Islamic medicine ahead of its time


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Islamic medicine ahead of its time

  1. 1. Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its timesIbrahim B. SYED, Ph.D** Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292 andPresident, Islamic Research Foundation International, Inc 7102 W. Shefford Lane Louisville, KY 40242-6462e-mail:IRFI@INAME.COM Summary Within a century after the death of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) the Muslims not only conquered new lands, but alsobecame scientific innovators with originality and productivity. They hit the source ball of knowledge over the fence to Europe. By theninth century, Islamic medical practice had advanced from talisman and theology to hospitals with wards, doctors who had to passtests, and the use of technical terminology. Then, the Baghdad General Hospital incorporated innovations which sound amazinglymodern. The fountains cooled the air near the wards of those afflicted with fever; the insane were treated with gentleness; and at nightthe pain of the restless was soothed by soft music and storytelling. The prince and pauper received identical attention; the destituteupon discharge received five gold pieces to sustain them during convalescence. While Paris and London were places of mud streetsand hovels, Baghdad, Cairo and Cardboard had hospitals open to both male and female patients; staffed by attendants of both sexes.These medical centers contained libraries, pharmacies, the system of interns, externs, and nurses. There were mobile clinics to reachthe totally disabled, the disadvantaged and those in remote areas. There were regulations to maintain quality control on drugs.Pharmacists became licensed professionals and were pledged to follow the physicians prescriptions. Legal measures were taken toprevent doctors from owning or holding stock in a pharmacy. The extent to which Islamic medicine advanced in the fields of medicaleducation, hospitals, bacteriology, medicine, anesthesia, surgery, pharmacy, ophthalmology, psychotherapy and psychosomatic dis-eases are presented briefly.Key Words; History of Medicine, Basic Sciences, Medical Education, Islamic Medicine Introduction The Islamic Empire for more than 1000 years Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) who is remained the most advanced and civilized nation inranked number one by Michael Hart, a Jewish schol- the world. This is because Islam stressed the impor-ar, in his book The 100: The Most Influential Persons tance and respect of learning, forbade destruction,in History, was able to unite the Arab tribes who had developed in Muslims the respect for authority andbeen tom by revenge, rivalry, and internal fights, and discipline, and tolerance for other religions. Theproduced a strong nation acquired and ruled simulta- Muslims recognized excellence and hungering intel-neously, the two known empires at that time, namely lectually, were avid for the wisdom of the world ofthe Persian and Byzantine Empires. The Islamic Galen, Hippocrates, Rufus of Ephesus, Oribasius,Empire extended from the Atlantic Ocean on the Discorides and Paul of Aegina. By the tenth centuryWest to the borders of China on the East. Only 80 their zeal and enthusiasm for learning resulted in allyears after the death of their Prophet, the Muslims essential Greek medical writings being translatedcrossed to Europe to rule Spain for more than 700 into Arabic in Damascus, Cairo, and Baghdad. Arabicyears. The Muslims preserved the cultures of the con- became the International Language of learning andquered lands. However when the Islamic Empire diplomacy. The center of scientific knowledge andbecame weak, most of the Islamic contributions in activity shifted eastward, and Baghdad emerged asand science were destroyed. The Mongols bunt the capital of the scientific world. The MuslimsBaghdad (1258 A.D.) out of barbarism, and the became scientific innovators with originality andSpaniards demolished most of the Islamic heritage in productivity. Islamic medicine is one of the mostSpain out of hatred. famous and best known facets of lslamic civilization,2 JISHIM 2002, 2
