Islamic Beliefs By Shaykh Dr Mufti Abdul Wahid


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Islamic Beliefs By Shaykh Dr Mufti Abdul Wahid

  1. 1. Kitaabs, gleaning subject matter from authentic and reliable works. In ISLAAMIC BELIEFS this way, I have compiled the Kitaabs which are named Islaamic beliefs and Principles of Deen.FOREWORD As far as laws and rulings are concerned, I have used the famous Kitaab of Hadhrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thaanwi (rahmatullahi alaihi),All praises are due only to Allaah Ta`ala, and peace and blessings Behishti Zewar, and re-formatted it. I have simplified it and includedupon His chosen servants. many new Masaa`il and chapters. It is for this reason that on this subject, this compilation is complete and up to date.Allaah Ta`ala has, through His Bounty and Grace, afforded us theguidance to prepare a course whereby the matters of Deen be better Insha-Allaah Ta`ala, these Kitaabs will satisfy the basic Deeni needsunderstood. This basic course is comprised of the following three of the learners. It will also remove many nagging doubts and be aKitaabs: sufficient defence against effects of the deviates of the present era. May Allaah Ta`ala accept this humble effort and make it beneficial 1. Islaamic Beliefs for His creation. 2. The Principles of Deen 3. The Masaa`il of Behishti Zewar (two parts) This compilation and syllabus will, Insha-Allaah Ta`ala be an invaluable asset to all sectors of the Muslim Community. It can beThis course should be taught by a capable Aalim who will prepare completed in a short space of time.each lesson prior to teaching it. The course should be spread out insuch a way that daily at least two lessons are taught. If this is May Allaah Ta`ala fully reward all those who had assisted in theproperly adhered to, then the course should be completed in six compilation of these Kitaabs, especially, Molvi Mukhtaar Ahmadmonths. The lessons on the laws and rulings will stretch over six Salmah of the Daarul Ifta at Jaamia Madeenah.months and the Kitaabs on Aqaa`id and principles will take threemonths each. Aqaa`id (beliefs) will be taught in the first three months Our final dua, Alhamdulillahi Rabbil Aalameen.and Usools (principles) will be taught in the following three months.During the course, the following should be kept in mind that no (Dr. Mufti) Abdul Waahidmatters which do not pertain to the subject at hand are discussed. Daarul Ifta – Jaamia Madeenah – LahoreNevertheless, the students should be allowed the freedom of asking Shawwaal 1418questions (pertaining to the subjects at hand). This will in fact,increase their enthusiasm and interest. The teacher should supplyproperly researched answers, even though it may take more time.I have not seen any concise or simple Kitaab on the subject ofAqaa`id or Usool which will appeal to the masses of this era or be ofinterest to their tastes. It is for this reason that I have compiled these 1 2
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Imaam Abul Hasan Ash`ari (rahmatullahi alaihi), who was born in 260 A.H. and passed away sometime after 330 A.H. He was from theBismillahir Rahmaanir Raheem offspring of Hadhrat Abu Moosa Ash`ari (radhiAllaahu anhu).Man should consider that no one has ever remained on earth forever. These two personalities are the Imaams of Aqaa`id of the AhleEvery man will, one day, go away from here, and find what he has Sunnat Wal Jamaat. They only differ on a few Masaa`il, for example:sent forth in the Aakhirat (Hereafter). It is therefore necessary that heattains perfection here, so that he may be saved from any 1. Imaam Maatureedi (rahmatullahi alaihi) states that the Qualitypunishments in the Aakhirah, and attain everlasting comfort and of creation is an inherent Quality of Allaah Ta`ala, whereaspeace. Perfection lies in having to know and practice on every Imaam Ash`ari (rahmatullahi alaihi) believes it to beCommand of The Creator and Master, Allaah Ta`ala. Such connected to the Quality of Power.Commands are of two types: the first comprises of those acts of 2. According to Imaam Maatureedi (rahmatullahi alaihi), one’sobedience which require the limbs of the body, like Salaat and intellect can determine whether an action is good (worthy offasting, etc. In other words, physical Ibaadaat and dealings. The praise and reward) or evil (liable for chastisement andsecond type comprises of those which do not require the actions of punishment), whereas according to Imaam Ash`arithe limbs. In fact, the mere acceptance thereof is sufficient. For (rahmatullahi alaihi), this determination comes down from theexample, to believe in the Oneness of Allaah Ta`ala, to believe in His beginning of creation and has nothing to do with the intellect.being All-Hearing, Knowing, Seeing, etc., to believe in the reality 3. According to Imaam Maatureedi (rahmatullahi alaihi), it isand truth of the Day of Qiyaamah, Jannat and Jahannum. not permissible to say, “I am a Mu`min, Insha-Allaah”, one should only say, “I am a Mu`min”, whereas according toIn keeping the ease and convenience of the masses in mind, the Imaam Ash`ari (rahmatullahi alaihi) it is permissible to say,Ulama have extracted the first type of Commandments from the “I am a Mu`min, Insha-Allaah.”Qur`aan Majeed and Ahaadith of Nabi ρ, and compiled themseparately. This branch of the Deen is called, Fiqh. The second type In such types of differences, the Shaafis follow the view of Imaamof Commandments have also been explained separately under the Ash`ari (rahmatullahi alaihi), hence they are called Ash`ariyyahs orheading of Aqaa`id. The knowledge of Aqaa`id is also called Ilme Ashaa`irah. The Hanafi Ulama have accepted the views of ImaamKalaam. Maatureedi (rahmatullahi alaihi), hence they are called Maatureedia. Sometimes in opposition to the deviants sects, they are both calledThe Aimmah of Ilme Kalaam Ashaa`irahs.Imaam Abu Mansoor Maatureedi (rahmatullahi alaihi) who after In the initial stages, the (teachings of the) knowledge of Aqaa`idthree generations was the student of Imaam Abu Hanifah consisted of whatever was established and substantiated from the(rahmatullahi alaihi) passed away in the year 333 A.H. He was the Qur`aan Majeed and Ahaadith. Such teachings can be found inresident of a village named Maatureed, which was close to Imaam Abu Hanifah’s (rahmatullahi alaihi), Kitaab, Fiqh-e-Akbar.Samarqand. This was devoid of any philosophical discussions. During those times, the stress was made in refuting the deviant beliefs of the sects 3 4
  3. 3. such as the Mu`tazilahs and Khawaarij, etc. so as to save the masses The second type: comprise of those beliefs which are establishedfrom deviation. through logic and reasoning, even though they may have written textual proof. The matters of Shariah are dependant on Nubuwwat.The advent of the Mu`tazilahs, lies in the following incident. A The mas`alah on the sanctity and chastity of the prophets isperson by the name of Waasil Bin Ataa, stated in the gathering of established through reasoning of the intellect.Hadhrat Hasan Basri (rahmatullahi alaihi), that the perpetrator of amajor sin does not remain a believer nor does he become a kaafir. The third type: comprise of those beliefs which are establishedSuch a person remains in a state which is suspended between Imaan through Khabar-e-Aahaad, or the Ulama have established them fromand kufr. Hadhrat Hasan Basri (rahmatullahi alaihi) said, “Qad the Qur`aan Majeed, but the various groups have differed on thisI`tazala Anna” (Indeed he has separated, strayed/slipped away from proof. For example the issue on the Qur`aan Majeed being Qadeem,us – majority adherents of Islaam). From then onwards, these people i.e. always existent, or the issue on the Ambiyaa (alaihis salaam)were termed the Mu`tazilahs. Waasil Bin Ataa and his followers also being more virtuous than the angels, or the issue on whether thecalled themselves Mu`tazilahs because they believed that the beliefs Karaamaat (miracles) of the Auliyaa are true, etc.of the Ahle Sunnat were baatil and they were separate from this‘baatil’. The author of the Tafseer Kash-shaaf, Zamakhshari, had, for On these Masaa`il, the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat follow the ruling ofthis reason, chosen the term Abu Mu`tazilah. The Mu`tazilahs call the Salf-e-Saaliheen (pious predecessors), Sahaabah (radhiAllaahuthemselves As-haab Adal Wa Tauheed, because they pride anhum) and Tabieen (rahmatullahi alaihim). Those who differ arethemselves in being most knowledgeable in justice and Tauheed. Just merely following the conjectures of their own whims and this, all those sects which have strayed away from thefundamental beliefs of the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat, have been CHAPTER ONElabelled accordingly. THE DISCUSSION ON THE BEING AND QUALITIES OFThe discussions on Aqaa`id which appear in the Kitaabs are of three ALLAAH TA`ALAtypes: Allaah Ta`ala is existent by Himself with His everlasting Being andThe first type: comprise of those beliefs which are definite and Attributes and everything else came into existence by His creatingabsolute. These are further divided into three types; them. All things come into existence from non-existence by His (1) Those which are established through the apparent clear creating them. Only Allaah Ta`ala existed by Himself for always, and text of the Qur`aan Majeed, for example, Jannat, everything else besides Him is created and came into existence by Jahannum and the Day of Qiyaamah, means of His creating them. (2) Those which are established through the Mutawaatir statements of Nabi ρ, whether they may be in speech or We are aware from the history of man, that since the very beginning meaning, like the punishment in the grave. of history being recorded, until the present day, almost every sector (3) Those upon which there is consensus of the Ummat, like of mankind accepted the existence of Allaah Ta`ala. All religions and the Khilaafat of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiAllaahu anhu). creeds accept the existence and truth of A Creator. A very small 5 6
