t , i n t h i s verse,though the address is to the Holy Prophet &, but the purpose is to warnthe Muslim community a t large. As for him, h e was masiim, t h a t is,protected i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e r e w a s just no probability of t h econtravention of Divine injunctions from him. But, t h e law is for thewhole community. So, a corresponding mode was employed to make thecommunity hear it and become alerted, and the address was made to theHoly Prophet which enhanced the importance of the order significantlyby suggesting: When, even the rasiil of Allah is t h e addressee of t h eorder, how can any individual of the Muslim community remain exemptedfrom it? And Ibn KathIr has said: In this verse, the real purpose of prohibitingthe obedience of the disbelievers is that the Holy Prophet & should notconsult with them or let them have the opportunity of sitting with himfrequently, because such consultation or mutual interaction generallybecomes the cause of ending up in a disposition favouring the acceptanceof what they proposed. Though, there was no probability that the HolyProphet @ would do what they asked him to do, still, he was stoppedfrom m a i n t a i n i n g s u c h liaison with t h e m a n d from h a v i n g t h e mparticipate in his consultations. It is this idea that has been expressedthrough the word: LL! (itaah: obedience, submission or listening to anddoing the bidding of someone), because such consultations and mutualinteraction usually become the cause of ultimate acceptance. So, what hasreally been done here is that he has been prohibited from adopting theways that could lead to such itiiaah or obedience. As for obedience itself,there was no probability that he would ever do that. Now the second question that may arise here is that according to thisverse, the disbelievers and the hypocrites were expected to propose thingscounter to the true Islamic position. To the extent of open disbelievers,such proposals coming from them were not improbable, a n d warning-gainst yielding to them is understandable.But, if the hypocrites saidanything counter to Islam, they would no longer remain hypocrites,
  • 80. because in that case they would become open disbelievers. What, then,was the need to mention them separately? The answer is t h a t it is possiblethat although the hypocrites may not have said anything against Islamvery openly, but that they may have said something in support of otherdisbelievers. And if t h e event featuring t h e hypocrites, described u n d e r t h ebackground of revelation, is taken to be the cause of revelation, it simplyleaves no difficulty or vagueness behind - because, in terms of this event,the Holy Prophet has simply been prohibited from dealing with Jewscalling themselves Muslims in a spirit of extra civility and accommodation. Later, towards the end of this verse, by saying: d& $? d 51 - l(Surely, Allah is All- Knowing, Wise - I), stated there is the wisdom of theorder given immediately earlier - that is, fear Allah and do not obey thedisbelievers and hypocrites. The reason is that Allah TaZlZ, who knowsthe consequences of everything, is most wise, and fully aware of what isbetter for His servants. This was said to counter some of the things putforth by t h e disbelievers or hypocrites which could generate for themcertain advantages of lesser tension and increased mutual tolerance. But,from t h i s Allah TaZlZ prohibited him by declaring t h a t even t h i stolerance of such people was counter to what was expedient under thecircumstances and that such a policy was not going to end well. What is said in verse 2: I> i cb, 5 3 h d @ * i! & > 3,>;G ..&? E.)(And follow w h a t is revealed to you from your Lord. Surely Allah isAll-Aware of what you do.) is actually a complement of the first order. I tmeans: Do not be beguiled or taken i n by w h a t t h e disbelievers a n dhypocrites say and do not agree or yield to it. Instead of all that, whateveryou have been told by Allah through wahy (revelation) remains the onlything you a n d your companions should follow. Since, t h e noblecompanions & a n d Muslims a t large a r e included under this address, , >,,,therefore, by saying: d+k; cb, (what you do) in the plural form a t the end,everyone was alerted. Once again, the last statement: %j &$ $ ; &&I 3;; (And placeYour t r u s t i n Allah a n d Allah is enough a s a guardian- 3) i s also acomplement of the same order. Here it is being said: As for your approach,just pay no heed to w h a t they say and, in order to succeed i n your
  • 81. objective, you should trust no one but Allah for He, in Himself and byHimself, is the ultimate doer, maker and fixer of all matters and things.With Him there, you do not need to acquiesce in the opinion of anyone.Ruling The cited verse proves that, in religious matters, even consulting withdisbelievers is not permissible. I n other matters relating to technical orfunctional experience, there is no h a r m in doing so. And Allah knowsbest. Verses 4 - 5 Allah h a s not made for any man two h e a r t s i n his (chest) cavity, nor did he make your wives whom you subjected to qihiir, your mothers, nor did he make your adopted sons your (real) sons. That is (merely) a word uttered by your mouths. And Allah says the truth and He shows the (right) way. [4] Call them by (the name of) their (real) fathers; It is more equitable in the sight of Allah. And if you do not know their fathers, then they are your brothers in faith and your friends. And there is no sin on you in the mistake you make, but in that which you do with intention of your heart and Allah is Most-Forgiving, Very-Merciful. [ 5 ]Commentary Previous verses carried instructions to the Holy Prophet asking himnot to act upon their advice and not to be cajoled into what they wantedto achieve. I n t h e cited verses, t h e r e is a refutation of t h r e e customsprevailing among disbelievers as well a s of t5eir false notions.