  2. 2. ISLAMIC MEDICINE: 1000 YEARS AHEAD OF ITS TIME Ýbrahim B. SYEDand in which the Muslims most excelled. The Training in Basic SciencesMuslims were the great torchbearers of international Only Jundi-Shapur or Baghdad had separatescientific research. They hit the source ball of knowl- schools for studying basic sciences. Candidates foredge over the fence to Europe. In the words of medical study received basic preparation from pri-Campbell "The European medical system is Arabian vate tutors through private lectures and self study. Innot only in origin but also in its structure. The Arabs Baghdad anatomy was taught by dissecting the apes,are the intellectual forebears of the Europeans." skeletal studies, and didactics. Other medical schools The aim of this paper is to prove that the Islamic taught anatomy through lectures and illustrations.Medicine was 1000 years ahead of its times. The Alchemy was once of the prerequisites for admission to medical school. The study of medicinal herbs andpaper covers areas such as medical education, hospi- pharmacognosy rounded out the basic training. Atals, bacteriology, medicine, anesthesia, surgery, number of hospitals maintained gardens as a sourceopthalmology, pharmacy, and psychotherapy. of drugs for the patients and a means of instruction for the students. Once the basic training was complet- Medical Education ed the candidate was admitted as an apprentice to a In 636 A.D., the Persian City of Jundi-Shapur, hospital where, at the beginning, he was assigned inwhich originally meant beautiful garden, was con- a large group to a young physician for indoctrination,quered by the Muslims with its great university and preliminary lectures, and familiarization with libraryhospital intact. Later the Islamic medical schools procedures and uses. During this preclinical period,developed on the Jundi-Shapur pattern. Medical edu- most of the lectures were on pharmacology and toxi-cation was serious and systematic. Lectures and clin- cology and the use of antidotes.ical sessions included in teaching were based on theapprentice system. The advice given by Ali ibnul- Clinical Training:Abbas (Haly Abbas: -994 -A.D.) to medical students The next step was to give the student full clinicalis as timely today as it was then. "And of those things training. During this period students were assigned inwhich were incumbent on the student of this art small groups to famous physicians and experienced(medicine) are that he should constantly attend the instructors, for ward rounds, discussions, lectures,hospitals and sick houses; pay unremitting attention and reviews. Early in this period therapeutics andto the conditions and circumstances of their inti- pathology were taught. There was a strong emphasismates, in company with the most astute professors of on clinical instruction and some Muslim physiciansmedicine, and inquire frequently as to the state of the contributed brilliant observations that have stood thepatients and symptoms apparent in them, bearing in test of time. As the students progressed in their stud-mind what he has read about these variations, and ies they were exposed more and more to the subjectswhat they indicate of good or evil." of diagnosis and judgment. Clinical observation and physical examination were stressed. Students (clini- Razi (Rhazes: 841-926 A.D.) advised the medical cal clerks) were asked to examine a patient and makestudents while they were seeing a patient to bear in a diagnosis of the ailment. While performing physi-mind the classic symptoms of a disease as given in text cal examination, the students were asked to examinebooks and compare them with what they found (6). and report six major factors: the patients actions, The ablest physicians such as Razi (Al-Rhazes), excreta, the nature and location of pain, and swellingIbn Sina (Avicenna: 980-1037 A.D.) and Ibn Zuhr and effuvia of the body. Also noted was color and feel(Avenzoar: 116 A.D.) performed the duties of both of the skin- whether hot, cool, moist, dry, directors and deans of medical schools at the Yellowness in the whites of the eye (jaundice) andsame time. They studied patients and prepared them whether or not the patient could bend his back (lungfor student presentation. Clinical reports of cases disease) was also considered important (8).were written and preserved for teaching. Registers After a period of ward instructions, students, werewere maintained. assigned to outpatient areas. After examining theJISHIM 2002, 2 3
