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Historical Atlas of Islam


Historical Atlas of Islam by Malise Ruthven and Azim Nanji

Historical Atlas of Islam by Malise Ruthven and Azim Nanji

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  • 1. ISBN: 0674013859 Author: Malise Ruthven, Azim Nanji Publisher: Harvard University Press (May 28, 2004) Pages: 208 Binding: Hardcover w/ dust jacket Description from the publisher: Among the great civilizations of the world, Islam remains an enigma to Western readers. Now, in a beautifully illustrated historical atlas, noted scholar of religion Malise Ruthven recounts the fascinating and important history of the Islamic world. From the birth of the prophet Muhammed to the independence of post-Soviet Muslim states in Central Asia, this accessible and informative atlas explains the historical evolution of Islamic societies. Short essays cover a wide variety ofthemes, including the central roles played by sharia (divine law) and fiqh (jurisprudence); philosophy; arts andarchitecture; the Muslim city; trade, commerce, and manufacturing; marriage and family life; tribal distributions;kinship and dynastic power; ritual and devotional practices; Sufism; modernist and reformist trends; the Europeandomination of the Islamic world; the rise of the modern national state; oil exports and arms imports; and Muslimpopulations in non-Muslim countries, including the United States.Lucid and inviting full-color maps chronicle the changing internal and external boundaries of the Islamic world,showing the principal trade routes through which goods, ideas, and customs spread. Ruthven traces the impact ofvarious Islamic dynasties in art and architecture and shows the distribution of sects and religious minorities, thestructure of Islamic cities, and the distribution of resources. Among the books valuable contributions is theincorporation of the often neglected geographical and environmental factors, from the Fertile Crescent to theNorth African desert, that have helped shape Islamic history.Rich in narrative and visual detail that illuminates the story of Islamic civilization, this timely atlas is anindispensable resource to anyone interested in world history and religion.About the Author --Malise Ruthven is a former editor with the BBC Arabic Service and World Service in London and is the author ofIslam in the World and Islam: A Very Short Introduction. Azim Nanji is Professor and Director of the Institute ofIsmaili Studies and visiting professor at Stanford University.
  • 3. HISTORICALATLAS OF THEISLAMICWORLD Malise Ruthven with Azim Nanji
  • 4. Book Copyright © Cartographica Limited 2004 Text Copyright © Malise Ruthven 2004 All rights reserved. Historical Atlas of the Islamic World eBook version Published by CartographicaOriginally published in print format in 2004.In this informative and beautifully illustrated atlas, notedscholar of religion Malise Ruthven recounts the fascinatingand important history of the Islamic world.Short and concise essays cover a wide variety of themesincluding philosophy; arts and architecture; the Muslim city;trade, commerce and manufacturing; marriage and familylife; ritual and devotional practices; the rise of the modernnational state; oil exports and arms imports; and much more.Rich in narrative and visual detail, the Atlas is of criticalimportance to both students and anyone seeking insight intothe Islamic world, history and culture. q Published/Released: October 2005 q ISBN 13: 9780955006616 q ISBN 10: 0955006619 q Product number: 225062 q Page count: 208 pp.