  • 82. (1) During Zhibiyyah, Arabs used to say about a person who wassmarter than others that he had two hearts in his chest cage. (2) Then they h a d a custom about their wives following which aperson would declare his wife to be like the back of his mother, or someother part of the body, and go on to say, you are, for me, like the back ofmy mother. This, in their usage, was called "ZihZr." I t is a derivationfrom: Zahr, which means back. They thought that if a person who haddone "ZihZr" with his wife, she becomes harEm (unlawful) to him for ever. (3) And then they had another custom under which one person wouldmake the son of another his so-called or adopted son and who so wouldtake a son in that manner, the boy would become known as his son andwould be addressed as such. According to their practice, this so-called oradopted son used to be recognized in all rules and regulations as a realson. For instance, he would be regarded as a sharer even in inheritance,like a real offspring along with the children from his loins. Then, theywould also regard the marriage relations of the so-called or adopted son asfalling under the standard rule whereby the marriage with a category ofcertain women is unlawful. For example, as marriage with the wife ofones real son remains unlawful even after he has divorced her, they alsotook the divorced wife of the so-called or adopted son to be unlawful forthat person. Since the first of the three notions of the period of JEhiliyyah werenot tied u p with religious belief or conduct, therefore, t h e Shariah ofIslZm had no need to refute it. To determine whether there is just the oneheart inside the chest or, may be, there are two as well was simply a caseof anatomical inquiry. That it was obviously false was known to everyone.Therefore, most likely, the matter of its refutation was also introduced asa prologue to the other two issues and it was said: The way false is thesaying of the people of Jahiliyyah - that someone could have two heartsin his chest, the falsity of which is known to everyone - similarly, falseare their notions in t h e matters of ZihEr (falsely declaring ones wifeunlawful to him like his mother) and adoption of sons. As for the injunctions governing the two issues of ZihEr and adoptedson, these a r e among the social and familial issues t h a t have a greatimportance in Islam - to the extent that even their subsidiary details have
  • 83. been given i n the Quran by Allah TaZlZ Himself. unlike other matters,this has not been left a t the declaration of principles only with its detailedenunciation entrusted with the Holy Prophet @. Regarding both theseissues, t h e people of Jahiliyyah, following their baseless whims, h a d abunch of self-made laws relating to t h e lawful a n d t h e unlawful, t h epermissible and the impermissible. I t was the duty of the True Religiont h a t i t should refute these false notions a n d make t h e t r u t h manifest.Therefore, it was said: &;$f 21 ;js , , $; I $ & L j It means: You arewrong in thinking that, should someone call his wife the equal or like ofhis mother, the wife does not go on to become unlawful for him for everlike his real mother. J u s t because you say so, a wife does not become amother, in reality. Your mother is but she who gave birth to you. Now, a tleast, the notion of the people of JZhiliyyah that ZihZr makes ones wifeunlawful for ever is refuted by this verse. What happens next? Doessaying so bring about any legal effect? The standing injunction in thisconnection appears in SErah al-Mujzdalah [58:2-41 where saying so hasbeen called a sin and abstention from it obligatory. And it is providedthere that he who has made such a declaration should offer a kaffirah(expiation) of having done gihar after which having intercourse with hiswife becomes lawful for him. The details of this issue will appear in theCommentary on Stirah al-MujZdalah (Maariful-QurEn, Volume VIII). The second issue was that of the rnutabanna, i.e adopted son. About , , -, 8;+;?that, it was said: F G G ~ j.Z L j (nor did he make your adopted sonsyour (real) sons - 4). The word: &;i (adCiyZ) the plural of: is 2; (daiyy)which means a so-called son. The sense is that the way no man has twohearts inside him and the way by likening ones wife to ones mother, thewife does not become the mother - similarly, the so-called son does notbecome your real son. I n other words, neither will h e be entitled to ashare in inheritance with other sons, nor the precepts of the unlawfulnessof marriage will apply to him. For example, the way the divorced wife of areal son is unlawful for his father for ever, t h e divorced wife of a nadopted son is not unlawful for his so-called father. Since this last matteraffects many other matters, therefore, it was complimented by anotherinjunction, that is, even a n adopted son should be attributed to his realfather, and not to the person who has adopted him - because, this spellsout the danger of misgiving and confusion creeping in many matters.