  3. 3. Ýbrahim B. SYED ISLAMIC MEDICINE: 1000 YEARS AHEAD OF ITS TIMEpatients they reported their findings to the instructors. who practiced the art of healing. In the first year of theAfter discussion, treatment was decided on and pre- decree more than 860 were examined in Baghdadscribed. Patients who were too ill were admitted as alone. From that time on, licensing examinations wereinpatients. The keeping of records for every patient required and administered in various places.was the responsibility of the students. Licensing Boards were set up under a government official called Muhtasib or inspector general . The Curriculum Muhtasib also inspected weights and measures of There was a difference in the clinical curriculum traders and pharmacists. Pharmacists were employedof different medical schools in their courses; howev- as inspectors to inspect drugs and maintain qualityer the mainstay was usually internal medicine. control of drugs sold in a pharmacy or apothecary.Emphasis was placed on clarity and brevity in What the present Food and Drug Administrationdescribing a disease and the separation of each enti- (FDA) is doing in America today was done in Islamicty. Until the time of Ibn Sina the description of Medicine 1000 years ago. The chief physician gavemeningitis was confused with acute infection accom- oral and practical examinations, and if the youngpanied by delirium. Ibn Sina described the symptoms physician was successful, the Muhtasib administeredof meningitis with such clarity and brevity that there the Hippocratic oath and issued a license. After 1000is very little that can be added after I 000 years (6). years licensing of physicians has been implemented inSurgery was also included in the curriculum. After the West, particularly in America by the Statecompleting courses, some students specialized under Licensing Board in Medicine. For specialists we havefamous specialists. Some others specialized while in American Board of Medical Specialities such as inclinical training. According to Elgood (9) many sur- Medicine, Surgery, Radiology, etc. European medicalgical procedures such as amputation, excision of schools followed the pattern set by the Islamic med-varicose veins and hemorrhoids were required ical schools and even in the early nineteenth century,knowledge. Orthopedics was widely taught, and the students at the Sorbonne could not graduate withoutuse of plaster of Paris for casts after reduction of frac- reading Ibn Sinas Qanun (Cannon). According totures was routinely shown to students. This method Razi a physician had to satisfy two condition forof treating fractures was rediscovered in the West in selection: firstly, he was to be fully conversant with1852. Although ophthalmology was practiced widely, the new and the old medical literature and secondly,it was not taught regularly in medical schools. he must have worked in a hospital as house physician.Apprenticeship to an eye doctor was the preferredway of specializing in ophthalmology. Surgical treat- Hospitalsment of cataract was very common. Obstetrics wasleft to midwives. Medical practitioners consulted The development of efficient hospitals was anamong themselves and with specialists. Ibn Sina and outstanding contribution of Islamic medicine (7).Razi both widely practiced and taught psychotherapy. Hospitals served all citizens free without any regardAfter completing the training, the medical graduate to their color, religion, sex, age or social status. Thewas not ready to enter practice, until he passed the hospitals were run by government and the directorslicensure examination. It is important to note that of hospitals were physicians.there existed a Scientific Association which had been Hospitals and separate wards for male patientsformed in the hospital of Mayyafariqin to discuss the and female patients. Each ward was furnished with aconditions and diseases of the patients. nursing staff and porters of the sex of the patients to be treated therein. Different diseases such as fever, Licensing of Physicians wounds, infections, mania, eye conditions, cold dis- In Baghdad in 931 A.D. Caliph Al-Muqtadir eases, diarrhea, and female disorders were allocatedlearned that a patient had died as the result of a physi- different wards. Convalescents had separate sectionscians error. There upon he ordered his chief physi- within them. Hospitals provided patients with unlim-cian, Sinan-ibn Thabit bin Qurrah to examine all those ited water supply and with bathing facilities. Only4 JISHIM 2002, 2
