Imam al-Ghazali - On the Etiquettes of Qur'an Recitation (Kitab Adab Tilawat al Qur'an)
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Imam al-Ghazali - On the Etiquettes of Qur'an Recitation (Kitab Adab Tilawat al Qur'an)

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Imam al-Ghazali - On the Etiquettes of Qur'an Recitation (Kitab Adab Tilawat al Qur'an)

Imam al-Ghazali - On the Etiquettes of Qur'an Recitation (Kitab Adab Tilawat al Qur'an)

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  • 1. Imam al-Ghazali 4&on the Etiquettes ofQurdn Recitation ».->] « » y.y w «l &+ « as /: XJT >c e s * •» f>*8* ^//^ Adah Tilawat al-Qurdn ^JLjM JILL J=£L^Ld Imam al-Ghazali Institute 1111 -201 1 AhleSunnah Library ( nmusba.wordpress.com )
  • 2. T^WORKS BYTHESAMEAUTHORIN ENGLISH The Ethics ofal-GhazaS: a Composite Theory ofEthics in Islam The Jewels of the Quran: al-GhazalFs TheorySalvation ofthe Soul and Islamic DevotionsAl-Ghazali on Islamic Guidance CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 9 TRANSLITERATION 16 CHAPTER I. THE EXCELLENCE OF THE QURAN AND OF PEOPLE r^*v" »>*»r" «& CONCERNED WITH IT In the name of God, Most Gracious, Ever Merciful Preamble ig The Excellence of the Quran 21 The Reproach of Qurau-reritation of aJjU <0,i£ j+j ;* J^ ty ^Jjl .<y* ^ ^ v bX)l ^Luil ^JJI II. Unmindful People EXTERNAL RULES OF QURAN-RECITATION 29 Rule First External , 34 Those whom We have given the Book (Quran) recite it as H Second External Rule 35 should be recited; they believe in it. Those who do not Third External Rule 38 believe in it are those who are the losers. — Quran 2 : 121 Fourth External Rule 39 Fifth External Rule 41 Sixth External Rule 43 Seventh External Rule 44 Eighth External Rule 47 Ninth External Rule 49 Tenth External Rule 53 Whoever explains the Quran according to his [wrong] III. MENTAL TASKS IN QURAN-RECITATION personal opinion shall take his place in Hell. prophet — FirstMental Task Second Mental Task 56 Muhammad 60 Third Mental Task 61 Fourth Mental Task 62 Fifth Mental Task 65 Sixth Mental Task 69 Seventh Mental Task 72 Eighth Mental Task 74
  • 3. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN Ninth Mental Task 80 Tenth Mental Task 82 IV. UNDERSTANDING THE QURAN AND ITS EXPLANATION ACCORDING TO ONES PERSONAL INTRODUCTION OPINION WHICH HAS NOT COME DOWN BY TRADITION The Problem 86 Existence of Deep, Hidden Meanings of Quranic TV : M - W - -J^-^-J J* W UJI Jy» :JiLi J-i j*3 <— »J Verses [Proclaim: ] I am commanded [by God] to be one of the 87 The Prophets Prohibition of Quran-explanation Muslims, and to recite the Quran. So whoever guides according to Ones Personal Opinion himself thereby, does so only to the good of his own self; and 90 Real Reasons for Prohibition of Quran-explanation whoever goes astray, [does so only to his own loss]. Say: I am according to Ones Personal Opinion 92 but a warner. — Quran 27 91 -92 : Several Quranic Subjects in which Transmission from Authorities on Quranic Exegesis is The idea underlying all revealed religions is that man is incapable of necessary solving all the problems of his life through his reason (aql) alone 94BIBLIOGRAPHY and therefore needs guidance from God on both the theoretical and 105 practical levels. This guidance is embodied in religious scripturesINDEX revealed by God to prophets, who are His representatives on earth, General Index 110 and who are gifted with special qualities of both mind and heart. Index of Quranic Suras and Verses Cited 119- 121 The number of such prophets whom God selected in order to communicate His guidance to mankind in different ages is generally believed by Muslims to be 124,000, and the number of revealed scriptures, according to Islamic teachings, is 104, of which four are long and of great importance, while the remaining revelations are l referred to in Islamic literature only as Leaves (suhuf). The four great scriptures are the Torah, the Gospel, the Psalms and the Quran, and of the Leaves ten were revealed to Adam, fifty to Shith (Seth), thirty to Idris (Enoch) and ten to Abraham. 2 The Quran is the last in the series of these revelations, and Muhammad (may 3 peace be upon him!) is the last of all prophets but the greatest of 4 them in merit according to the estimation of God. Muhammad received the Quran gradually, over approximately twenty-three 1 Quran 20:133, 87:18-19; Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazafi, /few* UKm ad-Dm, Beirut, n.d., Ill, 204. 2 Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Jarlr at-Tabarl, Tarikk al-Umam wa 1-Muluk, Egypt, n.d., 1, 86. 3 Quran 33:40. 4 Quran 2:235 where excellence of some prophets over others is explicit.
  • 4. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN INTRODUCTION years (610-32 A.D.) in Mecca and Medina, from the angel of in certain circumstances to be the best of all forms of supererogatory revelation, Gabriel. Gabriel had received it from the Preserved worship and be only inferior to the sufis remembrance in others to Tablet (at-lawh al-mahfuz) which is commonly understood 10 to be in of God (dhikr). Not only reading, but even looking at the Quran heaven and where the originals of all revealed scriptures 5 are by a believer with due respect is also an act of worship of God. ll preserved along with a record of everything that God has decreed to Such is the glorious Quran, the scripture of Islam!bring into being from the beginning of creation to Doomsday/ These and other purposes of Quran-reading can be betterunder the care of the greatest angel, Israrll. The Quran is the achieved if the recitation is made by following the methodsspeech of God eternally existing with His essence; it is divine in both appropriate to divine speech. The methodology of reading orits meanings and language — views held by the majority of Muslims. studying books which is taught, especially in colleges and universi- The reading or recitation of the Quran is enjoined by God and ties of the West, is not wholly relevant to the reading of the QuranHis Messenger so that the reciter may know the principles of by a believer, since its nature is different from that of other books.guidance contained in it and live his life in all its aspects according Some of the methods befitting it are briefly mentioned in the Quranto these principles; the consequence of all this is salvation (najat) in itself ,2 — briefly because brevity and conciseness are among itsthe eternal of the Hereafter. Since this purpose of Quran-recita- life 13 special characteristics. They are, moreover, scattered in thetion is in keeping with the sole aim of all revelations from God, it is Quran in The Prophet elaborated connection with other teachings.emphasized 7 in the Quran as well as in prophetic tradition (kadlth). them and added to them other methods, and all to a certain extentThere are other purposes of Quran-reading which, though com- these are to be found in works on collections of Tradition. Of all theparatively less important, are practically inseparable from the life of groups of Muslim intellectuals who have flourished from the for-Muslims. One of these purposes gain the blessing (baraka) is to mative period of Islamic thought until now it is the ascetics andwhich accrues from uttering the divine speech with due reverence sufis who are most concerned with Quran-reading, because they areand in a proper manner. This purpose is apparent in recitations the people who most ardently desire to draw guidance from theperformed by Muslims at the start of sermons, marriage in Quran in different aspects of their lives and to improve theirceremonies, in pious gatherings and on other occasions of a similar relationships with God by means of supererogatory worship. Thetype. This forms a point of disagreement between Islam and rules they follow in Quran-reading are derived from a variety ofChristianity.There is no absolutely holy language in the Christian sources, the most important of which are the Quran, the Sunna ofreligion, for thelanguage of the Gospel is not generally believed to the Prophet and their own experiences. Consequently a somewhatbe wholly divine; hence Christians do not recite the Gospel to gain elaborate treatment of the subject of Quran-recitation is to be foundany blessings, nor do they respect it in the way Muslims M however, do the in their mystical writings; theological views on certainQuran, such as keeping it above all other books on a shelf or on a Quranic problems held by Jahmites, Lafziyyas, Waqifiyyas,table, for its language, like its meanings, purely divine. Another is Kharijites, Murjiites, Mutazilttes, Asharites, Shiites and otherpurpose of Quran-reading is the worship {ibada) of God. Recita- Muslim sects are either wholly omitted in their mystical works ortion for this purpose is usually performed in the morning after the only mentioned in passing because these views have little relevanceDawn Prayer, when keeping vigil and on completion of at night, with practice. The orthodox form of sufism of the medieval timesevery ritual prayer {sala). It is recommended in the Quran and 10 Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali, al-Arbain fi Usui ad-Dm, Egypt, 1344prophetic tradition as a form of supererogatory (nafl) worship* A.H.,p.58.appropriate to the higher category of believers. * It also forms 11 ,2 part of Al-GhazaH, Ikya, 1, 279. Quran 73:4, 16:98, 47:24, 4:82, 8:2, 2:121. 19:58.t he spiritual training (riyada) prescribed in sufism, and is regarded •3 Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali, al-Qusfas al-Mustaqim, ed. by al-Yasui, 5 6 Beirut, 1959, p. 49. Q ur an 13:3 9, 85:21. Quran 22:52; al-GhazalT, Ihya IV, 504f 14 Abu Talib al-MakkF, Qut al-Qulub, Egypt, 1961/1381, I, 95-128 where four > Quran 54:22, 27:92. »Qur*an 17:78. 9 See injm. nn. 37, 44. chapters are devoted to Quran-reading. 10 11
  • 5. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE OUR AN INTRODUCTION culminated in al-Ghazali who is acclaimed by many, both in the tion according to ones personal opinion (bi-r-ray), although this East and the West, as the greatest religious authority of Islam after problem is not his primary concern here: This consideration pro- the Prophet. In his suffsm the problem of Qur an- reading received a ceeded through several stages. First, he establishes his view that ,5 treatment which is most elaborate, systematic, deep and pene- there is a wide scope in the meanings of the Quran and that outward trating,and which is recognized as important by later Muslim exegesis which has come down by tradition is not the end of Quran-scholars of the Quran and Tradition. ,6 This treatment is an understanding. In the Quran there are indications of all forms ofamalgam of Islamic religious teachings on the subject and the knowledge which can only be grasped by men of understanding;thoughts and experiences of sufls, including al-Ghazali himself and , these, however, cannot be conveyed completely by its outwardother religious scholars who flourished before his time. This book is exegesis. Understanding the Quran consists in deeply penetratingan attempt to present this theory to readers of English together with into its meanings by stages; mere outward exegesis of it does not leadother information relevant to it. us to this understanding. In his theory of Quran-reading al-Ghazali first mentions the Second, al-Ghazali considers the prohibition of Quran-explana-nature and value of the Quran as well as the importance of tion according to ones personal opinion by the Prophet, 1S by Abucontinuance in its recitation and perseverance in its study by Bakr and by other pious Muslims in the early period of Islam. Inobserving the external rules and mental tasks appropriate to it. four ways he demonstrates that this prohibition is not meant toThen he demonstrates the excellence of the Quran and of those who confine Quran-understanding to that which has come down fromare concerned with through reading, studying or memorizing it, by it authorities on exegesis and to abandon the eliciting of meaningsciting first the sayings of the Prophet and then the sayings of his from the Quran by independent understanding. He shows that it iscompanions and prominent scholars, saints and suffs who flourished lawful for everyone to elicit meanings from the Quran commen-before the time of al-Ghazali. As a corollary of this he disapproves of surate with his understanding and intelligence. Third, al-Ghazalithose recitations which fall short of the required standard, his enquires into the reasons why the Prophet and others prohibiteddisapproval being based on the sayings of the Prophet, his com- Quran-explanation according to ones personal opinion. Two majorpanions and other pious scholars. This is followed by a detailed reasons are determined and discussed in detail. Under one of themdiscussion of the rules of Quran-recitation proper. Two sets of rules are condemned as wrong three kinds of Quran-interpretation —are discussed under the titles external rules and mental tasks one by heretics, one by certain religious scholars and Shi a $atinites,together with a full illustration of them in a very systematic way — and one by others. In connection with the other reason he em-passing from the external rules to the internal, and, within each set, phasizes the need to master outward exegesis of the Quran trans-progressing gradually from less subtle rules to more subtle. For mitted from authorities, as a precondition for eliciting its deep,perfect recitation both sets of rules need to be observed in al- hidden meanings. For mastering outward exegesis it is necessary toGhazalis opinion. His belief that both external and internal rules know by heart what is transmitted from authorities in regard toare important agreement with Islamic religious teachings on the is in several Quranic subjects which are discussed in some detail withsubject; however, his emphasis upon the mental tasks is characteris- examples from the Quran itself. Then the distinction between thetic of his sufi teaching. Many of the rules set forth by him are real meanings of the Quran and its outward exegesis is made clearincorporated in the work of a later scholar, Imam Muhyi ad-Dai by examples, and it is asserted that the study of the real meaning of 1?an-Nawawi. every Quranic sentence needs a long duration and is assisted by Discussion of the mental tasks required in Quran-reading led knowledge obtained through mystical intuition (kashf). The reasonsal-Ghazali to a consideration of the problem of Quran-interpreta- why those established in knowledge differ in their understanding of Al-Ghazali. lhya I, 272-93. J Ibid., pp. 48-52 the hidden meanings of th e Quran are mentioned. The unveiling of Muhyi ad-DTn an-NawawT, al-Adhkar, Egypt, 1378 A.H., 18 p. 48. At-TirmidhT, Sunan, TafcTr al-Quran, 1. 12 13
  • 6. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN INTRODUCTION the deep meaning of a prophetic tradition to the mind of a suit is cited, apparently following Abu Nasr as-Sarraj, 19 in an effort to ferences to The Revival in this book are as in the BE. Quranic verses illustrate further thenature of deep meanings of the Quran. In and suras (chapters) are numbered according to the official conclusion the relation of secret meanings of the Quran to its Egyptian edition of the Quran. It is hoped that the book will prove outward exegesis is described by saying that they are neither known useful to readers of English interested in the recitation and interpre- by outward exegesis, nor opposed to it; rather they complete it and tation of Islamic scripture and in al-GhazalT. I take this opportunity form the essence of the Quran to be approached from its external to express my gratitude to Mr. Syed Zulfida, Mr. Peter Mooney and aspect. Mr. Harold Crouch of the National University of Malaysia for This theory of Quran-recitation and interpretation outlined carefully going through the manuscript and for reading the proofs. above is set forth in the eighth book of al-Ghazalfs greatest work, The Revival of the Religious Sciences (Ihya Ulum ad-Din). This National University of Malaysia book in its entirety is translated, with copious notes, in the present Bangi, Selangor M. Abul Quasem work, so that the reader may know al-GhazalTs ideas in full. The Muharram 1399 translator has in his renderings, made an effort to remain very close December 1978 to the Arabic original and at the same time to clarify its meaning. For the sake of this clarification materials are sometimes added in the textand put between square brackets. To ensure an easy reading some expressions based on the original are put between round brackets. To augment the usefulness of the book as well as its scholarly nature numerous footnotes are added by the translator. Since The Revival has not yet been critically edited, variants in its different printed texts have not yet been brought to light. The translator has at hand eight printed texts: (1) the text published by al-Maktaba at-Tijariyya al-Kubra, Egypt, n.d.; (2) the text published by al-Matbaa al-Uthmaniyya, Egypt, 1933/1352; (3) the text published by Dar ash-Shuab, Egypt, n.d.; (4) the text published by the Lajna Nashr ath-Thaqafa al-Islamiyya, Cairo, 1356-57 A.H. (referred to hereinafter as LN): (5) the text published by Muassisa al-Halabl, Cairo, 1967/1387 (referred to hereinafter as MH); by Dar al-Marifa, Beirut, n.d. (referred (6) the text published to hereinafter as BE); (7) the textshown by az-Zabldl in his Ithafas-Sada al-Muttaqln bi-Sharh Asrar Ihya* Ulum ad-Din, Cairo,1311 A.H. (referred to hereinafter as ZT); and (8) the text publishedon the margin of az-Zab[dis Ithaf (referred to hereinafter as ZE).These last mentioned five texts have been compared by thetranslator and the variants are pointed out in footnotes; the obviousjnisprints are of course disregarded. The numberings of all re- 19 Abu Nasr as-Sarraj. Kitdb al-Luma, ed. by R.A. Nicholson, London, 1963,p. 113. 14 15
  • 7. r TRANSLITERATION THE RECITATION AND Consonants INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN (except when J z L? q initial) b jr s <d k t J^ sh J 1 th J* ? f m J> d c i o n c h Jb h c kh 3 w J d V y J dh J <J * Short Vowels ——— : a ^ ... : i Long Vowels V 1- or : i Dipthongs uww :iyy : aw ^The letter * is sometimes transliterated into *t* and some-times omitted. 16
  • 8. THE EXCELLENCE OF THE QURAN AND OF PEOPLE CONCERNED WITH IT revealing His Book [i.e. the Quran] to which falsehood cannot approach from before it or from behind it, 3 and which is a revelation CHAPTER ONE from the All-wise, the All-laudable ( j* Vj **m j* j* JkUi -cjlv jj} 4 -4** r^> j» Ji^ •**** ) In consequence of this the path of consi- THE EXCELLENCE OF THE QURAN AND deration from stories become broad and reports men [of past events] described in 5 it has and the OF PEOPLE CONCERNED WITH IT, AND for of reflection, traversing of the 6 straight path by following the rules of conduct He has expounded THE REPROACH OF THOSE WHOSE in itand by observing the distinction He has made between 7 the RECITATION FALLS SHORT OF THE lawful and the unlawful, has become clear [to mankind]. The Quran is an illumination and a light; by it is obtained REQUIRED STANDARD deliverance from error and deception; and in it lies the healing of those [diseases] which exist in mens souls. 8 Anyone, of [even] the most powerful men, who contradicts it is severely punished by God, j^ U^tj j~> r»^» ^ y^j i^ 1 y^b ] ^ v^ ^^i jAH J and anyone who seeks knowledge from a source other than it is led Vi TA - f* o> ~ : i<xj2i 0* r*-y>y r*jj* <jrr>r*^ ^ h^ astray by Him. The Quran is the strong rope of God [which man Those who recite the Book of God, observe ritual prayer, and spend out of should grasp firmly], His clear light [in which man should walk in that which We have provided for them, secretly and openly, are pursuing a life], the strongest and most dependable support [which man should commerce that suffers no loss, for God will give them their full rewards and will add to them out of His bounty. — Quran 34 29 - 30 : take hold of], » and the most perfect shelter [to which man should have recourse]. The best of you is one who has learnt the Quran and has taught H. — The Quran encompasses [the core principles of all matters — 10 tittle and much, small and great. Its wonders do not exhaust prophet Muhammad . [despite the passing of agesnor do its rare, strange features come to , [PREAMBLE] an end [even after deep and thorough researches]. No definition can encompass its benefits in the estimation of men of reflection, nor can In the name of God, Most Gracious, Ever Merciful much- repeated recitation make it old for those who recite it;Praise be to God Who has bestowed favour upon mankind by [rather, the more-repeated its recitation the newer is it felt by them]. 2sending His Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) and by 309-11. Some set formulae of invoking blessings upon the Prophet are long, while in Islamic contexts the Prophet or the Messenger means Muhammad, the others are short. A few of the latter are: may God bless and greet him!prophet of Islam- Even when these expressions are used in a general way, not in ( (JU, o^ Jul iJ l* ), may Gods blessing and peace be upon him! (*^ •1>L* &Islamic contexts, they can legitimately mean the prophet of Islam, because he is the o*-,) . may peace be upon him! (f^t «JW , and may blessing be upon himP prophecy—prophecy started with Adam, con- UtyuJl <J*> infra, nn. 14,51. prototype and perfect embodiment of Also seetinued through many other prophets, and reached its perfection in Muhammad. This means that the Quran protected from the approach of falsehood from any Cf. 3 isSeyyed Hossein Nasr, The Ideals and Realities of Islam, 2nd ed. London, 1971, pp. side. See az-Zabidi, op. ciL, IV, 461. 4 567-68 where the same view is expressed. Qur*an41:42. Cf. Quran 3:13, 12:111. 6 2 Islam teaches that the mention of the name of any true prophet should, as a The straight path means the path of the truth (fanq al-haqq), i.e. the religion ofcourtesy, be followed by the invoking of blessings, greetings or peace. This is Islam. See Abu 1-Qasim, Jar Allah az-Zamakhshari, al-Kashshdf an Haqaiqespecially recommended in the case of the prophet Muhammad. There is a Qur*anic atTanzU, Egypt, 1385/1966, 1, 68.verse (33:56): "Surety God and His angels send blessings upon the Prophet. you O 7^o>(ZE: 0* ^o>).who believe, invoke blessings on him and salute him with the salutation of peace." In 8 Cf. Quran 17:82 — "We progressively reveal of the Quran that which is amany Traditions a great reward is promised for invoking blessings, peace^ salutation, [spiritual] healing and a mercy for the believers. 10and so on upon the Prophet. These Traditions are cited in al-Ghazalls Ihya I, 9 a. Quran 2:256. Cf. Ouran 6:59. 18 19
  • 9. r THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN THE EXCELLENCE OF THE QURAN AND OF PEOPLE CONCERNED WITH IT It is the Quran which has guided the ancients and the moderns 11 continuance in and perseverance in its study, by its recitation[of Muslims] to the right path. [Even] the jinn, whenever they i7 following its and stipulations and by carefully rules {adab)heard its by the Prophet],12 returned to their community [recitation observing the mental tasks and the external rules which concernwith the warning, "Saying: We have certainly heard [the recitation lfl it. These matters need to be discussed and expounded, and whatof] a wonderful Our an which guides to the right path; so we have isintended to teach here can be made very clear in four chapters:believed in it and we shall never associate anyone with our Lord" The first chapter deals with the excellence of the Quran and of( LbJ Wy 4r^i JjJ **** *#* Wr* k—~ <*U*l» »^l IjJUi ). 13 111 people concerned with it (aklihi). The second chapter is on the rulesEveryone who has believed in it has indeed been favoured [by God]; of the Quran-recitation to be observed externally. The thirdone who has professed the doctrines of it has surely spoken the truth; chapter concerns the mental tasks (al-amdl al-bdtina) to be per-one who has held fast to it has really become rightly guided; and one formed when the Quran is recited. The fourth chapter discusses thewho has acted in accordance with it has certainly achieved success. understanding of the Quran, its exegesis by personal opinion (bi God (exalted is He!) said, "Surely We Ourselves have sent down 14 r-ray), 19 and so on.the Exhortation [i.e. the Quran] and We will most certainly 15safeguard it" (ojl»»W fj& Uj^ j*i lit).«Jty> Among the means of ,6 THE EXCELLENCE OF THE QURANpreservation of the Quran in mens minds and in mushafs are n Jinn constitute a class of intelligent beings created by God. They. are bodies [Prophetic Traditions on the Excellence of the Quran]{ajsam) composed of vapour or flames, intelligent, imperceptible to our senses, capableof appearing in different forms and of carrying out heavy labours. They are created of The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "A man whosmokeless flame (Quran 55: 1 5) They are capable of salvation they fall under religious . ; reads the Quran and who then feels that another man has beenobligation (Quran 51:56, 55:39, 60:128, 6:130); some jinn will enter Paradise while bestowed [by God] more than what he himself has been bestowed,others wilt be cast intd Hell (Quran 7:38, 179). They can mix with men. There are has indeed considered small that which God (exalted is He!) hasstories of love between jinn and human beings. There are many stories too of relations considered great." [272]between saints and jinn; see Ibn an-Nadun, Kitab al-Fihrist, trans, by Bayard Dodge,New York, 1970, pp. 209, 291, 539, 728-29, 756-57, 760 823; D.B. Macdonald, H. The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "In theMasse eta/ "Djinn", EI , 2 , II, 546-50. Hereafter no intercessor will be superior in rank in the estimation of 12 Two years before his migration (hijra) to Medina the Prophet went to Taif to God (exalted is He!) to the Quran — not [even] a prophet, nor anpreach Islam and to seek a protector in view of the increasingly humiliating treatment angel, nor anyone else." *to which he was subjected after the death of his uncle, Abu Talib. On his way back toMecca when he was engaged in supererogatory ritual prayer at midnight at Nakhla a Adab (plural: adab) in this context means a rule to be followed. In this sense itcompany of jinn came, listened and went off believing him and the Quran. See Ibn occurs many times in the first part of al-GhazalTs Ihya". For its meanings in variousHisham, as-Sira an-Nabawiyya, ed. by Mustafa as-Saqa et al, 2nd ed., Egypt, other contexts see Lane, Lexicon, Bk. I, Pt. I, 34-35; F. Gabrieli, "Adab", EI2 , I1955/1375, 1, 421f.; Quran 72:1, 46:29. 175-176. 18 "Quran 72:1. Observance of both the external rules and mental tasks of Quran-reading is 14 name should be followed by such necessary because without Islam teaches that the mention of the divine it the purpose of Quran-reading cannot be achieved fully. ,formulae ofpraise as: exalted is Hefjl-i) great and mighty is Hel(>j/ ) » glorified Al-GhazalTs consideration of the internal aspect of Quran-recitation as important,(or holy) is HeP (^^-) , great Het(Jk, >>, and blessed and exalted is and exalted is in addition to its external aspect, is mystical in nature. Not only in Quran-readingHe!< J^i JjU. This is the requirement of courtesy (adab) in respect of the divine but in other forms of Islamic devotional acts, he lays importance upon both allname. aspects. For a brief account of this see Muhar.imad Abul Quasem, The Ethics of »5 Quran 15:9. alGhazall 2nd ed., New York, 1978, pp. 194-207. 19 16 A mushafa a book or volume consisting of a collection of leaves written upon This refers to a Tradition (at-Tirmidhi, Sunan, TafsTr al-Quran, 1) which runsand put between two covers. It is generally applied in the present day to a copy of the thus: "The man who explains the Quran according to his personal opinion shall takeQuran. For more information on it see A.J. Wensinck, "Mushaf", EI, HI, 747; his place in Hell."Edward William Lane, An Arabic-English Lexicon, ed. by Stanley Lane-Poole, » In the Hereafter angels, prophets, saints, martyrs, pious religious scholars, andLondon. Bk. I, Pt. 4, p. 1655. the Quran will intercede to God on behalf of believers. They, however, will be able to 20 21
  • 10. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN THE EXCELLENCE OF THE QURAN AND OF PEOPLE CONCERNED WITH FT The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "If theQuran were inside a hide, fire could not touch the hide because of The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "God 21the blessings of its contact with the Quran. (blessed and exalted is He!) says, The man whom Quran-reading The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "[One of] has prevented from supplicating to Me and making petition to Me,the best devotional acts (ibdddt) of my community is the recitation is given by Me the best of the reward of those who are grateful [to 25of the Quran." Me]." The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) also said, "God The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "On the(great and mighty is He!) had read the Sura of Ta Ha u and the Sura Day of Resurrection three men will be on the heap of black [i.e. theof Ya Sin 23 a thousand years before He created the creation. When best quality] musk. No dread will overtake them, and no reckoningangels heard the Quran they said, Blessed is the community to find them until that with which the people will be occupied is over.which it will be sent down, blessed are the minds which will bear it, One of these three men is he who reads the Quran seeking the faceand blessed are the tongues which will utter it." of God (great and mightly is He!). Another is he who leads a group The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "The best of people in ritual prayer in a way that pleases them." * 24of you is one who has learnt the Quran and has taught it," The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "Those who are concerned with the Quran (ahl al-QIkY&n) are friends ofintercede only with God *S permission (Quran 2:255, 21:28, 10:3, 19:87, 20:109, 34:23, God and are special to Him." v53:26). This intercession will be in some cases for elevation of rank in Paradise, in some The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "Humanfor admission into Paradise without suffering in Hell, and in most cases to rescue the souls become rusty just as iron becomes rusty." dh being asked, sometime. The prophet Muhammadsinful believers from Hell after suffering there forwill be granted permission to intercede for Muslims (al-Bukhari, Sakth, Dawat, 1, "Messenger of God, how can they be polished?", he replied,Itm, 33, Riqaq, 51, Anbiya, 9; Muslim, Sahih, Iman, 302, 318, 326, 334-45, Zuhd, "Through recitation of the Quran and remembrance of death."38; Abu Dawud, Sunan, 21; Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, IV, 434; Ibn Maja, Sunan, Zuhd, The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "God37). Every Muslim should pray to God that He may grant the Prophet permission to certainly listens to a Quran-reader much more than does the ownerintercede for him. Concerning the intercession of the Quran, there is a sound 28Tradition in Muslims Sahlh, Musjfirin, 252: The Prophet said, of a songstress to her." "Read the Quran, forit will come, on the Day of Resurrection, as an intercessor for its reader." 21 The meaning is that the untanned, dry hide is destroyed and burnt by fire much Saying* of the Prophets Companions and Other Pious MnsUmsmore quickly and easily than the tanned hide. A negligible thing, it is not taken much in Early Islam [on the Excellence of the Quran]care of and is sometimes thrown into fire. The Quran is so great that even if it is keptinside this negligible and easily destroyable thing it will not burn because of the Abu Umama al-Bahih"said, "Read the Quran and let not theseblessings of its contact with the Quran. How, then, is it possible that the fire of Hellshould burn a believer who memorizes the glorious Quran and perseveres in itsmemorization, and keeps all his duties towards it? Hell-fire cannot burn him. ad-Dirimi, Sunan, Fadal al-Quran, 2. 22 This is the twentieth sura of the Quran consisting of one hundred and thirty-five ^At-Tirmidhl, Sunan. Thawib al-Quran, 25; ad-Dariml, Sunan, Fadail al-verses. It was revealed before the hfjra, the Prophets migration to Medina. Quran, 6. 23 This is the thirty-sixth Qurank sura consisting of eighty-three verses. 26 The third man not mentioned here is one who summons people to ritual prayer five TheProphet called it "the heart of the. Quran"U>N ^xi). See Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, times every day and night. See at-Tirmidhl, Sunan, birr, 54, Janna, 25 (in an abridgedMusnad, V, 26. It is greatly admired by Muslims and is frequently recited: Pious form) ; Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, II, 26.)Muslims recite it after every ritual prayer (sola), at keeping vigil at night (qfyam 27 Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, III, 128, 242. Those who aze concerned with the Quranal-layl), and when visiting the grave of a Muslim. There is a Tradition to the effect means those believers who safeguard it and cleave to H by reciting and memorizing itthat if a person, on entering into the graveyard, recites this sura and offers its reward and by acting in accordance with its teachings. See az-Zabldi, op.cit. IV, 465. ,to the dead, God punishment of those buried in it for that day, and he lightens the 28 Ibn Maja, Sunan, Iqama, 176; Ibn Hanbhal, Afitfmwf. VI, 19, 20.obtains the reward of acts equal to the number of them. 29 Abu 24 Umama al-BahuT (d. 81 or 86 A.H.) was a companion of the Prophet and a Al-Bukhari, Sahib, Fadail al-Qur*an, 21; Ibn Maja, Sunan, Muqaddama, 16; prolific narrator of Tradition. According to some authorities, he was the last of those 22 23