  4. 4. group comprises of those who refute the existence of a Creator and perfect functioning, could never have come into existence by itself oraver that everything that exists does so by virtue of physical laws. operate on its own. The Qur`aan Majeed proves the existence of Allaah Ta`ala in this way:They claim that the belief in divinity is a state of the mind and that ( ‫ء) ر‬ ‫ا ا ىا آ‬the entire universe operates without any Divine Hand in it. “The Work of Allaah, Who perfected all things”This claim of the atheists is merely a figment of their imagination andthey have no proof to substantiate their claims. ( ‫ر ) رة‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وت ر‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬The Qur`aanic method of proving the existence of Allaah Ta`ala “You can see no fault in the creation of the Most Gracious. Then look again: Can you see any rifts?”The reality of the matter is, that it is amongst the natural traits of manto accept the existence of Allaah Ta`ala. It is this trait which the (‫ن‬ ‫ا ) رة‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ء‬ ‫آ‬Qur`aan Majeed explains in the following manner: “He (Allaah Ta`ala) has created everything, and has measured it ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ره ذر و ا‬ ‫ادم‬ ّ‫ر‬ ‫واذ ا‬ exactly according to its exact measurements.” (‫اف‬ ‫) رة ا‬ ( ‫) رة‬ ‫ا‬ “And when our Rabb brought forth from the Children of Aadam, from their loins, their seed and made them testify as to themselves “So no change will you find in Allaah’s Sunnah (way of dealing).” (saying), ‘Am I not your Rabb?’ They said, ‘Yes! We testify,’. ..” Three qualities of this universe are manifest in these Aayaat: (1) It isHowever, since external factors most of the time suppress this natural perfect and without any flaw, (2) It is measured and systemized, andtrait, therefore, Allaah Ta`ala here and there, cautions this trait, (3) It is in keeping and in line with the principles and laws decreed by“What! Are you in doubt regarding Allaah, the Creator of the Allaah Ta`ala.heavens and the earth?” It has now been sufficiently established that this universe is perfect,Sometimes the external factors suppress this trait to such a great flawless, systemized, measured and subject to firm and fixedextent that mere indication and cautioning is insufficient, and one principles. That thing which is complete, measured and functioningneeds proof by means of personal experience or visual occurrences. on a set course and pattern, cannot come into existence by itself, rather it has been created by A Creator. Hence this universe is alsoAn example of the visual and external factors by which a person the creation of such a Creator, Who is All-Powerful and Able. Andgains understanding and proof is as follows: when one sees that why should it not be so? If one looks at a beautiful and wellsomething is properly organised and arranged in a systematic order, constructed palace and studies the towers, large rooms, fountains,then it is quite obvious that some intelligent person had arranged it as beautiful carpets, lanterns, gardens, etc. and then comes to thesuch. The operation of this universe, with all its intricacies and conclusion that all this came into being by itself. A wind blew and 7 8
  5. 5. caused the sand and mortar to mix and form this beautiful palace, and ‫ا ا ا‬ ‫آن‬in a similar way the gardens and fountains were put into place. Can “If there was for the heavens and the earth another deity but Allaahany credibility be granted to the intelligence of one who avers such the two of them would be destroyed.”nonsense and illogical thinking? An explanation for this is, Ibaadat (worship) is a term attributed toThere was once a debate between a group of atheists and Imaam Abu total and complete subservience – and total subservience can only beHanifah (rahmatullahi alaihi). Imaam Saheb asked them what they before such a Being who is perfect in Being and Attributes. We callwould say regarding the person who claims to have seen a ship which such a Being Allaah. It is absolutely imperative that the Being ofis fully laden with goods sailing on the ocean. The ship starts on one Allaah Ta`ala is free and pure from all types of flaws andend and loads the goods by itself, then it sails to its destination and deficiencies. He is not deficient in any particular aspect noroffloads by itself at another port. It sails and navigates itself through superfluous, nor helpless, nor overwhelmed, nor suppressed bythe rough oceans without the expertise of any captain or sailor. This anyone, and none can hinder His operations. Now if we assume thatship loads and offloads its cargo by itself. if there were two deities for the heavens and the earth then both of them should be of this nature (as explained in the previous lines). ItThe atheist exclaimed that such an occurrence is contrary to logic and should now be seen whether in the creation of the universe, from topthat no sane or intelligent will accept such a yarn. Imaam Saheb to bottom, there was complete amity between the two of them or ifexpressed pity and sorrow for their intelligence. He asked them that if there was an occasional difference of opinion. There are twoit is not possible for a ship to sail the seas without a sailor how then is possibilities in the event of amity – either the work could not beit possible for the ship of this universe to function without a accomplished by one alone hence it was completed by the two ofnavigator. Upon hearing this, the atheists were taken aback and them together. In this case it is obvious that neither one of the two ofeveryone of them repented and entered the fold of Islaam at his them have complete power and ability. If either one of them was ableblessed hands. to execute the whole task on his own then the need for the second would be superfluous, whereas the belief in the existence of a deity necessitates that not an atom in the universe is able to functionRegarding the Being of Allaah Ta`ala no one knows any detail hence without His active involvement and power.there is no need to ponder and contemplate over this. However, thereare explanations regarding the Attributes of Allaah Ta`ala, the details If we assume that was a difference of opinion between the two deitiesof which will follow later on. then it is obvious that the end result can only be the decision of one. This would mean that the other was overpowered and thereforeALLAAH TA`ALA IS ONE, HE HAS NO PARTNER cannot be called a deity. Or both are completely equal in power and strength where they are able to match each other. In this case—Allaah Ta`ala is one, He has no partner. It is stated in the Qur`aan Allaah forbid – firstly, amidst this tug-o-war between the deitiesMajeed ‫ه ا ا‬ (Say –O Muhammad (sallAllaahu alayhi nothing could have come into existence in the first place or hadwasallam)! He is Allaah The One.). This is a proof on the Oneness of anything come into existence it would be destroyed and annihilatedAllaah Ta`ala which is mentioned in the Qur`aan Majeed. in this struggle. The result of this would be that if there were two deities for the heaven and the earth, then the present system would 9 10