  4. 4. ISLAMIC MEDICINE: 1000 YEARS AHEAD OF ITS TIME Ýbrahim B. SYEDqualified and licensed physicians were allowed by supplies known at the time. It had interns, residents,law to practice medicine. The hospitals were teaching and 24 consultants attending its professional activi-hospitals educating medical students. They had hous- ties, An Abbasid minister, Ali ibn Isa, requested theing for students and house-staff. They contained phar- court physician, Sinan ibn Thabit, to organize regularmacies dispensing free drugs to patients. Hospitals had visiting of prisons by medical officers (14). At a timetheir own conference room and expensive libraries when Paris and London were places of mud streetscontaining the most up-to-date books. According to and hovels, Baghdad, Cairo, and Cordova had hospi-Haddad, the library of the Tulum Hospital which was tals which incorporated innovations which soundfounded in Cairo in 872 A.D. (1100 years ago) had amazingly modern. It was chiefly in the humaneness100,000 books. Universities, cities and hospitals of patient care, however, that the hospitals of Islamacquired large libraries (Mustansiriyya University in excelled. Near the wards of those afflicted with fever,Baghdad contained 80,000 volumes; the library of fountains cooled the air; the insane were treated withCordova 600,000 volumes; that of Cairo 2,000,000 gentleness; and at night music and storytellingand that of Tripoli 3,000,000 books), physicians had soothed the patients.their own extensive personal book collections, at a The Bimaristans (hospitals) were of two types -time when printing was unknown and book editing the fixed and the mobile. The mobile hospitals werewas done by skilled and specialized scribes putting in transported upon beasts of burden and were erectedlong hours of manual labour. from time to time as required. The physicians in the mobile clinics were of the same standing as those For the first time in history, these hospitals kept who served the fixed hospitals. Similar moving hos-records of patients and their medical care. pitals accompanied the armies in the field. The field From the point of view of treatment the hospital hospitals were well equipped with medicaments,was divided into an out- patient department and an instruments, tents and a staff of doctors, nurses, andinpatient department. The system of the in-patient orderlies. The traveling clinics served the totally dis-department differed only slightly from that of today. abled, the disadvantaged and those in remote areas.At Tulun Hospital, on admission the patients were These hospitals were also used by prisoners, and bygiven special apparel while their clothes, money, and the general public, particularly in times of epidemics.valuables were stored until the time of their dis-charge. On discharge, each patient - received five Bacteriologygold pieces to support himself until he could return to Al-Razi was asked to choose a site for a new hos-work. pital when he came to Baghdad. First he deduced The hospital and medical school at Damascus had which was the most hygienic area by observingelegant rooms and an extensive library. Healthy peo- where the fresh pieces of meat he had hung in vari-ple are said to have feigned illness in order to enjoy ous parts of the city decomposed least quickly.its cuisine. There was a separate hospital in Ibn Sina stated explicitly that the bodily secretionDamascus for lepers, while, in Europe, even six cen- is contaminated by foul foreign earthly body beforeturies later, condemned lepers were burned to death getting the infection. Ibn Khatima stated that man isby royal decree. surrounded by minute bodies which enter the human The Qayrawan Hospital (built in 830 A.D. in system and cause disease.Tunisia) was characterized by spacious separate In the middle of the fourteenth century "blackwards, waiting rooms for visitors and patients, and death" was ravaging Europe and before whichfemale nurses from Sudan, an event representing the Christians stood helpless, considering it an act of God.first use of nursing in Arabic history. The hospital At that time Ibn al Khatib of Granada composed aalso provided facilities for performing prayers. treatise in the defense of the theory of infection in the The Al-Adudi Hospital (built in 981 A.D. in following way: To those who say, "How can weBaghdad) was furnished with die best equipment and admit the possibility of infection while the religiousJISHIM 2002, 2 5