  • 11. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN THE EXCELLENCE OF THE QURAN AND OF PEOPLE CONCERNED WITH IT suspended musfyafs deceive you at all, for God will not punish a soul Amr Ibn al-As M said, "Every verse of the Quran is [like] a stair which has contained the Quran [by memorizing it, pondering over it of Paradise and a lamp in your houses."and acting in accordance with it ]." He also said, "A man who reads the Quran, thereby includes Ibn Masud 30 said, "When you intend to acquire knowledge, prophethood between the two sides of his body. However, nodeeply study the Quran for in it lies the [principles of] knowledge of revelation will be revealed to him."the ancients and the moderns (Urn al-awwalfn wa l-akhann)." 31 Abu Hurayra 35 said [273], "Surely the house in which the Quran He "Read the Quran, for you will be rewarded at the also said, is recited provides easy circumstances for its people, its goodrate of [the recompense of] ten good deeds for reading every letter of increases, angels come to it [in order to listen to the Quran] andthe Quran. Take notice, I do not say that alif (dm mim (r ) 32 11 Satans leave it. The house in which the Book of God (great andconstitute one letter. Rather [I should say that] alif{ ) is one letter, mighty is He!) is not recited provides difficult circumstances for itstarn (J) is another, and mint ( r) is [still] another." people, good decreases, angels leave it and Satans come to it." its He further said, "None of you will ask about himself to anyone Ahmad Ibn rianbal % said, "I saw God (great and mighty is He!)except the Quran: If he loves it and admires it [this is a sign that] he in my dream and asked Him, Lord how have those who have drawnloves God (glorified is He!) and His Messenger (may God bless himand greet him!). ideal of man (Quran 9:24). The stronger is this love the happier will he be in the however, he hates the Quran [this is a proof If,that] he hates God (glorified is He!) and His Messenger (may God Hereafter. One who loves God and the Prophet will love the Quran necessarily, since is Gods words transmitted to mankind by the Prophet. Islamic religious teachingsbless him and greet him!)." 33 ^ it on love of God, the Prophet and the Quran are strongly emphasized by such greatcompanions of the Prophet who died in Syria. For his biography see Ibn Hajar sufis as al-Ghazall, al-Makkf and al-Hasan al-Basri. See al-GhazalT, Ihya, IV,al-AsqallnT, aHsaba, Egypt, 1358/1939, IV, 10; Ibn Abd al-Barr, al-Isttab, in Ibn 294-337; Quasem, Ethics, pp. 64-78, 181-93.Hajar, op. cit., IV, 4f. 34 Amr Ibn al-As (d. 51 or 42 A.H.) was a companion of the Prophet and a very 30 Abd Allah Ibn Masud (d. 32 A.H./652-53 A.D.), a famous companion of the The Prophet made use of his assistance in military expeditions and witty politician.Prophet, was a very early convert to Islam — either the third or the sixth in order. He He made a great contribution to the expansion of Islam outside political affairs.embraced Islam immediately after seeing a miracle of the Prophet: The Prophet Arabia during the caliphates of Abu Bakr and Umar. The conquest of Egypt and oftouched the udders of a barren ewe which gave no milk,, and she then gave milk. He the country west of the Jordan is his special achievement. He remained the governorused to carry the Prophets sandals and to gather the wood from which the Prophets of Egypt until his death. See Ibn Qutayba, op. cit. , pp. 285f.tooth-stick were made. Thus he was daily in close contact with the Prophet. He took 35 Abu Hurayra58 or 59 A.H.) was a companion of the Prophet and a prolific (d.part in many battles including those of Badr (2 A.H.), Uhud and the (3 A.H.), narrator of Traditions — prolific because he stayed with the Prophet most of the timeYarmuk (13 A.H.). After the Prophets death he also acted as an administrator, an and because the Prophet prayed to God for an increase in his memory. He was one ofambassador, and a missionary. A great narrator of Traditions, an authority on the poor men called the People of Veranda (aht as-sufra) and is particularlyQuran-reading, Quranic exegesis, and legal matters, he was one of those Com- respected by the sufis, including al-Ghazil!. Among those Companions who emi-panions who were held in high esteem for their shrewdness, learning and integrity. Medina leaving their houses and belongings, there were some who were very grated toSee Ibn Abd al-Barr, op. cit., II, 308-16; Ibn Hajar, op. cit., II, 360ff.; Ibn Qutayba, poor (Quran 59:8, 2:273) and who used to lodge at the veranda of the Prophetsal-Maarif, ed. by Tharwat Ukasha, Cairo, 1969, pp. 249-51. Mosque, devoting their entire time to religious practices. They are the embodiment of 31 Al-GhazalT attributes much value to this saying of Ibn Masud; he repeatedly poverty ijaqr),a sufistic virtue, and are therefore highly respected by the sufis. Afterquotes it in his books. See infra, p. 88 ; fl/-Ghazali, Jawahir al-Quran, 2nd ed. , Cairo, the Prophets death Abu Hurayra continued to practise poverty but at the same time1933, p. 8. Other sufis, especially al-Makkl (Qut, I, 103), have also quoted this took part in the administration. He had great reputation for piety. See Ibn Hajar, op.saying. cit., IV, 200-208; Ibn Abd al-Barr, op. cit., IV, 200-207; W. Montgomery Watt, 2 32 These are names of three Arabic letters. They occur at the start of several other "Aht al-Suffa," EI , 1, 266-67; al-HujwuT, Kashf al-Makjub. trans, by R.A.suras as well. Other Arabic letters occur in the beginning of several other suras. These Nicholson, Leyden, 1911, p. 19.letters are called the burufmuqattaat of the Quran. Various explanations have been 36 Ahmad (d. 241 A.H./855 A.D.) was a celebrated jurist and Ibn Hanbalgiven of their occurrence and significance: al-GhazalT (infra p. 91) speaks of seven; Traditionist, and the founder of the HanbalT school (madhhab) of Islamic jurispru-since his time a few more explanations have been put forward. dence. He was one of the most vigorous personalities who profoundly influenced the 33 Islam teaches that love of God and of His prophet Muhammad is the highest historical development of Islam and its modern revival. He was a devotee, an ascetic, 24 25
  • 12. WITH IT THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN THE EXCELLENCE OF THE QURAN AND OF PEOPLE CONCERNED amusement, should not be unmindful of his duties with one who isnear to You 37 achieved this nearness? God replied, By My speech O unmindful, and should not utter nonsense to one who utters[i.e. the Quran], Ahmad. "Ahmad said, "I enquired, Lord, by nonsense. [Rather he should pardon them and forgive them]."understanding [the meaning of] Your speech [in which they have Quranbelief] or without understanding it? God replied, By understanding Sufyiin ath-Thawrl* said, "When a man reads the listen to it] " [seeking the pleasure of God], the angel [who arrives toas well as without understanding. to him and to the Muhammad Ibn Kab al-Qurzi 38 said, "When the people hear kisses him between his two eyes [paying respectthe Quran from God (great and mighty is He I) on the Day of Resur- Quran he has read]." . •Amr Ibn Maymun 41 said, "If a man, on performing the Dawnrection, they will feel [as if] they have never heard it before verses, God 39 "A man holding the Quran [by Prayer, opens the musttaf and reads from it a hundred Al-Futfayl Ibn Iyad said, (great and mighty is He!) raises this good deed like the good deeds ofcommitting it to memory and by acting in accordance with it], 42should have no need of anyone [i.e. need not debase himself before all people of the world." 43 came to the — It is related that Khalid Ibn Uqba [once]anyone in having any of his needs fulfilled] not even of the Messenger of God (may God bless him and greet him!) andcaliphs and their political subordinates [who mostly belong to Quran." The Prophetthe worldings]. Rather the needs of people should be directed entreated, "Read to me [some verses of] the "Surely God enjoins justice, beneficence and giving totowards him [in reverence of the Quran he is holding]." read, kinsmen, and forbids indecency, wrong conduct and transgression; He also said, "A man bearing the Quran is [in effect] bearing the He admonishes you that you may take heed" ( uU»Vij J-xJV $ A™standard of Islam. So magnifying his duty towards the Quran heshould not make unlawful amusement with one who makes unlawful jjjx ^^ (a M, J^Jj ^^ «o Sufyan ath-Thawrl (d. 161 A.H./778 A.D.) was a celebrated ^ »^ ^±^1 jurist and Khahd spread ona learned man versed in the knowledge of the Hereafter, a jurist with complete Traditionist, and an ascetic of the highest order. His fame as a Traditionistunderstanding of mans well being in this life, and one who, in all his pursuits, sought account of the extraordinary breadth of his knowledge and his reliabUity. He founded however.did not last long.only the pleasure of God. See al-Ghazall, Ihya , 1, 24. an independent school (madhhab) of jurisprudence which, 37 In the Quran human beings are classified into three broad categories, namely, His deep piety was well known. Sufis such as al-Ghazall and al-Makki frequently quotethe people on the left (af$ab ash-shimaT), the people on the right (afhab al-yamtn), his sayings. See al-GhazalT, Ihya, 1, 24, 28; Ibn Qutayba, op. cit., pp. 497f.and those drawn near to God (al-muqarrabun). The first consists of those who deny « *Amr Ibn al-Maymun, also called Ibn ar-Ramah (d. 171 A.H.), was a reliable and a devoted Quran-reciter. He memorized the Quran in its entiretyGod and His messengers (al-mukadhdkibun). They are also called those who have Traditionist towards See az-Zabidi, op. cit., IV,gone astray (af-dottim). The second category is made up of believers. In the last and was very conscious of his responsibilities it.category ate placed those who are most pious believers. They are also called those who 467. 42 On the excellence of especially reciting a hundred verses of the Quran also spokeare foremost (as-sabiqun). See Quran 56:7-94, 7:36-53. Corresponding to these twocategories of believers two grades of virtuous acts are prescribed in the Quran and such great companions of the Prophet as Anas, Hudhayfa, Abu d-Darda, andTradition — the higher grade is for the most pious believers and the lower for those Tamun ad-Darl. «3 See ibid. Ibn Hajar op.who are only ordinarily pious. Recitation of the Quran belongs to the higher grade of See Ibn al-Athlr, Usd al-Ghaba, Egypt, 1280 A.H., II, 97f.; cit. , I, 410; Ibn Abd al-Barr, op. cit. , 1, 411.virtuous acts. is a very important verse of the Quran, and it is with this * Muhammad Ibn Kab al-QurzT(d. 108 or 117 or 118 A.H.) was a great Follower 44 Quran 16:90. This(tabiH, i.e. a Muslim who did not see the Prophet but saw his companions. He was a verse that the of the Friday Assembly Prayer concludes his sermon, because a imam perfect gradation of moral values has been prescribed in this verse. On the negativereliable (tkiqa) narrator of Tradition and a famous teacher of the Quran. See side, not only must every kind of trespass against person, property and honour beaz-ZabloT, op. cat., IV, 466; Ibn Qutayba, op. cit., pp. 458f. 39 Fudayl Ibn Iyid (d. 187 A.H./803 A.D.) was an ascetic and an early surf. He eschewed; but unmannerly behaviour and evil thoughts and desires must also bedeeply studied Tradition and became a famous transmitter of h. Following the guarded against. On the positive side, there are two grades: Lower and higher. At the lower grade of value one must do justice, i.e. must return good for good and exactQuran (35:28) he taught that fear of Godis caused by knowledge of Him. He stressed only proportionate retribution for a wrong suffered. But the man who is at the higher and satisfaction {rida") with the decree of God See as-Sulami,asceticism of the world . grade and who seeks the pleasure of God must be benevolent; that is, he must renderJabaqat offuftyya, ed. by Nur ad-Din, Egypt, 1953/1372, pp. 6-14; al-HujwuT,Kathf, pp. 97f.; Ibn Qutayba, op. cit., p. 511. good without any thought of return, and forgive wrongs and injuries till beneficence 27 26
  • 13. PEOPLE CONCERNED WITH IT THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN THE EXCELLENCE OF THE QURAN AND OF entreated, "Repeat [the recitation of the Quran]." The Prophet re- "There are three things which increase memory and remove peated. Then Khalid said, "I swear, it is sweet and elegant, its lower phlegm. * They are: Cleaning the teeth with a tooth-stick, fasting, part is putting forth leaves and its upper part is bearing fruits, it is and reading the Quran." not the speech of any human being." 45 Al-Iiasan 46 said, "I swear by God, besides the Quran there is no THE REPROACH OF QUR AN-RECITATION sufficiency [i.e. one who believes in the Quran has sufficiency the BY UNMINDFUL PEOPLE like of which is and after [the deprivation of belief in] non-existent], a man recites the said, "It often happens that 53the Quran there no poverty [more severe]." is Anas Ibn Malik 54 Al-Fudayl 47 said, "A man who reads the end of the Sura of Quran, and the Quran curses him." 55 "The Quran is a strange r in the mind ot aGathering 48 [at night] until the morning and then dies on that very Maysara said,day, is stamped with the stamp of martyrs. A man who reads it in He was one of the first to beheve Islam m either - the fourth rightly-guided caliph. tenorthe evening and then dies in that very night, is stamped with the Ltd in order. He embraced Islam when he was a boy of he second or the a and mentally, he always displayedstamp of martyrs." etent most. Very strong both physically and after the service to the cause of Islam both during ni 8 h degree of courage. His Al-Qasim Ibn Abd ar- Rahman said, "I said to a certain He had profound knowledge of the Qur an and Prophet Wetime was tremendous. SnnaSother three caliphs who preceded him exegetes- kthe Qur andevotee, There is no one here with whom we may establish friendly used to ad-ce espec-aHy of f readers and His giftsrelations." [Having heard this] the devotee extended his hand to the on leeal matters He was one of the best . His austenty h,s He was also endowed with poetic art.tnuffyaf [that was by his side] and, putting it on his chest, said, as n o aToTwere remarkable. ^ ^goods are " a„d_ his detachment from world,[With] this [you should establish friendly relations]. "gorou;"observance of religious rites, sayings. See Ibn especially admired by the ascetics and sufis who often quo* h,s 50 All Ibn Abl Talib (may God be pleased with him!) said, Outavba op cit., pp. 203-18; Ibn Abd al-Barr, op. cit., HI, 26-67. requires that the mention of a name o a companytowards fellow-men becomes part of his nature and flows out of him as naturally as ^stunic cour^y iadat) by the supplication, may God be pleased wtth h m!affection for close kindred. These two grades of values are in accordance with the two the Proohet should be followed by another especially, one may supplicatecategories of the virtuous taught in the Quran, namely, the righteous and those r^,). In thecaseof All Ibn AbiTaHbdrawn near to God. Also see supra, n. 37. 45 Ibn Abd al-Barr, op. cit.. I, 411; Ibn Hajar.op. cit., I, 410; Ibnal-Athir, opcit., II, 97f. (with slight variation). 46 Al-Hasan al-Basn(d. 110 A.H./728 A.D.), a Follower, was a great sufi, a realascetic,a sincere preacher, a famous theologian, and a learned Traditionist. Hissayings are often quoted in literatures on different Islamic subjects. His Risaia the Tahara, 169). Concerning fasttngcontains valuable knowledge. See Ibn Qutayba, op. cit, pp. 440f. wSufthe use of it" (Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, reward of an rf 47 pTphet said, "God says, Every good act is recompensed by the 48 See supra, n. 39. The end of the Sura of Gathering (akhir al-Hashr) is the last three verses of the gjter than itfrom ten to sevenhundred times; fasting* ar .* » "-W^J^J W ^han.W, §awm 2. Quran (59:22-24). Pious Muslims recite them on completion offifty-ninth sura of the Served for Me and it is I Who shall recompense Siyam, 1). The Prophet also said, Muslim Sahlh, Siyam, 164, 165; Ibn Ma a. Sunan,every ritual prayer and when keeping vigil at night. The importance of these verses those who fast will enter mto P.rad.selies in their reference to the unity of God, His beautiful names denoting His "atle has a gate called the Rayyan. Only Sahik, Siyam, 162, 164, 165attributes, and His works — things which constitute the aims of the Quran. These through it .." <al Bukhari. Sahlh, Sawm, 9; Muslim, « Anas Ibn Malik (d. 91 or 93 A.H.) was a companion of the Prophet and he agC a prolificverses, in al-Ghazalis opinion, are only comparable to the Verse of the Throne (Syat transmitter of Tradition. His mother gave him to the Prophet as a servant *al-kursTi (2:255), and to the beginning of the Sura of Iron (awwal al-Hadid) (57:1-6). Later on he service until the latter s death.See Muhammad Abul Quasem, The Jewels of the Quran: al-GhazalTs Theory, 1977, of eight. He remained in the Prophets Ibn Hajar, op. at. I, 84t.pp. 75-78. took oart in the wars of conquest. See , m 49 Al-Qasim Ibn Abd ar-Rahman (d. 113 A.H.), a Follower, was a Traditionist t How rQ uran-reciter is often cursed by the Quran itself is explamed the 31- ..-„,:_who transmitted Traditions from several companions of the Prophet. See az-Zabidi, saying of a religious scholar in in/ro, p. Traditionist. He narrated Traditions from Abu Ha*mop. cit., IV, 468. 55 Maysara al-AshjaI was a IV, 468. and SaId Ibn al-Musayyib. See az-Zabldl, op. ctt. 50 AlTlbn Ab7 Talib (d. 42 A.H.) was a cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet and , 28 29
  • 14. THE EXCELLENCE OF THE QURAN AND OF PEOPLE CONCERNED WITH IT THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "Most of profligate tfajir)* [— stranger because he bears it only for ostenta- the ostentatious people of this community [i.e. the community of tion (riya *), and does not act in accordance with its teachings].* Muslims] will be its Quran-readers, [since they will pretend that Abu Sulayman ad-Daranl 57 said, "Guards of Hell (az- they read the Quran only for pleasing God, whereas what will in fact zabaniyya)* hasten to those holders of the Quran who disobey will be present in their minds is the desire for pleasing people for worldly God (great and mightly is He!) more than to the worshippers of 59 advantages]." idols, since they disobey God (glorified is He!) after [holding] the The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "Read the Quran." Quran so long as it enables you to desist [from what is prohibited by A certain religious scholar said, "When a son of Adam [i.e. man] it and to follow what is commanded by it]. If it has not enabled you reads the Quran, then mingles [good with evil], and then turns [to to desist [from the things prohibited by it] you have not read it [i.e. God] and reads it again, he is asked [by God], What is ^our not been benefited by it]." relationship with My speech? * The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "One who Ibn ar-Ramah said, "I am ashamed of knowing the Quran by considers lawful the things declared unlawful in the Quran does not heart, for I am told that people concerned with the Quran will be believe in it." 60 asked [by God] concerning that of which prophets will be asked on A certain righteous father (bad as-salaf) said [274], "There is a the Day of Resurrection. man who starts the reading of a Quranic sura, and angels bless him Ibn Masud "The holder of the Quran should realize [the said, untilhe completes it. There is another man who starts the reading of value of] his nightime when people are asleep, of his daytime when a Quranic sura, and angels curse him until he completes it." Onpeople commit excesses, of his grief when people are joyful, of his being asked, "How is this possible?", he replied, "If the reader ofweeping when people laugh, of his silence when people are engaged the sura [practically] considers lawful the things declared lawfulin vain talk, and of his humility when people have a haughty therein, and if he [practically] considers unlawful the things de-deportment. The holder of the Quran should be gentle and soft clared unlawful therein, then angels bless him. But if he does not dominded; he should not be harsh, nor quarrelsome, nor one who so, angels curse him."shouts much, nor one who makes strong noises in man recites the Quran, markets, nor a A certain religious scholar said, "Surely aman of hasty temper who gets angry quickly." and thereby curses himself without being aware of it: He recites [the verse], Take notice, Gods curse is on wrongdoing people! » A Muslim is considered profligate {ffiir) if he adheres to the faith in his mind,professes o~JUiJl i^Jwhereas he is a wrongdoer himself; he re- 61 it in his words, performs certain acts prescribed by the Sharla, but has ( J* Jul VI ),committed many great sins (kabair). He is identical mthJSsig. In the cites [the verse], Take notice, Gods curse is on the liars! Hereafter hecan be punished in Hell in proportion to his sins, but mustParadise. The Prophet said, "Those whose minds contain ultimately be sent to ( j-olfll j* M -LJ VI ), 62 whereas he is one of them." only a particle of faith willleave Hell" (al-Bukhan, fahth. Imam, 33), and the profligate Al-Hasan said [to Quran-readers], "You have adopted the has faith, though it isvery weak. See al-Ghazill, /Aya 1, 117, 119f. , recitation of the Quran in stages (marahil) and have made the night 57 Abu Sulayman ad-Darahi (d. 205 or 215 A.H.) was a noted ascetic and a sufi [as if] a camel; by riding on it you pass the stages of the Quran. Butwho defined asceticism as the abandonment of everything which stands in the way those before you regarded it [as consisting of] messages which camebetween man and God. This definition is accepted by later sufis especially and execute al-GhazalT from their Lord; they used to ponder over them at night(Quasem, Ethics, p. 169). His sayings on other spiritual themes are often quoted bythe suns who came after him. See al-HujwirTj&wA/; 112f.; as-SulamT, op. them by day." 63 eft., pp FF75-82. 59 Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, II, 175, 4, 101. » AzZabahiyya means those angels who guard Hell (Quran 96:18); they are 60 Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, Thawab al-Quran, 20.extremely rough and violent (Quran 66:6). They are nineteen in number (Quran "Quran 11:18. « Quran 3:61.74:30). The keeper of Hell is a different angel whose name is Malik. See Quran •a From this saying of al-Hasan it is clear how great an emphasis the sufis lay first43:77. 31 30
  • 15. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN THE EXCELLENCE OF THE QURAN AND OF PEOPLE CONCERNED WITH IT Idn Masud said, "The Quran is sent down to This Book of Mine people in order [i.e. the Torah] I have sent down to you; look and that theymay act in accordance with its teachings; but they have see how detailed I have made My speech in it for the explanation of taken up mere study of it as a duty. Certainly one of you reads the your sake and how repeatedly have I explained things in it in order Quran from its beginning to its end [so thoroughly that] not a single that you may reflect on its length and breadth [i.e. everything that is letter of it is dropped out of his reading, whereas to act in mentioned in it]. Despite all this you have turned away from it. Am I accordance with dropped out." lighter to you than your friend? O Man, [sometimes] a certain friend it is In the Tradition of Ibn Umar 64 and the Tradition of Jundab 65 of yours sits beside you; you come forth to him with your entire being (may God be pleased with them both!) [it is mentioned that they and are attentive to his words wholeheartedly; if anyone talks to you said]: "We have lived for a long time and [have seen that] one of us or keeps you from listening to his words, you ask [that he] desists. was granted the faith (iman) [by God] prior to [the revelation of Here I am! I have come forth to you and have talked to you, but you certain suras of] the Quran; then he, when a sura was revealed to have kept away from Me with your mind! Have you made Me lighter Muhammad (may God bless him and greet him!), learned than your friend?" 66 about lawful and unlawful, commandments and threats set forth in 66 This passage of the Torah al-GhazalT has quoted from al-Makkfs Qut. 123 that sura, and [also] those places of it where I, he should pause (waqf). Then, a time came when I saw a man who was where it occurs in its entirety. Al-MakkT states (ibid.) that he read this passage in the given the Quran Torah. prior to his acceptance of the faith; he read all the pages between the Opening Sura of the Book and its end, without realizing what are its commandments, what are its threats, and which are those places of where he should pause it — he scattered it like the scattering of one away." flying It has occurred in the Torah: "Man, are you not ashamed of Me? [Sometimes] a letter comes to you from a certain friend while you are walking along the road; turning aside from the road you sit, read the letter and ponder over each word of it so that no part of it is missed.on understanding the meanings of the Quran and then on acting in accordance withwhat they understand of these meanings. The sufis are men of action, not of meretheories. M Abd Allah Ibn Umar <d. 73 A.H./693 A.D.) was one of the most prominentcompanions of the Prophet who are most frequently quoted for Traditions. He wasgreatly admired by his contemporaries for his high moral qualities and deep piety. Intransmitting Traditions he was most scrupulous in neither adding to nor omittinganything from the Traditions narrated by him. He took part in many expeditionsduring and after the Prophets lifetime, but, keeping himself mostly away fromadministration, he devoted his time to religious practices. See Ibn Hajar, all op . „LjII, 338-41. «Abfi Dharr Jundab al-GhifirI(d. 32 A.H./652-53 A.D.) was a companion of theProphet and an early Muslim — he is claimed to have been the fifth (even the fourth)believer. He was noted for humility and asceticism. He was very religious and eagerfor knowledge, and is said to havematched Ibn Masud in religious learning. He wasa prolific transmitter of Tradition. See Ibn Hajar, op. cit.. IV, 63ftV Ibn Abdal-Barr, op. cit., IV, 62-65. 32 33
  • 16. EXTERNAL RULES OF QURAN-RECITATION reclining on his however, he reads it without ritual ablution while has also excellence, but this excellence is of a lower CHAPTER TWO side on a bed, he grade. God (exalted is Hel) EXTERNAL RULES OF QURAN- [The proofs for these views are as follows:] those who remember God said, "[People of understanding are] RECITATION and lying on their sides, and ponder over the crea- standing, sitting tion of the heavens and the earth" (r«<r* J*j ^j OjuSfao )•" Th™ God has P™*** ^ A» ojj* jt& 1 all three con- j,jij cV-Ji JJ^ J Only those who are clean can touch the Quran. — Quran 56 : 79 ditions; however, mentioned first the condition of standing He has, in remembrance of God, then the condition of sitting and then the remembrance of God lying on ones side. All (may God be pleased Recite the Quran in a slow and distinct manner. — Quran 93 : with him!) said, "One who reads the Quran standing in ritual prayer will obtain [from God the reward of] one hundred good deeds One who does not chant with the Quran is not one of us. — prophet for reading each letter of it. One who reads the Quran sitting in Muhammad prayer will obtain [the reward of] fifty good deeds for reading ritual each letter. One who reads the Quran outside ritual prayer but Read the Quran and weep. If you do not weep naturally, force yourselves ritual ablution will obtain [the reward of] to weep. — prophet Muhammad being in a state of without twenty-five good deeds. One who reads the Quran beingThe external rules of Quran-recitation are ten in number. [These ritual ablution will obtain [the reward of] ten goods deeds.rules together with a full illustration of them are as follows]: That reading of the Quran which constitutes part of keeping vigil [I] at night (qiyam bi l-layl) is more excellent [than reading it during other matters]. The first rule concerns the condition of the Quran-reciter. daytime] for at night the mind is most free [from Abu Dharr al-Ghifan (may God by pleased with him!) said, "In 67 It consists in the Quran-readers being in a state of ritual r for a long daytime many prostrations, and at night keeping vigil tA and quietness, either standing orablution (wadu ), politeness 69sitting, facing the qiblathe direction of the Kaba (i.e. in Mecca), while are the most excellent."with the head cast down, neither sitting cross-legged nor leaningagainst anything nor sitting in a haughty manner. He should sit as [2]he would when sitting in front of his teacher. The second rule concerns the amount of Quran-reading. Of the conditions [of the Quran-reader] the best is that he all how Quran-readers have formed different habits of consideringreads the Quran during ritual prayer standing and inside a much they read. Some of them read the entire Quran right throughmosque. 70 This is one of the most excellent acts of man. If, some even go so far as to in a day and night, some do this twice, and 67 Mj(ZE:UjI,). and do this thrice. Some Quran-readers read the Quran in its entirety ** For details of ablution see Muhammad AbulQuasem, Salvation of the SoulIslamic Devotions, chap. I, sec. t(forthcoraing). once in a month. The best thing in determining how much of the Quran to read is *» The Holy Kaba is the house ascribed to God (bayt Allah) standing, under thesky, in theopen courtyard of the Sacred Mosque (al-Masjid al-Hardm) in Mecca. In to rely upon the words of Gods Messenger (may God bless him andIslam the direction of the Kaba is the best of all directions. In some devotional acts "One who has read the [entire] Qurran in less than greet him!),facing the Kaba is a stipulation for their validity, while in others this is only God are its mosques, and the parts most hateful to God are its the land dearest topraiseworthy. ™ The mosque is the best of all places on the earth. The Prophet said, "The parts of markets." See Muslim, Sahib, Masajid, 288. "Quran 3: 191. 34 35