  6. 6. never be able to function so flawlessly and one of the two deities THE ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAAH TA`ALAwould end up being superfluous, deficient and helpless. Imaam Abul Hasan Ash`ari (rahmatullahi alaihi) categorizes theSince this has been established that Allaah Ta`ala has no partners Attributes of Allaah Ta`ala into two types – Sifaat-e-Zaatiyathen it follows that He has no son or daughter as well. The reason (Attributes related to the Being of Allaah Ta`ala) and Sifaat-e-Fa`liyabeing that children are of the same species as their father. Even (Attributes relates to the actions of Allaah Ta`ala).though Zaid may not be identical to his father, they do nonethelessshare the common quality of being humans. Similarly, if Allaah SIFAAT-E-ZAATIYATa`ala had a son then he would also be a partner to the qualities ofdeity. He would also be a deity like Allaah Ta`ala. For this reason These are those qualities of Allaah Ta`ala wherewith He cannot beAllaah Ta`ala says: ‫ان ن و‬ (“He is pure from that He has described with their opposites – The Qualities of Allaah Ta`ala likechildren”). life, knowledge, power, intention, hearing, sight and speech are attributed to Him, whilst their opposites like death, ignorance,THE BEING OF ALLAAH TA`ALA IS ETERNAL helplessness, etc. cannot be attributed to Him. These Attributes are also known as Ummahaatus Sifaat, i.e. the foundational Qualities.Allaah Ta`ala is eternal and everlasting. That is, He always was in The reason being that these Qualities are the basis for the Sifaat-e-existence and always will be. There is no starting point in His Fa`liya and other Qualities. If there is no life then there can be noexistence. It is not that there was nothing before Him and then He deity and if there was no knowledge and intention then no actioncame into existence. In this regard the Qur`aan Majeed says: would have come in to being. ‫ه ا ول و ا‬ SIFAAT-E-FA`LIYA(“He – Allaah Ta`ala – is The First and The Last”), that is in reality These are those qualities wherewith the Being of Allaah Ta`ala canHe is The First since He has no beginning and He is in reality The be described with their opposites and they can also be attributed toLast, since He has no ending. other things as well. For example giving life and death, honour and disgrace, wealth and poverty, etc. Imaam Ash`ari (rahmatullahiThe reason is that the existence of Allaah Ta`ala is absolute and alaihi) categorizes all the Sifaat-e-Fa`liya under the foundationalnecessary and it is a demand of His Being. If existence was attained Attribute of Power and regards them as being connected to it.after non-existence then it would have been such that His existencewas in need of something and only when that something was found Imaam Abu Mansoor Maatureedi (rahmatullahi alaihi) does notdid He come into existence. However it is not such because the Being categorize the Attributes of Allaah Ta`ala such. He stipulates eightof Allaah Ta`ala is totally free and pure of every type of need and Qualities as being the foundational ones. Seven of these are thedeficiency. Hence it is necessary that the Being of Allaah Ta`ala was Sifaat-e-Zaatiya enumerated above and the eighth is a Quality ofalways in existence. Besides the Being and Attributes of Allaah Creation. According to Imaam Maatureedi (rahmatullahi alaihi) theTa`ala, eternal existence cannot be established for anyone or anything foundation for the above mentioned Sifaat-e-Fa`liya is the Quality ofelse. Creation. By Creation is meant that Allaah Ta`ala is the One Who 11 12
  7. 7. brings into existence. With regard to bringing into existence the birth For one thing to be apart or excluded from another means that oneof things, He is the Creator and with regard to bringing in to can exist independently from the other.existence sustenance He is the Sustainer. Based on these definitions it cannot be said that the Being of AllaahALL THE ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAAH TA`ALA ARE Ta`ala and His Qualities are one and the same, neither separateETERNAL entities. They are not unified because this would mean that the two are one and the same thing and since Allaah Ta`ala’s Qualities areAll the Attributes of Allaah Ta`ala are eternal, i.e. always were and extra to His Being, both of them are not alike in every respect, hencealways will be. Allaah Ta`ala was always The Creator, even before the Divine Qualities are not the actual essence of the Divine Being.the creation came into existence. The reason being that thefoundation of creation, according to Imaam Ash`ari (rahmatullahi There is no total and complete separation between Allaah Ta`ala’salaihi) is the Attribute of Power and according to Imaam Maatureedi Qualities and Being because it is not possible for the two to exist(rahmatullahi alaihi) the Quality of Takween (Creation). These separately. The Qualities cannot exist without the Being because thefoundational Qualities were always existent. For Allaah Ta`ala to be Qualities are subordinate to the Being. It is not possible for aThe Creator, His creating (anything) is not a precondition, in fact the subordinate to exist without the primary. The Being cannot becontrary holds true. If Allaah Ta`ala did not have the Quality of without the Qualities because the Divine Being cannot be perfectcreating, the creation would not have come into existence. without all the Qualities. Hence it is necessary for the two them to co-exist.THERE IS NO SEQUENCE IN THE ATTRIBUTES OFALLAAH TA`ALA THE DETAILED EXPLANATION OF THE BASIC AND FOUNDATIONAL QUALITIESIt should also be understood that the Attributes of Allaah Ta`ala donot have a sequence of time or age. It will not be correct to say that a 1. THE ATTRIBUTE OF LIVINGcertain Attribute of Allaah Ta`ala came first and another later. All HisAttributes were always existent and are everlasting. It will not be Allaah Ta`ala is Alive and the Attribute of Life is established forcorrect to say that His Knowledge came before His Power or that His Him.Power came before His Knowledge, or His Living before HisKnowledge. He always, always was Alive, Knowledgeable and It is stated in the Qur`aan Majeed, ‫ا م‬ ‫“( ه ا‬He is Alive and ThePowerful. One Who sustains and maintains everything”).THE ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAAH TA`ALA ARE NEITHER The reason being that if something were not alive it would not beHIS ACTUAL BEING NOR EXCLUDED THEREFROM able to create the universe. The Life of Allaah Ta`ala is from always and will last for always. There is no mention or possibility of death,For one thing to be the actual being of another means that both of destruction or annihilation (for Him).them are exactly alike in all respects. 13 14
  8. 8. Therefore whatever is occurring, has occurred or will still occur, He2. THE ATTRIBUTE OF HEARING had perfect and detailed Knowledge of it, since time immemorial, that at this particular time this person is to carry out this act. HisAllaah Ta`ala has the Attribute and Quality of hearing and listening. Knowledge is so perfect and intricate that it encompasses theHe listens to the duas and voices of the entire creation all at once. His slightest movement of the smallest fly whether it be above the sevenlistening to one sound does not negate His hearing another. The heavens or below the earth. He is even aware of the minutest whispervarious languages and dialects of the universe do not put Him into and inspiration which enters the heart of man. This has to be soany confusion or doubt. At any given split second He hears the because the creation of the universe and maintaining it and fulfillingchirping of birds, the sound of the insects in the innermost part of the the needs of every creation, would be impossible without such amountains, the walking of an ant on the smoothest of rocks, the perfect knowledge. It is stated in the Qur`aan Majeed,sound of all the fishes swimming the oceans, etc. etc. Allaah Ta`ala’sHearing is so fine and perfect that He hears the blood flowing ‫ور‬ ‫ات ا‬ ‫ن وا‬ ‫ّون و‬ ‫ا وات و ا رض و‬through the finest of veins and vessels of the fly and ant, and He (4- ‫) رة‬hears clearly as it flows from one limb to another. It is stated in the “He Knows whatever is in the heavens and earth and He KnowsQur`aan Majeed, ‫“( ان ا‬Indeed Allaah Ta`ala is All- whatever you conceal and make apparent, and Allaah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing”) Knowing of what occurs in the breasts (of man).”3. THE ATTRIBUTE OF SEEING ‫و‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ل ا ءو‬ ‫و‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا رض و‬ (4 – ‫) رة‬ ‫ن‬ ‫آ وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬Allaah Ta`ala possesses the Quality of Seeing, wherewith He looks at “Allaah Knows what penetrates the ground and what emergesall the creation. He sees EVERYTHING, whether it is in the pitch therefrom, and what descends from the sky and what flies therein.darkness or bright light, near or far, during the day or night, And He is with you wherever you are, and Allaah is All-Seeingregardless of how small and minute or gigantic it may be, He sees what you do.”ALL this ALL the time. Absolutely nothing is hidden from Him atany given time. This Attribute of Allaah Ta`ala is mentioned in the ‫ا رض‬ ‫وات او‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة او‬ ٍ ‫دل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ّ ا ّ ان‬Qur`aan Majeed in many Aayaat. For,example it is stated ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ّ‫“( ,ا‬Indeed He Sees everything.”) (16 – ‫ٌ ) رة ن‬ ٌ ‫ان ا‬ ّ “O my son! If there were an atom the size of a mustard seed and it4. THE ATTRIBUTE OF KNOWLEDGE were in a rock or in the heavens or the earth, Allaah would come with it. Indeed Allaah is All-Aware of the most delicate of things.”Allaah Ta`ala is Most Knowledgeable. Absolutely nothing from theearth or heavens is hidden from His Perfect Knowledge. Not an atom Furthermore the Knowledge of Allaah Ta`ala encompassesof knowledge is hidden from Him, because apparent and hidden everything and not only what we discern as being possible, it is statedthings are all equal to Him. in the Qur`aan Majeed, ٍ ‫ء‬ ٍ ‫“( وا‬And Allaah is aware of everything.”) 15 16