  5. 5. Ýbrahim B. SYED ISLAMIC MEDICINE: 1000 YEARS AHEAD OF ITS TIMElaw denies it?" We reply that the existence of conta- Abu al-Qasim Khalaf Ibn Abbas Al-Zahrawigion is established by experience, investigation, the (930-1013 A.D.) known to the West as Abulcasis,evidence of the senses and trustworthy reports. These Bucasis or Alzahravius is considered to be the mostfacts constitute a sound argument. The fact of infec- famous surgeon in Islamic medicine. In his book Al-tion becomes clear to the investigator who notices Tasrif, he described hemophilia for the first time inhow he who establishes contact with the afflicted gets medical history. The book contains the descriptionthe disease, whereas he who is not in contact remains and illustration of about 200 surgical instrumentssafe, and how transmission is effected through gar- many of which were devised by Zahrawi himself. Inments, vessels and earrings. it Zahrawi stresses the importance of the study of Al-Razi wrote the first medical description of Anatomy as a fundamental prerequisite to surgery.smallpox and measles - two important infectious dis- He advocates the reimplantation of a fallen tooth andeases. He described the clinical difference between the use of dental prosthesis carved from cows bone,the two diseases so vividly that nothing since has an improvement over the wooden dentures worn bybeen added. Ibn Sina suggested the communicable the first President of America George Washingtonnature of tuberculosis. He is said to have been the seven centuries later. Zahrawi appears to be the firstfirst to describe the preparation and properties of sul- surgeon in history to use cotton (Arabic word) in sur-phuric acid and alcohol. His recommendation of wine gical dressings in the control of hemorrhage, asas the best dressing for wounds was very popular in padding in the splinting of fractures, as a vaginalmedieval practice. However Razi was the first to use padding in fractures of the pubis and in dentistry. Hesilk sutures and alcohol for hemostatis. He was the introduced the method for the removal of kidneyfirst to use alcohol as an antiseptic. stones by cutting into the urinary bladder. He was the first to teach the lithotomy position for vaginal oper- Anesthesia ations. He described tracheotomy, distinguished Ibn Sina originated the idea of the use of oral anes- between goiter and cancer of the thyroid, andthetics. He recognized opium as the most powerful explained his invention of a cauterizing iron which hemukhadir (an intoxicant or drug). Less powerful anes- also used to control bleeding. His description of vari-thetics known were mandragora, poppy, hemlock, cose veins stripping, even after ten centuries, ishyoscyamus, deadly nightshade (belladonna), lettuce almost like modern surgery. In orthopedic surgery heseed, and snow or ice cold water. The Arabs invented introduced what is called today Kochers method ofthe soporific sponge which was the precursor of reduction of shoulder dislocation and patelectomy,modem anesthesia. It was a sponge soaked with aro- 1,000 years before Brooke reintroduced it in 1937.matics and narcotics and held to the patients nostrils. Ibn Sinas description of the surgical treatment of The use of anesthesia was one of the reasons for cancer holds true even today after 1,000 years. Hethe rise of surgery in the Islamic world to the level of says the excision must be wide and bold; all veinsan honourable speciality, while in Europe, surgery running to the tumor must be included in the amputa-was belittled and practiced by barbers and quacks. tion. Even if this is not sufficient, then the area affect-The Council of Tours in 1163 A.D. declared Surgery ed should be to be abandoned by the schools of medicine and by The surgeons of Islam practiced three types of sur-all decent physicians." Burton stated that "anesthetics gery: vascular, general, and orthopedic, Ophthalmichave been used in surgery throughout the East for surgery was a speciality which was quite distinct bothcenturies before ether and chloroform became the from medicine and surgery. They freely opened thefashion in civilized West." abdomen and drained the peritoneal cavity in the approved modern style. The first colostomy opera- Surgery tion was attributed to an unnamed surgeon of Shiraz. Al-Razi is attributed to be the first to use the seton Liver abscesses were treated by puncture and explo-in surgery and animal gut for sutures. ration.6 JISHIM 2002, 2