  • 17. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN EXTERNAL RULES OF QURAN-REOTATION 72three days has not understood it." This is because swift reading group [of religious scholars] has disliked this, [b] Reading the entireprevents the reader from reading in a slow and distinct manner Quran [once] in every month — by reading every day one of its(tarfil)™ When Aisha 74 [275] (may God be pleased with her!) thirty parts. This seems to be an excessive reduction in the amountheard a man simply babbling over theQuran she remarked, "This of reading, just as the first grade is an excess in over-reading, [c —man has neither read the Quran nor kept silent." d] Between these two grades are two moderate grades one of which The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) ordered Abd consists in reading the entire Quran once in a week, and the other inAllah Ibn Umar (may God be pleased with them both!) to read the reading it twice [or] nearly thrice in a week. [If twice a week] it isentire Quran once in every seven days. Likewise, a group of the preferable to complete one reading of the entire Quran at night andProphets companions (may God be pleased with them!) used to the other at daytime. One should complete the reading at daytimecomplete the reading of the entire Quran on every Friday.75 This on Monday in the two [obligatory] rakas of the Dawn Prayer 79 orgroup consisted of such Companions as Uthman, 76 Zayd Ibn after them, and the reading at night on Friday night in the first two 77Thabit, Ibn Masud, and Ubayy Ibn Kab 78 (may God be pleased [obligatory] rakas of the Sunset Prayer 80 or after them. [This is thewith them!). most preferable] because it welcomes the first part of the day and of There are, then, four grades of the reading of the Quran in its the night with the completion of Quran-reading. The angels (mayentirety: [a] To read the entire Quran once in a day and a night. A peace be upon them!) bless the Quran-reader until dawn, if his Abu Dawud, Sunan, Ramadan, Ibn completion of Quran-reading occurs at night, and until evening, if 72 At-Tirmidhi, Sunan, Quran, 11; 8, 9;Maja, Sunan, Iqama, 178. For the concept of Quran-reading in order to understand it 81 occurs during the daytime; thus the blessings of the twoits meaning see infra, pp. 62-65. readings prevail throughout the day and throughout the night. 73 See infra, p. 41, n. 97. For details of Quran-reading in a slow and distinct Details concerning the amount of Quran-reading are as follows.manner see infra, pp. 41-43. 74 If the Quran-reader is one of the devotees traversing the suit path by Aisha bint AbiBakr (d. 58 A.H./678 A.D.) was a favourite wife of the Prophet. performing good acts of the body (al-abutun as-salikun tartqShe has the title of "mother of the believers" (Quran 33:6). She was amodel of piety,and a prolific narrator of Tradition. She was noted for her knowledge of Arab poetry al- amal) 82 he should not do less than read the entire Quran twice aand ability to quote it, and also for her eloquence. She was well versed in Arab week. But if the reader is one of those who are traversing the s.ufi 2history and other subjects. See Watt, " Aisha bint AbiBakr," El 1. 307-308. . path by performing actions of the soul (as-salikun hi a mal 7s Friday is selected because it is considered in Islam to be the best of all days of the al-qalb) 63and by different types of reflection, or one of those whoweek. The blessedness of this day adds to the excellence of a pious act performed on areengaged in spreading [useful] knc.Jedge, then there is nothing>t. 76 Uthman Ibn Affan (d. 35 A. H.), who was one of the greatest companions of the wrong in reducing the reading of the entire Quran to once a week. IfProphet and his son-in-law, became the third caliph of Islam. A rich man, he spent agreat part of his wealth for the welfare of Islam during the Prophets lifetime. 7* The Dawn Prayer (SaUit al-Fajr) consists of four rakas, of which the first two areHe suffered martyrdom. For an account of him see Ibn Hajar, op. cit. II, 455f; Ibn emphasized sunna (sunna mu akkada) and the remaining two obligatory.Qutayba, op. tit., pp. 191-202. 80 The Sunset Prayer (Salat al-Maghrib) consists of seven rakzs: the first three 77 Zayd Ibn Thabit al-AnsSrt (d. 45 A.H.), a companion of the Prophet, is best rakas are obligatory; the next two are emphasized sunna, and the last two areknown through his part in the codification of the Quran during the caliphate of Abu supererogatory (nafl).Bakr. A scribe of the Prophet, he recorded part of the revelations. His quickness of 81 cJtf(BE:oU).understanding, his sagacity and his knowledge are praised by his contemporaries. He 82 Good acts of the body, i.e. acts performed by using bodily limbs, are ritualwas a specialist in the subject of hereditary law. See Ibn Hajar, op. cit., I, 543f.; Ibn prayer, pilgrimage to Mecca, Quran-recHation, mention of the divine name,Abd al-Barr, op. cit., I, 532ff.; Ibn Qutayba, op. cit., p. 260. invocation to God, and so on. Actions of the soul include remembrance of God and 7* Ubayy Ibn Kab (d. 22 or 30 A.H.) was a companion of the Prophet and a meditation. At a certain stage of traversing the path to God (af-(ariq ila Allah) thefamous Quran-reader. Ibn Abbas studied Quran-reading under him. See Ibn novice (salik) may confine himself to the performance of bodily acts, while at anotherQutayba, op. cit., p. 261; Shams ad-Din al-JazarT, Ghaya an-Nikaya fi Tabaqat stage he may concentrate on mental acts. al-Qurra, ed. Gotthelf Bergstrasser, Cairo, 1933, 1, 31-32. tiZEhas JUY. 36 37
  • 18. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN EXTERNAL RULES OF QURAN-RECTTATION making penetrating reflections on different prior to the execution of its division into five parts, ten parts, andthe Quran-reader is Any division otb«r than this something newlymeanings of the Quran it is sufficient for him to complete its [thirty] parts. isreading once in a month, since he is much in need of repeating [the introduced (muhdath).reading of verses] and reflecting [on them] many times. [4] [3] The fourth rule concerns the writing of the Quran. mode of dividing the Quran [into It is praiseworthy to make the writing of the Quran beautiful and The third rule concerns theseveral parts for the convenience of recitation] to make its [letters] clear and distinct. There is no sin in dotting and writing marks with red and other colours, different As for him who [intends to] read the entire Quran once in a week, letters because these colours adorn the Quran, make its [letters] distinct,he will divide it into seven divisions (afaab). The companions of the Prophet (may God be pleased with them!) and avert its reader from making mistakes and incorrect reading.certainly divided the Quran into several divisions [for facilitating its Al-Hasan and Ibn Sirln, 86 however, used to disapprove of division of the Quran into fifths, tenths and thirtieth parts. It isrecitation]. 84 Thus it is related that Uthman (may God be pleased 87 related that ash-ShabT and Ibrahim 88 disliked the dotting ofwith him!) used to read the Quran from the Sura of the Cow with red colour and the taking of a salary for this job. They letters(al-Baqara) and reach the Sura of the Table (al-Maida) on Friday used to say, "Keep the Quran free [of any superfluous things]."night, from the Sura of Cattle (al-Anam) to the Sura of Hud on Concerning these scholars our conjecture is that they disliked theSaturday night, from the Sura of Joseph (Yusuf) to the Sura of Mary opening of this door, fearing that it would lead to the creation of(Maryam) on Sunday night, from the Sura of Ta Ha to the Sura of superfluous things [in the Quran]. They wanted to close this door75 Sin Mint, Moses (Musa) and Pharaoh (Firawn) on Monday completely, and encourage the protection of the Quran from anynight, from the Sura of the Spider (al-Ankabut) to the Sura of Sad change that may penetrate into it. Since the opening of this door hason Tuesday night, from the Sura of Progressive Revelation (Tanzit) not in practice led to any forbidden thing, and since it has been Most Gracious (ar-Rahman) on Wednesday night,to the Sura of the established by the Islamic community that it is something by whichand he used to complete the reading on Thursday night. Ibn Masud added acquaintance [with the Quran] may be achieved, there is noused to divide the Quran [into seven parts] but not in this order. Itis said that the divisions of the Quran are seven in number: The first * Muhammad Ibn Strih (d. 110 A.H./728 A.D.). a Follower, was the firstconsists of three suras, the second of five suras, the third of seven renowned Muslim interpreter of dreams. He was also a great Traditionist, a jurist andsuras, the fourth of nine suras, the fifth of eleven suras, the sixth of an ascetic of Basra. As a Traditionist he acted more seriously than as an interpreter ofthirteen suras, and the seventh which is known as al-mufassal dreams, although it is as the latter that he finally came to be well known. See(divided into several pieces) starts from the Sura of Qaf and ends an-Nawawf, Tahdhib al-Asma wa l-Lughat, Egypt, n.d. t I. 82ff.; T. Fahd, "Ibnwith the end of the Quran. Sirln",£7 2 III, 947-48. , (may God be pleased with 87Abu Amr Amir ash-ShabT (d. 104 or 105 A.H.) was a prominent and trust- This is how the Prophets companions worthy Traditionist who heard Traditions from more than five hundred companionsthem!) divided the Quran [for the convenience of reading], and they of the Prophet. Like his father SharahbD, he was one of the foremost of "Quran-used to read it accordingly. Oh this theme is to be found a Tradition readers" of Kufa. A great learned man, he was often consulted by the jurists in Kufarelated from the Messenger of God (may God bless him and greet on legal matters. Among his pupils was Imam Abu HanTfa. He had an in- many 85 This [i.e. the division of the Quran into seven parts] is exhaustable knowledge of poetry and an extremely sharp memory. See Ibn Qutayba,hi m!). op. cit, pp. 449-51. W Ibn Mija. Sunan, Iqlma, 178; Abu Dawud, Sunan, Ramadan, 9; Ibn Hanbal, 88 Ibrahim Ibn YazTd an-Nakha*T(d. 96 A.H./714-15 A.D.), a Follower, was a greatMusnad, IV, 9. authority on jurisprudence and a scholar of Tradition. See Ibn Qutayba, op. cit., K Ibn Maja. Sunan, Iqama. 178; Abu Dawud, Sunan, Ramadan, 9; Ibn Hanbal, pp. 463f.; an-NawawT, op. cit. , 1, 104f.Musnad. IV, 9. 353-55, 381. 383. 38 39
  • 19. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QUR AN EXTERNAL RULES OF QURAN-RECITATION sin in it. The fact that it is a new thing introduced in Islam first thing people have introduced in it is the dotting at the letter ba (muhdath) does not mean that it should be forbidden, for many a ( v) and the maintaining [276] that there is no sin in letter ta ( *=»), this, for this illuminates the Quran. After this people have in- newly introduced thing is good. For example, concerning the establishment of congregation {jamaa) in the case of Tarawih troduced big dots at the end of verses, maintaining that there is no sin in this, for by this the beginning of a verse can be known. After 89 Prayer it is said that it is one of the practices newly introduced in Islam by Umar* (may God be pleased with him!) but that it is a thispeople introduced marks showing the ends of suras (khawatim)good innovation (bida frasana). A condemnable innovation (bida and marks showing their beginnings (fawatih).madhmuma) is only that which opposes an old established sunna Abu Bakr al-Hadhll 94 said, "I asked al-rjasan concerning the(as-sunna al-qadtma) or which tends to bring about a change in it. 91 dotting of mushafs with red colour. He enquired, What is the A certain religious scholar used to say, "I shall read from the dotting of them? I replied, People place vowel marks according tomushaf in which letters are dotted, but shall not dot them myself." the grammatical rules of Arabic* He said, As for the desinential " Khalid Awza*! 92 said, on the authority of Yahya Ibn Abl Kathir, 93 "The syntax (irab) of the Quran, there is no sin in it.Quran was kept free [of dots, marks, and so on] in musbaf. The al-IJLidhdha 95 said, "I visited Ibn Sirln and saw him reading from a 89 dotted mushaf- He of course used to dislike dots." rtiis ritual prayer is performed after the Evening Prayer (Salat al-Isha") in the is the one who introduced the system 96 [oflunar month of Ramadan. It is an emphasized sunna prayer for both men and It is said that rlajjajwomen. Performance of this ritual prayer in congregation is a collective sunna (sunna dotting, marking and so on in the Quran]: He brought the Quran-kifuya) so that its performance by some people of a locality in congregation while by readers [of Basra and Kufa] to his court, and they enumeratedothers alone is sufficient. For details about the time, number of rakas and the words of the Quran, [its verses] and its letters, made its parts equal,methods of the performance of this ritual prayer see Quasem, Salvation, chap. II, sec.xxvi. and divided it into thirty parts and into other parts [such as fifths 90 Umar Ibn al-Khaftab id. 23 A.H.). Of all the companions of the Prophet, and tenths].Umar was the most intimate to him after Abu Bakr. For the strength of his faith,firmness of his mind and his acute sense of justice the Prophet once remarked: Satan [5]flees away from the path along which Umar walks. His service to Islam during the The fifth rule is to read the Quran in a slow and distinct mannerlifetimes of the Prophet and Abu Bakr was great. He succeeded Abu Bakr and in theten years of his caliphate rendered tremendous services to Islam — its propagation, (tartit). 97territorial expansion, and administration. He is buried by the side of the graves of the This manner of reading is praiseworthy (mustafrab) in the case of 98Prophet and Abu Bakr. See Ibn Hajar op. cit., II, 51 If.; Ibn Qutayba, op. cit., pp. the Quran because, as we shall soon discuss, the purpose of179-190; Ibn Abd al-Barr, op. cit. , II, 450-66. 91 This is the definition of a condemnable innovation concerning action. Regarding Abu Bakr Salman (or Rub) al-Hadhll (d. 197 A.H.) was a Follower and a 94 condemnable innovations have come into existence. Al-Ghazallbelief (itiqad) also, Traditionistwho narrated Traditions on the authority of al-Hasan, ash-Shabl, and authority Abu Nuaym and Muslim Ibn Ibrahim narrated Traditions. Seehas explained Vk-ya,lV, 175)how a heretic is in great danger of losing his faith. on whose az-Zabldi, op. cit. IV, 477. 92 Abd ar-Rahman al-AwzaT(d. 157 A.H./774 A.D.) was the main representative , 95 Khalid Ibn Mihran al-Hidhdha (d. 141 A.H.) was a leading, trustworthyof the ancient Syrian school of Islamic jurisprudence. He was often quoted by Traditionist, See ibid.; Ibn Qutayba, op. at. , p. 501.subsequent jurists, such as Abu Yusuf and ash-Shafii. He had a number ofprominent disciples. The ancient school of the Syrians transformed itself into the *Hajjaj Ibn Yusuf ath-Thaqafi (d. 95 A.H./ 714 A.D.) was the most famous and the ablest governor of the Umayyads. The method which made him famous waspersonal school (madhhab) of al-Awzal. prevailed not only in Syria but also in the ItMaghrib, including Islamic Spain, before it was superseded by the school (madhhab) indeed notorious — extreme severity, atrocities and bloodshed far more than was the Holyof Imam Malik, See 2 necessary. He shed blood even in the Holy city of Mecca and bombarded J. Schacht, "Al-AwzaI, "EI , 1, 272-73; Ibn Qutayba, op. cit.,pp. 496f. Kaba and the pilgrims there. He, however, did a few good things, one of which was the division of the Quran into separate parts and the introduction of vowel points in 93 Abu Nasr Yahya Ibn Abi Kathfr al-Yamaml (d. 129 A.H.), a Follower, was a it. See Ibn Qutayba, op. cit. p. 548.devotee Cabid) and a Traditionist who narrated Traditions from several companions ,of the Prophet. See Abd ar-Rauf al-MunawI, al-Kawakib ad-Durriyya, ed. by « This is commanded in the Quranic verse (73:4), "Recite the Quran in a slow and distinct manner. * 5* infia > PP- 62-5.Mahmud Hasan Rabt Cairo, 1938/1357, 1, 180. 40 41
  • 20. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN EXTERNAL RULES OF QURAN-RECITATIONreading the Quran is reflection [on its meaning] (tafakkur), and stood in that prayer for the same duration, but one of whom readreading in a slow and distinct manner assists this. For this reason only the Sura of the Gow and the other the Quran in its entirety. HeUmm Salama" (may God be pleased with her!) described the replied, "They are equal in respect of merit."Quran-reading of the Messenger of God (may God bless him and Know that reading the Quran in a slow and distinct manner isgreet him!), when she was asked concerning it; immediately pondering (tadabbur) over [after praiseworthy not merely because it assistsbeing asked] she began to describe its recitation as clear and distinct it, since for a non-Arab (ajami) who does not understand thein respect of every letter. 100 Abd Allah Ibn Abbas (may God be m meaning of the Quran it is alio praiseworthy to read it in a slow andpleased with them both!) said, "That I read the Sura of the Cow distinct manner with pauses between the sentences, because this is(al-Baqara)™ and the Sura of the House of Tmran 047 Imran) m nearer to the reverence and respect [which the Quran deserves] andin a slow and distinct manner while pondering over them, is better stronger in its impression on the soul than babbling with haste.for me than to read the entire 104 Quran babbling." He also said,"That I read [the sura beginning with] When the earth is shaken [6](idha zutzilat) i0S and the Sura of the Clatterer (al-Qaria) 11* ,reflecting over them, is better for me than to read the Sura of i ite weeping [while reading the Quran]. sixth rule is theCow and the Sura of the House of Imran babbling." Mujahid 107 Weeping while reading the Quran is praiseworthy (mustafyab).was asked concerning two men who started ritual prayer and who The Messenger of God (may God bless him and greet him!) commanded, "Recite the Quran and weep. If you do not weep »Umm Salaraa (d. 59 A.H.) was a wife of the Prophet. She has the title of naturally, then force yourself to weep." 10* The Prophet (may God"mother of the believers" (Quran 33:6). The Prophet married her in 4 A.H, She died bless him and greet him!) declared, "One who does not chant withone year and several days after the death of Aisha. See Ibn Haiar, op. cit, IV 110439ff.; Ibn Abd al-Barr, op. cit, IV, 436f. the Quran is not one of us." 109 $alih al-Murrl said, "I read the «» An-Nasal, Sunan, Iftitih, 83, Qiyim al-lajrl, 13; at-TinradhT, Simon. Thawab Quran to the Messenger of God (may God bless him and greet him!)al-Quran 23; Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, VI, 30, 294. in my sleep. He asked me, Salih, this is only the reading of the 101 Abd Allah Ibn Abbas (d. 68 A.H.) was a cousin and a great companion of the Quran, but where is the weeping? " Abd Allah Ibn Abbas (mayProphet. In the early period of Islam he was called the learned mancommunity. He is also called the leader of the exegetes of the Quran. of Islamic God be pleased with them both!) said, "When you read [the Quranicop. cit., II, 322-26. See Ibn Haiar verse of] prostration in which occurs the word subhana, ut do not (02 This is the second sura of the Quran consisting of two hundred and eighty-six hasten to prostrate until you weep. If the eyes of anyone of you doverses. The Verse of the Throne (Ayat al-Kursi) is included in h. not weep his mind should weep [i.e. be filled with grief and fear of 103 This is the third Quranic sura consisting of two hundred verses. God]." 104 *tf is omitted in BE. ios This the ninety-ninth sura of the Quran consisting of only eight verses which is The method of forcing oneself to weep consists in bringing grief todeal with the Day of Resurrection and the consequences of mans actions. There is a the mind. From be produced weeping. The Prophet this grief willTradition (Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, III, 148, 221) that this sura is equal to a fourth part (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "Surely the Quran wasof the Quran in respect of value. revealed wit h grief. So when you read it you sh ould force yourself to io* This is the one hundred and first sura consisting of only eleven verses which weeping is "» Ibn Maja, Sunan, Iqama, 176, Zuhd, 19. In the Quran (17:109) alsospeak of the Doomsday, the weighing of mans actions in the Balance and their praised.The Prophet himself was seen weeping at Quran-recitatian. See infra, n.consequences in the form of happiness in Paradise or punishment in Hell. 151. 107 Mujahid Ibn lubayr (d. 100 or 101 or 102 or 103 A.H.), a great Follower and 109 Al-BukharT, Satfh, Tawhki, 44; Ibn Hanbal. Musnad, I, 172, 175, 179;a disciple of Ibn Abbas, was an authority on Quranic exegesis. His opinions on this ad-Dariml, Sunan, Sala, 171, Fadail al Quran, 34.subject are often quoted by subsequent writers on the Quran, such as al-Ghaziliand no Stfib al-Murn (d. 178 A.H.) was a famous ascetic of Basra. He was also aal-Makkl. He was also a scholar of jurisprudence and Tradition. He died while in preacher and a Traditionist. See az-Zabldi, op. cit. 1, 199, IV, 479. ,prostration before God. See Ibn Qutayba, op. cit pp. 444f.; an-NawawT, op. est., II, Quran-reading see in Quran 17:107-109. For details of prostration due to , infra,83. chap. II, see. xxxv. pp. 44-7; Quasem, Salvation, 42 43
  • 21. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE OUR AN EXTERNAL RULES OF QURAN-RECITATION be aggrieved." The method of bringing grief [to the mind] of the words of God (exalted is He!), "They fall down prostrate and Quran-reader is through reflecting on the threats, warnings, celebrate the praise of their Lord and are not arrogant" ( , I-j^- j/*-covenants and promises which are contained in the Quran. Then 116 Oj^&~j ^ r**r*ij -**="* j^r-j), he will supplicate:he will reflect on his shortcomings in respect of the commandmentsof the Quran and its threats [of punishment]. Thus he will God, make me one of those who prostrate themselves beforenecessarily be aggrieved and will weep. Should he not feel grief and You for Your pleasure and who glorify You with Yourweep as do those who have purified souls, he should weep for his lack praise. I seek Your protection from being one of those whoof grief and tears, because this is the greatest of all misfortunes. are arrogant against Your command or against Your friends [i.e. saints]. [7] i&Sz-Jlj- u/l 0 ^j*»j -Jjw** o^-* .^W o^L-* 31 & ^r^ 1 i**" The seventh rule is to fulfil the -U.U,! jUjI .V j* right (haqq) of the Quranic verses (Alldhumma, ajalni min as-sdjidina U-wajhika, al-recited. musabbibina bi~h,amdika. Waaudhu bi-ka, an akuna min Thus when the Quran-reader reads a verse necessitating prostra- al-mustakbirina an amrika, aw aldawliyaika).tion before God he will prostrate he hears [the himself/Likewise, ifrecitation of] a verse of prostration by another person he will On reading the words of God (exalted is He!), "They weep while theyprostrate himself when the reciter prostrates. He prostrate themselves, and this adds to their humility"when he is physically and ritually clean. 112 There will prostrate only ( u^-i ,**-*£« .ofrf oUj^J _y^vj ), m the Quran-reader will supplicate: are fourteen versesof prostration in the Quran. 113 In the Sura of Pilgrimage (al-Hajj) God, make me one of those who weep for fear of You, andthere are two verses of prostration. 114 There is no verse of prostra- who are humble towards You.tion in the Sura of Sad. us The minimum requirement of prostration [due to Quran- (Allahumma, ajalni min al-bakina ilayka, al-khashiinareading] that the prostrater prostrates by putting his forehead on is laka).the ground, [without uttering Allahu akbar 0^1 Jul or God is thegreatest) and without any supplication]. Its perfect form is for him In this way the Quran-reader will supplicate while making every prostration [due to his reading or hearing a verse of prostration].to utter AUahu akbar and then prostrate himself and, whileprostrate, supplicate with that supplication In the case of prostration due to Quran-reading it is necessary to which is appropriateto the verse of prostration recited. fulfil those stipulations which are meant for ritual prayer (shuruf For example, he has read the if a$-$ala), such as covering ones private parts (satr al-awra), m 112The problem of cleanliness, physical and ritual, is discussed in great detail in facing the qibla (i.e. the direction of the Kaba 119 in Mecca), andQuasem, Salvation, chap. I. H3 According to the HanarT school (madhhab) of Islamic jurisprudence, these verses cleanliness of clothing and body against ritual impurity (hadath)are: 7:206, 13:15, 16:49, 17:107, 19:58, 22:18, 25:60, 27:25, 32:15, 38:39, 41:37, and physical filth (khubuth). 120 A man who is not clean when55:62, 84:21, 96:19. This is recorded in the mushaf of Uthman, and is the reliable «? Quran 116 Quran 32: 15. 17: 109.view. lie The legal definition of private parts is as follows: In the case of a man, whether 114 This view of al-GhazalT agrees with that of the Shafii and HanbalT schools of free or slave, they are that part of the body which lies between his navel and the end ofjurisprudence. According to the Hanafi school, however, there is only one verse of his knees. In the case of a slave woman her belly and back are also included. For aprostration (22:18) in the Sura of Pilgrimage, the twenty-second sura of the Quran. free woman the private parts are her entire body except the face, the palms togetherSee az-Zabldl, op. cit, IV, 480-81. with the back of the hands, and the feet, both their inward and outward sides. See ll5 This view of al-Ghazali, like that of some other jurists, disagrees with the Hasan Ibn Ammar ash-Shurunbalail, MatnNural-ftfah, Cairo, 1389/1969, p. 43.opinion of the HanafT school which affirms the existence of a verse of prostration "9 Seejwpra, n.69.(38:34) in the Sura of Sad, the thirty-eighth sura of the Quran. 1% For details about cleanliness see Quasem, Salvation, chap. I. 44 45
  • 22. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN EXTERNAL RULES OF QURAN-RECITATIONhearing [the recitation of a verse of prostration by another man], will congregation], should prostrate himself when his imam prostrates.prostrate when he becomes clean. A man, be a follower (ma mum) of an imam, will not prostrate if he It is said that, in the perfect form of prostration due to Quran- himself because of his own recitation [of a verse of prostration]. I24reading, the prostrater will utter Allahu akbar, lifting his hands[level with his shoulders], thereby making all other things unlawful [8] 121to himself. Then he will again utter Allahu akbar while inclining and during the The eighth rule [concerns supplication before, aftertowards prostration. [Then he will prostrate himself]. Then he will Quran-reading]. At the start of his Quran-reading, 125 the Quran-utter Allahu akbar while lifting the head [from prostration], and reader will supplicate:then will make the salutation [to the right and to the left as hewithdraws from prostration]. Some authorities have added [277] to I seek the protection of God, the All- hearing, the All- 122this the reading of the formula of Witnessing (at-tashahhud). knowing, against the rejected Satan. Lord, I seek refugeThere is no basis for these views except an analogy (qiyas) with the with You from the incitements of Satans, and I seek refugeprostration of ritual prayer. This analogy, however, is far [from with You, Lord, lest they should approach me. 126being sound], because what has occurred [in the Quran] is only thecommand of prostration, and so this command should be obeyed [byprostration only]. The utterance of Allahu akbar while inclining (Audhu bi-Allahi as-samii al-afimi, min ash-Shaytani or-towards prostration is nearer to the beginning [and so this should be rajimi.Rabbi, audhu bika min hamazati ash-Shayatini,done]; all other things are far [from what can be supported by wa audhu bika rabbi anyahduruni).Islamic jurisprudence] He should also supplicate by reading [the sura which starts with] The follower of the imam, 123 [in a ritual prayer performed in "Proclaim: I seek the protection of the Lord of mankind" 121 In legal terminology this is called tahrtma, i.e. that by which every irrelevant act (^ut vy j^i ji)i27 an(j e sura ^fhicij starts with] "Praise be to j tjjbecomes unlawful to the devotee. It is necessary at the start of all kinds of ritual .»* God!"d> juJI)prayer. 122 This is the formula read at the end of the second and the fourth raka of a ritual On completion of Quran-reading, the Quran-reader should supplicate:prayer. It is also read at the end of the third raka if the ritual prayer is of only three The HanafT school of jurisprudence prescribes the Witnessing of Abd Allahrakas. — God (exalted is Hel) has spoken the truth, and HisIbn Masud the Witnessing which the Prophet taught him. The Shafii school,however, prescribes a different Witnessing. Messenger (may God bless him and greet him!) has con- 123 Imam (leader) in this context means the man who leads a group of people in a 124 For more details of prostration due to ones reading or hearing a Quranic verseritual prayer. He will be granted a great reward on the Day of Judgement should he of prostration see Quasem, Salvation, chap. II, sec. xxxv.lead the prayer to the satisfaction of the congregation. See supra, n. 26. Performance emphasized Quran 125 Quran 16:98 — "When you read the Quran, seek the protection of Godof ritual prayer in congregation is very meritorious and is in the against Satan, the rejected."(62:9) and the Sunna. The Prophet declared, "A ritual prayer in congregation is •26 Quran 23:97.twenty-seven times more excellent than a ritual prayer performed by a single person" 127 This is the hundred and fourteenth sura of the Quran consisting of only six(al-Bukharl, $abtb, adhan, 29; Muslim, Safrih, Masajid, 245, 247). Once when some short verses. This and its preceding sura are together known as the MuawwidhatSnpeople remained absent from a certain ritual prayer in congregation the Prophet (the suras of taking refuge with God) and are the best protective formulae to ward offwarned: "I intended to order a man to lead the ritual prayer and myself go to those evil, especially demonic suggestions. The practice of taking refuge with God iswho did not attend it and bum their houses" (al-Bukharl, Sahlh, Adhan, 29; commanded at various points in the Quran. See az-Zabtdl, op. cit. , IV, 491.an-NasaT, Sunan, Imama, 49; Ibn Maja, Sunan, Masajid, 17). Despite this stress of 128 This Opening Sura of the Quran consisting of only seven short verses is thethe Prophet theShiasdo not perform ritual prayer in congregation. What has led which contain the gist of all Quranic verses and which constitute the key to all seventhem to this is their view on imama, leadership of the Islamic community. For details doors of Paradise. This sura is distinguished as the best of all Quranic suras. Seeof ritual prayer in congregation see Quasem, Salvation, chap. II, sec. xi. Quasem. Jewels, chaps. XII, XIII, XVII. 46 47
  • 23. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN EXTERNAL RULES OF QURAN-RECITATION veyed [it God, benefit us with the Quran and bless to us]. of the reading of the sura he supplicated by reading that [supplica- us in it. God, the Lord of all the worlds! I seek Praise be to tion-formula] which he (may Gods blessings and greetings be upon the forgiveness of God, the Ever Living, the Self- subsisting him! ,32 used to read on completing the reading of the entire Quran. and All-sustaining. [This formula is as follows:] God, bestow mercy upon me through the Quran, and make it for me a leader [who leads to the truth], a light, a guide, ($adaqa Allahu taala, wa ballagha rasulu Allahi, salla and a mercy. God, remind me of that whic I have Allahu alayhi wa sallama. Alldhumma, anfand bihi, wa forgotten [when reading the Quran], teach n t those parts batik land fihl Al-hamdu li- Allahi rabbi al- alumina, wa of the Quran of which I am ignorant, grant me its astaghfiru Allaha al-hayya al-qayyuma). recitation in the hours of the night and different parts of During the Quran-reading, when the Quran-reader reads a verse the day,* 133 and make it a point in my favour, O Lord of all on glorification of God, he will glorify Him and magnify Him. When the worlds." 134 he reads a verse on supplication [to God] and forgiveness [of Him], (>•—>* ^* t*^ ^A 1 -***jj <s^j jj ;j UU J ~Ai tX "jy^ ..r^J 1 ^ he will supplicate and seek forgiveness. If he reads a verse telling of ,_,_, I, ,<>, J <1j«3.Ij .jl^Jl «_il^j JJJI cljl *jj% ^-fjj} .^U* L« <u> r l_ uJl£j any hopeful matter he will pray to God [for it]. But if he reads a verse on a frightening matter, he will seek the protection [of God (Alldhumma, arhimni bi-l-Qurani, wa ajalhu li im&man from it]. He will do these with his tongue or with his mind. Thus, [in wa nuran wa hudan wa rahmatan. Alldhumma, dhakkirni place of glorification of God] he will say: Glory be to God! (subhana minhu ma nasitu, wa allimni minhu ma jahiltu, wa Allahi); [in place of seeking refuge with God] he will say: We seek arzuqni tilawatahu and al-layli wa atrdfa an-nahdri, wa the protection of God (naudhu bi-AUdhi); and [in place of making ajalhu li hujjatan, ya rabba al- alumina). petition to God] he will say: God, grant us sustenance; God, bestow mercy upon us (Attahumma arzuqnd, Attahumma arhimna). [9] Hudhayfa 129 said, "Once I performed my ritual prayer behind The ninth rule concerns the reading of the Quran aloud. Gods (exalted is He!) Messenger (may God bless him and greet There is no doubt that it is necessary to read the Quran loud him!). 130 He started the Quran-reading of [that ritual prayer] with enough so that the reader can hear it himself because reading means the Sura of the Cow (Sura al-Baqara). On reading every verse on distinguishing clearly between sounds; thus sound is necessary, and divine mercy he prayed to God for it. On reading every verse on the smallest degree of it is that which he can hear himself. If he chastisement he sought refuge with God. On reading every verse on cannot hear himself in a ritual prayer ($ald), his prayer is not the purification of God (tanzih) he glorified Him. 131 On completion correct. 129 Hidhayfa Ibn al-Yaman (d. 36 A.H.) was a great companion of the Prophet. He As for reading so loud that he can be heard by others, it is to be took part in the battle of Uhud and was selected by the Prophet to obtain information considered praiseworthy in one respect and undesirable in another. on the Quraysh at the battle of Ditch. He was the governor of Midian during the caliphate of Umar. He narrated many Traditions from the Prophet and Umar. He 132 <u}L_, Oi jil >I>L» *i^ (BE:<-*-j J>> oty-» Jyu ). 133 Quran 20: 130. was known to the Companions as "the possessor of secret knowledge of the Prophet". 134 It is praiseworthy (mustahab) to supplicate on completion of a reading of the He used to ask the Prophet about hidden defects of the soul, secret traits of the hypocrites, and future disturbances ifitan). For this reason sufis often quote his Quran This supplication is received by God, and His mercy descends in its entirety. upon the supplicant. For these reasons the companions of the Prophet and those who sayings on these matters. See Ibn H»ja«" op. cit. I, 316f.; Ibn Abd al-Barr, op. cit. I, , , al-MunawI, op. 50f. followed them used to gather together the members of their families and other people 276ff.; cit. , 1,130 (JUj Ot ill ^(BE f^-3 <JI J*j <J* JU J»l JLo )r to supplicate on completion of their recitations of the entire Quran. See az-Zabldl, op. cit., IV, 492. 131 Muslim, $ahth, Musafirln, 203. 48 49