  9. 9. 5. THE ATTRIBUTE OF INTENTION AND WILL intention/action of the servant, then the answer to this will be that, the Will of Allaah Ta`ala is especially connected to the servant when theAllaah Ta`ala has the Quality of Intention and Will. He can bring servant harbours an intention in his heart and then he makes a firmsomething from non-existence to existence at any given time resolution to carry out that action. Every persons heart is sufficientaccording to His Wish. Hence, whatever occurs only does so by His testification as to whether he will carry out his intention. Each personexpress Intention. Whatever He had decreed from time immemorial, has a free choice of intention and no one is forced or helpless.occurs precisely so. Allaah Ta`ala states, ‫“( , ّ ل‬He does Therefore the intention and will of the servant finds furtherwhatever He Wills.”) confirmation and attains certitude (when he carries out the action). And this determination is further cemented, not that the intention ofIt is not that He wills a thing and it does not occur as He had Desired. the servant was initially non-existent.In that case it would necessitate weakness and incompetency. Note: A more detailed explanation will follow later on.In essence nothing in this universe is out of the intention of AllaahTa`ala. In short, the entire universe was concealed behind a screen of non- existence. Allaah Ta`ala, through His Will and Intention broughtWhatever Allaah decides, it happens such and whatever He does not everything into existence, whilst laying emphasis on its (previouswill, does not take place. The desires of the angels, shayaateen, jinn state of) non-existence and has specified a fixed period for itsand humans are all created by Him. The intention of the creation is existence. In conformity to His Will the entire universe came intosubservient to the Will of Allaah. It is stated in the Qur`aan Majeed, existence with His Instruction in gradual stages. (29 : ‫) رة‬ ‫ؤن ا ّ ان ّ ء ا رب ا‬ ّ ‫و‬“You cannot desire anything without The Desire of the Rabb of the 6. THE QUALITY OF SPEECHuniverse.” Allaah Ta`ala Speaks, i.e. He has the Quality of Speech, whichSomeone may raise this objection that since Allaah Ta`ala desires always was and always will be. It is present and established in Histhat His servant makes a certain intention whereafter the servant does Being. However His Speech is unlike our speech.make that intention, so, if the intention of the servant is evil, it wouldfollow that the initiative, i.e. the Desire of Allaah Ta`ala is also evil. The proofs of Allaah Ta`ala’s Speech are as follows:The answer to this is the Desire of Allaah Ta`ala comprises thousands (144 :‫) رة ا اف‬ ‫و‬ ‫اّس‬ ‫اّ ا‬ ‫ل‬of wisdoms and considerations, since Allaah Ta`ala is All Wise and “(Allaah Ta`ala) said, O Moosa, indeed I have preferred you overthe intention and Will of The Wise is never devoid of wisdom and other people with My Message and My Speech.consideration hence it can never be said to be evil, whereas the actionof the servant is evil due to many evil factors. (253 :‫آّ ا ور در ت ) رة ة‬ ٍ “Amongst them are those with whom Allaah spoke, and He raisedIf a person harbours this doubt that it is as though no evil can be some of them in stages.”attributed to the Will of Allaah but can, to the involuntary 17 18
  10. 10. ّ ‫ا وزو ا‬ ‫ادم ا‬ (rahmatullahi alaihi) says that Hadhrat Moosa (alaihis“We (Allaah Ta`ala) said, O Adam! Stay you and your wife in salaam) heard such a Speech which he distinctly identifiedJannat.” as Divine Speech. Hence, according to Imaam Maatureedi (rahmatullahi alaihi), Hadhrat Moosa (alaihis salaam) isAccording to the Ahle-Haqq that speech which is the Quality of known as Kaleemullaah (One who spoke to AllaahAllaah Ta`ala does not comprise of words and voice. In fact it is such Ta`ala) for this very reason that he spoke to Allaah Ta`alaa Quality which is established for only the Being of Allaah Ta`ala without the medium of any angel or book.and it is known as Kalaam-e-Nafsi, because the foundation and origin 3. The Speech of Allaah Ta`ala is of two types. The firstof speech is in reality the subject matter and contents which are comprises of injunctions and prohibitions. This type ispresent in the heart. In this regard a poet states: Qadeem (always in existence), and the second is when Allaah Ta`ala addresses a certain servant of His, like “And Indeed speech (is that which) is in the hearts and it is only Allaah spoke to Moosa speech (words)”. The tongues which serve as a proof of (what is in) the hearts. According to Imaam Ash`ari (rahmatullahi alaihi), thisMankind, at times, makes apparent the contents of the heart via the second type of speech is also Qadeem. It, however, cametongue, at times in writing and at times by means of gestures. In order into effect when the particular servant who was to beto effect speech, i.e. to speak, we are dependant on words and voices. addressed was ready to receive it. For example, it was only when Hadhrat Moosa (alaihis salaam) came intoBut Allaah Ta`ala is free and pure from this. He does not speak with existence and he reached a particular place, did Allaahwords and voices like us. Ta`ala address him.When Allaah Ta`ala intends speaking to someone, for example, when Most Maatureedis say that one is called Takleem (whoHe said to Hadhrat Moosa (alaihis salaam), ‫“( ,ا‬Remove your addresses/speaks), only when someone is being”), and ‫“( ,و‬What is in your right hand, O Hence, with regard to this type of speech, Allaah Ta`ala isMoosa?”), there are a few things we need to take into cognisance. not referred to as Mutakallim from always, but rather only for that particular occasion, when the person being 1. According to Imaam Ash`ari (rahmatullahi alaihi), the addressed listens to Him. Kalaam-e-Nafsi of Allaah Ta`ala can be heard, even though this is contrary to the norm. And Imaam Qur`aan Majeed Maatureedi (rahmatullahi alaihi) also holds the belief that it is possible for Kalaam-e-Nafsi to be heard. The Qur`aan Majeed is also the speech of Allaah Ta`ala and it is also 2. When Allaah Ta`ala spoke to any specific person, like amongst the Sifaat-e-Qadeem (those Qualities which were always in when He spoke to Hadhrat Moosa (alaihis salaam), then existence). The reason being that with regard to its origin, it is according to Imaam Ash`ari (rahmatullahi alaihi), holds included in Kalaam-e-Nafsi. However, since mankind is dependant this view that Hadhrat Moosa (alaihis salaam) heard the upon recitation which comprises of words, voice and sound, hence Kalaam-e-Nafsi. However, Imaam Maatureedi 19 20
  11. 11. Allaah Ta`ala clothed His Speech in the form of words and spoken The reason being that recitation, listening and calligraphy arespeech, and revealed it as such for the benefit of mankind. amongst the actions of man and man and his actions are new and created.Hadhrat Imaam Mujaddid Alfe Thaani (rahmatullahi alaihi) said: 7. THE ATTRIBUTE OF POWER“The Qur`aan Majeed is the Speech of Allaah Ta`ala, which He hasclothed in words and sounds and revealed it upon our Nabi ρ. Allaah Allaah Ta`ala is All Powerful. Nothing is beyond His ability andTa`ala addresses His servants and informs them of the various power. There is no possibility of helplessness for Him. It is reportedinjunctions and prohibitions. Just like how we make apparent our in the Qur`aan Majeed,inner speech through the medium of our tongues by clothing it with ‫آّ ء‬ ٍ ‫ان ا‬ ّwords and voices and in this way we make known our hidden (“Indeed Allaah has power control over all things.”)intentions and objectives. In a similar way, Allaah Ta`ala, purely He can render the existent things into non-existent and vice versa.through His perfect Power dons His Kalaam-e-Nafsi with the clothesof words and sound without the use of a tongue and reveals it such Power is connected to the possible things. That is, it is related andupon His servants. In this way He makes known and apparent the connected to those things, which fall in the category of being eitherhidden injunctions and prohibitions via the medium of words and created and/or non-existent. However, power is not connected tosound. Hence both these types of speech can be termed and regarded those things which rationally and logically are necessary and existent,in reality as speech and both these types, i.e. Kalaam-e-Nafsi and however their being non-existent is impossible, like the Being ofKalaam-e-Lafzi, are in reality the Speech of Allaah Ta`ala, just as Allaah Ta`ala and His Qualities. This does