  6. 6. ISLAMIC MEDICINE: 1000 YEARS AHEAD OF ITS TIME Ýbrahim B. SYED Surgeons all over the world practice today unknow- Ophthalmologyingly several surgical procedures that Zahrawi intro- The doctors of Islam exhibited a high degree ofduced 1,000 years ago. proficiency and certainly were foremost in the treat- ment of eye diseases. Words such as retina and Medicine cataract are of Arabic origin. In ophthalmology and The most brilliant contribution was made by Al- optics lbn al Haytham (965-1039 A.D.) known to theRazi who differentiated between smallpox and West as Alhazen wrote the Optical Thesaurus frommeasles, two diseases that were hitherto thought to be which such worthies as Roger Bacon, Leonardo daone single disease. He is credited with many contri- Vinci and Johannes Kepler drew theories for their own writings. In his Thesaurus he showed that lightbutions, which include being the first to describe true falls on the retina in the same manner as it falls on adistillation, glass retorts and luting, corrosive subli- surface in a darkened room through a small aperture,mate, arsenic, copper sulfate, iron sulphate, saltpeter, thus conclusively proving that vision happens whenand borax in the treatment of disease . He introduced light rays pass from objects towards the eye and notmercury compounds as purgatives (after testing them from the eye towards the objects as thought by theon monkeys); mercurial ointments and lead oint- Greeks. He presents experiments for testing thement." His interest in urology focused on problems angles of incidence and reflection, and a theoreticalinvolving urination, venereal disease, renal abscess, proposal for magnifying lens (made in Italy threeand renal and vesical calculi. He described hay-fever centuries later). He also taught that the image madeor allergic rhinitis. on the retina is conveyed along the optic nerve to the Some of the Arab contributions include the dis- brain. Razi was the first to recognize the reaction ofcovery of itch mite of scabies (Ibn Zuhr), anthrax, the pupil to light and Ibn Sina was the first toankylostoma and the guinea worm by Ibn Sina and describe the exact number of extrinsic muscles of thesleeping sickness by Qalqashandy. They described eyeball, namely six. The greatest contribution ofabscess of the mediastinum. They understood tuber- Islamic medicine in practical ophthalmology was in the matter of cataract. The most significant develop-culosis and pericarditis. ment in the extraction of cataract was developed by Al Ashath demonstrated gastric physiology by Ammar bin Ali of Mosul, who introduced a hollowpouring water into the mouth of an anesthetized lion metallic needle through the sclerotic and extractedand showed the distensibility and movements of the the lens by suction. Europe rediscovered this in thestomach, preceding Beaumont by about 1,000 years. nineteenth century.Abu Shal al- Masihi explained that the absorption offood takes place more through the intestines than the Pharmacologystomach. Ibn Zuhr introduced artificial feeding either Pharmacology took roots in Islam during the ninthby gastric tube or by nutrient enema. Using the stom- century. Yuhanna bin Masawayh (777-857 A.D.)ach tube the Arab physicians performed gastric started scientific and systematic applications of ther-lavage in case of poisoning. Ibn Al-Nafis was the first apeutics at the Abbasids capital. His students Hunaynto discover pulmonary circulation. bin Ishaq al-lbadi (809-874 A.D.) and his associates Ibn Sina in his masterpiece Al-Quanun (Canon), established solid foundations of Arabic medicine andcontaining over a million words, described complete therapeutics in the ninth century. In his book al-studies of physiology, pathology and hygiene. He Masail Hunayn outlined methods for confirming thespecifically discoursed upon breast cancer, poisons, pharmacological effectiveness of drugs by experi-diseases of the skin, rabies, insomnia, childbirth and menting with them on humans. He also explained thethe use of obstetrical forceps, meningitis, amnesia, importance of prognosis and diagnosis of diseases forstomach ulcers, tuberculosis as a contagious disease, better and more effective treatment.facial tics, phlebotomy, tumors, kidney diseases and Pharmacy became an independent and separategeriatric care. He defined love as a mental disease. profession from medicine and alchemy. With the wildJISHIM 2002, 2 7