  • 84. T h e r e i s a h a d i t h from SayyidnZ I b n U m a r & a p p e a r i n g i nal-BukhZri, Muslim a n d others in which i t has deen said: Before therevelation of this verse, we used to call Zayd Ibn HZrithah by the name ofZayd Ibn Muhammad (because the Holy Prophet $ had taken him in as $his m u t a b a n n z , adopted son). After the revelation of t h i s verse, weabandoned this practice.Ruling This tells us about many people who call the children of others as sonwhich, if because of simple affection, not because of declaring him a nadopted son or a mutabannE , then, this would though be permissible,still, i t i s not t h e b e t t e r choice, because i t looks like violating t h eprohibition, a t least in appearance. (As in R$ al-Maani from al-Khiifaji Alaal-~aidZwi) And this is the same matter which, by throwing the Quraish of Arabiainto deception, led them to commit a sin of terribly serious proportions tothe extent that they started blaming the Holy Prophet by saying thathe had married the divorced wife of his son ,while in fact, he was not hisson, b u t only a m u t a b a n n a (adopted son) - something t h a t will bementioned in this very SGrah a little later. Verse 6 The Prophet is closer to the believers than their own selves a n d his wives a r e t h e i r mothers. And those having mutual kinship are closer to one another (for the purpose of inheritance) than (other) believers and emigrants according to the Book of Allah, unless you do some good to your friends (by making a will in their favour). This h a d been w r i t t e n i n t h e Book ( t h e Preserved Tablet). [6]
  • 85. Siirah al-AhzZb : 33 : 6 94Commentary As stated earlier, most of the subjects in SGrah al-AhzZb relate to thereverence of the Holy Prophet & and to the unlawfulness of causing painto him. After t h e mention of pains caused to him by disbelievers a n dhypocrites a t the beginning of the SErah, some instructions were given tothe Holy Prophet % following which three customs of the Jahiliyyah wererefuted. Out of these, the last custom related to such a pain inflicted onthe Holy Prophet #& because the disbelievers h a d - a t t h e time of t h emarriage of Sayyidah Zainab & d > the divorced wife of SayyidnZ l ,Zayd &,and on the basis of their pagan custom of rnutabanna - blamedthe Holy Prophet of having married the divorced wife of his son.Thus, from t h e beginning of the Siirah up to t h i s point, t h e subjectconcerned the pain caused to the Holy Prophet @. I n the present verse(6), it has been stated that the reverence of and the obedience to the HolyProphet @ more than the whole creation is wtijib (necessary in the degreeof obligation) The meaning of the expression:"The Prophet is closer to the believersthan their own selves" mentioned by MaulSnZ Thanav; is based on thesaying of Ibn Atiyyah and others which has been opted for by al-Qurtubiand most commentators. According to it, every Muslim is duty-bound toobey and implement the command of the Holy Prophet more than thecommand of his parents. If ones parents oppose any command of the HolyProphet &!$, their obedience in that matter is not permissible. Similarly,the implementation of his command takes precedence even over the pullsof ones own desiring self. In a hadith of SayyidnZ AbE Hurairah .&&appearing in the SahIh ofal-BukhZri and others, the Holy Prophet @ has been reported to havesaid: There is no such believer for whom I am not the closest of all people in this world and in the world to come. Read if you wish (this verse of the QurZn to confirm): ... (The Prophet is ...). The sense of t h e s t a t e m e n t is t h a t his affection for every Muslimexceeds t h e affection of t h e whole world and, a s such, t h e necessary
  • 86. outcome has to be no other but that every believer holds him dearer thananyone else - which is something also said in another hadith: , .,I f. ,., , s ,-,,), J , > > , , , > , , >, e 4 ,?4,,?41;&4!