  • 24. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN EXTERNAL RULES OF QURAN-RECITATIONThe proofs that silent reading of the Quran is praiseworthy are [as of anything against God." Umar remained and shortened the silentfollows]: It is related that the Prophet (may God bless him and greet raka of his ritual prayer. On and left salutation [to his right sidehim!) said, "The excellence of silent reading of the Quran com- side by which he withdrew from the ritual prayer], he took his shoespared with reading it aloud is like the excellence of secret almsgiving and departed. At that time he was the governor of Medina.compared with public almsgiving." In other words this Tradition The proofs that reading the Quran aloud is praiseworthy are [as one who gives follows]: It is related that the Prophet (may God bless him andruns thus: "One who reads the Quran aloud is like greetalms publicly, and one who reads the Quran silently is like one who him!) once heard a group of his companions reading the Quran In a generally received Tradition [one finds aloud in the supererogatory ritual prayer performed after midnight 135gives alms secretly." 140 The Prophet (may God blessthat the Prophet said}: "A secret good act is more excellent than a (salat al-layD and approved of this.public good act by seventy times." Likewise is the saying of the him [278] and greet him!) [also] said, "If one of you keeps vigil atProphet (may God bless him and greet him!): "The best measure of night performing supererogatory ritual prayers, he should read thesustenance (rizq) is that which is sufficient, and the best mode of Quran aloud, because the angels as well as those who are staying atinvocation of God (dhikr) is that which is secret." 136 his house listen to his Quran-readtng and pray to God with his In a Tradition [one finds that the Prophet warned] : "Some of you ritual prayer."Once the Prophet (may God bless greet him andwill not read the Quran aloud near others during the time between him!) passed by three of his companions (may God be pleased with them!) who were engaged in different modes of Quran-reading: He 137the Sunset Prayer (Maghrib) and the Evening Prayer (Isha)"One night, in the Mosque of the Messenger of God (may God bless passed by Abu Bakr 141 (may God be pleased with him!) who washim and greet him!), Said Ibn al-Musayyab m heard Umar Ibn reading the Quran silently. The Prophet asked him concerning the*Abd al-*Aziz 139 reading the Quran aloud in his ritual prayer — reason for this. He replied, "[I am reading silently because] the Oneand he was a man of sweet voice. Said ordered his slave, "Go to this to Whom I am whispering can hear me." The Prophet passed bydevotee and ask him to lower his voice." The slave said [to Said], Umar (may God be pleased with him!) who was reading the Quran"The mosque is not reserved for us only; that devoteehas also a aloud. He asked him the reason for this. Umar replied. "[Byshare in it." [Rejecting this argument of his slave] Said [himself] reading aloud] I am awakening those who are asleep and [also] u2raised his voice, saying, "Devotee, if you intend to obtain the threatening Satan." The Prophet passed by Bilal who waspleasure of God (great and mighty is He!) by your ritual prayer, then reading some verses from one sura and other verses frcm otherlower your voice. If, however, you intend to obtain the pleasure of suras. The Prophet asked him the reason. He replied, "I ampeople [you should know that] they will never be sufficient in respect no Al-Bukharl, Sahib, Maghazi, 38; Muslim, Sahth, Fadail as-Sahaba, 166; Abu 135 Abo Da wiid, Sunan, Tatawwu, 25, an-Nasai, Sunan, Zaka, 68; at-Tirmidhl, Dawud, Sunan, Tatawwu, 25. 141 Abu Bakr as-Siddlq (d. 13 A.H.) was the first of all adult male persons to accept Swum, Thawab al-Quran, 20; Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, IV, 151, 158, 201. companion. As the first i* Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Islam. He was a father-in-law of the Prophet and his greatest 1, 172, 180, 187. of successor of the Prophet he served Islam for two years. His service to the cause 137 Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, 36, 67, 129, IV, 344 (with variation). II, Prophet Islam both during and after the Prophets lifetime was only next to that of the m Said Ibn al-Musayyab (d. 93 or 94 A.H.), a leading Follower, was the greatest himself.For details see Ibn Qutayba, op. tit. pp. 167-78. a great interpreter of dreams and a noted , jurist of the Hijaz in his time. He was also Ibn Abi Rabah was a companion of the Prophet and is best known as H2 his Traditionist who transmitted Traditions from many prominent companions of the Bilal muadkdhin (one who calls to ritual prayer). He was an early convert to Islam — Prophet. In knowledge and piety he was the greatest of *•! Followers. See an-Nawawi, having been the second adult after Abu Bakr. He accompanied the Prophet on all op.cit.,l, 219ff.; Ibn Qutayba, op. tit. , pp. 437f. expeditions. In addition to being his muadhdhin he was also the Prophets 139 Umar Ibn Abd al-Am A.H.) was a Follower and an Umayyad caliph (d. 101 mace-bearer, his steward, his personal servant, and, on occasions, his adjutant. He (717-20 A.D.) who in all his affairs, personal and administrative, tried to imitate the given as attained high prestige during his lifetime. The date of his death is variously caliph Umar Ibn al-Khattab. Al-Ghazali calls him "the greatest ascetic of his time". See 17, 18, 20, or 21 A.H./638, 639, 641, or 642 A.D. For details see W. Arafat, "Bilal He had correspondences with al-Hasan al-Basrl on piety and asceticism. 2 b. Rabab.£/ . I. 1215. al-Ghazali, Ihya" 1, 69; Ibn Qutayba, op. tit. , pp. 362f 50 51
  • 25. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURANmingling [some] good things with other good things." The Prophet EXTERNAL RULES OF QURAN-RECITATION(may God bless him and greet him!) remarked, "Everyone of you entirety seven times from memory, because looking at a mushaf ishas done good and right." also an act of devotion to God {ibada). Uthmln (may God The method of reconciliation among these [apparently conflict- be pleased with him!) tore two mushafs by reading much from them.ing] Traditions that the silent reading of the Quran is furthest isfrom ostentation (n>a) 143 and affectation, and hence it is better Many Companions used from mushafs, and they were to read[than reading aloud] in the case of a Quran-reader who is afraid unhappy when a day in which they did not look atmushafs passed.these for himself. If, however, he has no fear of these, and if of A certain Egyption jurist ifaqTh) visited ash-ShafiT (may God be m loud pleased with him!) at dawn when he had in front of himreading of the Quran does not disturb (lit. confuse the time to) a mushaf [from which he was reading]. Ash-ShafiF said to him,another devotee, then reading with a loud voice is better, [a] because "Excessive study of jurisprudence Ms has prevented you from reading theit involves more effort, [b] because its benefit is also linked up withothers — a good which involves other people is better than a good Quran. [For my part] I perform the Dawn Prayer in darkness and then put the mushaf in mewhich cleaves to its agent only — [c] because loud reading awakens , shut until there front of [for reading from it]; I do notthemind of the Quran-reader, unites his care it is day-light." for reflection on [themeaning of] the Quran and turns his ear to it, because loud [d] [10]reading repels sleep by raising the voice, [e] because it adds to hisenergy for Quran- reading and lessens his laziness, [f] because The tenth rule to read the Quran beautifully and in a slow and iswaking a sleeping man can be expected from loud reading, in which distinct manner, 146 by controlling the voice though not with thatcase the Quran-reader will be the cause of the mans revival [from excessive stretch which changes the prose order (nazm).laziness which led him to sleep], and [g] because sometimes, having This is sunna. The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!)seen the loud reader, a workless, idle man gets energized because of said, "Adorn the Quran with your voices." 147 He (may God blesshis energy and encouraged to serve [God]. him and greet him!)[also] said, "God does not listen to anything as When one of these intentions present loud reading of the much He does to mans sweet voice at Quran-reading." 148 as is HeQuran is better [than silent reading]. Should all these intentions (may God bless him and greet him!) [further] said, "One who doesjoin together the reward of Quran-reading would multiply. not chant iyataghanna) with the Quran Because is not one of us." Someof many intentions good acts of the pious grow, and the rewards they authorities have said that by the word yataghanna the Prophetobtain multiply. If in a single act there are ten intentions ten meant to feel independent, while others have said that he rewards meant byare to be obtained from it chanting melodiously and by controlling it. the tones of voice. This For this reason we say that reading from mushafs is better latter view is nearest [to the truth] in the opinion of [than philologists It isreading the Quran from memory], for, [in the former case], related that once at night [after the Evening Prayer to the tfaldt al- Isha"))action of reading are added looking at the mushaf, thinking about the Messenger of God (may God bless him and greet him!) wasit, and carrying so the reward of Quran-reading will increase it; jwtmgjor Aisha (may God be pleased with her!) [to come o Jbecause of the addition of these. It is said that reading the entireQuran once from the mushaf s equal [in value] to reading it hShSfiT l W AH) WM found n W " S aS xlumZZt of jurisprudence. See al-GhazHf Tk™ ** oa-ti «u * the (madhhab) ) scnool , (d> ShafiIte H3 Ostentation in its defined as the desire to please men through a devotional act. It isrenders the act not only void but also sinful. It is strongly prohibited of hjs pie* and devotion is given. This ^S^^^Z^Z • I in the Quran " ?3:4 ~~ RecHc the Qur,&n(4:142, 107:6, 2:264, 4:38, 8:47) and in Tradition where it is called the lesser M* ?u- Dawud, !« Abu!f «» slow and distinct manner."polytheism (Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, V, 428, 429). Devotional acts must Sunan, Witt, 20: an-NasiT, Swum, Ifthah, be performedonly for God alone. See Quran 18:110. Iqama,176;al-Bukhari,^Aft,Tawhid,52. "" 83; Ibn Maia Sunan J * Taw rd 32 - s2 Fadi u a, -° ur 52 M^frstl r - * an ,9j Muslta > «*. 53
  • 26. EXTERNAL RULES OF QURAN-RECITATION THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QUR* AN " 1S3 of [the prophet] David. This remark reached the ear of Abuthe house from the mosque]. She came late. The Prophet asked her, Musa who then "Messenger of God, had I known that you were said,"What has prevented you [from returning earlier]?" She replied, listening I would have adorned it fully." 154 Haytham, 155 the"Messenger of God, I was listening to the Quran-reading of a man; Quran-reader, saw the Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!)I have never heard any voice sweeter than his." The Prophet (may in a dream and then related, "He asked me [in the dream], Are youGod bless him and greet him!) stood up, [went to the mosque], and that Haytham who adorns the Quran with your voice? I replied,listened to his Quran-reading for a long time. On returning to the Yes. He prayed for me saying, May God grant you a goodhouse he (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "This man is recompense! " It is related in a Tradition: When several companionsSalim, a freed slave of Abu rjudhayfa. 149 Praise be to God Who has of the Messenger of God (may God bless him and greet him!)made a man him in my community!" One night the Prophet like assembled, they used to order one of them to read a sura of the(may God bless him and greet him!) also listened to the Quran- Quran. Umar used to request Abu Musa (may God be pleased withreading of Abd Allah Ibn Masud, and with the Prophet were Abu them both!), "Remind us of our Lord". So he used to read theBakr and Umar (may God be pleased with them both!). They stood Quran until about the middle of the time allowed for ritual prayer.still for a long time [listening]. Then the Prophet [279] (may God Someone used "The Commander of the Believers, ritual to say,bless him and greet him!) said, "One who wants Quran to read the prayer, ritual prayer!" He replied, "Are we not already in prayer?,"as fresh as it was revealed should read it following the reading of Ibn indicating to the words of God (great and mighty is He!), "TheUmm Abd." 150 The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) remembrance of God is the greatest"^ jjlj). is* The Prophet 1 «*>lasked Ibn Masud, "Read the Quran to me." He replied, "Messen- (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "For one who listens to theger of God, I should read it to you, and it is to you that it was recitation of a verse from the Book of God (great and mighty is He!),revealed!" The Prophet (may God him and greet him!) said "I bless it will be a [means of] light on the Day of Resurrection," 157 It isshould like to hear it from others." Then Ibn Masud went on mentioned in a Tradition that for him [the reward of] ten good deedsreading, and the eyes of the Messenger of God (may God bless him will be recorded. Since the reward of listening to Quran-recitation isand greet him!) were shedding tears. 151 The Prophet (may God great, and since it is the reciter who is the cause of it, he will partakebless him and greet him!) listened to the Quran-reading of Abii in the reward, except if the motive of his recitation is ostentationMusa, 152 and remarked, "This man is bestowed with the sweet voice (riya) and affectation. 158 H» Salim. a Abu Hudhayfa Ibn Utba Ibn Rabla, was one of those freed slave of See Ibn Hajar, op.cit. II, 351f.; Ibn Abd al-Barr, op. tit. , II, 363ff. and who took ,companions of the Prophet who migrated to Medina at an early stage, 153 For this meaning of the phrase mazamlr al Dawud see az-Zabfdi, op. cit. , IV, of his companions from whompart at the battle of Badr. The Prophet specified four 499. For the sweet voice of the prophet David see at-Tabaii, Tankh al-Umam waothers should learn Quran-reading, and Salim was one of these four. Abu Hudhayfa l-Muhik, Egypt, n.d. , 1, 248.was also a companion of the Prophet. Both Salim and Abu Hudhayfa together 154 Al-BukharT, Satfh, Fadail al-Quran, 31; Muslim, Sahlfi, Musafirin, 235, 236.became martyrs at the battle of Yamama during the caliphate of Abu Bakr. See Ibn 155 Al-Haytham Ibn Humayd al-Ghassanf was very famous for Quran-recitation.•Abd al-Barr, op. cit. II, 68ff.; Ibn Hajar, op. cit. II, 6ff. , , He was a trustworthy (thiqa) Tradttionist as well. See Ibn Qutayba, op. cit. p. 533. 150 Ibn Maja, Sunan, Muqaddama, 11; Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, I, 7, 26, 38, 445. , *» Quran 29:45. 157 Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, II, 341. 151 Al-Bukharl, Satfh, Fadail as-Sahaba, 25, Fadail al-Quran, 33, 35; Janaiz. 27. The eyes of the Prophet at- m Set supra, n. 143.Tirmidhl, Sunan. Janaiz. 14; an-NasaT. Sunan, will it be when [on the Dayshed tears when Ibn Masud recited the verse (4:41), "Howof Judgement] We shall bring a witness from every people, and shall bring you [i.e.the Prophet] as a witness against these?" 152 Abu Musa *Abd Allah Ibn Qays al-Ansari (d. 42 or 44 A.H.), a companion ofthe Prophet, was an early Muslim. The Prophet appointed him the governor of part governor of Basra and Kufaof the Yemen. Umar and Uthrnin appointed him therespectively. He was Alls judge at Siffin. He was a great narrator of Traditions and voice at Quran-recitation.an expert in legal matters. He was well known for his sweet 55 54
  • 27. MENTAL TASKS IN QUR AN-RECITATION to them in the form of and sounds which are CHAPTER THREE human beings, because letters man attributes of unable to reach the stage of is understanding the attributes of God (great and mighty is He!) MENTAL TASKS IN QURAN- except through his own attributes. If the inmost majesty of His RECITATION speech were not concealed in the garment of letters, neither His throne nor [even] the subsoil would have remained fixed as a result of hearing His speech, and all that is between these two would have been reduced to nothing because of the greatness of His authority Those whom Wc have given the Book (Quran) recite it as it should be recited; they believe in it.— Quran 2 121 : and the majesty of His light. If God (great and mighty is He!) had not strengthened Moses (may peace be upon him!) he would not AV:Ti uLr* - -V^ v^ J* 1 r 1 j^ j] ^"^ * that their minds are locked up have been able to hear His words in the way the mountain could not Do they not ponder over the Quran, or is it from within? — Quran 87 24 : bear the beginnings of His manifestation so that it broke into bits.™ Read the Quran and seek to know its deep, strange meanings. — prophet It is make the magnification of divine speech not possible to Muhammad intelligible to men except through examples on the levels of their understanding. For this reason a certain gnostic Carif) explained the MENTAL TASKS IN QUR AN-RECITATION ARE divine speech by saying, "Every letter of the words of God (great and TEN IN NUMBER mighty is He!) in the Preserved Tablet (al-Lawh al-Mabfu?) h mThe mental tasks in recitation of the Quran are [first] under- greater than the mountain Qaf; 162 and if the angels (may peace bestanding the origin of the speech [i.e. the Quran] , then magnification heretical theory of the Mutazilites that the divine speech is created ihadith). In theof it, then paying attention to it, then pondering over it, then Jawahir, p. 19 al-Ghazill strongly criticizes this theory.understanding [its meanings], then getting rid of obstacles to this >« This refers to the Quranic verse (7:143): "When Moses arrived at the Tryst at Our appointed time and his Lord spoke to him, he said, "Lord, show Yourself to meunderstanding, then specification [of all addresses of the Quran that I may see You. He replied, You can never see Me, but look towardswith oneself], then influencing the mind [with the theme of verses mountain; the if it remains firm in its place, you will soon see Me. When his Lordrecited], then gradual rising [to the highest stage of recitation], and manifested Himself on the mountain, He broke it into bits and Moses fell into a faint.then the denial of ones own ability and power [independent of God]. When he recovered he exclaimed, *Glory be to You! I turn wholly towards You, and I am the foremost among those who believe. " [1] 161 The Preserved Tablet is commonly understood to be in heaven. It contains the originals of all revealed Books including the Quran (Quran 13:39). Everything which The first mental task is understanding the magnification of the God has decreed to bring into being from the beginning of creation to Doomsday isdivine speech [i.e. the Quran] and its elevated nature, and the recorded in it (Quran 22:52). It is referred to sometimes as the Tablet, sometimes asbounty of God (glorified and exalted is He!) and His kindness a Clear Book, and sometimes as a Clear Imlm. See az-Zamakhsharf, op. cit. II, 363, ,towards His creatures [i.e. men] in descending from the throne of 539; al-Ghazafi, Ibya IV, 504-505. 162 Qlf is the name of the mountainHis majesty to the level of their understanding. range surrounding the earth. like the Hebrews and the Greeks in the period of Homer, Hesiod and the Ionian physicists, the ancient The Quran-reader should consider how God showed kindness Arabs usually regarded the earth as a quite flat, circular disc. The mountain Qaf istowards men in delivering to their understanding the meanings of separated from the disc of the earth by a region impassable to men. Another viewHis speech which is His eternal attribute existing with His connected with Greek and Iranian ideas regards the earth as immediately surroundedessence. 159 [He should also consider] how that attribute is revealed by a stinking, unnavigable body of water called al-Bahr al-Muhit, or Uqiyinus (Okeanos) which in whole or part is veiled in deep darkness and whose shores no one 159 This is the Asharite view which is in sharp contrast with the well known knows. The whole, earth and sea, is then held together by the mountain wall Qaf as by a ring. See M. Streck, "Saf , EI, II, 614-615. 56 57
  • 28. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN MENTAL TASKS IN QURAN-RECITATIONupon them!) join together to bear a single letter they will not be able near to their own sounds so that they may be able to understandtodo so until Israfil IM (may peace be upon him!) who is the angel him. 165entrusted with the Preserved Tablet, comes to it and lifts it; and he "In like manner, human beings are unable to understand thebecomes able to bear it by the permission of God (great and mighty speech of God (great and mighty is He!) to its inmost depth and toisHe!) and by His mercy, not by his own power and ability but God the perfection of its attributes. sounds which they (i.e. So it, in(great and mighty is He!) has bestowed upon him the power to do human beings) use among themselves and through which they havethis and employed him in this task. heard divine wisdom, has become like the sound of calling and A certain wise man has very carefully explained the manner of whistling which the lower animals have heard from men. This didGods kindness meanings of His speech, despite its in delivering the not prevent the meanings of divine wisdom, hidden in thoseexalted nature, to mans understanding and His strengthening him attributes, from making the speech, i.e. sounds, noble because ofdespite his imperfect status. This wise man has set forth a parable the nobility of divine wisdom and magnified because of the magnifi-which he told in full. This as follows: A wise man invited [280] a cation of it. The sounds have become [like] the body and thecertain king to the Shan a (revealed law) of prophets (may peace be dwelling place for divine wisdom, and divine wisdom has become [like] the soul and spirit for the sounds. Just as human bodiesupon them!). The king questioned him concerning several matters are[related to the oneness of God]. The wise man answered in such a honoured and respected because they are the dwelling place for theway that the king was able to understand. 164 Then the king asked so the sounds of divine speech are considered noble because 166 soul,him, "Tell me, concerning that which the prophets bring [from of the divine wisdom that exists in them. The divine speech has anGod], when a claim is made [by them] that it is not the speech of a exalted status, a high grade, a subduing authority, and is an executorhuman being but the speech of God (great and mighty is He!), how of judgement in respect of truth and falsehood. It is the just judge,can man understand it?" The wise man replied, "We have seen that the pleasing witness, and one which commands and prohibits.when a man seeks to make some lower animals and birds understand Falsehood has no power to stand up in front of divine speech filledwhat he wants them to do, such as to proceed, to delay, to come with wisdom, 167 just as a shadow is unable to stand up in front offorth,and to turn back, and [when he] sees that the discriminating sun-rays. Human beings have no power to penetrate into the depthsense of these lower animals [and birds] falls short of understanding of divine wisdom, just as they have no power to penetrate with theirhis speechwhich proceeds from the lights of his intellects and which eyes into the light of the sun itself. They, however, attain from thehas beauty, adornment and flowering of order — then he descends light of the sun itself only that which their eyes can bear and whichto the level of the discriminating sense of the lower animals and enables them to seek information about their needs. Divine speechdelivers his intentions to these animals through sounds made then is like a veiled king whose face is unknown [but] whose decree issuitable to them, such as calling and whistling, and through sounds carried out, like the sun which is mighty and obvious [but] the 163 Israfil is the greatest of all angels. His greatness brought to the mind by such is essence of which hidden, and like shining stars by which one, isexpression as: While his feet are under the seventh earth, his head reaches up to the although not acquainted with their course, goes in the right way. Itpillars of the throne of God. He is in charge of the Preserved Tablet. He is called the is, then, the key to precious treasures, a drink of life from which, ifpossessor of the trumpet, because since the start of creation he has continually beenholding the trumpet to his mouth and will have been continually holding it in the anyone drinks, he does not die, and a medicine from which, ifsame way until the Doomsday in order to be able to blow at once as soon as God givesthe order for the blast. He will blow it twice. When the first sounding is given all that » 6S Cf. Ottf, 1. 101.b in the heavens and all that is in the earth will be struck senseless, save only those 166 In Islam the soul man while the body is only its necessary vehicle or is the realwhom God pleases. [After forty years] he will blow it again and they will immediately instrument. Through instrument the soul achieves perfection and provision for this itsbe standing up looking around (Quran 39:62), and then 44-48, will move towards the field eternal life in the Hereafter. For a discussion on this see Quasem, Ethics, pp.of resurrection for judgement. 72-74.im <u*i <U-JV (BE: <_4i <u^ V ). 167 Cf. Quran 41:42. 58 59
  • 29. MENTAL TASKS IN QURAN-RECITATION THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE OUR AN anyone takes a dose, he does not fall ill." ,68 attributes, His majesty and His works. Thus when the idea of the The words of the wise man are a fragment of what is needed for throne [of God], of the heavens, of the earth, and of all that is one to understand the meaning of divine speech. More than this is between these two, such as the jinn, 171 man, other moving not appropriate to the creatures, and trees, comes to his mind, and he knows with certainty science of practical religion (Urn al- [a] that the creator of all of these, who has power over them and who muamala). So one should be content with this. sustains them, is the One Who has no partner, and [b] that all, being within the grip of His power, move between His bounty and [2] mercy and between His revenge and assault if He bestows favour — The second mental task is magnification of the Speaker [in the upon them this is through His bounty and if He punishes them this is Quran]. by His justice 172 _ and [c] that He is the One Who says, "These f At the of Quran-recitation the reciter should bring to his start [i.e. the people on the right] will go to Paradise and Ido not hesitate mind magnification of the One Who speaks [in the Quran, i.e. to do this, and these [i.e. the people on the left] will go to Hell and I God], and should realize that what he is reading is not the speech of do not hesitate to do this", and this is the end of magnification and a human being, and that in the recitation of the speech of God elevation — then reflection on these and other, similar things will (great and mighty is He!) there is an extreme danger, because God bring to the mind of the Quran- reader the magnification of the (exalted is He!) said, "Only those who are clean can touch it" Speaker [in the Quran, i.e. God] first and then the magnification of(u^kJl VI w* V)."9 Just as the external side of the leather oimu$haf the speech [i.e. the Quran]. and pages are protected against the external skin of a person who itstouches it except when he is pure [both physically and ritually], so [3]also its meaning is veiled, by the authority of its greatness internaland might, from the internal aspect of the reciters mind, except The third mental task is to pay attention and abandon the innerwhen it is pure from all defilement and is illuminated by the light of utterances of the soul (hadith an-nafs). 173magnification and reverence. Just as every hand is not fit for In the explanation of [the verse], "Yahya, hold fast thetouching the leather of mushaf, so also every tongue is not fit to Book"(;>i ^UOi-ii t(/oy J}, 174 it is means to said that "hold fast"recite its letters, nor every mind fit to understand its meanings. read with serious endeavour and diligence. Holding the Book with It isdue to such magnification that Tkrima Ibn Abl Jahal, 170 when he serious endeavour consists in ones being isolated with it whenopened the musfyqfTor reading, used to fall reading it and turning all ones attention to it and away from other faint saying, "This is thespeech of my Lord, this is the speech of my Lord!" Thus the things. A certain gnostic was asked, "When you read the Quranmagnification of the speech [i.e. the Quran] does your soul make inner utterances concerning any matter?" He is [in effect] themagnification of the Speaker [i.e. God]. replied, "Is there anything preferable to the Quran so that my soul 171 See supra, n. 11. Magnification of the Speaker [in the Quran, i.e. God] will never 172 This is an article of faith (aqlda) according to the People of the Sunna and thecome to [the mind of] the Quran-reciter unless he reflects on His Community (AM as-Sunna wa l-Jamaa). For an explanation of it see al-GhazalT, IM Al-Ghazallhas taken this parable from al-Makkls Ihya, I, 91. Qut, 1, 101-102. 173 Yahya Ibn Zakariyya (John the Baptist) was 169 a prophet mentioned in the Quran Quran 56:79. 170 Ikrima Ibn Abl Jahal (d. along with Jesus, Elijah (Ilyis) and a few other prophets (Quran 3:39, 6:85, 19:7, 15. A.H./636 A.D.) was a companion of the Prophet. 19:12, 21:90). The Book mentioned in the Quranic verse 19:12 is the Torah, theHe embraced Islam in 8 A.H. Just as before conversion he took a leading part against Pentateuch. Yahya did not receive a special revelation from God; his mission was onlyIslam so also after conversion he showed great zeal for it, and both during and afterthe lifetime of the Prophet rendered remarkable services to the cause of Islam. He to confirm the word of God; God gave him understanding of the Torah. See B. Carra de Vaux, "Yahya, " SEI, p. 640.died as a martyr (shahtd) in the fighting in Syria. See Ibn, Abd al-Barr, op. cit., Ill,148-51. m Quran 19:12. 61 60