  7. 7. Ýbrahim B. SYED ISLAMIC MEDICINE: 1000 YEARS AHEAD OF ITS TIMEsprouting of apothecary shops, regulations became a dynamic fashion. Razi was once called in to treat anecessary and imposed to maintain quality control. famous caliph who had severe arthritis. He advised a“The Arabian apothecary shops were regularly hot bath, and while the caliph was bathing, Raziinspected by a syndic (Muhtasib) who threatened the threatened him with a knife, proclaiming he wasmerchants with humiliating corporal punishments if going to kill him. This deliberate provocationthey adulterated drugs." As early as the days of al- increased the natural caloric which thus gained suffi-Mamun and al-Mutasim pharmacists had to pass cient strength to dissolve the already softenedexaminations to become licensed professionals and humours, as a result the caliph got up from his kneeswere pledged to follow the physicians prescriptions. in the bath and ran after Razi. One woman who suf-Also by this decree, restrictive measures were legal- fered from such severe cramps in her joints that shely placed upon doctors, preventing them from own- was unable to rise was cured by a physician who lift-ing or holding stock in a pharmacy. ed her skirt, thus putting her to shame. "A flush of Methods of extracting and preparing medicines heat was produced within her which dissolved the rheumatic humour."were brought to a high art, and their techniques of dis-tillation, crystallization, solution, sublimation, reduc- The Arabs brought a refreshing spirit of dispas-tion and calcination became the essential processes of sionate clarity into psychiatry. They were free frompharmacy and chemistry. With the help of these tech- the demonological theories which swept over theniques, the Saydalanis (pharmacists) introduced new Christian world and were therefore able to make cleardrugs such as camphor, senna, sandalwood, rhubarb, cut clinical observations on the mentally ill.musk, myrrh, cassia, tamarind, nutmeg, alum, aloes, Najab ud din Muhammad", a contemporary ofcloves, coconut, nuxvomica, cubebs, aconite, amber- Razi, left many excellent descriptions of variousgris and mercury. The important role of the Muslims mental diseases. His carefully compiled observationin developing modern pharmacy and chemistry is on actual patients made up the most complete classi-memorialized in the significant number of current fication of mental diseases theretofore known."pharmaceutical and chemical terms derived from Najab described agitated depression, obsessionalArabic: drug, alkali, alcohol, aldehydes, alembic, and types of neurosis, Nafkhae Malikholia (combined pri-elixir among others, not to mention syrups and juleps. apism and sexual impotence) Kutrib (a form of per-They invented flavorings extracts made of rose water, secutory psychosis), Dual-Kulb (a form of mania).orange blossom water, orange and lemon peel, traga-canth and other attractive ingredients. Space does not Ibn Sina recognized physiological psychology inpermit me to list the contributions to pharmacology treating illnesses involving emotions. From the clini-and therapeutics, made by Razi, Zahrawi, Biruni, Ibn cal perspective Ibn Sina developed a system for asso-Butlan, and Tamimi. ciating changes in the pulse rate with inner feelings which has been viewed as anticipating the word asso- ciation test of Jung. He is said to have treated a terri- Psychotherapy bly ill patient by feeling the patients pulse and recit- From freckle lotion to psychotherapy- such was ing aloud to him the names of provinces, districts,the range of treatment practiced by the physicians of towns, streets, and people. By noticing how theIslam. Though freckles continue to sprinkle the skin patients pulse quickened when names were men-of 20th century man, in the realm of psychosomatic tioned Ibn Sina deduced that the patient was in lovedisorders both al-Razi and Ibn Sina achieved dramat- with a girl whose home Ibn Sina was able to locate byic results, antedating Freud and Jung by a thousand the digital examination. The man took Ibn Sinasyears. When Razi was appointed physician-in-chief to advice, married the girl, and recovered from his ill-the Baghdad Hospital, he made it the, first hospital to ness.have a ward exclusively devoted to the mentally ill. It is not surprising to know that at Fez, Morocco, Razi combined psychological methods and physi- an asylum for the mentally ill had been built early inological explanations, and he used psychotherapy in the 8th century, and insane, asylums were built by the8 JISHIM 2002, 2