-1d51&4&1*3~ J - None of you can become a believer until I become the dearest one to him, dearer than his father, and his son, and the whole world full of peopleland the rest of the human beings, all of them. (Al-BukhZ6 and Muslim - Mazhari) ,> -d > Said in the following sentence of the verse was: w-bl eljjij (and hiswives are your mothers). Here, the reference to the blessed wives of theHoly Prophet $$! a s mothers of t h e Muslim community means being $mothers in terms of their respect and honor. Injunctions relating to themother and her children, and those of the forbiddance of marriage, and ofthe absence of hijab d u e to having t h e s t a t u s of a mahram, a n d ofholding a share in the inheritance are injunctions which have nothing todo with i t - a s made explicit towards t h e end of t h e verse. As for t h eforbiddance of t h e marriage of t h e blessed wives with anyone in theMuslim community, this has been declared in a separate verse. Therefore,it is not necessary that even this forbiddance of marriage may be for thereason of being mothers.Ruling The cited verse proves that the least breach of etiquette in the case ofanyone of the blessed wives hi p is forbidden for two reasons: (1) ,That they are the mothers of the Muslim community and (2) also becauseany pain caused to them would cause pain to the Holy Prophet - whichis forbidden in a far too extreme a degree. ljj The literal sense of t h e expression: l i ; ~ l (ulu 1-arhcm) i n thenext sentence of the verse: & J$ && t i ; ; ~ l 1jjij (And those having I mutual kinship are closer to one another (for the purpose of inheritance)than (other) believers and emigrants) covers all relatives, whether theyare those whom Muslim jurists call by the name of: d (asbat: agnates) Gor those who are juxtaposed as 4 ; ulu 1-arhEmMagainst vCht"qbat"in the light of a particular terminology. This terminology used byMuslim jurists, a later day product, is not what is meant here i n the HolyQuriin. Thus, it means t h a t t h e relationship of the revered rasiil a n d his
  • 87. blessed wives with the believers of the community is, though of a degreewhich precedes even that of a mother and father but, on the injunctionsrelating to the distribution of inheritance, this has simply no bearing. Thisinheritance, i n fact, will be distributed only on t h e basis of lineal a n dcloser relationships. I n the early stage of Islam, entitlement to shares in the inheritancewas based on spiritual relationship. Later on, i t was abrogated in favourof closeness of relationships which h a s been announced by t h e nobleQurZn itself. This entire detail of t h e abrogating a n d t h e abrogatedverses has appeared in Stirah al-AnGl (Maariful-Quran, Volume IV). And in > ,that context, the mention of: (and the emigrants) after: &+I 2(and the believers) is there to highlight their distinction. And some e a r l y commentators have s a i d t h a t , a t t h i s place, t h eBelievers (al-muminin) mean the A n ~ i i rand the Emigrants (MuhGjirin)mean t h e Q u r a i s h . When placed i n contrast with t h e MuhEjirin, i tbecomes clear t h a t t h e word: al-muminin ( t h e believers) i s for t h eAnsEr. I n t h a t case, t h i s verse will be a n abrogator of t h e r u l e ofinheritance on the basis of the Hijrah (i&4 ~ ~ ~ 1because, during the 4;)early stage of Hijrah, the Holy Prophet had, by establishing brotherlyrelations between the MuhEjirin and the Ansar, ordered t h a t they willalso inherit from each other. This verse abrogated that rule of inheritanceby virtue of Hijrah (Qurtubl) Soon thereafter, it was stated: i j F $ ~iqji J IW $ ! j;L:;i (unless you dosome good to your friends (by making a will i n their favour - 6). I n otherwords, this means that inheritance a s such will be received only on thebasis of relationship - anyone unrelated will not be a n inheritor - but,there may be people with whom you relate as your brothers in faith. Ifyou wish to give them something, you have the right to do SO.YOUcoulddo so within your lifetime and give it to them a s a gift, and it is alsopossible to make a will in their favour so that they get it after your death. Verses 7 - 8
  • 88. And (recall) when We took from the prophets their covenant, and from you and from Niih and IbrZhTm and MGsE and ha, the son of Maryam. And We did take from them a firm covenant, [7] so that He (Allah) may ask the truthful about their truth. And He has prepared a painful punishment for the disbelievers. [8]Commentary At the beginning of the SGrah, by saying: a 21; ! >i i ; : , the HolyProphet @ was asked to follow the Divine revelation sent to him. Then, in sithe previous verse: &-& ~ j i , the believers have been obligated withthe implementation of the orders of the recipient of the revelation. I t is tofurther confirm and emphasize these very two things that, in the p r e ~ m ttwo verses as well, the same two subjects have been reiterated, that is, therecipient of t h e revelation h a s been obligated to follow t h e revelationreceived by him from Allah and the non-recipient of the revelation hasbeen obligated to follow the recipient of the revelation.The Covenant of the Prophets The covenant taken from the blessed prophets, according to the citedverse, is in addition to the universal pledge taken from the entire creationas it appears in a saying of the Holy Prophet reported by Imam&mad: "It was the prophets only from whom the covenant of messenger-shipand prophethood was taken, and this is the meaning of what Allah TaZlZhas said:....