  • 30. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN MENTAL TASKS IN QURAN-RECITATIONmay make inner utterances concerning it?" A certain righteous order that pondering over it inwardly may be strengthened. All Ibnfather (bad as-sataf), if he read a verse without giving the full with him!) said, "There is no good in AblTalib (may God be pleasedattention of his mind to it, used to read it a second time. [by its agent], nor in a devotional act which is not understood This attribute [i.e. attention of the mind to the verses recited] is pondered over." Quran-reading which is notgenerated from the preceding attribute which is magnification [of the Since pondering over verses is only strengthened by repetitionthe Speaker], because a person who magnifies the speech [of God] when he is performing ritual reciter should repeat them, exceptwhich he is reciting draws a good omen from it, has warm relations imam. 179 [In ihis case] if he is still engaged in prayer following an and In the Quran present that withwith not inattentive to by the imam] whereas the imam has it is it. is pondering on a verse [recitedwhich the soul can have warm relations if the reciter is fit for it. How be a sinner. He is like a man passed on to another verse, he willcan it seek an intimate connection with the thought of anything uttered by a person whispering to whose astonishment at a sentenceother than the Quran, seeing that the reciter is in a pleasant him keeps him from understanding the remaining part of what thatplace 175 and a place relieved of cares [281], and one who is relieved engaged 176 person says. Likewise [the follower will be a sinner] if he isof cares in a pleasant place does not think of another place? It is bowing (tasbih ar-rukuy* but is in the glorification of God in thesaid that in the Quran are to be found fields, gardens, closets, an stillthinking on a verse [read by his imam or by himself]. This isbrides, brocades, meadows, and khans. AH mints are the fields of Abd suggestion [given by Satan]. It is related from Amir Ibn evilthe Quran; all ras are the gradens; all ha s are its closets; all suras 181 suggestions overwhelm me in ritual Qays that he said, "Evilstarting with the glorification of God are its brides, suras starting He was asked "Concerning wordly matters?" He all replied, prayer."with the letters ba rnim are its brocades, all the suras in which laws, But my mind "I would prefer to be pierced by spear-heads to that. expounded are meadows, and other parts of and engaged in thought about standing in front of God (greatstories, etc. are its all itare its, khans. When the Quran-reader enters into the fields of the is mighty is He! ) [on the Day of Judgement] m and about how I shallQuran, plucks different types of fruits from gardens, enters into depart from there [being one of those received by God its or those wears the brocades, is relieved of cares, closets, views the brides,its rejected]." He considered this an evil suggestion [despite its being aand dwells in the khans, then all these absorb him wholly and keep because it kept religious thought] It was really an evil suggestion,him from things other than these; consequently his mind cannot be him from understanding the ritual prayer in which he was engaged.inattentive, nor can his thought be separated. him in an Satan is only able to deceive a man like him by engaging important religious thought but thereby preventing him from that which is the best. When the words of Amir were mentioned [4] to The pondering [over the verse recited]. fourth mental task is 177 al-rlasan he said, "If you are truthful in relating his words, God hasThis is more than attention of the mind, because sometimes [it so not ordered that for us."happens that] a man who is reading the Quran is not thinking about It is related that [one night] the Prophet (may God bless him andanything else but is confining himself to listening to it, whereas he is 179 See supra, n. 123. ,..„-. my T j thenot pondering over it. 180 The formula of this glorification is: ^i ^ oU-. Lord, (glorified is *t. The purpose of reading the Quran is to ponder over it. For this great!). e Tradrtiomst of manner 4 al-Anban, a Follower, was an ascetic and Abd Qays,reason it is sunna to read the Quran in a slow and distinct 181 Amir Ibn of m Basra. He died in Damascus during the caliphate of Muawiya. In the eyes(tartll). Reading the Quran in this manner outwardly is sunna in whose sayings have been preserved, but posterity he is not only an eloquent man 17S >y^A (BE: v^)- 176 ^ u>^Ji (BE: ^1*>^-Jl>. eight principal ascetics among the Followers, sufism, which includes him among the 177 Cf. — "Do they not ponder over the Quran or that Quran 47:24 is it their still recognizes him as a forerunner and attributes to him a number of miracles. Seeminds are locked up from within?" al-Munawu op. cit., 1, 128f. Quran 73:4 — "Recite the Quran 178 Cf. a slow and manner." in distinct i« This refers to the Quranic verse 79:40-41 62 63
  • 31. MENTAL TASKS IN QURAN-RECITATION THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN [sometimes] on every Friday, [sometimes] every month, and greet him!) read "In the name of God, Most Gracious, Ever MercifulV^v^l -*" ^m and repeated it twenty times. Cer- [sometimes] every year. For the last thirty years I have been trying to complete the reading of the entire Quran [with deep understanding he (may God bless him and greet him!) repeated it tainly in order to of its meanings] but have not yet been able to do so." These ponder over its meanings. It is related from Abu Dharr that he said, differences are according to different depths of his pondering over "One night the Messenger of God (may God bless him and greet the Quran and of his discovery of its meanings. This gnostic also him!) kept vigil at night along with us. He kept vigil repeating a used to say, "I have put myself in the place of servants in the matter single verse You punish them [i.e. people] surely they which If is, are your servants, and if You forgive them surely You are of devotion. I perform acts of devotion on four different courses — the Wise ( TamTm ad-Darl 186 ^jJi jj" ^ ,*>>£ Jj the Mighty, t ^U ^i ^Jui ji ). m *• ss by the day, by the week (Friday), by the month and by the year." kept vigil one night with this verse: "Do those [5] who commit evil deeds imagine that We shall make them as those who believe and do good deeds in life and in death? How evil is that which they judge! "(<?YicA &.JJI J"* 7c„.f. C >. Said Ibn Jubayr 188 — The recited]. fifth mental task is understanding [the meaning of verses kept vigil one night repeatedly reciting the verse, "[A This to seek, from [the meaning command will is of] every verse [recited], go forth on the Day of Judgement:] Separate Yourselves explanations which befit it, since the Quran encompasses the [from the righteous] this day, O you guilty ones" (j>v»mJi 1*1 *Ji ^i,). 18 * discussion of the attributes of God (great and mighty is He!), , f A certain righteous father said, "I start reading a sura and then discussion of His works, the discussion of the circumstances ofsome [wonderful meanings] which I view in it keeps me from prophets (may peace be upon them!), the discussion of the circum-completing it until the dawn appears." A certain pious man stances of those who considered them false and of how they were used tosay, do not reckon that there is any reward for reading "I destroyed, the description of Gods commandments and threats, averse which I do not understand and to which my and the description of Paradise and 191 mind does not Hell.give attention [when I read it]," It is related from Abu Sulayman As for the attributes of God (great and mighty is He!), they aread-Darani that he said, "I certainly recite a verse and put, for example, in His (exalted He!) words, "Like is Him there then remain iswithon it it I thinking for four or five nights. Unless I cut off my do not pass on to another verse." It is related from a thinking certain nothing. j^) w and He is All-hearing, All-seeing" ( in £~~Jiy», t His ( exalted is He!) words, "He [i.e. God] is the ^ 4Si^S ^righteous father that he remained in the Sura of Sovereign, the Most Holy, the Source of Peace, the Bestower of Hud 190 for sixmonths, continuously repeating it and pondering over it. Security, the Protector, the Mighty, the Subduer, the Exalted" A certaingnostic said, "I completed the reading of the entire Quran 183 1M Quran 5:118. <?•*«» 1:1- Quran-reader should reflect on the meanings of these names and ,M An-Nasai, Sunan, Iftitah, 69; Ibn Maja, Sunan, Iqama, 179. attributes of God so that deep connotations may be disclosed to him. 186 Tamim ad-Dari was a great companion of the Prophet. He led an ascetic life Underneath them are hidden meanings [282] which can only beand was regular in keeping vigil at night. He died in Syria. See al-MunawI, op cit I disclosed to those especially favoured [by God] to understand them.50; Ibn Hajar, op. cit. 1, 186; Ibn Abd al-Barr, op. cit. , I 186f , >«7 Quran 45:21. It is to this that All (may God be pleased with him!) indicated by his i<* Said Ibn Jubayr (d. 95 A.H.), one of the leading Followers, was noted for his this sura God commanded him, "Continue to stand upright, as you have beenknowledge of Quranic exegesis, Tradition and jurisprudence, and for his devotion commanded, along with those who have turned wholly to God with you; do not exceedand piety. He transmitted Traditions from a number of great companions of the the bounds; surely God sees very well all that you do" (11:12). This uprightnessProphet. He was killed by Hajjaj Ibn Yusuf. See is not an-NawawT, op. cit. I 216f , an easy matter. 189 Quran 36:59. *>This W All this is discussed in some detail in al-GhazalTs/twaAir, pp. 9-17. the eleventh sura of the Quran consisting is of one hundred and 192 Quran 42:11.twenty-three verses. The Prophet said that this sura 193 Quran 59:23. made his hair white, because in 65 64
  • 32. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN MENTAL TASKS IN QURAN-RECITATIONwords, "The Messenger of God (may God bless him and greet him!) considered in respect of itself, but is not falsehood if its existence isdid not hide from anything which he concealed from people, me considered in respect of the fact that it exists through God (greatexcept that God (great and mighty is He!) bestows upon a man and mighty is He!) and His power. So it has existence by way ofunderstanding of. His. Book." 194 The Quran-reader should be following [God] and is sheer falsehood by way of independencegreedy in seeking this understanding. Ibn Masud (may God be [from God]. This is one of the principles of knowledge achievedpleased with him!) said, "One who wants to acquire [the core through mystical intuition.principles of] the knowledge of the ancients and the moderns should For this reason the Quran-reader — when he reads the words ofdeeply study the Quran". The greatest of all forms of knowledge of God and mighty is He!) which ask "Have you considered (great ,the Quran is under the names of God (great and mighty is He!) and that which you sow?"(6>>; U ^>) M "Have you reflected on the (His attributes; most people could only know about them certain sperm-drop that you emit?Nu>^ U ^I^ub "Have you reflected onmatters suitable to their understanding and could not obtain the water that you drink?"^^ jJJl dji^u w "Have you reflect-knowledge of their depths. ed on the fire that you kindle?"(o^ j* ,Ul ^^t)Mo_ shou, d not As for the works of God (exalted He!), they are discussed, for is confine his thoughts to water, fire, seeds, and sperm-drops. Rather the earth, he should reflect on the sperm-drop and knowexample, in His discussion of the creation of the heavens, first that it is a smalland other things [such as rivers and mountains]. The Quran- quantity of water-like substance the parts of which resemble onereciter should from them the attributes of God (great understand another. Then he should consider how it is [gradually] divided into existenceand mighty is He!), since the existence of a work proves the flesh, bones, nerves and veins and how its limbs take differentof its Agent, and jjie greatness of the former proves the greatness of features — head, hands, legsj liver, heart, and others. Then hethe latter. So he should view in the act the Agent and not the act. should consider those noble attributes that make themselves mani-One who knows the True One sees Him in everything since fest in it — hearing, seeing, thinking and others. Then he should subsists by Himeverything originates from Him, returns to Him, consider the condemnable attributes that appear in it — anger, all in reality. He who does notand belongs to Him. Thus He is the desire, pride, ignorance, lying and quarrelling, as God (exalted issee Him in everything which he sees, is as if he does not know Him. He!) said, "Has not man considered that We have created him fromOne who knows Him knows that everything save God is false a mere sperm-drop? Then he clearly disputes [the existence of hisand that everything will perish except Himself (lit. His face). Creator] Hij~* rr<±j* IjU ft«L; ^ ,uii ui oLjVI^ ^l) *» Then the <The meaning of this is not that everything will be falsehood in a Quran-reader will reflect on these wonders so that he may ascend second condition; rather it is falsehood now if its essence is from them to a higher wonder of these wonders which isihe attribute Sam, Diyyat, 24, 31; Ibn Hanbal, from which these wonders have proceeded. He will 194 An-NasaT. Sunan, Qasama, 13; al-Bukhari, persistently be considering the making so that he will see the Maker. ~ *Musnad, 1, 79. _ _ r the well known Dtwan of Labid As 195 This expression seems to have been derived from for the circumstances of the prophets (may peace be upon (d. 40, 41 or 42 A.H.), an Arab poet of the pagan period who lived into them!),when the Quran-reader hears how they 202 were Ibn Rabla the Prophet in 9 A.H. <an Nawawi, considered the days of Islam and who became a companion of false, beaten, and some of them were [even] killed- he op. tit., II, 70f.; Ibn Hajar, op. cit., HI. 307-309; Ibn Abd al-Barr, op. eft., HI, should al-Ghazahs understand from this Gods (great and mighty 306-310. The verse of the Diwan which seems to have influenced is He!) attribute of independence from His messengers and expression is: j^ ^Ut-V ^ J-^j - jl=>t jjl ^U-U ,^. jS" VI were sent, and that if He destroyed all from those to whom thlv of them this wffl ncrt affS The Prophet "The truest words which any poet has ever spoken." called this verse: Jtnytluj^mjiis kingdom. When he hears of Seeal-Bukhara,5fl*i7», Adab, 90, Manaqib al-Ansar, 26; Ibn Maja, Sunan, Adab, 41. As-Sarraj has also cited Muslim, Sahtfy, Shir, 3-6; this verse of Labid in his Luma , w Quran 56:63~ ~~ ~ Gods help to tlf — — p. 110. 199 Quran 56:68. ^ Quran 56:71 l96 Quran 56:58. 196 Quran 28:88. 202 ^i, which Bomittedjn BE. ^ Quran 36:77. 66 67
  • 33. MENTAL TASKS IN QURAN-RECITATION THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN To fathom it is not the coveted thing inthis respect. One who has noMessengers in the end, he should understand the power of God understanding of what is in the Quran, even though this under-(great and mighty is He!) and His will to further the truth. standing is of the smallest degree, is included in the words of God As for the circumstances of the deniers of God, e.g. the people of (exalted is He!), "Some of them appear to listen 204 to you [i.e.Ad 203 and the people of Thamud, and the evil that happened to Muhammad], but when they [283] go forth from your presence theythem, the Qur an- readers understanding of these should result in a ask those who have been given knowledge: What has he been talkingfeeling of fear of Gods assault and His revenge; and he should give about just now? These are they whose minds God has sealed up"special consideration to his [own] portion of these and remember and ill-manneredthat if he is inattentive [to his religious duties] r#jti J* ^ £~J* 209 That by which God sealed up jtX ^UJjf ?ua J.and deceived by the delay of punishment which is accorded to is [theirminds] consists in the obstacles which we shall soon discuss inhim, divine revenge may overtake him and the sentence [of punish- connection with the obstacles of understanding [the Quran], It isment] may be executed. said [by a gnostic], "A novice cannot be a [perfect] novice until he when the Quran-reader hears the descriptions of Likewise, finds in the Quran everything that he wants and until he canParadise and Hell and all other things in the Quran, e.g. promises distinguish between decreasing and increasing [from benefitsand threats, hope and fear, he should try to understand the reading it] and feels sufficient with his Master as opposed to people."meanings proper to each case. It is not possible to enquire about 205that which will be understood from this description, for that has [6]no end, but everyone gets from it 206 that measure of valid under- The sixth mental task is getting rid of the obstacles to thestanding which is vouchsafed to him. There is nothing green nor drybut is is recordedin a ClearBook ( w-Tell [people]: If the ocean became ink for Vi ^t, Y, J»j *i ).» [transcribing] the words of ^J 7 understanding of the Quran. Most people are hindered from understanding the meanings of the Quran for reasons and veils let down on their minds by Satan somy Lord, surely the ocean would be exhausted before the words of my that the wonders of the secrets of the Quran have become obscure tolord came to an end, even though We augmented it with the like of it* them. The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "Had yi -ja -^ -^ 1 M j^ W -&) ,^>j oU53 bu. ^Jl jS J ji( ijj* -ou, ^ ). 208 It is for this reason that AH (may God be pleased it not been the case that Satans hover round about the minds of the sons of Adam, they would have been able to look at the invisiblewith him!) said, "If I willcan load seventy camels with the exegesis I we world (malakut)." The meanings of the Quran are among theof the Sura of the Opening of the Book." The purpose of what sum-total of the invisible world. Everything which is beyond thehave discussed above is only to indicate the method of understanding sensesand which can only be apprehended by the light of spiritual [Quranic verses] so that the door of it may be opened to the reciter. insight (nur al-basira) belongs to the invisible world. The veils obstructing the understanding of the Quran are four in M3i an ancient tribe mentioned in the Quran as well as in pre-Islamic poetry. Ad is It was a mighty nation that lived immediately after the time of the prophet Noah, number. The first is the direction of all care to the exact pronuncia- and became haughty on account of its great prosperity. It disobeyed the prophet Hud tion of the letters, by producing them from their right places [in the who was one of its people, and on account of this, they were, with the exception of mouth and tongue]. This done by a Satan entrusted with Quran- is Hud and a few pious men, swept away by a violent storm. See Quran 7:65, 74, 9:70, readers in order to turn them away from understanding the 11:50, 59. 60, 14:9, passim. meanings of the words of God (great and mighty is He!). This Satan 204 Thamud is the name of one of those old Arabian peoples whichhad disappeared always induces them to echo the letters [of the divine speech], some time before the advent of Islam. The prophet Salih was sent to guide this people along the right path. The whole people wr s destroyed when it disobeyed him. See making them imagine that they have not come out from the right Quran 7:73. 9:70. 11:61.68. 95, 14:9, passim. places. When the thought of a Qugafercader is th us confined to 205 *- (ZB: ^-). ** *-* » omitted in f>E. »7 Quran 6:59. 209 Quran 47: 16. Hfi Quran 18:109. 69 68
  • 34. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN MENTAL TASKS IN QURAN-RECITATIONright places for pronouncing the letters of the Quran how can itsmeanings be fully clear to him? The greatest laughing-stock of Satan become strengthened in his mind it would have led to a secondis one who obeys him in a deception like this. meaning and a third, which would be inter-connected. But he The second veil is the Quran-readers being a purely dogmatic hastens to drive this meaning away from his mind, because itfollower {muqallid) of a school of thought (madhhab) which is contradicts his false belief which is held purely dogmatically.derived from an authority, and on which he has remained very firm Sometimes purely dogmatic following of an authority is true [in itself], but it too becomes an obstacle towith a strong mental zeal, by merely following what he has heard, understanding [thewithout arriving at it by spiritual insight and mystical vision meanings of the Quran] and to the unveiling of them. The truth in(mushahada). This is a person whose belief has shackled him from which man is obliged to believe has stages and grades, and it has an external beginning and angoing beyond it. So it is not possible that any idea other than that in internal end. Concentration of manswhich he has believed should come to his mind. Thus his considera- nature on the external aspect prevents him from reaching the internal end. [This constitutes a veil], as we have discussed intion is limited to what he has heard. If a distant flash of lightning [ofknowledge] seen and one of the meanings [of a Quranic verse] connection with the distinction between the external and is internalwhich is opposite to the meaning he heard [from an authority] knowledge made in The Book of the Articles ofFaith. 2l2appears to him, then the Satan of purely following a school of The third veil is mans insistence upon sin, or his being charac- terized by pride, or his being, in general, afflictedthought dogmatically attacks him severely, saying, "How can this with worldly come to your mind, seeing that contradictory to passion which he follows. These cause the darkness of the[new] meaning it is soul and its rust, 213 and are comparable to dirtthe meaning in which your forefathers believed?" So he considers accumulating upon a mirror.the new meaning as a deception from Satan, and he remains at a So they prevent the truth from reflecting upon the soul. They constitute the greatest of all veils of the soul, and it is by them thatdistance from it and guards himself against the like of it. For a reason similar to this the sufls have said that knowledge most people are veiled [from the meanings of the Quran]. When worldly desires greatly accumulate [in the soul] the(Urn) is a veil [between man and God], and by this knowledge they meanings of divine speech are greatly veiled. When [worldly] burdenshave meant those beliefs {aqaid) which most people have been on the soul are made light, reflection on its meaning becomes near.firmly holding either by dogmatically following an authority or by Thus the soul is like a mirror, desires are like rust, themere reliance on casuistic sentences written by zealots of schools of meanings of thethought and delivered to them. As for the real knowledge which is Quran are like forms which are visible in a mirror, and training the soul by removing [worldly] desires is like polishing ofthe uncovering of the actual condition of the thing known and which the mirror. a vision by the light of spiritual insight, how can be a veil, seeing For this reason the Prophet (may God bless him and greetis it himt)that it is the ultimate object of desire? said, "Ifmy community considers gold and silver coins [i.e. wealth] Pure dogmatic following of an authority (taqlTd) is sometimes something great, the awe of Islam will be pulled away from as it [by God]. If it abandons the imperatives of goodness and and is, therefore, an obstacle to the understanding offalse [in itself] the prohibitionthe meaning [of the Quran]. An example of this is a man who has a of evil be deprived of the blessings of revelation." it will Fudayl —[purely dogmatic] belief that Gods istiwa on the throne 210 means commented, "That is, they will be deprived of the understanding of the Quran." God (great and mighty is He!) hasHis being settled on it physically. Then in the case of [the divine made turning toname] the Holy One {al-Quddus)} n for example, there comes to Him in repentance (inaba) a stipulation for the understanding of the Quran and for the receipt of admonition.his mind the meaning that He is pure from all that is ascribable to Thus He (exalted is He!)^aid, "... a matter for contemplation and a source of admoni-His creation; but that purely dogmatic belief of his does not make itpossible for this meaning to be firmly implanted in his mi nd. Had it 2W Quran 7:54. 10:3. 13:2. 20:5. 25:59. 33:4, 57:4^ ill J Qur an &UJ^oI: I. J«^ * ** SeC°nd (o9-125). book of the by* consisting of thirty-six large pages 213 *;ju*<ZE: »Ijl*». 70 71
  • 35. MENTAL TASKS IN QURAN-RECITATION QUR AN THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE prohibition [contained in a Quranic verse] he will suppose that he is -^ J53 4#» i>^)- 2I4 the man commanded or will suppose that he is the man to whom thetion for every servant that turns to Us" (v-^God (great and mighty is He!) also said, "None pays heed save he who prohibition applies. If he hears any promise of reward or any threat * /* ^. 2,s God (exalted He!) further of punishment, he will make the same assumption. If he hearsturns to God" <-* j> is understanding who take heed stories of the ancientsand the prophets he will know that they aresaid, "It is only those gifted with not intended for chatting in the evening [by narrating them]; what is(JLN lyy/i* Lit) 21 * The man who has preferred the deception of is not among those intended is that they should be considered; from their manifoldthis world to the delight of the Hereafter, [284] why deep meanings of the descriptions should be derived the lesson which is needed. Thegifted with understanding, and this is narration of every story in the Quran is only intended to provideBook are not revealed to him. some benefit to the Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) and The fourth veil is present when a man has read the outward Quranic to his community. This is why God (exalted is He!) referred to it asexegesis of the Quran and has formed the belief that which have come down by "that whereby We make your mind firm"(ibiy <o c-^i L). no Thesentences have only those meaningstradition from Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, and other exegetes [from the Quran-reader should suppose that God has made his mind firm by 221 going beyond them are narrating in it the stories of prophets, their patience whileleading Followers {tabilin), that meaningsinterpretations of the Quran by personal opinion (tafsir bi-r-ray), suffering [due to the actions of their people] , and their firmness in religion while waiting for help from God (exalted is He!). How canand that he who has explained the Quran by his personal opinion 217 This too is one of the great veils he not suppose this, seeing that the Quran was revealed to thehas taken his place in Hell. understanding the meaning of the Messenger of God not only for him especially, but a spiritual cure,[which prevent the mind from a guidance, a mercy, 222 and a light for all the worlds?Quran]. We soon discuss the meaning of explanation of the shallQuran by personal opinion, in the fourth chapter [of this book]. We For this reason God (exalted is He!) commanded all to be grateful 218 the [to Him] for His favour in sending down the Book. Thus He (greatshall also argue there the views [a] that this belief contradicts with him!), "Except that God and mighty is He!) commanded, "Keep in your mind the favour thatwords of All (may God be pleased 219 and [b] that if God has bestowed upon you and that which He has sent down to youbestows understanding of the Quran upon a man," only that which has come of the Book and wisdom, through which He exhorts you"the correct meaning of the Quran weredown by tradition [from the leading exegetes], people would not ( ^ fj&n ,<jCJlj v L£l jm ,£0* jj U, Xac ju r i^ jjjj ). 223 Godhave disagreed on it. (great and mighty is He!) also said, "We have sent down to you a Book which contains admonitions for you; will you not then under- stand?" ( fi^u-3 5*ii .fSJ* <-i ,hS jXJi U>1 juJj ) 224 We have sent [7] down Reminder [i.e. the Quran] to you that you may expound this Quran] The seventh mental task is to render [the teachings of the to the people[Our commandments] which have been sent down to specific. This means that the Quran-reader will suppose that every them [through you]" (^l J>U ^LaJ j_d jj} jji U>lj) 225 "Thus part of the Quran is intended for him. If he hears any command or does God set forth to people their true conditions" ( <&• vj-^ ^^ ^li.1 ^LU) 226 "Follow the highest of the commandments that have 214 Quran 50:8. This verse in its full form runs thus: "We have spread out the been sent down to you from your Lord" ( ^M J> l* j—* l^wij and placed therein firm mountains; and We have caused to grow therein all earth, kinds of beautiful species in pairs; a matter for contemplation and a source of r^j o*). 2" "These teachings are manifest proofs for people, and a admonition for every servant that turns to Us." guidance and a mercy for a people who have sure faith" ( >U<* la* 215 Quran 4:13. This verse in its complete form is: "It is He Who shows you His heed save he who 220 Quran 11:120. 221 «j (BE: *JU 222 cf. Quran 17:82, provision for you from heaven, but none pays > . signs, and sends down 223 Quran 2:231. 224 Quran 21:10. 22sQuran 16:44. 226 Quran 47:3. turns to God." _ „ 217 At-Tirmidhi, Sunan, Tafsir, 1. 227 Quran 39:55. 216 Quran 13: 19. 2 9 See supra, n. 194 218 J&i (BE: >WN! 73 72
  • 36. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN ^*. ^ r ^ ^ <s-^j people, a guidance and admonition for the ). 228 "This Quran is an exposition for the Godfearing" ( jL j* MENTAL TASKS IN QURAN-RECITATION The eighth mental task is to feel the Quran. This means that the i mind of the Quran-reader will be affected by different feelings according to the different verses recited. Thus in accordance Since Gods message is intended for with all people, it is intended for individuals as well. Thus this what his mind understands, he will be in a state of grief, fear, Quran-reader, an individual, is hope, intended. He has nothing to do with and soon. other people. Thus he should suppose that he is the one [for whom the Whenever the Quran-readers knowledge [of the meaning of message is] intended God verses recited] (exalted is He!) said, "[Tell people:] This is perfect his fear will be the most predominant of all Quran is revealed to me so the states of the soul.that through it I may warn you and The quality of making the mind straitened and whomever it reaches"icy 0-J «* rW ->>>* ** J s-Jj).** Muhammad Ibn al-QurzT sorrowful predominates Quranic verses. Thus the mention forgiveness and divine mercy is always seen to be of divinesaid, "One whom the Quran reaches accompanied by is as if spoken to by God." stipulations which the reader falls short of attaining. An example of If the Quran-reader supposes that every part of the Quran isintended for him he will not take up [mere] study of has his duty-* is the words of God, "Verily I am Most this Forgiving" JW- 1 ^ mrather he will read it just as a slave reads Then God made this to be followed by four stipulations: "towards the writing of his masterwho has written to him so that he may think on it and him who repents, believes, does good deeds, and then is rightlyto it. For this reason a certain religious act according guided"<^-^t ^ WU jrfj j*j,Ji jj)3jr Another example is the scholar said, "This Quran speech of God (exalted is He!), "I swear by time, surely man suffersconsists of treatises which have come to us from our Lord (great and continuous loss, except those who believe, do good deeds, exhortmighty is He!) bearing His covenants. We one ponder over them in ritual another to hold fast to the truth, and exhort oneprayers, busy ourselves with them in quiet another toin acts of obedience to places and God and in following the execute them Sunna of the patience"( J*>1* IHw -oUJLJi 1^, ^1 ^jji yi -r-HflHw). 238 Here God has mentioned four stipulations ^Jij ^^ jl^VI jProphet." Malik Ibn Dinar 232 used to say, but "The Quran is not when He is content [with the mention of a single stipulation] Heplanted in your minds, O people concerned has with it. Surely it is thatwhich should cause the flowering of the believer pointed out a stipulation which covers all [the stipulations mention- in spring just as rain ed above]. Thus He (exalted is He!) said, "Surely the mercy ofis which causes] the flowering of the earth in spring" [that Qatada 233 God is near to those who carry out their duty to the said, "No one sits in the company up, having been harmed or benefited of the Quran without standing by it." God (exalted is He!) (j~~o*Ji ^ ^ ^ j,i 239 jD. The stipulation of carrying out utmost" ones said 234 -That (i . e . ^the^behevers; but it only impels the . Qur an) is a tspirituaI] CUfe an(J a for m duty to the utmost includes all [stipulations]. Such method will be found by one who examines the as this Quran from its beginning to wrongdoers into great ruin" the end.The man who understands this in his Quran-recitation will be a mental state of fear and grief. For this reason al-tfasan in said, [•] "I swear by God, a man who, in the morning, recites the Quran 2» Quran 45:20. 12, Quran 3: 138< ^ Qur>M| fi . J9 believing in it, will find that his grief increases and his joy decreases, 231 Totake up mere study of the Quran as a duty his weeping increases and is also condemned in his laughter decreases, and his wearinessal-Ghazali sJawahir, pp. 8f. and work increase while his rest and relaxation decrease." 232 Malik Ibn Dinar (d. 181 A.H.), a Follower, was a leading ascetic of Basra. He Wuhaybemphasized love of God and hope of divine mercy. Ibn al-Ward said, "We have considered Traditions and sermons See al-MunawT, op. cit. , 1, 154-57 but 233 Qatida Ibn Diama (d. 117or 118 A.H.), a Follower, was an exegete, have not found anything which moves the heart more, jurist and nor anythingtrustworthy Tradittonist. He was also a which drags grief [to the mind] more strongly than scholar of Arab poetry. See anNawawT, op. reading the«.. H 57f. ; adh-Dhahabi, TSdkkiru al-Huffuz. Hyderabad, Quran, understanding India. 1333-34, I, it and pondering over it.""MU; £ . JU(BE: JUT ju. xs Quran 17:34. —A Q 236 man, the n, ur an MM- 237 is affected by Quran-recitation by being Quran 20:82. charac- ~ 23s Quran 103:1-5; M9 Qurtn 7:56. 74 75