not mean that there is aour two types of speech, Nafsi and Lafzi, are in reality regarded as deficiency in the Power of Allaah Ta`ala, but these are such thingsour speech. It is not that the first type (Nafsi) is actual and literal which are not prone to or able to accept the effects of power.whereas the second type (Lafzi) is figurative and metaphorical.” Otherwise how can that Being whose very existence is necessary andIn short, the application of Divine Speech is of two types. The first obvious, able to succumb and need any external factors? If anyonebeing that the Speech of Allaah Ta`ala is expansive which is has to ask this question that is it possible for Allaah Ta`ala toaffiliated and established with His Being. There is no difference of extinguish His very Being, His being Rabb, or any of His Attributes?opinion of it being Qadeem. The answer to this would be that since the very existence of these things are necessary, hence they are not such things which have theThe second meaning is that by speech is meant those words/ capacity or ability to accept or be effected by the Power of Allaahsentences wherewith Allaah Ta`ala has clothed His Kalaam-e-Nafsi. Ta`ala, therefore they cannever be annihilated. Similarly for thoseThe Qur`aan Majeed is regarded as the Speech of Allaah because it things whose non-existence are logically necessary and their comingcomprises the specific sentences from Allaah Ta`ala, which are in into existence are rationally impossible. For example, theactual fact an outer form given to His Kalaam-e-Nafsi. In other words combination of two opposites – like for one person to be in existencewe can say that the Qur`aan Majeed is the name given to the and non-existent at one and the same time. Such things are also notcompilation of words and meanings. Nevertheless, the recitation, connected to power, since they are not such things which are prone tolistening and calligraphy of the Qur`aan Majeed is new and created. or able to accept power. An example of this for our understanding is 21 22
  12. 12. that the sun has the ability and power to make things hot, however,some types of marble which remain cold, are such things which do Those matters which have been confirmed is when Allaah Ta`alanot have the ability and are not prone to the effects of the sun’s replied to the statement of Iblees,power. The above-mentioned Aayat states the word ‫( , ء‬things), ‫ا‬ ‫ا ّ دك‬ ‫ّ ا‬which includes all such things which have this ability to accept the “I will deviate all of them except those servants of Yours who arePower of Allaah Ta`ala. sincere.”In short, the Power of Allaah Ta`ala is related and connected to such In reply Allaah Ta`ala said,things which are possible, and not to such things whose very ‫ا‬ ّ ‫و‬ ّ ّ ‫ّ وا ّ ا ل‬existence is necessary or which are logically not possible. If someone “So the truth is the fact which I am telling you that I will fillwere to ask whether it is possible for Allaah Ta`ala to annihilate Jahannum with you and those who follow you amongst them,something whose existence is necessary or to bring into existence everyone.”something which is impossible? The answer would be that the Powerand Will of Allaah Ta`ala has no connection to or related to such Notwithstanding Allaah Ta`ala’s statement that He will fill Jahannumthings. However to say that Allaah Ta`ala has no power over such with man and jinn, Allaah Ta`ala says,things would be disrespect since the Being of Allaah Ta`ala is free ‫ٍ ه اه‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬from any flaw or helplessness. “And if We desired then We would guide every soul.”Evils, like going contrary to one’s word or breaking an oath, are From this Aayat it is clear that if Allaah Ta`ala wills then He couldamongst those things which are possible, hence these are also make all men believers, but He will not go against His Word. Fromamongst such things which fall within the ambit of Allaah Ta`ala’s this we understand that it is within the power of Allaah Ta`ala to actPower, but Allaah Ta`ala never does such things nor ever will. contrary to His statement, but notwithstanding this ability, He will not do so. As explanation for these evils not being impossible orIn the Qur`aan Majeed, Allaah Ta`ala mentions that Firoun, Haamaan prohibitive, take note of the following.and Abu Lahab are destined for the Fire of Jahannum. This statementof Allaah Ta`ala is definitive. Allaah Ta`ala will never go against His 1. Allaah Ta`ala tells us that Hadhrat Isaa (alaihis salaam) willWord, however, Allaah Ta`ala most certainly has the Power and say on the Day of Qiyaamah,ability to place them into Jannat, He is not helpless in doing so. But, (118- ‫) رة ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا ا‬ ‫دك وان‬ ‫ان‬of His Choice, He will not do so. Allaah Ta`ala says in the Qur`aan “If You punish them, then they are Your slaves, (but) if You forgiveMajeed, them then indeed You are Most Powerful, Most Wise.” ‫ا ِ ّ وا ّ س‬ ّ ّ ّ ‫ّا ل‬ ‫ٍ ه اه و آ‬ ّ‫آ‬ ‫و‬ The object is that if Allaah Ta`ala punishes them for their evil beliefs, (13 :‫ة‬ ‫) رة‬ ‫ا‬ that is polytheism, then this choice is the right of Allaah Ta`ala , “Had We desired, We would have granted guidance to every soul, because they are His slaves and He is their Master, and the Masterbut true is the statement from Me, I will most certainly fill Jahannum has every right to punish the slave for any misdemeanour. with men and Jinn.” 23 24
  13. 13. However if Allaah Ta`ala forgives them then this choice is also ability to commit oppression then why would He commend Himselfamongst His rights because He is Most Powerful and has the power therewith? Hence the object is that Allaah Ta`ala has the Power toof forgiveness. Allaah Ta`ala is also most Wise and His forgiveness commit oppression and any of the other mentioned things, howeverwould also not be devoid of wisdom. He will not carry them out owing to His wisdom.”Allaah Ta`ala has mentioned this code and procedure of His in the The Power of Allaah Ta`ala is general and has jurisdiction over theseQur`aan Majeed, evils as well. This is the belief of the Ahle-Sunnah Wal Jamaat. ‫ان ّ ك‬ ‫ان ا‬ ّ It is stated in Musaamarah, “However the establishment of these “Indeed Allaah does not forgive those that ascribed partners to (evils mentioned above) are not beyond the power and ability of Him.” Allaah Ta`ala, but by His Own choice, He will not carry it out. This statement is attributed to the Mashaa`irah Math-hab of the Ahle-Hence here we see that polytheism will not be forgiven, but Hadhrat Sunnat Wal Jamaat.”Isaa (alaihis salaam) requests that if Allaah Ta`ala punishes themaccording to His system and promise then He may do so whenever 8. THE QUALITY OF THE POWER OF CREATIONHe pleases and if He forgives them, assuming that He acts contrary toHis code and promise, then too He may do so whenever He pleases, According to Imaam Abu Mansoor Maatureedi (rahmatullahi alaihi)because Allaah Ta`ala is All Powerful, whose Being includes the this Quality is also Qadeem and always existent. That is, it alwaysQuality of Forgiveness. was there. This means that whenever the time and occasion arose for anything to come into existence, which was in the ever-existentAllamah Baidawi (rahmatullahi alaihi) states in commentary of this Knowledge of Allaah Ta`ala, then in conformity to this Attribute, itAayat, “The promise of Allaah necessitates unforgiveness for would come into creation from non-existence.polytheists but nothing prevents it (i.e. for Allaah Ta`ala to forgivethem also).” Creation, i.e. to create anything, like sustaining (granting sustenance to families), granting external features to families, give life and death,2. It is stated in Sharah Mawaaqif, “If anyone states that acting are all included under this Attribute.contrary to the promise is a matter of forgiveness and mercy, whichis neither a flaw nor evil. However going against a promise, Imaam Abul Hasan Ash`ari (rahmatullahi alaihi) does notcommitting oppression and lies are all evil things which are never differentiate this Attribute as being one on its own rather he includesattributable to Allaah Ta`ala. And (if it is further claimed that) those the quality of creating and all its corollaries as being under thethings which are not attributable to Allaah Ta`ala, He has no power Quality of Power.over it. An answer to this will be a Hadith-e-Qudsi wherein Nabi ρsaid that Allaah Ta`ala says, ‘O My slaves, indeed I have made Are the created things connected to the word ‫( آ‬Kun),(“Be”)?oppression Haraam on Myself.’ Allaah Ta`ala demonstrates His notcommitting oppression as a commendation upon Himself and a It is stated in the Qur`aan Majeed,commendation is always attributed on only those actions whereupon (82- ‫ن ) ر‬ ‫ل آ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اذا اراد‬ ‫اّ ا‬one has the power and ability. If Allaah Ta`ala did not have the 25 26