(And when We took from the prophets their covenant theend of the verse). This pledge from t h e prophets was t h e pledge of discharging t h eduties of prophethood and messenger-ship and of attesting to the veracityof each other and of being mutually helpful - as Ibn ~ a r i rIbn Abi HZtim ,and others have reported from Sayyidna QatZdah &. And according toone narration, it was also included i n this pledge of the prophets that theyshould also proclaim t h a t "Sayyidna Muhammad al-MustafZ is themessenger of Allah, and the last of the prophets. After him, there will be ,,, z , ,no prophet [o+ 2 Y $1 Jy, +] > z + s , , >
  • 89. And this pledge from prophets was also taken in eternity (Azal) a t thesame time when the pledge of: $2 (alastu bi-rabbikum: Am 1 notyour Lord?) was taken from the created a t large. (R* al-MaEnl and Mazhari) After having generally mentioned prophets, peace be on them all,before saying: F$ jj &j (and from you and from Niib... up to the end oft h e verse), five of t h e m were particularly named on t h e basis of t h eunique distinction they have among the group of prophets. Then, evenwithin those, i t was by using the word: & (minka: from you) that themention of t h e Holy Prophet $& was made to precede t h a t of others -although, his appearance i n t h i s world is l a t e r t h a n all of them. T h ereason for this has been given in Hadithitself: I am the first human being in the creation and the last of them in being sent (with the prophetic mission). (Reported by Ibn Sad and Abii Nuaim in Al-Hilyah from Maisirah al-Mafjar and At-TabarZniin al-Kabir from Ibn AbbZs & - Mazhari) Verses 9 - 27
  • 90. Siirah al-AbzZb : 33 : 9 - 27 100 0 those who believe," remember Allahs favour to you, when the forces (of the infidels) came upon you, and We sent upon them a wind, and the forces (of angels) you did not see. And Allah is watchful of what you do. [g] (Recall) when they came upon you from above you and from below you, and when the eyes were distracted and the hearts reached the throats, and you were thinking about Allah all sorts of thoughts. [lo] At that occasion, the believers were put to a trial and were shaken with a violent convulsion. [11] And (remember) when t h e hypocrites and those having malady in their hearts were saying, "Allah and His messenger did not promise us but deceitfully; [12] and when a group of them said, "0people of Yathrib (Madinah), there is no place for you t o stay; so go back." And a group of them was seeking permission (to leave) from the prophet, saying, "In fact our homes are vulnerable," while they were not vulnerable; they wanted nothing but to escape. 1 3 And 11 if i t (MadTnah) is entered (by t h e enemy, i n t h e i r presence,) from all its sides and they are asked (to join) the mischief, they would readily commit it, and would not remain in them (their homes) but for a s h o r t while(2) [14] despite t h a t they had already made a covenant with Allah t h a t they would not t u r n their backs; and a covenant with Allah has to be answered for. [151(~)(1) These verses refer to the battle of Ahzab, also known as the battle of Khandaq in which different tribes of Arabia, led by the Quraish invaded upon M a d h a h , and the Holy Prophet defended the city by digging a trench.(2). I t means that although they are escaping from the battle - field on the pretext that their homes are not safe, yet if the forces of the enemy invite them to join the battle against Muslims, after their having entered the city from all sides, they would easily join them in their mischief against Muslims, and would no more remain in their homes.It shows that their pretext is sham.(3). That is, everyone who enters into a covenant with Allah, has to answer how he has fulfilled it.