  8. 8. ISLAMIC MEDICINE: 1000 YEARS AHEAD OF ITS TIME Ýbrahim B. SYEDArabs also in Baghdad in 705 A.D., in Cairo in 800 5. Browne E.G., "Arabian Medicine",Cambridge UniversityA.D., and in Damascus and Aleppo in 1270 A.D. In M.Sirajud- din and Sons, Publishers, Lahore, 1962, pp. 5-16.addition to baths, drugs, kind and benevolent treat- 6. Podgomy G., N. Carolina Med. J. 27, 197-208, (1966).ment given to the mentally ill, musico-therapy and 7. Lyons A.S. and Petruccelli, R.J., "Medicine - An Illustrated History", H.N. Abrams Inc., Publishers, New York, 1978,occupational therapy were also employed. These pp. 295-317.therapies were highly developed. Special choirs and 8. Garrison F.H., "History of Medicine". 4th edition, music bands were brought daily to entertain the Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1929, p. 134.patients by providing singing and musical perform- 9. Elgood G., "A Medical History of Persia", Cambridgeances and comic performers as well. University Press, Cambridge, 195 1, pp. 278-301. 10. Wasty H.N., "Muslim Contribution to Medicine", M. Sirajuddin and Sons, Publishers, Lahore, 1962, pp. 5-16. Conclusion 11. Hamarneh S., Sudhoffs Archiv fur Geschichte der medizin 1,000 years ago lslamic medicine was the most und der Naturwissenschaften, 48, 159-173.advanced in the world at that time. Even after ten cen- 12. Abouleish E., J. Islamic Med. Asso., lo(3, 4), 28-45, (1979).turies, the achievements of Islamic medicine look 13. Haddad F.S., Leb. Med. J. 26, 331-346, 1979).amazingly modern. 1,000 years ago the Muslims were 14. Shahine Y.A., "The Arab Contribution to Medicine",the great torchbearers of international scientific Longman for the University of Essex, London, 1971, p. 10.research. Every student and professional from each 15. Miller B., Mankind, 6(8), 8-40, (1980).country outside the Islamic Empire, aspired, yearned, 16. "Aspects of Muslim Civilization". Pakistan Branch of Oxford University Press, Lahore, 1961, pp. 53.a dreamed to go to the lslamic universities to learn, to 17. Keys T.E., Wakim K.G., Mayo Clinic Proceedings of thework, to live and to lead a comfortable life in an afflu- Staff Meeting, 28, 423-437, (1953).ent and most advanced and civilized society. Today, in 18. Siddiqi M., "Studies in Arabic and Persian Medicalthis twentieth century, the United States of America Literature", Calcutta Univcrsity, Calcutta, 1959, p. XX.has achieved such a position. The pendulum can 19. Burton L., "1001 Nights (Six Volumes)", 1886.swing back. Fortunately Allah has given a bounty to 20. Hitti P., "The Arabs: A Short History", Henry Regnery,many Islamic countries - an income over 100 billion Chicago, 1943,P.143.dollars per year. Hence Islamic countries have the 21. Castiglioni A., "A History of Medicine", E. Krumbhaar (trans.), Alfred A.Knopf, New York, 1958, p. 268.opportunity and resources to make Islamic science 22. Singer C. and Underwood A.A., "A Short History ofand medicine number one in the world, once again. Medicine", 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, New York, 1962, p. 76. REFERENCES 23. Khairallah A.A., Ann. Med. Hist. 34, 409-4151. Hart M.H., "The 100: A Rankin of the Most Influential 24. Al-Oakbi, Hospital Med. Prac., Cairo, 1, 14-29, (1971). Persons in History.", Hart Publishing Co., New York, 1978. 25. Haddad F.S., "XXI International Congress of the History of2. Nasr S.H., "Science and Civilization in Islam." New Medicine" (Sienna 1968, Sep. 22) 1970, pp. 1600 -1607. American Library, Inc., New York, 1968, pp. 184-229. 26. Bender G.A., "Great Moments in Medicine". Parke-Davis,3. Salam A., IAEA Bulletin, 22(2), 81-83, (1980). Detroit, 1961, p. 68-74.4. Campbell D., "Arabian Medicine", Vol. 1, Paul, Trench, 27. Fisher G., Ann. Anat, Surg., 6, 217-217, (1882). Trubner and Co. LTD., London, 1926. 28. Whitehead E.D. and Bush R.B., Invest, Urology, 5,JISHIM 2002, 2 9