  • 37. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN MENTAL TASKS IN QURAN-RECITATIONterized by the quality of the verse recited. Thus when reading a versewhich warns and restricts divine forgiveness to those who fulfil [really] afraid of punishment, then he is a [mere] narrator of thecertain stipulations, he will make himself so small as if for fear he is verse. When he says "In You do we put our trust, to You do we turn in repentance, and to You is the final return" ^Uj USy dLkabout to die. When a verse on promise of forgiveness is recited he ( . 246 j~*J jJij ,Lji but has no mental states of trust and turning inwill rejoice as if he flies for [285] joy. When God, His attributes and J repentance, then he is a [mere] narrator [of the words of this verse].names are mentioned, he will bow his head in submission to Hismajesty and in awareness of His greatness. When he reads a verse on When he says, "We will surely continue steadfast under your perse- cution" Ui^jjjl U js. ojy^Jj 247 his state should be that of stead-the infidels belief in an impossible thing for God (great and mighty ( ),is He!) — e.g. their belief that God (great and mighty is He!) has a fastness [against the opponent] or firmness in it so that he will findchild 240 and a consort — he will lower his voice and be broken- , the sweetness of recitation. If he is not distinguished by these quali-hearted in bashfulness because of the evil 241 of what they have ties and if hismind does not frequently experience these states, his part in Quran-recitation will [only] be the movement of the tonguebelieved. When Paradise is described he will produce in his mind a [which is of no use] and which, moreover, brings an explicit curse onyearning for it; but when Hell is described he will tremble for fear ofit. himself, as mentioned [a] in the words of God (exalted is He!), "Take notice, the curse of God upon wrongdoers!" ( J* Jii <^> Vl is The Messenger of God (may God bless him and greet him!) once •j^JUiSl); 248 [b] in the words of God (exalted is He!), "Most hateful issaid to Ibn Masud, "Read the Quran to me." He said, "I started 242 it in the sight of God that you should say that which you do not do"reading the Sura of Women (Sura an-Nisa J, and when I reached (oy^& VU lyyu j *iiUL£ Ui.JJ); 249 [c] in the words of God (great andthe verse How will it be when [on the Day of Judgement] We shallbring a witness from every people, and shall bring you [i.e. might is He!), "Yet they are heedless and turn away" ( «aa* ,> r*j ojJ>j*A );2so [d] in the words of God, "So turn away from him whoMuhammad] as a witness against these? ( <*l j£ ^ lu* | ji UlSjb-4^ <Vy* js. jLUuj,j-4.ij) saw his eyes shedding tears. Then he 243 J turns away from the remembrance of Us, and seeks nothing exceptsaid, Stop now 244 t This is because thinking about the event which is the life of this world" <^» ***" Vl V^ ^ whoJy O* J~* >/Ul J 251 mind fully. Among the fearers [e] in the words of God (exalted is He!), "Those do not repent arereferred to in this verse engrossed his ^ 1of God there are some who fell faint when reading verses about those who are wrongdoers" ( o^JUill ^ eUJjli <J j*3 );252 and in other verses. The Quran-reader will also be included in the meaningwarnings. Some of them [even] died when hearing Quranic verses. mentioned] exclude the of [a] the words of God (great and mighty is He!), "Some of them Mental states like these [just will are illiterate; they do not know the Book except amdniyya, (i.e. bareQuran-reader from being a mere narrator. When he says "Assu-redly I fear, if I were to disobey my Lord, the punishment of an recitation of it)" (,>W ^ v^ uj-W V jj** r^j) 253 and [b] the 1 ;awful day" ( ^.iJx ^ <cf!J c~-*t j jui r>! ), 245 but is not r J words of God (great and mighty is He!), "How many signs there are in the heavens and in the earth which they pass by, turning away from 240 The belief that God has a child is attributed in the Quran to Christians, Jewsand pagans. For Christians Jesus is the son of God; for Jews Ezra (*Uzayr) is the son Quran-reader will because it is the Quran be included in this verseof God (Quran 9:30); pagan Arabs of pre-Islamic Arabia believed that their deities which explains these signs in the heavensand the earth and when hewere angels whom they considered as daughters of God. Thus walad in Quraniccontexts does not always mean son; sometimes it means daughter; sometimes it passes by them without being affected by them he is [in effect]means both. The context will indicate what is meant in a specific verse and who are turning away from them. For this reason it is said, "When a manaccused in it — Jews or Christians or pagans. who is not endowed with character-traits taught by the Quran reads 241 C* &* ****" *^ u* r-^-} (BE: £? *^i ls* j~-*ij- *^~- 246 Quran 6:4. 242 This is the fourth sura of the Quran consisting of one hundred and seventy-six 247 Quran 14:12. 248 Quran 11:18. 249 Quran 61:3.verses. 250 Quran 21:1. The complete verse is: "The time of reckoning is drawing near for 244 See supra, n.151- Quran 6: 15. 243 Quran 4:41. 245 people, yet they are heedless and turn away . 251 Quran 53:29. 252 Quran 49: 11. 253 Quran 2:78. 254 Quran 12:105. 76 77
  • 38. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN MENTAL TASKS IN QURAN-RECITATION it, God (exalted is He!): asks: What is your relationship with My SP ^ m0Ving thC t0ngUe With ** rounds speech, seeing that you are turning away from ? kSS°? ??* reason a certain Quran-reader of the Quran k light For this Me? Leave aside My said, "I read the speech if you do not turn to Me in repentance. my Spi Ual direCt° r {shaykh) After A sinner, when he reads the Quran repeatedly 2kr«H when f reading v this . I returned to him in th * completion of is like one who order to read it a second time he rebuked me saying, You have [merely] reads the writing of the king several times every day; the made the reading of the Quran £ me a set duty; go and read it to God (great king has written to him in order to make his kingdom prosperous, and mighty is He!) - whereas he is engaged in ruining it and is content with [mere] study of what is Abandoning the study of it while at the same time written. dU ie HC C°mmandS °U t0 *£*¥*" y aTtnf things He prohibits you." It is in this are the ; K- and ^at ^°™ that [286] the opposing the kings order would not seem to be jesting with him and Companions (may God be pleased with them!) were engaged in all would not incur the hatred [of the king]. For this reason Yusuf Ibn conditions and actions. The Messenger of God (may God bless him Asbat said, "I certainly intend to read the Quran, but when I and greet him!) died leaving [in Medina] twenty thousand remember that which is in it I fear Gods hatred and abandon it in favour of glorification of Him and Those who turn away from acting according to the Quran are praying for His forgiveness." SSTT^ m K entirety [even] 0R six of whom memorized the the case of merit* Most of the Companions used Qf ^ ur an in »ts ^ to memorize one sura or ^ ^^ intended in the words of God (great and mighty is He!), "They [i.e. two Anyone who could memorize the [Sura of the] Cow* and those who were given the Book prior to the Quran] threw it [i.e. the the fSura of the] Cattle *3 was considered one of thdr scholars covenant] away behind their backs and bartered it for a paltry price" ^ fW. 6 >mpanion ^ once ca ? Qur an. [In the course of learning ri fto the Prophet] to learn the ™(oir^t l* ^-^i -5^i <> jl^-Ij rp*jj& *bj r^j-VJ ) 255 For this reason the Sura of the Earthquake « a dth W°rdS f °d Gthe Messenger of God (may God bless"Read the Quran so long as your minds are in agreement with it him and greet him!) said, "wL " ,u ; Whoever will have and done the smallest particle of good will ° He!), (great "Wis see it [onand your feelings are receptive to it. When you are in disagreement the Day of Judgement], and whoever will have done the smallestwith it you are not [really] reading it." — in a certain Tradition [is particle of evil will also see iftJUa. 6 j^ "™ ej JU^ ^ ..^ -this variation]: "When you are in disagreement with it stand up andstop reading it." 256 God (exalted is He!) said, "[Believers are only] X meK? J" ! hC SaW S Wi Prophet (may God bless him and " suffice me " and returned homl greet him!) said, "Thisthose whose hearts are smitten with awe when Gods name is men- n ber f COn,Pani ° nStioned and whose faith strengthened when His hu^ISVnTf T ^ °f thC Pf0phet Whcn the ,atter ** was onethem and who put their trusto^r-. J*j 1*1*1 (+Mj is in their <»y (^J* c~u Lord" iij). 257 ( signs are recited to <Hotf <^>j Jw/j The Prophet (may God I j>i ^jji S^^S™" M 00 of whom t ~* thousands were in Medi s- ~ r*ij Jl^JZ 7 rf the ***** w ho are unanimously i !?», considered to have him and memor^d Ae entire Quran during the Prophets lifetime arebless greet him!) said, "The best man in respect of reading Ubayy Ibn Kabthe Quran is he whom, when you hear him reading it, you see fearsGod (exalted is He!)." 2* The Prophet (may God bless him and greethim!) said, "One cannot find a man to read the Quran who is more sa a ion Ubayd. See az-Zabidi, op. cit. IV 522 J^ ,desirable than one who fears God (great and mighty is He!)." Quran-reading,2» then *?? T^ f ra °f « ^ Qur,an COns * Stin of *w° hu°d verses.ItincIudesthewellknownVerseoftheThrone(2-255) «* and eighty-six is intended to bring to the mind these Th,S thC SiXth SUta °f states and to make one act in accordance with the Quran; otherwise ve^es " ** QUr an - ltC°mists °f one hundred *"* sixty-five 2M 255 Quran 3:187. Jnthem^a/ofUthman.tliisistheninery-ninthsuraoftheQuran Itconsist* ** Al-BukharI&iAJ%, Fadail al-Quran.37, 1tisam, 26; Muslim, Saljify, Dm, 3, 4; Qur-Minrespectofvalue. Seelbn^anbal.Jl/wi.orf,IbnHanbaI,Afi««arf,IV,313. HI, 147 221 265 Quran 99:8. 257 Quran 8:2 , 2» Ibn Maja, Sunan, Iqama, 176. 259 ji^illi is omitted in BE. 78 79
  • 39. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN MENTAL TASKS IN QURAN-RECITATION ofman returned being one who has acquired the understanding m state which God The second grade is when a man views with his mind that Godreligion (faqih)" Assuredly a rare thing is that a believers mind (great and mighty is He!) is seeing him, addressing liim(great and mighty is He!) bestows by favour upon with his kindnesses, and secretly conversing with himjust after his understanding [the meaning of] a verse. As for the with his gifts and beneficence. So his stationis one of modesty, magnification,mere movement of the tongue in recitation, it is of little benefit. ing and understanding. listen- turns awayRather, one who recites the Quran with the tongue but The third grade is when a man [feels that he] is seeing thefrom acting [in accordance with it] is fit to be intended [a] in the Speaker [i.e. God] in the speech [i.e. the away Quran] and His attributeswords of God (great and mighty is He!), "Anyone who turns in its hard life, and on the sentences. He does not think of himself, nor his Quran-reading,from My Reminder [i.e. the Quran] will have a the relation of divine gifts to him as the one norDay of Judgement We shall raise him blind" ( j» j/i o* J 0*J ^ upon whom they are bestowed; rather he confines his care to the Speaker,^*il 4jqLjL *jj ojl&UJ ,1$Lj> v- 1 I ... <J), 267 and [b] in the words of God, and concen- trates his thought on Him as if he were engrossed in the vision of the"Thus it is. Our signs came to you and you forgot them; in like Speaker, being divested of thought of anything othermanner will you be forgotten on this day" O .1*—* UU aal S)X is the grade of those drawn near than Him. This "You forget them" means you abandoned them, to God (al-muqarrabun) while the ^^ -jJi jsj$ J. 268 grades preceding it [i.e. the first grade and the t since to short second grade]did not look at them, and did not care about them, fall constitue the grades of people on the right forgotten it. (ashab al-yamm); allof an affair is said to have grades other than these [three] form the grades of Recitation of the Quran in its real sense is an activity in which the inattentive people (al-ghqfilun).**tongue, the intellect and the mind all take part. The part which the and It of the highest grade of Quran-reading istongue plays consists in correct pronunciation of letters in a slow that Jafar Ibndistinct manner. The part played by the intellect lies in explaining Muhammad as-S&Iiq ™ (may God be pleased with him!) reported when he said, "I swear by God, certainly God (greatthe meanings. The part which the mind plays is to accept the and mighty is He!) has revealed Himself to men in His speech,exhortation given and to feel as a result of being checked [against but they do not see Thus the Him." Once Jafar experienced an ecstatic state inthe forbidden things] and obeying the commandments. his ritual prayer so that he fell faint; when he recovered exhorter, the intellect is the translator [of what it he was told what happenedtongue is the and was asked by people concerning cause; he replied, "Iunderstands of the exhortation], and the mind is that which accepts itswas constantly repeating in my mind the Quranic verse [which I wasthe exhortation. reading in that ritual prayer] until I heard it from its Speaker, [287] and then my body could not remain steady [9] because I saw His power." It is at a grade like this that the sweetness of Quran- The ninth mental task the Quran-readers gradually rising to [a is reading and the pleasure of secret conversation with God become state in which he feels that he is] hearing the speech of God from intense. For this reason a certain wise man said, "I used to read the God (great and mighty is He!) and not from himself. Quran but did not find the sweetness of it until I recited it as if I The grades of Quran-reading are three in number. The lowest were hearing it from the Messenger of God (may God bless him and grade is when a man supposes that he is reading the Quran to God greet him!) reciting to his companions. Then rising to a stag e higher and mighty is He!), standing in front of Him, and He is CS h (great looking at him and listening to what he is reading. In this case his JLln espec ally. V T V°T 0fpCOple Kpresent a GhazalTs For the Quranic of man classification classification of believers ^ in general see supra, „. 37 a??a_diq WaS the sixth of the twelve mental condition is one of begging [to God], praising and entreating ™?Tu c ! Ima ~™ of the Shlites He Him and supplicating to Him *tt Abu Dawud, Sunan, Ramadan, 9; Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, II, 169. r^c^- was celebrated Mu am for h.s p.ety i; few other mtellectual disciplines. r *?*- as imam and asceticism, and for - He p,ayed -° ^» knowledge of Tradition and a his He died in Medina in 148 A.H./756 A D S«- »7 Quran 20: 124. *» Quran 20; 126. an-Nawawi. op. tit., 1, 149f. 80 81
  • 40. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN MENTAL TASKS IN QURAN-RECITATIONthan this used to 271 recite the Quran as if I were hearing it from I of,the pious he will not view himself as one of these; rather he will[the angel] Gabriel (may peace be upon him!) who was delivering view those who have the most certain faith and those who are theit to the Messenger of God (may peace be upon him!). Then God most truthful in religion [i.e. the most devout] and will hope thatbrought me to another stage — I now hear it from its Speaker; at God (great and mighty is He!) will join him with them [by raisingthis stage found in the Quran such intense pleasure and delight him to their spiritual status]. When he I recites verses on divinethat could not restrain myself. hatred and divine reproach of the disobedient and I those falling short Uthman and Hudhayfa (may God be pleased with them both!) of [religious duties] he will view himself here and, fearing andsaid, "If mens souls are purified [from evil qualities] they will not be pitying, will suppose that he is the man addressed and intended infully satisfied with Quran-reading; [rather some thirst for it will these verses. For this reason Abd Allah Ibn Umar (may God bealways remain]. They said this only because it is by purification pleased with them both!) used to say in his prayer, "God, I seek the[from evil qualities] that the soul rises to the stage of viewing the forgiveness of You for my injustice and He was asked, infidelity."Speaker in His speech and His attributes in its sentences. For this "[The meaning of this injusticewhat is the meaning of is clear, but] 272reason Thabital-Bunanl said, "Fortwentyyears I struggled [against infidelity here?" In reply he recited the words of God (great andmy lower soul in order to attain] the Quran [at its highest grade] mighty is He!), "Surely man is very unjust and ungrateful" enjoyed the delight of it." By viewing (jJS (T^ oUVl J). 278and [then] for twenty years Ithe Speaker alone — besides all else — [in His speech] a man fully Yusuf Ibn Asbat was asked, "What do you pray for when you readobeys the words of God (great and mighty is He!), "Then flee to the Quran?" He replied, "What I pray for is that I seek the m m "Do notGod" (JW J» hs*Kset up any other god along with Godwho does not see God in everything and His (exalted One sees something other than Him, is V W &? He!) ^W words, s forgiveness of God (great and mighty is He!) for my shortcoming [in Quran-reading] seventy times." Since he saw himself as one shortcomings in Quran-reading, this became a cause of with his nearnessand if there is something other than God to which a man gives to God. For the man who views his distance 279 from God when in aattention, this attention involves an element of hidden polytheism state of nearness [to Him] is shown [by Him] kindness in his state of al-khalis) fear [of Him] so that his fear leads him to another(ash-shrik al-khajT). Rather pure monotheism (at-tawhid degree of nearnessconsists in seeing only God (great and mighty is He!) in everything. beyond the existing one. But he who views his nearness [to God] while in fact being distant [from Him] is deceived by a sense of security [against God] which takes him [10] even further [from God] and lower than his present position. The tenth mental task consists in the Quran-readers getting rid Whenever a man sees himself with the eye of satisfaction he 276of any sense of his ability and power and his looking at himself becomes veiled from God by himself. When, however, he crosses the and purification. 277with the eye of satisfaction limit of looking at himself and does not see in his Quran-reading When the Quran- reader recites verses on promise to, and prais e anything except God (exalted is He!), then the secret of the invisible 27i c^£i<BE:c^S. world revealed to him (d. 123 or 127 A.H.), a native of is directly. Abu Sulayman ad-Daranl (may 272 Abu Muhammad Thabit Ibn Aslam al-Bunam God be Tradition. He pleased with him!) said, "Ibn Thawban promised his Basra, was a celebrated Follower and a trustworthy transmitter of in the recitation of the brother of religion] to break his fast with him [at sunset], [in respect undertook self-training and mortification (riyada wa mujahada) Quran. See Ibn Hajar al-Asqalam, Tahdhib at Tahdhib, Hyderabad, India, 1325-27 but he delayed until dawn. Next day his brother met him and A.H.,H,2ff. n c< _, du *» Quran51:50. 274 is omitted in BE. 275 Quran 51:51. , 278 Quran 14:34. 27 The terms distance (bud), kindness 276 This is based on the Quranic verse 18:39. {lutf), deception (makr), security (amn) and verse (53:32) "So do or their derivatives occur in the Quran several times. In sufism they have veil (hijab), 277 Ascription of purity to oneself is prohibited in the Quranic : not ascribe purity to yourselves. He [i.e. God] knows best him who is truly religious." acquired additional significance and are used as technical terms. 82 83
  • 41. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN MENTAL TASKS IN QURAN- RECITATIONcomplained, "You promised me to break your fast with me and then state of fear and the state of hope], and, according to each of thesebroke the promise." He replied, "Had I not made a promise to you I mental states the mind is prepared for a mystical intuition appro-would not have informed you of what prevented me from going to pnateto it and approaching it, since it is impossible that the mentalyou. [What prevented me was that] on performing the Evening state of the listener will be different from that [i.e. the Quran]Prayer (al- atama) I said to myself that I should perform the Odd which he heard, for in it are the speech of One pleased, the speech of 2* before going to you, since I did not feelPrayer (Sola al-Wifr) One angry, the speech of the Beneficent, the When I speech of the Avengersecure against the possibility of being overtaken by death. he speech of the Most Powerful, the Arrogant Who need not carebecame engaged in the supplication formula 281 of the Odd Prayer I tfor anyone], and the speech of the Compassionate, the Sympathiserfelt I was being lifted to a green meadow where there were different Who does not neglect [anyone].types of flowers from Paradise. I was constantly looking at themuntil the day-break." 283 JMBE: -*JU. These mystical intuitions can only occur after one gets rid of onesself and does not look at ones self with a sense of satisfaction andpurification, nor at ones passion. Then these intuitions becomespecific in accordance with the mental state of the man receivingthem. Thus when he recites verses on hope, and his mental state isdominated by a good omen from them, the image of Paradise comesto him through mystical intuition, as in the case of Ibn Thawban justmentioned, and he views it as if he sees with his eyes. But if feardominates him las a result of reading verses on punishment], thenHell is shown to him through intuition so that he sees its differenttypes of punishment. This is because the speech of God (great andmighty is He!) includes those verses which are kind and witty as well inspire hopeas those which are violent and forceful, and those which as well as those which are frightening. And this is in accordance with Gods attributes, since among His attributes are mercy and kind- ness as well as revenge and violence. Then, in accordance with the Qur an- readers view of Quranic sentences and of divine attributes, his mind alternates 282 in different mental states [e.g. between th e 280 The Evening Prayer is the ritual prayer which is performed after the expiry of the time fixed for the ritual prayer performed immediately after sunset. The period during which it can be performed extends until dawn, but to delay it later than the first third of the night is disliked (makruh) by the Sharia. The Odd Prayer consists of three rakas and performed after the Evening Prayer; its time also extends until dawn; it is is however, better to postpone its performance until after midnight if one is sure to wake up at that time — better because a high degree of concentration on devotion can be achieved at that time and because it can be joined with the Tahajjud Prayer, a supererogatory ritual prayer to be performed immediately after midnight. This supplication formula, together with its English translation, is cited in full in 28i Quasem, Salvation, p. M 2 kJ^ 1 i—J^; _. t! is omitted in BE. 84 85
  • 42. UNDERSTANDING THE QURAN AND ITS INTERPRETATION Existence of Deep, Hidden Meanings of Quranic Venea know that the man who imagines that [In reply to your question] the Quran has no meaning except that which the outward exegesis CHAPTER FOUR has translated [and described] is acknowledging his own limitations; he is right in his acknowledgement [because he knows only thisUNDERSTANDING THE QUR AN, AND ITS measure and is not aware of that which lies beyond this], but is wrong in his judgement which places all other people on the same EXPLANATION BY PERSONAL OPINION level as himself. WHICH HAS NOT COME DOWN The truth is that prophetic Traditions (akkbar) and statements of the Prophets companions and of other pious Muslims in early Islam BY TRADITION (atkar) prove that for men of understanding there is wide scope in the meanings of the .Quran. Thus All (may God be pleased with him!) said, "except that God bestows understanding of the Quran upon a man." 287 If there is no meaning other than that which is his [wrong] personal opinion related [from Ibn Abbas and other exegetes] what is that under- Whoever explains the Quran according to shall take his place in Hell. — prophet Muhammad standing of the Quran [which is bestowed upon a man]? The Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) said, "Surely the The Problem Quran has an outward aspect, an inward aspect, a limit and aYou may perhaps ask: In the preceding section you have magnified prelude." This is also related by Ibn Masud on his own authoritythe matter concerning the understanding of deep meanings of the and he is one of the scholars of Quranic explanation. [If there areQuran (asrar al-Quran) and concerning those meanings of it which no meanings of the Quran besides the outward ones], what is the souls {arbabare unveiled (yunkashif) to people possessed of purified meaning of its outward aspect, inward aspect, limit and prelude? thatal-qulub az-zakiyya) [288]; how can this be praiseworthy seeing All (may God show regard to his face!) said, "If I so will I canthe Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) has said, "The man certainly load seventy camels with the exegesis of the Opening Sura explains the Quran according to his personal opinion (bi- of the Book." Whatwho then is the meaning of this statement of All,rayihi) shall take his place in Hell?" 284 [Because of this prophetic when the outward exegesis of this sura is extremely short M [andTradition] people expert in the outward exegesis of the Quran (zahir can be set forth in a few pages]? Abu d-Darda 289 said, "Oneat-tafsir) have reviled the sufis, i.e. those exegetes 285 who subscribe cannot [fully] understand the religion until one sees the Quran fromto suffsm, and who 2* interprete (taml) certain Quranic sentences different perspectives." A certain religious scholar said, "For everycontrary to the explanations given by Ibn Abbas and other exegetes; Quranic verse there are sixty thousand understandings [comprehen- infidelity. Ifthe revilers maintain that these interpretations [lead to] sible to man]. The understandings of it which remain [incomprehen-what the proponents of outward exegesis have said is correct, what is sible to man] are even more than these in number." Another reli-the meaning of understanding the Quran without memorizing their gious scholar said, "The Quran encompasses seventy- seven is not correct,exegesis? If [on the other hand] what they have said al-Kashani. See az-Zabidt, op. cit. , IV, 526; Muhammad Abul Quasem, "Al-Ghazal?what the meaning of the Prophets statement, "The man who is in Defence of SMstic Interpretation of the Quran", sec. i (forthcoming). 28 7explains the Quran according to his personal opinion shall take his This saying ofAllis cited in its full form in the preceding chapter. 2W,UiVi(LN: jU^^) 2WAt-Tirmidhi,$iuM«t,Ta&ir,l. w^ J v _. ^ . 289 Abu d-Darda* Uwaymar al-Ansan (d. 32 A.H.), a companion of the Prophet, as-Sarraj, al-Qushayn, and embraced Islam in 2 A.H. and was praised by the Prophet for his vigorous fighting at »» E .g. Abu Abd ar-Rabman as-Sulaml, Abu Nasr Uhud (3 A.H.). On another occasion the Prophet called him "the wise man (hakim) of 86 87
  • 43. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN UNDERSTANDING THE QURAN AND ITS INTERPRETATIONthousand and two hundred forms of knowledge, since every Quran- must adhere to the Book of God (great and mighty is He!), for in itic sentence constitutes one form of knowledge. This number is lies the message concerning those who were before you and themultiplied by four times, since each sentence has its outward aspect, message concerning what will happen after you, and the judgementinward aspect, limit and prelude. Repetition of the verse, "In the of all that happens among you. Anyone of [even] the most powerfulname of God, most Gracious, Ever MercifulV^i,^^- J»i rw), 11 290 men who contradicts it is severely punished by God (great andby the Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) twenty times mighty is He!), anyone who seeks knowledge from a source othercould not have been for any reason other than that he was pondering than it is led astray by God (great and mighty is He!). It is the strongover its deep, inward meanings; otherwise its translation and its rope of God [which man should grasp firmly], His clear light [inoutward exegesis are so obvious that one like the Prophet would not which man should walk in all aspects of his lifel, and His usefulbe in need of repetition. Ibn Masud (may God be pleased with him!) means of healing [of mans spiritual diseases]; 294 it is a protectionsaid, "One whointends to acquire [the core principles of] the for one who holds fast to it, and a [means of] salvation for one whoknowledge of the ancients and the moderns should ponder over the follows it; it is not distorted so that it needs to be set aright, nor hasQuran. This knowledge is something which is not achieved by its it deviated so that it needs to be brought to its normal state; itsmere outward exegesis. 291 wonders are never exhausted, nor does much-repeated recitation of In short, all forms of knowledge are included in the works of God it make it old." [289] — to the end of the Tradition. 295 In a(great and mighty is He!) and His attributes, and in the Quran there Tradition narrated by Hudhayfa it is mentioned that when theis an explanation of His essence, attributes and works. These forms Messenger of God (may God bless him and greet him!) informedof knowledge have no end, but in the Quran there is an indication him of the disagreements [among Muslims] and their splitting into(ishara) of their confluence. Penetrating deeply into the explanation sects which would occur after his time, he said, "I enquired,of the Quran by stages amounts to the understanding of the Quran; Messenger of God, what do you command me to do should I meetmere outward exegesis 2*2 does not lead to that. The truth is that to with that [unfortunate state of affairs]? He replied, Learn the Bookeverything pertaining to reflective and intellectual matters which has of God, and act in accordance with its teachings. This is the way ofbecome ambiguous to men of reflection and in which people have escaping from that [state pf affairs]. " Hudhayfa said, "I repeated and implications in the Quran which that question to the Prophet thrice, and he replied thrice by saying,differed, there are indicationscan be grasped by men of understanding. How can these indications Learn the Book of God (great and mighty is He!) and act in accordance with what taught in " 296and implications be completely conveyed by the translation of its is it, for in its lies salvation. All (may God show regard to his face!) said, "One who under-outward meanings and by its [outward] exegesis? This is the reason why the Prophet (may God bless him and greet stands the Quran can thereby explain the totality of knowledge." By this statement AH indicated that the Quran implies the confluencehim!) ordered, "Read the Quran and seek to know its [deep],strange meanings [by eliciting and understanding]." He (may God of all forms of knowledge. [Abd Allah] Ibn Abbas (may God bebless htm and greet him!) also said, in a Tradition related by Ali 4 pleased with them both!) said, in the explanation of the words of(may God show regard to his face!), "I swear by Him Who has sent God is He!), "Whoever is granted wisdom has indeed been (exaltedme as a prophet in accordance with the requirements of truth and granted abundant good"<^ i^- JJ +a <JC=>Jt 0>! j-y, 297 thatwisdom, surely my community will be split up into seventy-two sects "abundant good" means understanding of the Quran. God (greatall of which are misguided 293 themselves and misguide others by and mighty is He!) said, "We gave Solomon the right understandingcalling them to Hell. When this state of affairs comes about you of the matter, and upon each [of David and Solomon] We bestowed 294 Quran 17:82. ~my community." He transmitted many Traditions. See Ibn Hajar, op. cit. , III, 46. 295 At-Tirmidhl, Sunan Iman, 18; , Abu Dawud, Sunan, Sunna, 1 Ibn Maja, Sunan, ; MO Quran 1:1. 291 yb^l aji^i; (BE: y*UiJi ^-*. ). Fitan, 17 (with variation). 293 du, <LN:<bU» ^ ^> 292 J*-> (BE: ja-^ 1 *^ )• 296 Abu Dawud, Sunan, Sunna, 28. 297 Quran 2:269. 88 89