  • 91. Say, "Flight will never be of any use to you, if you flee from death o r killing, a n d even then you will not be let t o enjoy (life) b u t for a little while." [16] Say, Who is t h e r e t o p r o t e c t you from Allah, if He i n t e n d s evil t o you, o r (who is t h e r e t o p r e v e n t Him) if He i n t e n d s mercy for you?" And beside Allah, they will not find for themselves either a friend o r a helper. [17] Allah does know t h e ones from among you who prevent (others from joining t h e battle) a n d those who say t o their brothers, "Come along with us," a n d who d o not come t o t h e battle but for a little while, [18] (and t h a t too) with a greed against you (i.e. t o extract a s h a r e of spoils f r o m you). B u t w h e n f e a r comes, you will s e e t h e m looking t o w a r d s you, rolling t h e i r eyes, like t h e one who gets faint because of death. Then once fear is gone, t h e y assail you with s h a r p tongues,in g r e e d f o r t h e good (i.e. t h e wealth acquired a s spopils).(*) These people d i d n o t a c c e p t f a i t h (in r e a l t e r m s ) , t h e r e f o r e Allah has nullified their acts.(5)And all this is s o easy for Allah. [19] They think t h a t the coalition forces have not(yet) gone. And s h o u l d t h e coalition f o r c e s come (again), t h e y would like t o b e living i n c o u n t r y s i d e among the Bedouins, asking (others) about your news. And even if they were to remain among you, they would not fight, b u t a little. [20] There is indeed a good model for you i n the Messenger of Allah - for t h e one who has hope i n Allah a n d t h e Last Day, a n d remembers Allah profusely. [21]@)(4). This verse has unveiled cowardice of the hypocrites on the one hand, and their greed for wealth on the other. The sense is that they are so coward that when an attack from the enemy is apprehended, they are frightened like a person who becomes faint in fear of death. But when the enemy is driven away by the Muslims, and the spoils of war are distributed, they come forward assailing the Muslims with their sharp tongues and claiming that the victory is achieved with their help, and therefore they deserve a share in the spoils.(5). It means that virtuous acts deserve reward in the Hereafter only when they are accompanied by true faith in Allah, and since it has become evident that these hypocrites do not have true faith, even their virtuous acts will not be of any use to them in the Hereafter iind will remain null and void.(6). In the context of the battle of Ahzab, this verse is initially meant to remind the hypocrites that they should have followed the example of the Holy Prophet % who stood firm in the battle,but according to the unique style of the Holy Quran, the direction is given in generic terms to lay down a universal rule that the Muslims should follow the examples set by the Holy Prophet @ in all matters of life.
  • 92. And when the believers saw the coalition forces, they s a i d , "This i s w h a t Allah a n d His messenger h a d promised us, and Allah and His messenger had told the t r u t h , " And i t only i n c r e a s e d t h e m i n f a i t h a n d submission. [22] Among the believers, there are men who came true to the covenant they had with Allah. So, some of them have fulfilled their vows( by sacrificing their lives in the way of Allah), and some of them are (still) waiting, a n d they did not change (their commitment) in the least. [23] () (All this happened) so that Allah may give r e w a r d t o t h e t r u t h f u l for .their truthfulness, and punish t h e hypocrites, if He so wills, or accept their repentance. Surely, Allah is Most-Forgiving, Very- Merciful. [24] And Allah h a s turned back the disbelievers with all their rage, having achieved no good. And Allah sufficed the believers against fighting. (s) And Allah is Powerful, Mighty. [25] And He has brought those of the people of t h e Book who h a d backed them, down from t h e i r fortresses, and cast awe into their hearts, so as to make you kill some of them and take others as captives. [26] And He let you inherit their land and their homes and their wealth, and a land you have not trodden (so far). And Allah is Powerful to do any thing. 1271 (9)(7). T h i s verse a d m i r e s those companions of t h e Holy Prophet $$ who h a d not participated in the battle of Badr due to some valid excuses, and had vowed that whenever t h e next battle would come to happen,they would offer their lives in defence of faith.Then,some of them,like SayyidnZ Anas Ibn Nadr & and Mu+ab Ibn Umair & fulfilled their vows by sacrificing their lives in the battle of Uhud, while some others, like SayyidnZ Uthman a n d Talhah & remained alive, b u t eagerly waiting for having the honor of being martyred in the way of Allah.