  14. 14. “Indeed His only Order when He intends a thing is that He says to it, Just as Allaah Ta`ala is the Master of the existence of the possible‘Be!’ and it is.” things, that when He desires He snatches away its existence, similarly He is the Master of the characteristics and condition of the possible 1. According to Imaam Ash`ari (rahmatullahi alaihi) the things. If He desires He can neutralise or snatch away the existence of things are connected to the Ever-Existent characteristic of a created thing, for example He can remove the Speech of Allaah Ta`ala and the word Kun is a proof on characteristic of heat from fire for a chosen slave of His, and make it this Ever-Existent Speech. cool and peaceful. 2. According to Imaam Abu Mansoor Maatureedi (rahmatullahi alaihi) the object of this word is merely to Just as the existence of all possible things and all their qualities are show that the perfect Power of Allaah Ta`ala can bring a dependant on Allaah Ta`ala similarly are they dependant on Him for thing into existence without any delay. In short it is their survival. Whether it be the thing itself or its actual quality or a merely a reflection and indication of Allaah Ta`ala’s characteristic of the existence and survival of all of these are Power and Greatness and the specific utterance of this subservient to His Will and Desire. As long as Allaah Ta`ala wishes, word is not even necessary. upto that time that thing or its quality or its characteristic will remain. 3. According Imaam Fakhrul Islaam Busdawi (rahmatullahi And whenever He Desires He may snatch away that thing or its alaihi) the existence of things is effected through creation quality or its characteristic. He is the One who created causes and and the word Kun. effects. It is He who has created the effect after the cause. A cause did not become a cause by itself. When He wishes, He may removeThe possible things, the effects and specialities are all brought an effect of a cause and He can create a cause without a cause.about by Allaah Ta`ala Allaah Ta`ala is the Creator of the actions of His servantsIt is stated in the Qur`aan Majeed, (62 ‫آّ ء ) ر‬ ٍ Just as Allaah Ta`ala is the Creator of His servants similarly He is the“(Allaah Ta`ala is the) Creator of everything.” Creator of their character, habits, qualities and actions. Their actions, be it good or evil, are all subservient to His Power, Knowledge andTherefore every possible thing, whether it be on the earth or the sky, Will. However, He becomes pleased with good actions andwhether it be a particle or a star or any other creation or whether it is displeased with evil actions. An explanation on this is when a servanta beneficial or harmful thing, everything came into existence by the enacts an action then three things are necessary. The first is that thecreation of Allaah Ta`ala. Similarly the characteristics and effects of relevant limbs be in order and intact. The second is that the servantall these possible things and their qualities and conditions are all the uses the power given to him by Allaah Ta`ala to use his limbs andcreation of The Mighty Being. If any element or particle is hot then it carry out that action. Thirdly, it (the action) is also created by Allaahis hot because of His creating it hot. And if any particle is cold then it Ta` so because of His creating it such. Just as the existence of fire andwater are from Him similarly the heat of fire and coolness of water It is stated in the Qur`aan Majeed,are also His creation. Nothing gets hot or cold on its own. (286 ‫) ر‬ ‫ًاّو‬ ‫ا‬ ّ 27 28
  15. 15. “Allaah Ta`ala does not burden a soul except with what it is able (to is that it can be used for good and evil actions. Therefore the kaafircarry out).” also has the same ability to opt for Imaan and carry out good deeds, but he has however opted for kufr and disobedience at the expenseTherefore it is accepted that those things which are beyond the and in the place of Imaan, thereby earning for himself chastisementcapabilities and power of the servant are in themselves impossible to and punishment.”carry out. For example a combination of opposites like to stand andsit at one and the same time. Or those things which in themselves are However, for the limbs and means to be sound and present and forpossible but cannot be carried out by the servant. For example a man to have this ability and ‘power’ are not sufficient to bring aboutperson cannot stand even for a little in Salaat and is helpless to do actions. When the servant uses this ability and utilizes his limbs (thisdue to him being disabled. Allaah Ta`ala has not instructed His is all part of the effort of the servant), then Allaah Ta`ala brings intoservants to carry out such things. play His stipulated rule which allows this desired action of man to be created.There are two meaning to capability/potentiality The Mu`tazilahs hold the view that the servant is himself the creatorThe first meaning-soundness of limbs and their cause. of deeds and actions. This claim of theirs is incorrect because theThis is the foundational and basic meaning attributed to a persons Qur`aan Majeed explains,potentiality. That person who does not have the limbs or is able toeffect an action, does not have the potential for that thing. Therefore (96 – ‫ت‬ ‫ن ) رة‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬Allaah Ta`ala has not instructed him with that act. The person who “And Allaah has created you and whatever you do.”has the limbs and is able to effect a certain action is said to have thecapability of doing it, therefore Allaah Ta`ala has instructed the Good and evil actions are all connected to Will of Allaah Ta`alaservant to carry it out. Like it said in the Qur`aan Majeed, ‫عا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اّس ّا‬ ‫و‬ The creation of anything or action needs the Power and Will of Allaah Ta`ala. The Mu`tazilahs claim that the creation of an evil and“And for Allaah, upon those people who have the ability to make detested thing is also evil, hence Allaah Ta`ala does not will evil.Hajj to The House (it is Fardh to do so).” The belief of the Ahle-Sunnah is that the creation of evil is not evil inThe second meaning fact, the evil lies in executing an evil and being described by it. The Qur`aan Majeed bears testimony to Allaah Ta`ala willing evil,Allaah Ta`ala has instilled in man a quality of power wherewith he isable to use his intuition. Even before executing any action man (125 – ‫ً ) رة ا م‬ ً ‫ر‬ ‫د ان‬ ‫و‬realises that he has to move certain limbs. All types of actions be they “And whoever Allaah wishes to be led astray ,He makes his heartgood or evil are connected to this type of ‘power’. Imaam Abu constricted (i.e. unreceptive to the truth).”Hanifah (rahmatullahi alaihi) has stated, “That ‘power’ which isexpended in making kufr (disobedience) is the very ‘power’ which is Besides this, the belief of the Mu`tazilahs would necessarily meanused to execute obedience. It is the same ‘power’. The only difference that most of the actions of the servants are contrary and in conflict 29 30
  16. 16. with the Will of Allaah, because kufr and sin are much greater in Ta`ala wills it. This fact is borne out by the admission of the kaafircomparison to Imaan and obedience. It is as though Allaah Ta`ala and faasiq who concede that they commit kufr and fisq by their ownwills one thing and the servant behaves contrary to this Will. This choice and are not forced to do so.would imply an acute deficiency and helplessness on the side ofAllaah Ta`ala, and we know that Allaah Ta`ala is free and pure from To attribute only evil to Allaah Ta`ala is disrespectful, therefore it isall types of deficiencies and helplessness. It is mentioned in the not appropriate to refer to Allaah Ta`ala as Khaaliq-e-Sharr (TheQur`aan Majeed, creator of evil). In fact it will be more appropriate to say that Allaah ‫ّل‬ Ta`ala is the Creator of good and evil or to say that He is the Creator “Whatever Allaah Ta`ala wills will most certainly come to pass.” of everything. Similarly it is most certainly not correct to only say that Allaah Ta`ala is the Creator of filth and swine. To attribute onlyAmr bin Ubaid, an old Mu`tazili, made the confession that a fire such things to the Pure Personality of Allaah Ta`ala is whollyworshipper once made such an accusation as no one had ever done disrespectful and inappropriate.before. He explained that a fire worshipper was once accompanyinghim on a ship. He asked the fire worshipper why does he not become Understand it like this that a person’s father is also his mother’sa Muslim. The fire worshipper replied (keeping in mind the belief of husband. Now instead of addressing his father as ‘dear father’ thisthe Mu`tazilahs), “Because Allaah Ta`ala has not intended Islaam person refers to him as ‘this is my mother’s husband’.for me (i.e. your belief is that Allaah Ta`ala does not will anythingevil and since He did not intend Islaam for me therefore it is The universe in relation to Allaah Ta`alaunderstood that Islaam is not good and is in fact evil).” The philosophers claim that initially there was something else inAmr bin Ubaid told