  • 44. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN UNDERSTANDING THE QURAN AND ITS INTERPRETATION wisdom and knowledge* (Ulp j iS^. uj jg 3 oui- u u^ii) mb jjere t # accepted and should be called an explanation of the Quran God has called what He bestowed upon both Solomon and David by personal opinion, because they have not heard this "knowledge and wisdom," but the prudence which He gave explanation from the Messenger of God (may God bless him and greet him!). Solomon alone He explicitly mentioned as "right understanding" The same is true of other Companions (may God be pleased with and mentioned it before "wisdom and knowledge". them!): [They too gave explanations of certain Quranic The matters [mentioned above], then, prove that in the under- words, without hearing them from the Prophet; so their standing of the meanings of the Quran there explanations is a wide range and should also be regarded as explanations of the Quran excessive width and that outward exegesis which has come down by by personal opinion]. tradition is not the end of the understanding of the Quran. Second, companions of the Prophet and exegetes [who flourished after them] disagreed over the explanation of some Quranic verses; The Prophets Prohibition of Qoran-explanation according they gave such varying explanations of them that it is to Ones Personal Opinion impossible to As for the saying of the Prophet (may God bless reconcile them. It is impossible that all these conflicting him and greet explana- him!), "The man who explains the Quran according to his personal tions were heard from the Messenger of God (may God bless him opinion... ," 299 and his (may God bless him and greet him!) and greet him!);if one of them was in fact heard the rest [which are prohibition of this kind of Quranic explanation, the saying of contradictory to it] must be rejected. Thus it is definitely clear Abu that Bakr (may God be pleased with him!), "What earth will bear me on the meaning [of words of the Quran] every exegete came to his and what sky will over-shadow me if I say anything by my personal own conclusions through his eliciting, [investigation and personalopinion when explaining the Quran?," and other prophetic tradi- effort], so that they gave seven different opinions concerning thetions and statements of the Prophets companions and of other pious letters at the start of some suras which are impossible to reconcile. Muslims in early Islam on the prohibition of Quranic explanation Thus a certain exegete said that alifldm rd (A> are letters from m by personal opinion — these were intended [a] either to confine the the word ar-Rahman (W 1 Another said that the letter alifw ) . understanding of the Quran to that which has come down by stands for Allah (-i>) the letter lam (J) for latif (^UJ), and the ; tradition (naql) and to that which is heard [from authorities on letter ra 0) for RahTm (r^»j); other exegetes gave other explana- exegesis] (masmu) and to abandon the eliciting [of meanings from tions. Since reconciliation of these explanations is impossible howthe texts of the Quran (istinbat^and independent understanding can they all have been heard from the Prophet?(istiqlafi, or [b] to be something different. It is certainly wrong to Third, the Prophet (may God bless him and greet him!) prayed forbelieve that the purpose was to limit our understanding of the Ibn Abbas (may God be pleased with him!) saying, "God, bestowQuran to only that which one hears and receives from an authori- upon him the understanding of the religion and teach him thety; and [this is wrong] for serveal reasons: interpretation (tawil) of the Qur?n." If interpretation of the First, it is a stipulation that it should be heard from the [mouth of Quran is something which is heard [from the Prophet] like revela-the]Messenger of God (may God bless him and greet him!) and be tion and which is preserved the way revelation is preserved, what issupported by a chain of narration .going back to him, but this is the sense in specifying Ibn Abbas in this case?something which applies only in the case of [a small] part of the Fourth, God (great and mighty is He!) said,"Those of them whoQuran. As for the [explanation of the Quran] which Ibn Abbas are adept at eliciting the truth would know its [real nature]"and Ibn Masud give from the ir own understanding, it should not be i,^- v^—, ^j} <uJ)»2 ln this verse God affirmed the validity of " MeQuran21:79. 299 At-TirmidhT. 301 These Arabic letters occur at the start of five eleventh, twelfth, fourteenth and fifteenth. Quranic suras — the tenth Sunan, TafsTr, 1. This Tradition in its full form is cited in the first Also see ™/>ra, n. 32paragraph of this chapter. 302 Quran4:83. This versein full is: "When there comes to them any tidings bearing 300 Cf. Quran 4:83. upon security or causing fear, they bruit it about; whereas if they were to refer it to the 90 91
  • 45. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN UNDERSTANDING THE QURAN AND ITS INTERPRETATION elicitingmeaning by men of learning. And it is well known that the [c] Sometimes a man has a valid purpose for which he seeks aeliciting of meaning is something beyond hearing [from an autho- proof from the Quran, and he adduces a proof for that purposerity; it has to do with ones knowledge and understanding]. The with 304 a verse in which, he knows, that purpose is not intended. 305totality of the statements of the Companions and other pious An example of this is a man who invites people to pray forMuslims in early Islam on the understanding of the Quran which we forgiveness of God just before dawn and who adduces an argumenthave quoted [above] contradicts this opinion. Thus it is false that for this from the words of the Prophet (may God bless him and greethearing [from an authority] is a stipulation for Quranic interpreta- him!), "Eat a meal just before dawn, for there is blessing in thistion. It is lawful for everyone to elicit meaning from the Quran meal." 306 He gives the impression to people that the intendedcommensurate with his understanding and the limit of his intelli- purpose of Prophet is remembrance of God just this saying of thegence. before dawn, 307 knowing well that the purpose really intended by Real Reasons for Prohibition of Quran-explanation this saying is to eat food [just before dawn]. Another example is a according to Ones Personal Opinion man who invites people to strive hard against hardness of the mind. As for the prohibition of explanation of the Quran by personal He says that God (great and mighty is He!) ordered [Moses], "Go toopinion, it is two reasons. One of them is that the person for one of Pharaoh; he has certainly transgressed grievously"giving an explanation has an opinion [of his own] on a matter, and (^iU <;i „j^jij ^iD^and, hinting at his own heart, say: This isthis opinion is influenced by his nature {(ab ) and passion (hawa). So what is meant by Pharaoh [in this verse]. This kind [of Quraniche interprets the Quran according to his opinion {ray) and passion is sometimes employed by some religious preachersin order that he may adduce an argument in favour of his purpose — explanation] for good purposes by embellishing their speeches and encouragingif he did not have that opinion and that passion that meaning would their audience [to these purposes], but this is forbidden. Sometimesnot appear to him from the Quran. 303 [This happens in different Shi a Batinites employ of explanation of the Quran] for this [kindconditions.] [a] Sometimes it happens despite knowledge [of the corrupt purposes in order to deceive people and to invite them toSharia], as in the case of a man who adduces an argument from a their false school of thought and practices (madhhab). To supportcertain Quranic verse for validating his heresy (bidd) knowing their [corrupt] opinions and [false] school, they bring down the[well] that this is not intended in the verse, but by doing this he seeks Quran to certain matters, knowing definitely that these matters areto confuse his opponent. not meant in the Quran. 309 [b] Sometimes happens to a man ignorant [of the basic it These [three] kinds of explanations, then, constitute one of theprinciples of the Sharia]. But since a Quranic verse can be two reasons for prohibition of Quran-explanation by personalinterpreted [from two or more perspectives] his understanding -opinion. The intended meaning of personal opinion would be theinclines to that perspective which [290] suits his purpose and that corrupt personal opinion suitable to ones passion and not correctaspect is given preponderance by his own opinion and passion. personal effort. Personal opinion includes that which is valid andThus it turns out that he has explained the verse with his personal that which is corrupt, and that which is affected by passion isopinion, i.e. his personal opinion is that which has led him to that sometimes specified with the name of personal opinion.explanation. If his own opinion did rot exist the perspective [which 304 ~j(BE:U). 305 v -w ^, which is omitted in MH. 1suits his purpose, and not the other] would not bear such weight 306 Swum,with him. . — An-NasaT, Siyam, 18, 19; Ibn Maja, Sunan, Siyam, 22; Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, II, 377, 477, III, 32, 99.Messenger and to those in authority among them, surely those of them who are adept at 307 Remembrance of God just before dawn is praised in the Quran 3:17.eliciting the truth, would know its [real nature]." 308 Quran 20:24. 303 This is the practice of Shlites, especially the Baplnities, Mutazilities, Qadiams, 309 Al-Ghazal^ wrote several books directed in whole or in part against the ShTaAhmadiyyas. and some of the modernists in different Muslim countries, concerning Batinites or Talimites who were identical with Ismailites and completely exposed thecertain specific Quranic verses falsity of their heretical beliefs. SeeQuasem./ewdlr, p. 39. 92 93
  • 46. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN UNDERSTANDING THE QURAN AND ITS INTERPRETATION The second reason [for the prohibition of Quran-explanation by [from authorities] is necessary, [a] One of them is conciseness by personal opinion] is that [this prohibition applies to] one who omission and suppression of words understood. Examples of this hastens to explain the Quran by considering the outward aspect are as follows. [1] The words of God (exalted is He!), [i.e.the rules] of the Arabic language without knowing by heart "I* rJia.,ij~ar * oUi j^j l~V^ n lts meaning isiU -^ i^aJii.ij-a-. M 1what was heard [from authorities] and transmitted [from them], in (We gave Thamud the she-camel as a clear sign; but they [i.e. histhe cases of those verses which use strange Quranic words (gharaib people] did wrong to themselves by killing it). The man who looks atal-Quran), in the case of those verses in which ambiguous terms and the outward [i.e. the rules of] Arabic [of this verse] imagines that thesubstitute words occur, and in the case of those verses in which are intended meaning is that the she-camel had eyes and not blind. Heto be found conciseness, omission, suppression of words understood, also does not know by what [the people of Thamud] did wrong andprecedence [of a word from its proper place] and putting a word at a whether they did wrong 3I2 to others or to themselves.place later [than the appropriate one]. One who, without being [2] The words of God (exalted is He!), " r*^ J> i^pi, J^ 1prudent at outward exegesis, hastens to elicit deep meanings by i.C "313 i.e. JJ**- *r* (because of their disbelief their minds were 1mere understanding the [rules of] the Arabic language makes many filled with love of the calf). The word hubb (love) is omitted. [3] Themistakes and is included in the group of those who explain the words of God (great and mighty is He!),">-^-ij d^oJi o^j, jLijv ijiQuran by personal opinion. Then transmission [from an authority] oLJi ," 314 i.e. jijJi ^-^ <-*—*j tl^ v IJl£ ^--^(then [i.e. if youand hearing [from him] are necessary for outward exegesis first, so had inclined to the infidels but a little] We would have afflicted youthat the exegete may, by them, be safe in places where mistakes are with the intensified chastisement of those who are living and the in-likely to be made. After this, understanding willbe wide and the tensified chastisement of those who have died). The words al-ahyaeliciting of deep meanings will be possible. and al-mawtd are substituted by al-hayat and al-mawat, and all this The strange words of the Quran 310 which can only be understood is permissible in eloquent language.by hearing directly [from authorities] are many.indicate a number of them so that one may Weshould like to [4] The words of God 315 (exalted is He!), " m s W L* ^Ji ^ y~3 seek information about l*j u-ji ^Ji ~~V i.e. j-Ji j*|, <,>» y (you ask the peoplethis type and know that it is not permissible to neglect the of the city wherein we were and the caravan with which we travelled).memorization of outward exegesis first. There is no coveted object in Thus in both, the word ahl is omitted 317 and suppressed as a wordreaching the inward [knowledge] before being prudent at the understood. [5] The words of God (great and mighty is He!),outward. One who claims to possess understanding of the deep " JWs oi^-Ji j c-u; ." 3 >s its meaning is: oi^—Ji j*i js. c~iimeanings of the Qur^an, without being prudent at its outward ^vu (|t [i e tne t j me Qf tjje jjour f t jje Doom] lies hidden to thoseexegesis,is comparable to a man who claims to reach the upper part who are in the heavens and the earth). Since a thing lies heavyof a house without crossing its door, or claims to understand the (thaqula) if its knowledge lies hidden (khafiya) the word meaningpurposes of the Turks from their speeches whereas he does not hidden is substituted by the word meaning heavy, and the wordunderstand the language of the Turks. [This is] because outward yf (in) is put in the place of ala (to), and the term ahl (those who) isexegesis occupies the place of learning the language which is needed suppressed as understood and omitted.for understanding [the meaning]. [6] The words of God (exalted is He!), " r&» ^j^^j ^ ^•*>s" *i.e. ffcjj £~ 3I Several Quranic Subjects In which Transmission from (do you make it the gratitude of your Authorities on Quranic Exegesis Is Necessary sustenance that you consider [the Quran] as false? [7] The words of There are many [Quranic] subjects in which h earing directly 3i i Quran 1 7:59. 312 i^Jii ^. t which is omitted in BE and MH. 313 Quran 2:93. tooA number of books on this subject has been produced by Muslim scholars(az-ZabidT, op. cit. IV, 529). The best of all these works is ar-Raghib al-Isfahanfs book 3 «« 316 Quran 17:75. ljJi u.t is omitted in BE. 315 Quran 12:82. U J u^ ^ is omitted inZE.al-MufraddtfiGharib al-Quran. 317 j*i*- L+o u Vli^E^j.^ j*Yi.).3i8 Quran 7:87. 319 Quran 56:82. 94 95
  • 47. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN UNDERSTANDING THE QURAN AND ITS INTERPRETATION " o^.J> J? <*- ." 5M ie He!), " ," 3» i.e. Mount [291] Sinai). [2] [The verse], -God (great and mighty is •ili~ Jj >ua*jUist ^uli Ju (may peace be upon Elias!). Some authorities have said jjl— j u~Ji ^U (Lord, grant us that which you have promised us The word that Idris is meant here, because in the mushaf of Ibn Masud is tothrough the tongues of Your messengers). alsina be found: " ^j* J* f*- " 1 m (may peace be upon Idris!).(tongues) is omitted. [8] The words of God (exalted is He!), " 321 We [C] Among the Quranic subjects in which transmission [from "^juili *y j .vJ^i w (surely sent it [i.e. the Quran] God meant the Quran, authorities] is necessary is repetition which breaks the connection ofdown during the Night of Decrees). By "it" speech. Examples are: [1] The words of God (great and mighty iswithout mentioning it before. He!) said, " y^ ^Js J~ " m He!), " >!> Vi jy^,. J ,tf~ j>> j* J?^. j*£ *—>. k? ." 331 & It God (great and mighty [9](until it [i.e. is the sun] disappeared in the veil of the night). By "it" means: ^wi &ti?ov ^/ U J M2 (those who call on W-* c-^ & The words others than God do not follow any associates of Him except theirGod intended the sun, without mentioning it earlier.[10] God and mighty is Hel),of God (exalted is He!), " UjsyLl ," 323 ^-va* >/i tP Uji ^& who adopt patrons ^» ^iJi,, own conjecture). [2] ^^ JL iy*jcj The words jiiJJ of o> ^i (great $^. ^jlm JJ: t ^ii JM ." 333 The Jjiisiji i.e. ,,j>JL«u ajjii (those meaning is: Ju^ ^JJi ^ ^i jl ijj^i (those leading men of We worship that they may bring us other than God [say]: them only his people who were haughty spoke to the believers among who thosenear to God). [ U] The words of God (great and mighty is He!), " p^ 1 **•> ^ were reckoned weak). [D] Among the Quranic subjects in which transmission [from authorities] is necessary, is the occurrence of a word before or afterjJL-i; ." 324 Its meaning is:: u~- ^dJLMU :OjJ_^ ^i-^- o^i.V a place where error is made by people.i»i ^ (what these people that they do not even approach the ails its proper place. This Examples of this are: [1] is The words of God (great and mighty isunderstanding of a speech? [They said:] Whatever good comes toyou from God, and whatever ills befaH you is from yourself). If this is He!), " sj — >l* • Ui;J jW-.^ltj j* c/u~ 4*l< V, ." 334 Its meaning 325 is: I*;- jLC yy, (were it not for a word already gone .^—» ui> <»S3iis not meant, these verses contradict the words of God preceding wthem: "Tell them: AH is from God"? (A -up Ji) and > &£ : , m forth from your Lord, and a term already fixed, their [i.e. disbelie- 327 comes to this understanding. vers]punishment would have been inevitable [in this world].) If thisthe Qadarite school of thought were not the meaning the last letter of the word ajal would have been [B] Among the Quranic subjects in which transmission [from marked with fatha, as in the case of the term lizam. [2] The words ofauthorities] is necessary is inversion. For example: [1] The words ofGod (exalted is He!), " o*-j>j " i.e. *i~-j> (and the m God i* (exalted is He!), " j*- dUir v^p (they ask you concerning i^ ^ ^tf* itjU-* it [i.e. ," the 335 i.e. Hour of Doom] jJji>- 3» Quran 3: 194. 32i Quran 97:1. as you were well acquainted with it). [3] The words of God (great if o* ^j ^U^i ur .^f jjjj i^. Quran 38:32. This verse in full is: "He [i.e. Solomon] said, i preferred the good " 322things [of the world] to the remembrance of my Lord until it (i.e. the sun] disappeared and mighty " 3* is He!), ^ j±.j jjb* (to them [i.e. true believers] will be given forgivenessin the veil [of the night]." For more information see Quran 38:31-34. 323 Quran 39:3. 324 Quran 4: 79-80. 325 *SyS , which is omitted in MH. and honourable provision; as your Lord brought you [i.e. Mu- 326 Quran 4: 79. hammad] forth from your house [to take up arms] in a righteous 327 This was an early heretical school of Islamic theology founded by Mabad cause). [Parts of] this verse are disjoined; its [second part] turns to aal-JuhanT Id. 704 A.D.) almost disappeared in the ninth century when its main It preceding speech of God, 337 [and when joined with that speech itdoctrines were incorporated into MutazilTsm. There were several groups of earlyQadarites. one of which believed that all that is good is from God but all that is evil is stands thus:] "^ a^ ^ ja Ji>>i J ,J^Jj jj JUiVi js," i.e. Thought. booties of goats have come to you since you were pleased to comefrom man himself (W. Montgomery Watt. The Formative Period of IslamicEdinburgh. 1973. p. 94). It is to this group that al-GhazalT seems to have referred here. 3 » Quran 37: 130., Ml Quran 10:66. 333 ur an 7 75. MHbn: iru^J* f*~ > : &The standard Sunnite view held by al-Ghazallis that God by His power determines all 332 ^i yi f^j^ & Ojs j* ojf-^i j>^ cfi^j This is omitted in BE and MH. Ihappenings and acts including human acts. . 334 Quran20:129. 335 Quran 7:187. 336 Quran 8:4-5. 337 Quran 8:1. J2« Quran 95:2. % 97
  • 48. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN UNDERSTANDING THE QURAN AND ITS INTERPRETATION[from your house], while they [i.e. a party of the believers] were dis- created from a thing.pleased. Between these words is put, as parenthesis, the command As for the word qann (companion), examples of its being am-to fear God and to do other things. Of this type are the words of God " biguous are: [1] The words of God (great and mighty is He!),(great and mighty is He!), * r ^ Jy Vi -x»> J* y*y jl*. j ,t 1 M£ Vi O/ » ** ( un tii yOU believe in God, the One; except Abrahams " r*r J V^ -*r* s^ u •** <~r> JUsy* 345 1 : (^ companion have here his record ready. [And the verdict will be:] Both will say: Isaying to his father. . .). of you, cast every infidel into Hell). By the word qann (companion) [E] Among the Quranic subjects in which transmission [from God has meant the angel to be entrusted with the infidel. [2] Theauthorities] is is an ambiguous expression (mubham). It is necessaryan expression with different meanings, and it may be a word or a words of God (exalted is He!), " o$ jflj «-itiu lo, (his Jtf »3* companion will say: Lord, I did not cause him to rebel against ^letter. Examples of ambiguous words are: ash-shya, al-qarin, You; he was [far gone in error on his own]). By qann (companion)al-umma, ar-rufy and the like. ^ , God (exalted is He!) said, " j^y tfy >L* JA J* 339,, ^ God has meant Satan. As for the term al-umma it is applicable to eight meanings. Ah(God sets forth the example of a slave who is owned by a person andhas no power over anything). By the word shay (anything) God umma means: [1] A group of people, as in the words of God (exalted * 347 is He!), " ojL* o-Ui ja 4-1 <At ^.j (he [i.e. Moses] foundmeant spending out of the provision given to the slave. God (great around it [i.e. the spring of Midian] a group of people who wereand mighty is He!) said, " j-**M <& U*j*i :^ji*j Mu jii ^^ ^~- J* " m (God sets forth the example of two men: One of them watering [their flocks]). [2] The followers of prophets, as in your saying i^—j <^ j>i j^, .ju*. *.» j» j^> (we are from ** the is dumb having no capacity for achieving anything). Shay (anything) here means to enjoin justice and righteousness. God (great and followers of Muhammad — may God bless him and greet him!). [3]mighty is He!) said, [reporting Kha^irs 341 words to Moses], A man endowed with all forms of good and followed by others, as in" <_^i jt ^JUi^i j^a JL» "^ (if you would follow me ask me thewordsof God (exalted is He!), " ^ l=H» «-• J$ ^J J M34» (Abraham was indeed endowed with all forms of good, humble forno question about anything). Here by shay (anything) God meant 343 the sake of God). [4] Religion, as in the words of God (great andLordly attributes (sifdt ar-rububiyya), which are those forms of mighty is He!), " > <-i UU li^j Ui " 3S0 (we have found ourknowledge about which it is not lawful to ask until the gnostic fathers holding to a certain religion). [5] Time and period, as in the(arif) starts with them when he begins to be fit to receive it. God He!) said, " vjylUJi ,<^ ^ " m words of God (great and mighty is He!), " *>.>-**• <* J ,t35! (for a(great and mighty is ^ <* j* lyo* r i determined period); and in the words of God (great and mighty is(have they [i.e. been created by nothing, or are they disbelievers] M352 He!), " <-i **> JJj (and remembered after the lapse of atheir own creators)? Shay* (thing) here means creator. Sometimes itis [wrongly] supposed that this verse proves that a thing can only be period). [6] Stature of a man. Thus it is said: So-and-so is of a good 338 Quran 60:4. *>9 Quran 16:75. 340 Quran 16:76. umma/ i.e. good stature. [7] A man who alone follows a religion — 341 Al-Khadir is generally believed to be a saint (mfAUah). One day when theprophet Moses was preaching to the Children of Israel, he was asked if Acre was any 34S Quran 50:23. 346 Quran 50:27. ^ Quran 28:23.man wiser than he. When he replied in the negative, God revealed to him that His pious 348 ^^^(BEandMH:^^). 349 Quran 16: 120. 3» Quran 43:22. 351 Quran 11:8. The complete verse is: "If We hold back their [i.e. disbelievers!servant Cabd), i.e. al-Khadir,was wiser than he. (al-BukharT, fahfy, Urn, bib, 16, punishment for a determined period, they most surely say: What holds it back?. Take19, 44, Anbiya, bab, 27; Muslim, $ahih> Fadail, trad. 170-74; at-TrimidhT, Sunan, notice, on the day when it will come upon them, h will not be averted from them; ratherTafsir Sura 18, bib, 1). Moses thereupon paid a visit to al-Khadir in order to learn from that which they used to mock shall encompass them."him the deep, hidden knowledge which God had bestowed upon him directly as a mercy ttz Quran 12:45. The verse in full is: "He of the two [companions of the prophet(Quran 18:65). The conversation between Moses and al-Khadir is put in the Quran Joseph in prison] who had been set free and who [now] remembered, after the lapse of a 18:60-82. For a discussion on al-Khadir see AJ. Wensinck, "Al-Khadir", SEIt pp. period, [that which had passed between Joseph and him], exclaimed: I can let you know232-35; at-TabarT, Tarikk, 1, 188-94. [of a man in the prison who knows] the interpretation of the dream, so send me [to bring 342 Quran 18:70. 343 ^<BEandMH:r»). 344 Quran 52:35. him here]. "The story ofJoseph is narrated in the Quran 12:21-101. 98 99
  • 49. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN UNDERSTANDING THE QURAN AND ITS INTERPRETATIONno one is his partner in following that religion. Thus the Prophet tf,U »357 (We ^rtainly revealed it [i.e.(may God bless him and greet him!) said, "Zayd Ibn Amr Ibn the Quran] in a blessedNufayl will be resurrected alone as an umma." 3* [8] Mother. Thus night). From this verse it has not become clear which night it was,h is said, This woman is the umma of Zayd, i.e. mother of Zayd. but it has become clear from His (exalted M is He!) words The term ruh has also occurred in the Quran in many meanings. >aJHU^,L)>iUi "^(We certainly revealed it [i.e. theWe do not like to prolong [our discussion] by mentioning them. Quran] during the Night of Decrees). 35 Sometimes, considering (Just asambiguity occurs in words] so also it occurs in letters. the outward aspect of these verses, one imagines that there is dis- Examples of this are: [1] The words of God (great and mighty is agreement among them.He!), " L»» <- jia-j* Uii < oy* ." 354 The first ha" alludes to This and the cases similar to this are included in those Quranicbawafir which are the muryat. The meaning is: They raised, with subjects in which only transmission and hearing [from authorities]their hoofs, clouds of dust. The second ha alludes to ighara which is are of avail. The Quran, from its beginning to its end, is not devoidai-mughirdt subhan fa-wasafna bihijaman. [The meaning is:] The of this kind of thing, because it was revealed in the language of thepolytheists gathered together, and the raiders at dawn raided their Arabs and so it included various characteristics of their speech, suchgathering. [2] The words of God (exalted is He!), " «Ui <* U>U as conciseness, prolongation, suppression of words understood, " 35S oV^» j* vU*>U $ (We send down water from it, and We omission, substitution of one word by another, and occurrence of abring forth with it fruits of every kind). The first ha" (it) refers to as- word before or after its proper place, so that it may be able to silencesahab (cloud) and the second ha (it) to at-ma (water). Cases like the voice of the Arabs against it and be fully eloquent to themthis are so many [in the Quran] that they cannot be counted. Anyone who is content with understanding the outward aspect [i.e [F] Among the Quranic matters in which transmission [from the rules] of the Arabic language and who hastens to explain theauthorities) is necessary is progression in exposition. An example of Quran without knowing by heart the meaning transmitted [from thethis is the words of God, " ^Ut ^ J>i ^jJimonth of Ramadan is the month in which the Quran began to be ju*, ^ "a* ( tne authorities] in these Quranic subjects, is designated as a man who explains the Quran by his personal opinion. Such an explanationrevealed). From this verse it has not become clear whether the start is: He understands the best known meaning of the term umma and soof revelation was at night or at daytime, but it has become clear from is naturally inclined to this meaning [when he finds the word used inthe words of God (great and mighty is He!), ** <U j> „U>i ui a verse]; but when he finds it in another place he is inclined to this well known meaning which he heard [and understood 353 Zayd Ibn Amr Ibn Nufayl, a Meccan and Quraysh, died about five years before from authori- and abandons a thorough study of the ties] [292]the advent of Isam, He was a hanlf, a seeker of the true religion, the religion of the transmission of itsprophet Abraham in its purity which taught monotheism. Zayd had abandoned pagan many meanings. Perhaps this is what is prohibited [by the Prophet]religion without embracing either Christianity or Judaism, because these, did not retain and not the understanding of deep meanings of the Quran, as hasthe purity of Abrahams religion. He transformed his monotheistic faith into action: He already been discussed. When hearing [from authorities] is achievedobjected to the existing practice of female infanticide, and refused to eat the flesh of in [these and] similar Quranic subjects, thenanimals sacrificed to idols, or slaughtered without invoking the name of One God. one has mastered the outward exegesis of the Quran which isPersecuted by his family on religious grounds, he travelled in search of the true religion [merely] the translation of its words. This, however, isas far as Mawsil, and visited Syria; in Maifaa, in Balkh, a learned monk predicted to not sufficient for understanding thehim the rise of a true prophet in Mecca. Zayd hurried back but was assaulted and killed reality of the meanings of the Quran.by the Christians while crossing the region inhabited by theLakhm tribe. According The distinction between th<! reality of the meanings of the Quranto another tradition Zayd had himself predicted Muhammads prophethood. Thoughhe died before Islam, he died as a monotheist. His son, SaId, was the first convert to 357 Quran 44:3. 3» Quran 97:1.Islam from the clan of AdT. See Ibn Hisham, op. cit, 1, 222-32; Ibn Qutayba, op. at. 5 e Ml US !XCdlei,CC t^ °f Night of Decrees * ut *• P m Qur»°fc versespp.59, 154. (97:3-5); ..^rTS ^ of Decrees is better than /o7 The Night J a thousand months. Therein descends 354 Quran 100:4-5. 355 Quran 7:57. 356 Quran 2: 185. angels and the Spirit p.e. Gabriel] by the command of their Lord [with their Lords decrees] concerning every matter. [It is all] peace, till the break of dawn." 100 101