(8). I t means that Allah made a divine arrangement by sending a violent wind to the coalition forces which compelled them to go back, and thus the Muslims did not have to indulge i n a regular battle, except to t h e extent of some individual encounters.(9). These two verses refer to Banii qurayzah, the Jewish tribe who had entered into a treaty with the Muslims not to fight against them, and not to support the enemies of the Muslims. But a t the time of The battle of Ahziib, they violated the terms of t h e t r e a t y a n d s u p p o r t e d t h e coalition forces. Even earlier, t h e y h a d been constantly conspiring against t h e Muslims to a n intolerable extent. After t h e battle of AhzZb w a s over, t h e Holy Prophet besieged the fortress of Banii qurayzah, and finally, they had to surrender, and most of their men were killed, and the women and children were made captives. This event has been referred to in these verses.At the same time, Allah TaZlZ has given a good news to the Muslims that they would conquer some other lands which they had not entered before.The words," and a land you have not trodden" refer to such future victories, especially to the conquest of Khyber that followed within a few years after the battle of Ahzab.
  • 93. -Commentary Identified in t h e previous verses was the great station of the Holyprophet % along with the instruction to Muslims that they should followand obey him totally a n d perfectly. Congruent to this, these two full of the QurZn have been revealed about the event of the battle ofal-Ah~Zb. Mentioned therein is the simultaneous attack of the combinedforces of many groups of disbelievers and polytheists, their threateningencirclement, the subsequent blessings bestowed on Muslims by AllahTaZlZ and the several miracles that issued forth a t the hands of the HolyProphet @. Then, very much a s a corollary to this, t h e r e a r e manyinstructions and injunctions relating to different departments of life. I t isbecause of these very priceless instructions that great commentators havewritten about the details of the event of AhzZb with considered details a tthis place, particularly al-Qurtubi, Mazhari and others. Therefore, somedetails of t h e event of Ahzab along with t h e instructions a r e beingwritten here. Most of it has been taken from al-Qurtubi and MazharEThat which has been taken from some other book carries the necessaryreference.THE EVENT OF THE BATTLE OF AL-AHZAB ,, (al-ahzab) is the plural form of: ~k (hizb) which I The word: +I;-Ylmeans party or group. I n this battle, the combined forces of differentgroups of disbelievers had, under a pact to eliminate Muslims, mounteda n attack on Madinah. Therefore, this battle h a s been named a s thebattle of al-AhzZb. And since, in this battle, a trench was also dug underthe orders of t h e Holy Prophet across t h e line of enemy attack,therefore, this battle is also called the battle of the Trench (Khandaq).The battle of Banii Quraizah too - which took place immediately after thebattle of al-AhzZb and finds mention in the cited verses a s well - that too,was actually a part of the battle of al-&zZb, as it would appear throughthe details of this event. I n t h e y e a r only next t o t h e year t h e Holy P r o p h e t gracedMadhah after migrating from Makkah al-Mukarramah, the event of thebattle of Badr came to pass. In the third year, came the battle of Uhud. Inthe fourth year, it was this battle of al-AhzZb. Some narrations say thatthis event came to pass in the fifth year. Nevertheless, the attacks of the
  • 94. disbelievers against Muslims had been continuing since the hijrah up tothis time without any break. The attack on the occasion of the battle ofal-AhzZb was made with full power, determination and mutual pledge.Therefore, this battle was the severest on the Holy Prophet @ and thenoble SahZbah as compared with other battles - because, the count of theattacking confederate forces of the disbelievers has been given as twelveto fifteen thousand. O n t h e other side, t h e r e were Muslims, t h r e ethousand in all, and those too very ill-equipped. Then, the time was hardwinter. The QurZn describes the horrible severity of this event by saying , ,"things like: ;L$Y~ 41; eyes were distracted - 33:10), $Ah ++il (the 4(and hearts reached the throats - 33:lO) and il$$ $ 1,3il$& ~, (they wereshaken with a violent convulsion - 33:11). But, the way