him that Allaah Ta`ala intends Islaam for him but existence together with Allaah Ta`ala. They refer to this thing asshaitaan has got a strong hold over him (the fire worshipper). The fire matter. This is incorrect. The truth of the matter is that only Allaahworshipper replied, “Then you should leave me with the over- Ta`ala was ever existent and there was nothing else besides Him. Hepowering and victorious group (i.e. Allaah Ta`ala wills that I become created the entire universe with His Knowledge and Power ina Muslim but shaitaan does not allow the Will of Allaah Ta`ala to accordance to His Wish.come to pass, hence shaitaan over powers Allaah Ta`ala. Therefore itlogically follows that from the two I should believe in the one that is Moulana Munaazir Ahsan Galaani (rahmatullahi alaihi) writes in hisover-powering and not the over-powered).” Kitaab, Ad-Deen Al- Qayyim, “The view of the Islaamic philosophers and Sufis is that when a human being learns about somethingThis was in fact the incorrect belief of Amr bin Ubaid Mu`tazili, through his senses then the effect of this knowledge is that an abilitywhich the fire-worshipper indicated towards and got the upper-hand is created in the person so that he can bring into existence this thingover him. It has also been reported that after this incident Amr bin according to his perceived ability.”Ubaid abandoned the Mu`tazili creed. The Ahle Sunnah hold thisbelief that Allaah Ta`ala has full control and Will over the disbelief Sheikh Ibn Arabi states in Futuhaat-e-Makkiya, “Every personand fisq of the kaafir and faasiq, but this is done by their own choice. creates a thing with his perceived ability according to his desire andHence people are not forced into kufr and fisq, even though Allaah 31 32
  17. 17. its existence is restricted to that. This is known as the created action our thoughts and whatever ‘castles we were building in the air’, willof man in a figurative sense.” be destroyed. In this way will Allaah Ta`ala destroy the universe.When a person envisages and imagines a thing then he creates it in 3. Our imagined ‘creations’ which we constructed in our mind’shis mind and gets immersed in his thoughts whilst severing his eye requires constant attention and concentration to remainexternal perceptions. His “creation” is restricted to his thoughts and is ‘standing’. In this way the Qur`aan Majeed explains that Allaahnothing more than that. There is no form given to it. Man cannot Ta`ala is not the mere creator of the universe, in fact He maintains‘create’ something without external factors. Allaah Ta`ala is unlike and sustains it. If He were to divert His attention therefrom for a splitthis. Allaah Ta`ala is not in need of means. second it would result in mayhem.The Qur`aan Majeed explains the universe’s relation to Allaah Ta`ala ‫م‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا م‬ ‫ا ا ه ا‬ ‫ا‬in the following ways: “(He is) Allaah, there is no deity but Him, He is all Living and the One who sustains life. Neither does sleep nor slumber overcome1. The Qur`aan Majeed states that Allaah Ta`ala created the Him.”entire universe without any ‘matter’. This is borne out by thefollowing Aayat, If during one of our day dreaming sessions we doze off a little, what ‫ا وات و ا رض‬ will be the result of our mind’s eye ‘creations’? “Creator of the skies and earth”The explanation of this is given in the Hadith, where Nabi ρ said, 4. One should reflect a little that for example if Zaid ‘created’ in“Allaah Ta`ala existed and there was nothing else with Him.” This his imagination a palatial Musjid then neither does this Masjidmeans that there was no sky or earth, and then He created it. become Zaid nor does Zaid become the Musjid. Also this Masjid would be nothing had it not being been for Zaid’s ‘construction’ inIn summary, nothing else existed but Allaah Ta`ala, that is, no his mind. Had Zaid not paid attention and given detail to his thoughts‘matter’, etc. Allaah Ta`ala created the entire universe by His Power. then neither would the building nor a wall nor Mihraab nor mimbar exist. In this way one should understand that the universe does not2. Similarly the Qur`aan Majeed explains, become a deity nor does Allaah Ta`ala become the universe and this ‫او ه ا ب‬ ‫ا آ ا‬ ‫ا ا‬ ‫و‬ universe would be nothing had it not been for the Will and creation of Allaah Ta`ala. “The resultant (destruction and annihilation of the universe) on the Day of Qiyaamah is nothing more than the blinking of an eyelid, or 5. Reflect also that when you ‘create’ something in your mind, even less.” then you have full control and accessibility to every part of your creation, internal and external. The Qur`aan Majeed says that TheIf we desire to annihilate whatever fantastic “creation” we may have Creator and Sustainer of the universe is the First and the Last therein,conjured up in the mind then it requires nothing more than the batting His in the external as well as in the internal. It is stated,of an eyelid. In fact, we only need to take our attention away from (3- ‫رة‬ ) ‫ء‬ ٍ ‫وه‬ ‫وا ه و ا‬ ‫ه ا ّل وا‬ ‫و‬ 33 34
  18. 18. “He (Allaah Ta`ala) is the First and the Last and the Apparent and ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ the Hidden and He has knowledge over everything.” “Allaah is with you wherever you are.”It is said that Allaah Ta`ala is on the Arsh, and at places it is Just as a person can be above, below and beside his imaginedmentioned that He is in the jugular vein of man. Now consider well structure so too is the Creator to His creation. The Qur`aan Majeedwhat other type of connection can the Creator have on his Creation? makes this announcement,Just as you will find yourself on the Minaret of your envisaged ‫ّ ا ّو ا‬ ‫ا‬Musjid and also on the walls so too is it not difficult to imagine the “Wherever you turn your direction you will find Allaah.”Creator of the universe to be on the Arsh and closer to man than hisjugular vein. SIFAAT-E-MUTASHAABIHAAT (THE AMBIGUOUS QUALITIES OF ALLAAH TA`ALA)6. Your imagined Musjid is a monumental and huge structure.When you are ‘creating’ it you do so with its largeness. In the Qur`aan Majeed words such as ‘hand’, ‘face’, ‘shin’,Notwithstanding its great height and huge expanse you still have ‘established upon the Arsh’, etc. are attributed to Allaah Ta`ala. Sincecontrol of every particle thereof. The Qur`aan Majeed says, these are the Words of Allaah Ta`ala, hence we bring faith in them, ‫ء‬ ٍ ‫وا‬ however, since their actual meaning, form or import have not been “And Allaah encompasses everything.” described to us, we regard them as Mutashaabihaat. We believe and bring Imaan in these things in this way that they are all true in7. When you ‘construct’ in your mind’s eye a mountain or city whatever way Allaah Ta`ala means and intends.can the thought of anyone else move or replace it? Every part andaspect of your ‘creation’ is subject to your whim and imagination. Imaam Abul Hasan Ash`ari (rahmatullahi alaihi) and others are of the opinion that these are also from amongst the Attributes of AllaahNone else has control there over. It is stated in the Qur`aan Majeed, Ta`ala. But the other Ahle Sunnat say that since their condition,- ‫) رة‬ ‫ٍ راد‬ ‫ا ّ ه و ان دك‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ان‬ meaning and type are not known, hence they cannot be regarded as (107 Attributes. They should be regarded as Mutashaabihaat. “If Allaah inflicts you with harm then none can remove it but Him, and if He desire for you good then none can alter His Grace.” The Mu`tazilahs claim that it is Waajib to leave out their apparent meanings, for example, the word ‘hand’ should be necessarilyAny and every thing that occurs in the universe does not take place understood as Power. Their proof is that if these words are regardedwithout the Will and consent of Allaah Ta`ala. The thoughts, as being ‘hand’ and ‘face’ then it will be a similarity to human-kindintentions and actions of others do not in the least alter the desire of and it is mentioned in the Qur`aan Majeed, “There is nothing likeAllaah Ta`ala. Him.”8. When you have ‘constructed’ your palatial Musjid then is it This claim of the Mu`tazilahs is incorrect because to attribute wordsnot with you for all that time? If this is so then so too is the Creator like ‘hand’ to Allaah Ta`ala does not necessarily mean it to be likewith His creation all the time. It is mentioned in the Qur`aan Majeed, the hand of a human. In fact the belief of the Ahle-Sunnat is this that 35 36