  • 50. UNDERSTANDING THE QURAN AND ITS INTERPRETATION THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN [over the Quran], and their isolation for seeking [its meaning]. Forand outward exegesis can be understood from an example: God its each of those established in knowledge there is a limit in rising to a(great and mighty is He!) saidiV-> J*> c-^J il &t-/ ,s60 (you • ^j grade higher. As for the full unveiling of all the secret meanings,[i.e. Muhammad] did not throw [the handful of gravel at the infidels there is no coveted object in it. If the ocean were to become the inkfaces] when you threw it, but God threw it). The outward exegesis of and trees the pens [for transcribing] the secrets of Gods wordsthis verse is clear. Its real meaning, however, is obscure, because it which have no end, all the oceans would be exhausted before theaffirms throwing and negates it [at the same time], and these appear words of God (great and mighty is He!) came to an end.*3 Fromcontradictory unless it is understood that he [i.e. Muhammad] threw this perspective men differ in understanding [the secret meanings offrom one perspective and did not throw from another and that from the Quran] after sharing in the knowledge of outward exegesis, andthe perspective from which he did not throw God (great and mighty it is necessary to understand first the outward exegesis.is He!) threw. Likewise God (exalted is He!) said, An example of this is the understanding of a certain sut! (bad« (Si^l i»i ^Juj *ipli f(V ,361 (fight them; God will punish them at arbab al-qulub) from the words of the Prophet (may God bless himyour hands). When it is they [i.e. believers] who are the fighters how and greet him!) during his prostration, "I seek the protection ofcan God (glorified is He!) be the One Who inflicts punishment? If Your pleasure from Your displeasure; I seek the protection of YourGod (exalted is He!) is the One Who inflicts punishment by moving forgiveness from Your punishment; and I seek the protection of Youtheir hands what is the sense in commanding them to fight? The real against You. I am unable to praise You; You are as You havesolution to this problem receives help from a vast ocean of forms of praised Yourself." 364 The, Prophet, being commanded [by God]:knowledge obtained through mystical intuition {uBm al-muka- v>% a*~,ij 36s (prostrate and [thereby] achieve nearness to Me),shafdt]; outward exegesis is of no avail. This solution consists in [prostrated] and, when he attained this nearness during prostration,knowing [first] the mode of the linkage between mans works and considered divine attributes and sought the protection of an attri-the power created in him and [then] the mode of linkage between bute from another — pleasure and displeasure are two divinethis power and the power of God (great and mighty is He!), so that, attributes. Then, when his nearness to God increased including inafter the clarification of many obscure matters, there will be itself the first nearness, he rose to divine essence and said, "I seekunveiled to him the words (great and mighty truth of His is He!), the protection of You against You." Then, when his nearness to God"You did not throw when you threw, but God threw." increased further as a result of a thing of which he felt ashamed, i.e. If ones entire life is spent seeking the unveiling of secrets of this to seek protection being on the bed of nearness, he took refuge withmeaning and that which is linked up with those matters which praise, saying: "I am unable to praise You." Then when he realizedprecede and those which follow it, ones life will perhaps be that this was a shortcoming he said: "You are as You have praisedexhausted before fully knowing all 3a that follows that meaning. A Yourself."**study of the real meaning of every sentence of the Quran needs a These are thoughts exposed to those possessed of purified soulsduration like this. Part of the secret meanings of the Quran is 363 Cf. Quran 18: 109.certainly unveiled to those established in knowledge, in proportion 3M Muslim, Saftpt, Jala. 222; an-Nasat,Swum, IstiSdha, 62. Tahara, H9 atto the abundance of different forms of their knowledge, the purity of Tirmklhi, Swum, Da*wat, 75, 112; Abu Dawud, Swum. Sala, 148; Ibn Mija, ; Swum,their souls [from vices], the fullness of their motives in pondering Iqama, 117. 36S Quran 96: 19. 360Quran 8: 1 17. This verse refers to an act at Badr (2 A- H.), the first great battle in 3» This al-Ghazal?s citation of a certain sflfis understanding of the is Tradition pebbles and under consideration.Islam. When the war was in its full course the Prophet took a handful of He himself has much deeper understanding of it, as indicated in pebbles hitthrew it at the enemy, the Meccan infidels. As a miracle of the Prophet the the subsequent paragraph of the text. He briefly discusses this Tradition in his Jawakir,the face of each infidel and resulted in the diminishing of his mental vigour against the p. 24. A sufisrk interpretation of this Tradition was also cited by as-Sarraj in hisMuslims. For the Quranic account of the battle of Badr see Quran 8: 1-50. Luma, p. 113. Al-Ghazaf seems to be influenced by him. *» Quran 9: 14. *2 f—*, which is omitted in MH. 103 102
  • 51. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN[i.e. They have further depths which consist in perfect sufis].understanding the meaning of nearness to God and its specification protec-with prostration, and understanding the meaning of seekingtion with one divine attribute from another and the meaning ofseeking protection with Him against Him. There are many secretshere, but outward exegesis cannot guide us to them. They are not BIBLIOGRAPHYopposed to outward exegesis; rather they complete it and constitutethe essence of the Quran as opposed to its external aspect. Theyform that which we arrive at for understanding the internalmeanings, not that which opposes the external meanings. God Abu Dawud, Sulayman Ibn al-Ash*ash as-Sijistanl. Sunan. 2 vols.knows best. Cairo, 1935. The Book of Rules of Quran-recitation is complete. Praise be to Al-Abyari, Ibrahim. Tarikh al-Quran, Cairo, 1965.God, the Lord of all the woridsl May blessings* be upon 7 Arafat, W."Bilal b. Rabah". Encyclopaedia of Islam (new ed.), I,Muhammad, the last of all the prophets, upon every creature 1215. family ofselected from everyone of the worlds, and upon the Al-Asqalani, Ibn Hajar. Tahdhib at-Tahdhlb. 12 in 6 vols.Muhammad and his companions, and may God greet them! This Hyderabad, India, 1325-27 A.H.book will, if God wills, be followed by the Book of Invocations and — Al-Isaba. 4 vols. Egypt, 1358/1939. .Supplications.** God is the One to be asked for help; there is no Azad, Mawlana Abul Kalam. Basic Consepts of the Quran. Pre-Lord besides Him. . pared by Syed Abdul Latif. Hyderabad, India, 1958. Mj* i/^Mj(BEandMH:> r *~Jj SjUty ). Bakker, Dirk. Man in the Quran. Amsterdam, 1965. *» ThisBook has already been translated by Kojiro Nakamura, under the title Barth,J. "Studien sur Kritik und Exegese des Qorans." Der Islam,GhaxaKonPrnyerutd published in Tokyo, Japan, in 1973. VI (1915-16), 113-48. Al-Baydawi, *Abd Allah. Anwar at-Tanzil wa Asrar at Tawtl. Egypt, 1923. Bell, Richard. "Who were the IJanifs?" Moslem World, XX (1930), — 120-24. "The Origin of Id al-A<Jtia". Ibid., XXIII (1933), 117-20. . Birkeland, Harris. The Lord guideth: studies on primitive Islam. Oslo, 1956^ Al-Bukhan, Muhammad Ibn IsmaO. $ahtb. 9 vols. Egypt, 1377 A.H. Carra de Vaux, B. "Yahya", Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam, p. 640. Causse, Maurice. "Theologie de rupture et de la communaute: etude sur la vocation prophetique de Motse dapres le Coran". Revue de Vhistoire et de la philosophic religieuses, I (1964), 60-82. Coulson, Noel J. Conflict and Tensions in Islamic Jurisprudence, Chicago, 1969. 105 104
  • 52. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QUR AN J BIBLIOGRAPHYCragg, Kenneth. The Event ofthe Quran. London, 1971. Ibn al-Manzfir, Jamal ad-Din Muhammad Ibn Mukarram— The Mind of the Quran. London, 1973. . Ansari. Lisan ah Arab. 20 vols. Cairo, 1308/1901 al-Darraj, Muhammad Abd Allah. An-Naba al-Azim. Egypt. Ibn an-Nadfm, Muhammad. Kitab al-Fihrist. Edited and translated 1379/1960. by Bayard Dodge. 2 vols. New York & London, 1970.Adh-DhahabI, Abu Abd Allah Muhammad. Tadhkira al-Hiffaz. 4 Ibn Qutayba.i4/-Ma dinr/: Edited by Tharwat Ukasha. Cairo, 1969. vols. Hyderabad, India, 1333*34 A.H. Ibn Taymiyya,TaqT ad-Din. Muqaddama fi Usui atTafsvr. EditedAdh-DhahabT, Muhammad rjusayn. At-TafsTr wa l-Mufassirun. 3 by Adnan Zarzur. 2nd ed. Beirut, 1392/1972. vols. Cairo, 1381/1961. — At-Tawassulwal-WasUa. Beirut, 1390/1970. .Fahd, T. "Ibn Sunn". Encyclopaedia of Islam (new ed.), (II, Al-Isfahani, Abu 1-Qasim ar-Raghib. Al-Mufradat fi Gharib al- 947-48. Qurdn. Edited by Muhammad Said. Tehran, n.d.Faris, Nabih Amin. "The Itya Ulum al-Dln of al-Ghazzall." Izutsu, Toshihiko. Ethico-Religious Concepts in the Quran. Proceedings ofthe American Philosophical Society, LXXI (1939), Montreal, 1966. 15-19. Al-JazarT,Shams ad- Din. Ghaya an-Nihaya fi Tabaqat al-Qurra.Al-Firuzabadi, Abu Tahir Muhammad Ibn Yaqub. Tanwtr al- Edited by GotthelfBergstrasser. Cairo, 1933. Miqyas min Tafslrlbn Abbas. 2nd ed. Egypt. 1370/1901. Jomier, Jacques. "Le nom divin al-Rabman dans— Al-Qamus al-Muhif. 4 . vols. 3rd ed. Cairo, 1344/1925. Melanges Louis Massignon, Damascus, 1957, le Coran." II, 361-81.Gabrieli, F. " A A&b" Encyclopaedia ofIslam (newed.), 1, 175f. . Al-Jurjanl, Abu t-Hasan al-rlusayn. At-Tarifdt. Edited by G.Gardet, L. "Al-Asma* al-ijhisni." Encyclopaedia of Islam (new FlUgel. Leipzig, 1845. ed.), I, 714-17. Lane, E.W. An Arabic-English Lexicon. Edited by Stanley Lane-Al-GhazalF, Abu rjlamid. Al-Arbain fi Usui ad-Din. Egypt, 1344 Poole. 8 vols. London, 1863-93. A.H. Macdonald, D.B. Development of Religious Attitude and— Ibya* Ulum ad- Dm. 5 . Beirut, n.d. vols. Islam. Beyrut, 1965. Life in— Jawahir Quran. 2nd ed. Cairo, 1933. . al- — and Masse, H. et al "Djinn". Encychpaedia ofIslam (new— AtQisfas at-Mustaqim. Edited by al-YasuI. Beirut, 1959. . . Ill, 546-50. ed.),Al-Hujwiri, All Ibn Uthman. Kashf al-Mahjub. Translated by AI-Makki, AbuTalib. Qut al-Qulub. 2 vols. Egypt, 1961/1381. R.A. Nicholson. Leyden, 1911. Al-MaraghT, Ahmad Mustafa. Tafstr al-Maraghf. 10 vols. 2nd ed.Ibn *Abd al-Barr. Al-Istiab. In al-Asqalanl, Ibn tjajar. Al-Isaba. 4 Egypt, 1373/1953 — 1380/1961. vols. Egypt, 1358/1953. Al-MunawT, Abd ar-Ra*uf. Al-Kawakib ad-Durriyya. Edited byIbn Abu Dawud, Abu Bakr Abd Allah. Kitab al*Maslk$f. Edited Mahmud flasan Rabi*. 2 vols. Cairo, 1938/1357. by Arthur Jeffery. Egypt, 1355/1936. Al-Muzani, Abu Ibrahim IsmaIl Ibn Yafcya. Al-Mukhtasar as-Ibn al-Athlr. Usdal-Ghaba. 5 vols. Egypt, 1280 A.H. Saghlr. Bulaq, 1321-26 A.H.Ibn al-rjajjaj, Muslinvfatf*. 16 vols. Cairo, 1929. Nakamura, Kojiro. Ghazali on Prayer. Tokyo, Japan, 1973.Ibn Qanbal, Ahmad. Musnad. 6 vols. Cairo, n.d. An-Nasai Abu Abd ar- Rahman Ibn Shuayb. Sunan.B vols. Egypt,Ibn al-Jawzi, Abd ar- Rahman. Zadal-MaslrfiUm at-Tafsvr. 6 vols. 1383/1964. _ Beirut, 1384/1964. An-Nawaw7. Tahdhtb al-Asma wa l-Lughat. 4 vols. Egypt, n.d.Ibn Hisham. As-Slra an-Nabawiyya. 2 vols. Edited by Mustafa Penrice, John. A Dictionary and Glossary of the Kor-an. London as-Saqa et al. 2nd ed. Egypt, 1955/1375. 1873.Ibn Maja, Muhammad Ibn Yazld al-QazwTm. Sunan. 2 vols. Edited Quasem, M.A. The Ethics of al-Ghazalla Composite Ethics in by Muhammad Fuad Abd al-Baql. Cairo, 1952-53. Islam. Foreword by W. Montgomery Watt. Revised Ph.D. thesis. 106 107
  • 53. THE QURAN THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHY 1931-34. 2nd ed. New York, 1978. XXII, Wall Allah, Shah. Al-Fawz al-Kablr— . "Al-GhazalTs Conception of Happiness." Arabica, ft Usui at-Tafsir. Karachi Pakistan, n.d. 153-61. . tMn W. Montgomery. Companion to the Qurah. London,— The Jewels of the QurSn.al-Ghazalis Theory. Malaysia, . 1977. Watt, — 1967.Al-Qushayn, Abu 1-Qasim. Lafaifal-Isharat. Edited by Ibrahim. 5 The Formative Period ofIslamic Thought. Edinburgh, 1973. vols. Cairo, n.d. — . . "Ahl al-Suffa". Encyclopaedia ofIslam (new ed.), I, 266fRahbar, Daud. God ofJustice: a study in the ethical doctrine of the A 1Sha blnt AbrBakr" Encyctopoedia of Islam (new ed.), I, ~~307f Quran. Leiden, 1960.— "Reflections on the Tradition of Quranic Exegesis." . Muslim " Az-Zabidf, Sayyid Murtada. Ithaf as-Sada Asrar Ifrya" Ulum ad-Din 10 vols. Egypt, alMuttaqin bi-Sharh WorW,LII(1962), 269-307. . 13 1 1 A. the Quran. Az-Zajaj. Irab al-Quran. 3 vols.Ringgren, Helmer, "The Conception of Faith in Edited by Ibrahim al-Abyarf J Cairo, 1384/1965. IV (1951), 1-20. Oriens.Roberts, Robert. The Social Laws of the Qoran. 2nd ed. London, Az-Zamakhshari, Abu 1-Qasim Jar Allah. Al-Kashshdf an Haqaia at-Tanzil. 4 vols. Egypt, 1385/1966. 1971. _ . Ulum al-Qur an. 5th ed. Beirut, Az-Zanjani, Abu *AbdAs-Salih, Subbl. MabWth ft 1388/1969. Allah. Tdrlkh al-Quran. 3rd ed. Beirut Wl 1968.As-Sarraj, Abu Nasr. Kitab al-Luma. Edited by R.A. Nicholson, AI-Quran al-Kanm (bi-r-rasm al-Uthmani). London, 1963. Edited in Egypt, n.d. Exegesis." Arabic andShahid, Man. "A Contribution to Koranic Leiden, 1965, Islamic Studies in honour of Hamilton A.R. Gibb. pp. 563-80. Qur an.Al-Shamma, S.H. The Ethical System underlying the Tubingen, 1959. .Ash-Shurunbalafi, Ibn Ammar. Matn Nur al-Idah. Cairo, 1389/1969. Streck, M. "Kaf .Encyclopaedia of Islam. II, 614f. As-SulamT. Tabaqdt as-$ufiyya al-Kubra. Edited by Nur ad-Dm. Egypt, 1953/1372. _ 3rd ed. Cairo, As-Suyutl, Jalal ad-Din. Al-Itqanfi Ulum al-Quran. 1370/1951. ~ — Lubab an-NuqulfiAsbab an-Nuzul. 2nd ed. Egypt, n.d. — . and al-Mabaffl, Jalal ad-Din. Tafsur al-Jalalayn. On the margins Beirut, n.d. of al-Quran al-Kartm (bi-r-rasm. al-Uthmani). _ Muhammad Ibn Jarlr, JamV al-Bayan an Tawil Ai At-Tabarl, ai-Qur an. 12 vols. 2nd ed. Egypt, 1373/1954. — Tartkh al-Umam wa l-Muluk. Egyptx n.d. . ^ . al-Funun. At-Tahanawl, Muhammad A*la Ibn *Ali. Kashf Istilabat Bayrut, 1966. Mubammad. Sunan. 13 vols. Egypt, At-TirmidhI, Abu *Isa 108 109
  • 54. GENERAL INDEX aJ-Arbatn.... 11 rib*, 104 fr#57,98 booties, 97 arrogant, see haughty bud.63 ascetic, 11, 25 - 30, 39, 43, 50, 63f., 74, al-Bukhari, 22, 29f., 43, 46. 51, 53ff„ 81 66,781.98 asceticism, 26, 32, 50 INDEX askabash-shvnaX 26 al-Bunani, Thabit, 82 ofhabaJ-yamln, 26, SI caliph, caliphate, 25f., 29, 36, 40, 48, Ash ante, 11,56 50,54,63 Al-AsqafinT, Ibn Pajar, 24f., 27ff., 32, Carta dcVam, 61 36, 40, 42, 48, 54f., 64, 66. 82, 88 chastisement of God, see punishment variants such as an, ask, ad, at, as, disregarded V and W before English it(The Arabic article al-, with its asraral-Quron, 86 - Children of Israel, 98in the alphabetical arrangement. The articles the, astray, 26, 89 Christian, Christianity, 10, 76, 100language titles are also not taken into consideration.) al-atama, 84 clean, cleanliness, pure, 44, 46, 60 tttkar, 87 Gear Book. 57, 66 awliya, 45 Clear Imam, 57 GENERAL INDEX at-awra, 45 college, |1 . Abmadiyya, 92 awwalal-padid, 28 companions of Muhammad, 12, 23 —o64 98 •Aisha.36,42,53 AwzaI, 40 29, 32. 36, 38 - 40, 42, 48 - 51, 53f..%bid, abidun, 37, 40 ayat alkursl, 2S, 42 60, 64, 66, 79, 81, 87, 90ff., 104 ajanu, 43ablution, 34f. congregation, 40, 46f. ajsam, 20 Badr,24,48,54,102Abraham (Ar. Ibrahim), 9, 98ff. courage, 29Abu Bakr as-Slddlq, 13, 25, 36, 40, 51, akkoar.%1 al-BahuT, Abu Umima, 23 courtesy, 15, 20, 29 54.90 akhiral-pwhr. 28 al-Bahral-Muhlt, 57 covenant, 44, 74, 78AbudDarda,27,79,87 al-Siamm, 48 aJ-bakTn, 44 55, 63, 65, curse, 31; by God, 77; by Quran, 29, 31 , 53, 80, 89. •Aff Ibn AbTTflfl), 28f., 35,Abu Dlwud. 22. 36, 38, 50f Balance, 42 ad-daUun, 26 68,72,87ff. al-Baqir, Muhammad, 81 109 Damascus, 63AbuDharr,64 AUSkuakbar, 44,46 baraka, 10 ad-Darini, 30, 64, 83AbuHanfia.,39 almsgiving, 50 Basra, 39, 41, 43, 54, 63. 74, 82 ad-Dariml, 23, 43AbuH«iiin,29 amS. 37 bafina, 21 aamalfd-bafina, 21 David (Ar. Diwud), 55, 89f.Abufludhayfa,54 Batinhe,13,92f.,97 AmirIbnAbdQays,63 Dawn Prayer, 10, 27, 37, 53AbuHurayra.25 baytAUah, 34 amn, 83 Day of Resurrection, Day of Judgement,AbuMuu.Mf. beautiful names of God, 28, 37, 65f., 70. •AmrIbnal-As,25 Day of Doom, 10, 22f., 26, 30, 42, 46, AbuNuaym,41 76 54f.,57f.,63f.,76,79f.,95,97 analogy, 46 believer, 10f., 19, 21ff„ 26. 32, AblT«»>.20 55, 57, death, 23, 64, 84 AnasIbnMalk,27,29 74, 78, 80f., 97f., 102; see also Mother Ab5Yadd,79 decree of God, 10, 26, 57, 59, 96, 101 angel, 10, 18, 21f., 25, 27, 30f.. 37, 51, beneficence, benefkient, 27, 81, 85 AbuYusuf.40 demon, see Satan 57f., 76, 82, 99, 101 bida. 92 Ad. 68 devotee, 25, 28, 37, 40, 46, 50, 52 Ansar. 79 bida kasana, 40 adab, 21f.,29 70 devotion, devotional, 6, 21f., 34, 52f., aqaid, aqtda, 61, bida madkmuma, 40 Adam. 9. 18. 30, 69 aa%9 63ff.,84 al-Adkkar ,12 Bilal,51 Arab, Arabia, Arabian, Arabic, 14, 24f„ devout, most, 83 •Adi, 100 blessings of Quran, 10, 22 36, 41, 57, 66, 68, 74, 76, 91. 94f., 101 adh-DhahabT, 74 affectation, 52, 55 body, acts of, 37 20 f. dhikr,11,50 aklal-Qpran,23 An Arabic-English Lexicon, Book, see Quran, Clear Arafat, W., 51 director, spiritual, 77 AMI as-ftaja, 25 Books, revealed, 57, 78 arbabal-qutubca-xakiyya, 86, 103 The Book of the Articles of the Faith, Ditch, battle of, 48 AMI as-Sunna wa l-Jdmaa, 61 71 Ltiwan of Labid, 66 The Book of Invocation and Supptica- 110 Doom, Day of, see Day 111
  • 55. QURAN THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE GENERAL INDEX heresy, heretic, heretical, 13, 40, 57,dream, 25, 55; interpretation of, 39, 50, 53, 57, 60f., 65f., 74, 81. 93, 96, 103 Ibrahim an-NakhaT, 39 Gheuaii on Prayer. 104 92f.,96 ideal of man, 25 99 al-Ghifari, 32, 35 Hesiod,57 idol,100East, 12, 78 al-Hidhdha, Khalid, 41 Idrls,9,97 gnostic, 57, 61, 64f., 69,Edinburgh, 16 God, divine, 9 — 104 passim; essence of hijab, 83 Ihya..., Revival.... 9 — 12, 14f., 18,Egypt, 25 Hijaz, 50 56, 88, 103; attribute of, 28, 56f., 61, 21, 25ff., 30, 40, 50, 53, 57, 61, 71Egyptian. 53, see also Quran hijra, 20, 22 65ff., 76, 81, 84, 88, 98. 103f.; unity, Ikrima Ibn AblJahal, 60 hizb, ahzab, 38£1,20,57,98 oneness of, 28, 58, 61, 100; denial of Urn al-awwalin wa l-akhartn, 24£J?20f.,25,36,39f.,51 Homer, 57 Um a! mu amala. 60 child, son, daughter, consort of, 76;Elijah, 61 love hubb, 95 face of, 23. 66; grateful to, 23, 73; Ilyas,61English, 6, 12, 15, 84 81, Hud, 68 imam, of, 24f., 74; nearness to, 26, 28, 27, 46f., 49,63Enoch(Ar.Idns),9 House of, 34; pleasure Hudhayfa, 27, 48, 82, 89 Imam, 12, 49f., S3; 81 83, 96, 103f.; 6, 21, 25, 30, hujja, 49The Ethics of al-Ghazatl of, 26f„ 29, 31f.. 35f„ 45, 50, 103; see imama, 46 59 curse, decree, fear, al-HujwTrl, 25f„ 30 iman, 32 also beautiful, Evening Prayer, 40, 50, 53, 84 humble, 45, 99 forgiveness, friend, invocation, Mes- impurity, ritual, 45 humility, 30, 32, 45 Ezra(Ar.Uzayr),76 senger, messenger, praise, punish- inaba, 71 huruf muqattaat, 24 ment, remembrance, worship, throne, infidel, infidelity, 83, 86, 95, 99, 102 Fahd,T.,39 hypocrite, 48 trust, veil injustice, 83fajir, 30 god, 82 ibada. 10, 22, 53 innovation, introduced, 39f. falsehood, 19, 56, 66 Gosepel, 9f. Iblis, see Satan insight, 69f.faqth, 53, 80 governor, 25, 41, 48, 51, 54 Ibn Abbas, 36, 42f., 72, 86f., 89ff. intellect, intellectual, intelligence, 9, 11, fasting, 29, 83f. grateful, see God Ibn *Abd al-Barr, 24f., 27ff, 32, 36, 40, 13, 20, 58, 80f., 88, 92fawattk. 41 Greeks, 57 42, 48, 54f., 60, 64, 66 intercessor, 21f. fear of God, 26, 43, 45, 68. 74ff., 78. guidance, guided, 9ff., 20, 29, 68, 73ff. Ibn Abd ar- Rahman, Qasem, 28 interpretation, explanation, of Quran, 98 83ff.. female infanticide, 100 hadath, 45. 57 Ibn Abl Kathir, Yahya, 40 3f, 12f., 15, 86 — 94; by ones perso- Ibn al-Athlr, 27f. nal opinion, 13,21,72 20 Abu Bakr Salman or Ruh, 41 at-Fihrist, filth, physical, 45 al-Hadhli, hadith, 10 Ibn al-Hajjaj, see Muslim intuition, 13, 67, 84 —94, 101 — 104 Ibn Hanbal, 22f„ 25f., 29, 31, 38, Ionian, 57 fitan. 48 hadith an-nafs, 61 42f., Follower, 26, 28, 39 - 42, 49f., 63f., 72, Hajjaj,41,64 50,52,54f.,66,78ff.,93 invocation of God, 37, 50, 100 Ibn Hisham, 20, 100 irab, 41 74, 82 hakim, 87 75f., 78, Ibn Ibrahim, Muslim, 41 al-Isaba, 24 forgiveness of God, 27, 48, 64, hamazat, 47 Ibn Jubayr, saId, 64 al-Isfahani, ar-Raghib, 94 83,93,97,103 Hanafi school, 44, 46 Ibn Maja, 22f., 29, 36, 38, 43, 46, 53f. Islam, Islamic, pre-Islamic, 4, 6, 9, Formative Period 96 Hanball school, 25, 44 .... 64, 66, 78, 89, 93, 103 10 - 3, 15, 18 - 21, 24ff., 28f., 34, Friday, 36f„ 65 Aanr^ 100 Ibn Masud.Abd Allah, 24, 30, 32, 36, 36, 39f., 42, 44, 46, 51, 59f., 66, 68, Friday Assembly Prayer, 27 haqq, 44 38, 46, 54, 66, 76, 87f., 90. 97 71, 76, 87, 90, 92, 96, 100, 102 Friday night, 38 hardness of mind, 93 Ibn Maymun, Amr, 27 Ismailite, 93 Friend of God, 23, 45 al-Hasan al-Basri, 28, 31, 39, 41, 50, 63, Ibn al-Musayyab, Said, 29, 50 Isrifi[, 10, 58 friendly, 28, 33 75 Ibn an-Nadim, 20 al-Istiab, 24 Fudayl, 71 haughty, arrogant, 30, 34, 45, 68, 97 hawafir, 100 Ibn Qutayba, 24 — 29, 36, 39 — 42, istinbat, 90 Gabriel (Ar. Jibrll), 10. 82, 101 50f.,55, 100 istiwa, 70 Haytham al-QirIr 55 Gabrieli,F.,21 Ibn ar-Ramah, 27, 30 Ithafas-Sada..., 14 Hebrews, 57 al-ghafilun, 81 Ibn Sinn, 39, 41 itiqad, 40 Hell, 10, 21f., 30, 42, 61, 65, 68, 72, 76, gharaib al-Quran, 94 Ibn Thawban, 83f. 84, 86, 88, 99 Jahmites, 11 Ghayaan-Nihaya...,36 Ibn Umar, Abd Allan, 32, 36, 83 jamaa, 40, 61 al-Ghazall, Abu Hamid, 3f., 6, 9 — 12, Helper from Medina, 79 IbnUmm Abd, 54 Jawahir .... 24, 57, 65, 74, 103 Hereafter, 10, 21, 25f., 30, 59, 72 14f., 18. 21, 24 - 8, 30, 33, 40, 42, 112 113
  • 56. INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN THE RECITATION AND GENERAL INDEX senger, see Prophet; of Quran, 24f. Shuns ad-D?n, 36 monotheism, monotheistic, 82, 100 novice, 37,al-Jazan, Luma, 14,66,103 69 61,76 Moony, P., 15 nural-basha, 69Jesus, lutf.XS mortification, 82 Nur aljdak, 45 28, 47, 93 24 Moses (Ar. Musa), 38, 57,TheJewets of the QutSh..., 6, al-Nfairif. 93, 98f. mosque, 34f., 54 obligation, religious, 20jinn, 20, 61 Mabad al-Juhani, 96 Yahya), 61 Mosque of Prophet, 25, 50 obligatory, 37John the Baptist (Ar. Macdonald,D.B.,20 93 Odd Prayer, 84Jordan, 25 madhhab, 25, 27, 40, 44, 53, 70, mother of believers, tide of, 36> 42 Mount Sinai, 97 Okeanos, 57Joseph (Ar. Yosuf), 99 Maghrib, 40 orthodox, 11Judaism, 100 ManVa.100 MuadhlbnJabal, 79 - ostentation, 30, 52, 55 al-Makki, Abu Talib, 11, 24f., 27, 33, mil adhdhin of Prophet, 51Judgement, see Day ostentatious, 31 42,60 muamala, 60 Jundab,32 44, 46, Muawiya, 63 jurisprudence. 25, 27, 39f.. 42. makr. 83 pagan, 76, 100 makruh, 84 Muawwidhutfin, 47 Paradise, 20, 22, 25, 29f., 42, 47, 61, 53,64 65, 25ft, 39f., 44, 50. 53, 74 malakut,69 mubkam, 98 68.76,84 jurist, Malaysia, 41, 15 al-mufassal, pardon, see forgiveness justice, 27, 40, 61, 98 .18 Malik, 30 atAfufradat .... 94 path, see sufT, straight, right Kaba,34,41,45 Malik Ibn Anas, 40 mughirat, 100 patience, 73, 75 kabair, 30 Muhammad, Malik Ibn Dinar, 74 see Prophet pause, 32, 43 al-KashanT, 87 Muharram, 15 Pentateuch, 61 ma mum, 47 kashf, 13 al-Maqdisi, 53 muhdath, 39f. People of Sunna and Community, 61 Kashfal-Mahjub. 25f.,30 market, 35 mujahada, 82 People of Veranda, 25 al-Kashshaf ..., 19 Mujahid Ibn Jubayr, 42, 72 Pharaoh (Ar. Firawn), 38, 93 marriage, 10. al-kawakibad-Durrfyya, 40 al-mukadhdhibun, 26 martyr, 21. 28, 54, 60 53 philologist, Khadir,98 al-MunawT, 40, 48, 63f., 74 Philosophy, 4 martyrdam, 36 KhHtdIbnUqba,27f. Maryam, 38 al-muqaliid, 70 piety, pious, 10, 12f., 21ff., 25 — 8, 32, Kharijitcs, 11 al-muqarrabun, 26, 81 Mary (Ar. Maryam), 3b 36, 50, 52f., 64, 68, 81, 83, 87, 90. 92, khashtm. 44 al-Masjidal-Harom. 34 Murjiite, 11 98 khawatun, 41 al-Murrl, Silib, 43 pilgrim, 41 masmu", 90 khubuth, 45 a~musabbihjn, 45 pilgrimage, 37 Masse, H. 20 kindred, 28 al-muryat, 100 pleasure, 31, 50; of God, see God Mawsil, 100 king, 58, 78 Muslim, Ibn al-Hajjaj, 22, 29, 35, 46, poet, poetic, poetry, 29, 36, 59, Maysara, 29 66, 68, kinsmen, 27 _ 48,53^55,66,78,98,103 mazamvBDav/ud, 55 74 Kuala Lumpur, 4 Mecca, 10. 20, 34, 37, 41, 45. 100, 102 Mutazili, Mutaziiite, 11, 57, 92, 96 politeness, 34 Kufa.39,41,45 mystic, mystical, see sufi medieval time, 11 politics, 81 LabTd Ibn Rabla, 66 Medina, 10. 20. 22. 25,51,54,79,81 mysticism, see suflsm polytheism: lesser, 52; hidden, 82 Lafpyya, 11 meditation, 37 polytheist, 100 nafl, 10, 37 Lakhm tribe, 100 Messenger of God «ee Prophet Nakhla, 20 poverty, 25, 28 Une,E.W.,20 messenger of God, see prophet Nakamura, Kojiro, 104 practical, practice, 9, 11; see also science 62 law, legal, 24, 29, 36, 39, 45f., 54, 58, praise, 82, 103f.; of God, MM*"1 99 « ,c 48 a* aaqt, 90 18, 20, 45, lawful, 19, 31f., 92, 98 35, mind, 9, 14, 20, 22, 29, 30f., 33, an-NasaT, 29, 42, 46, 50, 53f., 64, 66, 47f.,54,80;God*s,35 al-Lawhal-AtahfS?. 10,57 _ 103 passim 81,93,103 praiseworthy, 34, 39, 41, 43, 49ff., 86 Leaves, 9 an-Nawawi, 12, 39, 42, 50, 64, 66, 74 prayer, 83, 93; to God see supplication nuracle.24,63,102 legal, see law prayer, ritual, 10, 20, 22f., 28f., 34f„ modernist, 92 mam, 53 37, Lord, Lordly, 20, 25f„ 29, 31, 47ff., 55, Monday, 37 Night of Decrees, 96, 101 40, 42, 45f.,48 - 51, 55, 63. 74, 81, 84 57, 63, 68, 73f., 96f., 96-99. 101. Preserved Tablet, 10, 57f. Monday night, 38 Noah(Ar.Nuh),68 104 monk, 100 non-Arab, 46 private parts, 45 love, 20, 95; of God, see God; of Mes- profligate. 30 114 115
  • 57. OFTOEQURAN GENERAL INDEX raEREOTATION AND INTERPRETATION 100 * m £.*> 64, 68, 86 a*. - CkA«<;« 94 passim, 101 101 - 104; remembrance of Goo, 11, 35, 37, 55, 77, science, 14; of practical religion, 60prophecy, prophethood, 18, 25,prophet, Messenger, Muhammad, 9 — outward exegesis, exegetes of, 13f., 93,96 scripture, 9ff„ 15 13, I8ff., 22 — 32, 34ff., 38, 42f. f 45, 72, 74, 86 — 94 passim. 101 - 103; repentance, 71, 75, 77f. sect, 89 46, 47 — 55, 63, 69—94 passim. 97, eternity of, 10, 56 ; respect for, 10f., language of, lOH ; resurrection, 58, 100 revelation, revealed, ; Day of, see Day 9f„ 19, 25, 32, 36, SEI.61 self-training, 82 26f., 43, 60; 99; family of, 104; lore of, 24f.; see also interpretation, explanation of, see in- 43, 57f., 61, 71, 73, 91, loot sermon, 10 Mosque, muadhdhin, Sunna «e 9f., 14, terpretation; recitation, reading of Revival..., seelhya" Seth(Ar.Shith),9prophet, prophetic, messenger, verses of, reward, 29, 46, 73; of Qur*an-recitation, recitation; suras of, lee sura; ash-ShabT, 39 18, 21, 30, 55, 58, 61, 65, 67t, 73, heart of, see recitation ash-Shinf, 40, 53 see verse; intercesion of, 21f. ; 86f.,90,96,99f.,104 22; curse by, 29, 31; classification of rida, 26 Shifijfschool, 44, 46, 53ptose order, 53 shakid, 60 ; aims 20 of, right path, 103f.; due to man in, 26; teacherof, 26prostration, 35, 42f., Ouran-reading, 43, 44 — 47 28; codification of, 36; writing of, 39 Risala,2& 511^8,30,58,64,84.92 — 41; reflection, pondering, on, 24, riya, 30, 55 skaykh, 79Psalms, 9 31 , 38, 42, 44, 52, 56, 61. 62 65, 67, — riydda, 10, 82 ash-Shaytan, 47punishment, chastisement, of God, 19, ShIa, ShPite, 11. 13, 46, 81, 92f. edition of, 15 rizq, 50 71, 75f., 88; Egyptian 22. 24, 30. 42, 44, 48, 61, 64. 68, 73, asrar, love, nih, 98, 100 ash-shirk aI-khqfi,Z2 I2t;se« oko blessing, akl 76f.,84,89,95,97,99,102f. ash-Shurunbalair, 45 ruku, 63 pure, 48, prostration, supplication purification, purified, purity, shuffkt as-sald, 45 Quraysh, 100 as-sabiqun, 26 84, 86, 102f.» see also clean fifatar-ntbubiyya, 98 QurzT, Muhammad Ibn Ka*b, 26, 74 Sacred Mosaue. 34 Siffm,59 Qadarite,96 al-Qushayn, 86 as-Sidiq, Jafar Ibn Muhammad, 81 sin, sinful, 22, 30, 39ff., 52, 63, 78 Qidiyinl,92 Q£t al-Qu&b, 11, 24, 33, 60 Salith: of al-Bukhan, 22, 29f., 43, 46, as-Stru an Nabamyya, 20 Qif.57 51, 53ff., 66, 78f., 98; of Muslim, 22, 37, 86, 103 raka, 37,40,46,51,84 slave, 45, 50. 54, 74, 98 $«&.**«». 29, 35, 46, 48, 51, 53, 55, 66, 78f., Ramadan, 40, 100 98 Solomon, 89f., 96 ahqarJn, 98f. SaldIbnUbayd,79 ro>. 13,92 soul, 6, 19, 23f. 43, 59, 62, 71, 75; Inner QaOda.74 SaTd IbnZayd, 100 Rayyan,29 utterances of, 61f.; purification of, 44, 4aM.34.45 saint, 20f., 45,98 al-Qtsfasal-Mustaqm, 11 reason see intellect 82, 86, 102f.; detects of, 48; action of, reciter, etc. of sola. 10, 22, 49. rochation, reading, 44 qiyambi-llayi, 21,35 46 Qur*an, 3f., 10 — 94 passim, 101 salaf. 31,52 Spain, 40 qiyas, of, 10f., 21, 41f., 62; faidal-Fajr, 37 MA.. 4, 15. 21. 25, 28, 30, -104; purpose Spirit, 101 Quasem. . of Sola a!-7ska*, 40, SO, S3 reward of, 22ff., 27, 35, 52, 55, 64; spiritual, 10, 19, 30, 69f., 73f., 79, 83f. 34,40,43-7,59,84,87,93 unmindful $aldal-Iayi, 51 — 104 powim; looking a hundred verses, 27; by steadfast, 77 Qur*an, Book, 3 19. 29 «33; people con- Saldal-Maghrib, 37,50 ; nature & fame of, llf. 56, people, straight path, 19 at, 11, 55 SalStalWhr, 84 cerned with, 11; rules, methods, of, 11, 13, 94 ; Streck,M.,57 58; problems, subjects of, Salih,68 memorisation of. 12. 22ff., 26ff.. 30, llf., 21, 34 ; external rules of, 12, 21, suff, sfifistic, mystic, mystical, 11 — 14, 37 79; translation, translator of. 80, 88, 34- s&; mental tasks, internal rules, sSIik, salikun, 21, 24 - 32, 48, 67, 70, 84ff„ 102ff.; of, 12, 21, 56-85 ; grades of, 56, 80 Salim,34 101; excellence of, 12, 18- 29 ; people path, 37 con- —2- denial of ability for, 56, 82 - «s salutation, 18, 46, 51 su&m, mysticism, concerned with, 12, 21. 23, 74; taining all forms of knowledge, 13, 19, effect of on mind, 56, 75 - 80; loudly, salvation, 6, 10, 20, 89 suhuf, 9 lOff., 63, 83, 86f. divisions of, 37, 4g — 53 56 condition of 30 — 32, , ; Salvation of the Soul..., 34, 40, 42, 44 — a^SulamT, 26, 30, 86 amount of 35 — 38; 24, 66, 87f.; parts, 36 slowly, 7,84 39 ; , s Sunan: of Abu Diwud, 22, 36, 38, understanding of, 13, 50f., 38f„ 41, 49, 62; 58, 60. 64, 65 - 41 — 53 - 55. 62, 80; weeping 3, at, as-Sarraj, 14, 66, 86, 103 80, 89; of an-NasiT, 29, 42, 46, 50. 21. 26. 32. 36, 43, 56, Satan, demon, 25, 40, 47, 51, 63, 69f„ 3M#,45,54,75f. 75, 80f., 86-94,^*01-W 53f., 64, 66, 93, 103; of Ibn Maja, 69,69-72, 99 obstacles to understanding of, 56, W reflection, 19; on Quran, see Quran Saturday night, 38 22f.. 29, 36, 38, 43, 46, 53f., 64. 66, 12ff., 19ff., 25, — 72; deep meanings of, 10, 13f., 38, religion, religious, 9f., - 82f„ Schacht,J.,40 89, 93, 193; of ad-DirimT, 23. 43; of 86-94 passim. 101- 29 32, 37, 40, 63, 68, 73f., 80, at-TinnJdhT, 13, 21, 23, 31, 36, 42. 50, 42, 59f., 65. 70. school, 27, 70. 93, 96, 44, 46 42, 87,91,93,99f. 54, 72, 86, 89f., 98, 103 h»; exegesis, exegete of, 24, 29, 116 117
  • 58. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN GENERAL INDEXSunday night, 38 throne of God, 56ff„ 61 Waqifiyya, 11 Yamlma, 54Sunn* of the Prophet, 11, 29, 40, 53. Thursday night, 38 warning, see threat Yarrauk, 24 61f., 74; collective, 40; emphasized, at-rirmidhl, 13f., 21ff.. 31, 36, 42, 50, Watt,W.M.,25,36,96 Yemen, 54 52, 54ff., 63f., 74f., 78, 81f., 86- 90. Wednesday night, 38 Yusuf,38 37, 40; muakkada. 37; kijaya, 40; qadSma, 40 103 weeping, see Quran-reading YusufIbnAsbaf.78,83SttnoJte,96 tooth-stick, 24, 29 Wensinck,A.J.,20,98 Torah, 9, 32, 61; reflection on, 33 az-zabaniyya, 30supplication, prayer, etc. to God, 18f., West, 1 If. 23, 25, 29, 44f., 48, 51, 55, 80, 84; at Tradition, Tradrtionist, 10— 13, 18, 21 Witnessing, formula of, 46 az-Zabidi. 14, 19, 23, 26 — 9, 41, 43f., Ouran-reading, 47ff. - 29, 32, 36, 38 — 43, 48, 50, 52, worldly, worldlings, 26, 29, 31, 63, 71 47,49,55,^9,87,94Sura, 15 — 104 patsim; best, 47 54f.. 63., 74f., 78, 81f., 86 — 90, 103 worship, worshipper, service of God, zahir attafsir, 86 transgression, 27 az-Zamakhshari, 19, 57Syria, Syrian, 24, 40, 60, 100 10f.,30,96 16 Zayd, 100 transliteration, Wuhayb Ibn al-Ward, 75JobaqStar^Ufijya, 26 God, 77, 78 trust in Zayd Ibn Amr Ibn Nufayl, 100aJ-Taoari.9,55,98 Yahya, 61 Zayd Ibn TKabit, 36, 79 Tuesday night, 38 Turks, 90Tablet,57tadabbttr, 43 UbayyIbnKab,36,79 INDEX OF QURANIC SURAS AND VERSES CITEDTadhkiraal#uffSf.41 Uhud.24,48.87 Umar Ibn Abd al-Aziz, 50f. a) Index of Quranic Suras Citedtafakkur, 42 71 •Umar Ibn al-Khattab, 25, 40, 48, 50f.,tafmrbi-r-ray, 54f. Sura Page Sura PageTahajjnd Prayer, 84 Umayyads, 41,50 1. Opening (JFatiha) 32,47,68,87 20. TaHaTahdhlb al-Aimi. 39 22,38TahdklbatTakdhib.%2 Umm Salama, 42 2. Cow (Baqara) _ 38, 42f., 48, 79 22. Pilgrimage (ffajf) 44 al-umma, 98f„ lOlf. 3. House of Iraran (Al Imran) 42 29. Spider ( Ankabut)tahrhta,46 38 unity of God, jee God 4. Woman (Mia") 76 36. YaSinTalf,20 22 University, 4f., 11, 15 5. Table (Ma ida) 38 38. $adTaffmhes>93_ 38,44 unjust, 83 6. Cattle (An am) 38,79 50. QafTarnlm adVDiri, 27, 64 38 unlawful. 19, 26, 31f., 46 10. Jonah (Yunus) 91 55. Most Gracious OneUmzDt.4& Uqiyanus, 57 11. Hud 38,64,91 (Ar-Rahman)taqtid, 70 38 Usdol-Ghaba, 27 12. Joseph (Yusuj) 38 57. lxon(Hadtd)TarJkk al-Umam .... 9 , 55, 98 28 Uthmah Ibn Affan, 36, 38, 44, 53f., 79. 14. Abraham (Ibrahim) 9! 59. Gathering (#ashr)aftaahahkud, 46 28 82 15. Rocky Track (£f|rr) 91 99. Earthquake (ZaJzala)TariwTh Prayer, 40 42,79 •Uzayr, 76 19. Mary (Marvam 38 101. Clatterer (Qprfa)fanqmhamal, 37 42 104. Man(A/2i) 47 farJq al-kaqq, 19 veil, 69- 72, 96; from God, 83 farlqila Allah, 37 verse of Quran, 15- 104/wiwm; right tartH 36,62 of.44 b) Index of Quranic Verses Cited 63 tasbth. Verse of the Throne, 28, 42, 79 ttawkldal-khSis, 82 vice. 102 Verse Page Verse Page 1.^,86,91 vigil at night, 10, 22, 28, 35, 51, 64 1:1 64,88 2:264 52 Thamud, 68, 95 virtue, 25 2:78 77 2:269 89 ath-Thawrl Sufyan, 27 virtuous, 26, 28 2:93 95 2:273 25 theologian, theological, theology. 4, 11, vision, 70 2:121 10 3:13 19 28,96 2:185 100 3:17 93 theoretical, theory, 3, 5, 6, 9. 12, 14, 32 vtadu. 34 2:231 73 3:35 61 watad. 76 2:235 9 3:61 tkiqa, 26,55 31 waffAttak,** 2:255 22,28,79 3:138 threat, warning, 20, 32, 44, 65, 68, 73, 74 76 waqf.32 2:256 19 3:187 78 118 119
  • 59. THE RECITATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE QURAN INDEX OF QURANIC SURAS AND VERSES CITED3:191 35 12:111 19 28:23 99 53:29 773:194 96 13:2 70 28:28 66 53:32 824:13 72 13:15 44 29:45 55 54:2 104:38 52 13:39 10,57 32:15 44,45 55 : 15, 39 204:41 54,76 14:9 68 33:4 70 55:62 444:79-80 % 14:12 77 33:6 36 56:82 26, 954:82 10 14:34 83 33:40 9 56:7-94 264:83 90,91 15:9 20 33:56 18 56:58,65,68,71 26,674:142 52 16:44 73 34:23 22 56:79 26,605:118 64 16:49 44 35:28 57:1-6 26 286:4 77 16:75,76 98 36:59 64 57:4 28,706:15 76 16:90 27 36:77 67 59:8 256:19 74 16:98 10,47 37:130 97 59:22-24 286:59 19,68 16:120 99 38:31-34 96 59:23 28,65,706:85 61 17:34 74 38 : 34, 39 44 60:4 986:130 20 17:59,75 95 39:3 % 60:128 207:36-53 26 17:78 10 39:55 73 61:3 777:38 20,26 17:82 19,73,89 39:62 58 62:1 707:54 70 17:107 43,44 41:37 44 62:9 467:56 75 17:108 43 41:42 19 66:6 307:57 100 17:109 43,45 42:11 65 72:1 207:65,73,74 68 18:60-82 98 43:3 101 73:4 10f., 41, 53, 627:78 97 108:109 68,103 43:22 99 74:30 307:87 95 18:110 52 43:77 30 79:40-41 637:143 57 19:7,12 61 45:20 74 84:21 447:179 20 19:58 10,44 45:21 64 85:21 107:187 97 19:87 22 46:29 20 87:18-19 70 97:202 44 20:5 47:3 73 95:2 968:1 97,102 20:24 93 47:16 69 96:18 308:2-50 102 20:82 75 47:24 10,62 96:19 44,1038:2 10,78 20:109 22 49:11 77 97:1 96.1018:4-5 97 20:124,126 80 50:8 72 97:3-5 1018:47 52 20:129 97 50:23,27 99 99:8 798:117 102 20:130 49 51 : 50, 51 82 100:45 1009; 14 102 20:133 9 51:56 20 103:1-3 75,9:24 25 21:1 77 52:35 98 107:6 529:30 76 21:10 73 53:26 229:70 68 21:28 2210:3 22,70 21:79 90 (The numbering; of suras and verses are10:66 as in die Egyptian edition of the Quran) 97 21:90 6111:8 99 22:18 4411 : 12 65 22:52 10,5711:18 31, 77, 78 23:97 4711:50,59-61,68,95 68 25:59 7012:21-101 99 25:60 4412:82 95,99 27:25 4412 : 105 77 27:92 10 120 121