this time was the hardest on Muslims, they were alsocompensated a t its best by Allah TaZlZ. It was with His help and supportthat the matter ended in favour of Muslims in the form of such a greatsuccess and victory that broke the back of all hostile groups of Mushriks,Jews and Hypocrites leaving them just about incapable of even thinkingof some attack against Muslims in the future. From that angle, this battlewas the last armed confrontation between kufr and Islam - fought on theplains of al-Madinah al-Munawwarah i n t h e fourth or fifth year ofhijrah. The event began when about twenty men from the Jewish tribe ofBan; Nadk and the tribe of AbG Wail who were morbidly hostile to theHoly Prophet and Muslims a t large reached Makkah al-Mukarramah.They met with Quraish chiefs and roused them to start a war againstMuslims. The Quraish chiefs were under the impression t h a t the wayMuslims took their idol-worship to be kufr (disbelief, infidelity) and forwhich reason they regarded their religion a s ill-founded, t h e Jews toowould be no different and their thinking would be similar to it. If so, howcould they hope for a common ground of unity from them? Therefore,these chiefs asked the Jews, "You people know that there is difference ofreligion a n d creed between us a n d Muhammad g. And you a r e t h epeople of the Book and the people of learning. First of all, you tell us as towhich religion is better in your sight, ours or theirs?"A lie is no novelty in the arena of politics! The reply given by these Jews was totally contrary to their knowledge
  • 95. and conscience. To them, they said, "Your religion is b e t t e r t h a n t h ereligion of M u h a m m a d . " Thereupon, t h e infidels of M a k k a h weresomewhat satisfied. Still, the matter was taken to a future demonstrationof intent. I t was decided that these twenty visitors joined by fifty menfrom among the Quraish chiefs would go to al-Masjid al-Haram, cling tothe walls of t h e Baytullah by their chests a n d make a solemn pledgebefore Allah that they would continue fighting against Muhammad &$totheir last man.A marvel of the forbearance and magnanimity of Allah Taf-all-al! Here are the enemies of Allah in the House of Allah clinging to thewalls of the Kaabah of Allah making a compact to fight a war against HisRasGl - a n d t h e n r e t u r n satisfied with a new passion for war! This isunique manifestation of t h e forbearance a n d magnanimity of AllahTaZlE. Then, the ultimate end of this compact is not too far to find. I t willappear towards the end of the narrative in that all of them bolted fromthis battle. These Jews, after having made a pact with the Quraish of Makkah,reached the tribe of Ghitfiin, a great warring tribe of Arabia. They toldthem that they and the Quraish of Makkah were in full agreement withthe plan to eliminate the spreaders of this new religion (Islam) once for allwith their combined power. They asked them too to join hands with themin that pact. Then, they also offered them a bribe. They promised to givethem the total produce of dates in one year in Khaibar - according to somenarrations, they promised the half of it to the tribe of GhitfZn. UyaiynahIbn H i ~ nthe chief of the tribe of GhitGn, approved of his participation in ,the pact under this condition. Thus, they too became a part of the wareffort. Then, in accordance with the mutual pact, the Quraish armed force offour thousand men, three hundred horses and war supplies laden on onethousand camels came out of Makkah under the command of AbE SufyZnand stopped a t Marr a?-ZahrZn. Here, all tribes of Aslam, Ashja, BantiMurrah, BanG Kinanah, FazZrah and Ghitfiin joined them. Their totalnumber has been reported in some narrations a s ten thousand, a s twelvethousand in some others and as fifteen thousand in still other.The most lethal attack on Madinah The armed force that fought against Muslims in the battle of Badr
  • 96. was that of one thousand men. Then, the army that attacked in the battleof Uhud had three thousand men. This time, the numerical strength ofthe attacking forces was greater than it was any time before that - theequipment and the combined power of the Arab and Jewish tribes werealso to be counted a s additional factors.Three ingredients of Muslim war effort When the information about this aggressive united front reached theHoly Prophet g, the very first verbal reaction came out from him in thewords: &J,, ,,,, e3 & :; l 9 L Allah is all-sufficient for us, and the best One to trust in - 3:173. After that, he assembled opinion leaders from among the Emigrantsand Helpers together and went into c