  19. 19. Allaah Ta`ala does have a Hand but it is unlike the hand of the is that it is permissible to use those names which are mentioned in thecreation. And Allaah Ta`ala has a Face, which is unlike the face of Qur`aan and or any other creation. These are unique to Allaah Ta`ala alone As for those names which are not mentioned in the Qur`aan Majeedand their condition and comprehension are beyond the understanding or Hadith, for example, Qadeem, according to Imaam Abul Hasanof man. Only Allaah Ta`ala alone knows what these actually are. In Ash`ari (rahmatullahi alaihi) it is neither permissible to addressthis regard, Imaam Abu Hanifah (rahmatullahi alaihi) states in Fiqh- Allaah Ta`ala using such names nor describe Allaah Ta`ala with suche-Akbar, “That which Allaah Ta`ala mentions in the Qur`aan Majeed names. According to Imaam Ghazaali (rahmatullahi alaihi) andabout His Face, Hand, Eye, and Naffs are in actual fact amongst His Imaam Raazi (rahmatullahi alaihi) it is impermissible to addressQualities. It is incorrect to say that the Hand of Allaah Ta`ala is His Allaah Ta`ala using such names however they can be used to describePower or Virtue, etc. To aver such things would be to negate a Allaah Ta`ala, for example, one cannot say “O Qadeem!”, but oneQuality of Allaah Ta`ala. This is the claim of the Mu`tazilahs and can say that Allaah Ta`ala is Qadeem.Qadariyyahs. In fact, we should say this that His Hand is His Qualitybut it is free from any form (which we are aware of), and only Allaah The Names and Qualities of Allaah Ta`ala are countless. The 99Ta`ala knows its precise and exact form.” Names of Allaah Ta`ala which are enumerated in the Hadith are mentioned because these Names form the basis and foundation of allAnother sects which has deviated from the true path and are known Allaah Ta`ala’s perfect Qualities. Besides these 99 Names there areas Mujassama, aver that the Hand, Face, Shin etc. are established for other Names which are mentioned in the Qur`aan Majeed and Hadith,Allaah Ta`ala and are similar to those of the creation. They also say like Qaahir, Shaakir, Daa-im, Witr, Faatir, Allaam, Maleek, Akram,that Allaah Ta`ala sits on the Arsh just as how a king sits on his Rafee`, Thit Towl, Thil Ma`aarij, Thul Fadhl, Khallaaq, Sayyid,throne. This sect completely negates the Aayat of the Qur`aan Shaan, Diyaan, etc. etc.Majeed which states, “There is nothing like Him.” There is no rule and principle regarding the Zaati Names of AllaahASMA-E-HUSNAA (THE BEAUTIFUL NAMES OF ALLAAH Ta`ala as they are for His Sifaati Names which is mentioned above.TA`ALA) Therefore it is permissible to refer to Allaah Ta`ala in any other language using the appropriate term. For example, to say “Khuda” inNames are of two types. The one denotes the actual being (Zaati) and the Urdu and Persian language, or to say “God” in English.the other a quality (Sifaati). For example a person’s name is Zaid-this Nevertheless one should be careful not to use such names for Allaahis a name which denotes his person. If he was a knowledgeable Ta`ala which are commonly used by non-Muslims, since these mayperson then he would be called ‘Aalim’, or if he was an intelligent imply and mean things which are contrary to our belief.person he would be called ‘Aaqil (intelligent one).’ These would behis descriptive names whereby he will be called due to his specific THE 99 NAMES OF ALLAAH TA`ALA AS REPORTED INquality. THE HADITH SHAREEFSimilarly the Names of Allaah Ta`ala are also of two types, Zaati and 1. ‫ا‬Sifaati. The name ‘Allaah’ is a Zaati name and all the others are AllaahSifaati names. The rule regarding the Sifaati names of Allaah Ta`ala The Name of Allaah 37 38
  20. 20. Allaah is Al-ism Al-A`zam, the greatest name which contains all the 7. ‫ا‬divine attributes and is the sign of the essence and cause of all Al-Mu`minexistence. Allaah does not resemble in any way any of His creation. Giver of PeaceAllaah is Allaahs name only. Nothing else can assume this name or He is the illuminator of the Light of faith in hearts. He is theshare it. Comforter and the Protector of the ones who take refuge in Him.2. ‫ا‬ 8. ‫ا‬Ar-Rahmaan Al-MuhayminThe Compassionate The Giver of ProtectionHe is the One Who wills mercy and good for all creation, at all times. He is the Protector and the Guardian. He is the one Who sees to theHe pours upon all creation infinite bounties. growth of His creation, leading them where they are destined to go.3. ‫ا‬ 9. ‫ا‬Ar-Raheem Al-AzeezMost Merciful The MightyHe is the source of infinite mercy and beneficence, and rewards with He is the victorious one Whom no force can overwhelm. There is noeternal gifts the one who used His bounties for the good. strength in this universe that can stand before His will.4. ‫ا‬ 10.‫ا ّ ر‬Al-Malik Al-JabbaarThe Sovereign The Overpowering RabbHe is the owner and ruler of the entire universe, visible and invisible, He is the repairer of the broken, the completer of the lacking, the Oneand all of creation from before the beginning and after the end. who can enforce His will without any opposition.5.‫ا وس‬ 11. ‫ا‬Al-Quddus Al-MutakabbirThe Holy One and One Who is free from all blemishes The Self-GloriousHe is the most pure One, devoid of all blemish, shortcoming, He is the greatest, Who shows His greatness in everything, on allweakness, heedlessness and error. occasions.6.‫م‬ ‫ا‬ 12. ‫ا‬As-Salaam Al-KhaaliqThe Giver of Peace or One who is Immuned from all Distresses The CreatorHe is the One Who saves the believing servants from all dangers,bringing them peace, blessings and security of Paradise. 39 40
  21. 21. He is the one Who creates from nothing, creating at the same time the 18.‫ا ّزاق‬states, conditions and sustenance of all that He has created. He Ar-Razzaaqestablishes how, when and where creation will take place. The Sustainer and Provider He is the Sustainer. Sustenance is needed to maintain the creation.13.‫ا رئ‬ ُ (Both physical and spiritual sustenance.)Al-BaariOne who gives life 19.‫ا ّ ح‬He is the one Who orders His creation with perfect harmony - not Al-Fattaahonly each thing within itself, but everything in accordance with Remover of difficulties and Giver of decisionseverything else. He is the opener and the solver, the easer of all that is locked, tied and hardened.14.‫ّر‬ ُ ‫ا‬Al-Musawwir 20. ‫ا‬Fashioner of Shapes Al-AleemHe is the one Who, without using any model, shapes everything in The All Knowingthe most perfect shape. He is the one Who knows all. He knows what has happened, what is happening and what will happen from the beginning to the end.15.‫ا ّ ر‬Al-Ghaffaar 21. ‫ا‬Exceedingly Forgiving Al-QaabidHe is the one Who accepts repentance and forgives. The Straightener of Sustenance He is the one Who constricts. All existence is in the power of Allaah.16.‫ا ر‬ The life on this planet is a test for us, but Allaah does not test hisAl-Qahhaar servants above their abilities.One who has control over all thingsHe is the ever-dominating one, Who has surrounded all His creation 22. ‫ا‬from without and within with His irresistible power. Nothing can Al-Baasitescape Him. The Extender of Rizq He is the one Who releases abundance, joy, relief and ease after17.‫ا ّ ب‬ ‫ه‬ difficulties. These are manifestations of His attribute Al-Baasit.Al-WahhaabThe Giver of all things 23. ‫ا‬He is the donor of all, without conditions, without limits, without Al-Khaafidasking benefits or return, giving everything to everyone, everywhere, He is the Abaser. The One Who Humbles and Lowersalways. 41 42
  22. 22. Allaah most high is the one Who raises his creatures to honour and 30.‫ا ل‬fame and Who can cast them down to be the lowest of the low. Al-Adl The Just24. ‫ا ّا‬ He is the absolute justice. Justice secures peace, balance, order andAr-Raafi harmony. Allaah the Just is the enemy of tyrants.The ExalterAllaah most high is the one Who raises His creatures to honour and 31. ‫ا‬fame and who can cast them down to be the lowest of the low. Al-Lateef Most Affectionate or Knower of Innermost Secrets25. ‫ا‬ He is the most delicate, fine, gentle, beautiful one, He is the one whoAl-Muiz knows the finest details of beauty. The finest of His beauties areThe Giver of Honour hidden in the secrets of the beauties of the soul, wisdom, and divineHe is the one Who honours and the one Who humiliates. light.26.‫ا ل‬ ّ 32. ‫ا‬Al-Mudhil Al-KhabeerThe Giver of Dishonour All-KnowingHe is the one Who honours and the one Who humiliates. He is the one who is aware of the hidden inner occurrences in everything. He is the one whose cognisance reaches the deepest,27. ‫ا‬ darkest, hidden corners of His kingdom, where neither humanAs-Samii intelligence nor His angels can penetrate.The All HearingHe is the one Who hears all - that which comes from the lips, passes 33. ‫ا‬through the minds, is felt by the hearts, the rustling of leaves in the Al-Haleemwind, the footsteps of ants and the atoms moving through the void. The Clement He is forbearing in the punishment of the guilty. He waits, giving28. ‫ا‬ time to the sinner to realise his guilt and ask forgiveness in order thatAl-Baseer He may forgive him rather than punish him.The Seer or One Who Sees All ThingsHe is the one Who is all-seeing. He sees all that has passed, all there 34. ‫ا‬is and all there will be until the end of time. Al-Adheem The Great29. ‫ا‬ He is the Greatest on the earth below And in the heavens above, inAl-Hakam the realms where our sight cannot reach and of which our mindsMaker of Immutable Judgements cannot conceive. He is the absolute and perfect greatness. 43 44