  • 5. CONTENTSIntroduction 6 Balkans, Cyprus, and Crete 1500–2000 118Foundational Beliefs and Practices 14 Muslim Minorities in China 122Geophysical Map of the Muslim World 16 The Levant 1500–2002 124Muslim Languages and Ethnic Groups 20 Prominent Travelers 128Late Antiquity Before Islam 24 Britain in Egypt and Sudan in the 19th Century 132Muhammad’s Mission and Campaigns 26 France in North and West Africa 136Expansion of Islam to 750 28 Growth of the Hajj and Other Places of Pilgrimage 138Expansion 751–1700 30 Expanding Cities 142Sunnis, Shiites, and Khariji 660–c. 1000 34 Impact of Oil in the 20th Century 146Abbasid Caliphate under Harun al-Rashid 36 Water Resources 148Spread of Islam, Islamic Law, and Arabic Language 38 The Arms Trade 150Successor States to 1100 40 Flashpoint Southeast Asia 1950–2000 152The Saljuq Era 44 Flashpoint Iraq 1917–2003 154Military Recruitment 900–1800 46 Afghanistan 1840–2002 156Fatimid Empire 909–1171 50 Arabia and the Gulf 1839–1950 158Trade Routes c. 700–1500 52 Rise of the Saudi State 160Crusader Kingdoms 56 Flashpoint Israel–Palestine 162Sufi Orders 1100–1900 58 Flashpoint Gulf 1950–2003 164Ayyubids and Mamluks 62 Muslims in Western Europe 166The Mongol Invasion 64 Muslims in North America 168Maghreb and Spain 650–1485 66 Mosques and Places of Worship in North America 170Subsaharan Africa—East 70 Islamic Arts 172Subsaharan Africa—West 72 Major Islamic Architectural Sites 176Jihad States 74 World Distribution of Muslims 2000 180The Indian Ocean to 1499 76 World Terrorism 2003 184The Indian Ocean 1500–1900 80 Muslim Cinema 188Rise of the Ottomans to 1650 84 Internet Use 190The Ottoman Empire 1650–1920 88 Democracy, Censorship, Human Rights, and Civil Society 192Iran 1500–2000 92 Modern Islamic Movements 194Central Asia to 1700 94 Chronology 196India 711–1971 96Russian Expansion in Transcaucasia and Central Asia 102 Glossary 200Expansion of Islam in Southeast Asia c. 1500–1800 106British, French, Dutch, and Russian Empires 108 Further Reading 203Nineteenth-Century Reform Movements 110 Acknowledgments and Map List 204Modernization of Turkey 112The Muslim World under Colonial Domination c. 1920 116 Index 205
  • 6. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDIntroduction Since September 11th 2001, barely a day pas- nations: Nairobi, Dar es Salaam, Mombasa, ses without stories about Islam—the religion Riyadh, Casablanca, Bali, Tunisia, Jakarta, of about one-fifth of humanity—appearing in Bombay (Mumbhai), Istanbul and Madrid. the media. The terrorists who hijacked four The list grows longer, the casualties mount. American airliners and flew them into the The responses of people and their govern- World Trade Center in New York and the ments are angry and perplexed. The far-reach- Pentagon near Washington killed some three ing consequences of these responses for inter- thousand people. This unleashed a “War on national peace and security should be enough Terrorism” by the United States and its allies, to convince anyone (and not just the media edi- leading to the removal of two Muslim govern- tors who mold public consciousness to fit their ments, one in Afghanistan and the other in advertisers’ priorities) that extreme manifesta- Iraq. It raised the profile of Islam throughout tions of Islam are setting the agenda for argu- the world as a subject for analysis and discus- ment and action in the twenty-first century . sion. The debates, in newspaper columns and Muslims living in the West and in the broadcasting studios, in cafes, bars, and growing areas of the Muslim world that come homes, have been heated and passionate. within the West’s electronic footprint under- Questions that were previously discussed in standably resent the negative exposure that the rarified atmosphere of academic confer- comes with the increasing concerns of out- ences or graduate seminars have entered the siders. Islam is a religion of peace: the word mainstream of public consciousness. What is “Islam,” a verbal noun meaning submission the “law of jihad”? How is it that a “religion of peace” subscribed to by millions of ordi- JAZIRA RASLANDA Qarnqi JAZIRA LUQAGHA JAZIRA J. SQUSIYYA nary, decent believers, can become an ideology IRLANDA Aghrims JAZIRAT DANMARSHA JAZIRAT of hatred for an angry minority? Why has Jazira Dans INQILTARA Gharkafurt BILAD Islam after the fall of communism become so Hastinks Londras BALUNIYYA Shant Mahlu Na Diaba freighted with passionate intensity? Or, to use Jol Sin hr u ARD AFRIZIYYA ALAMANIN Na h r Danu Abariz Qaghradun the title of a best-selling essay by Bernard Faynash Shant ARD AFLANDRIS AL AFRANJ Na h Draw r a BILAD BU’AMIYYA Majial Lewis, the doyen of Orientalist scholars, Kh a Janbara Kradis K al- ltj ha “What went wrong?” with Islamic history, An Liyun l ij Shant Ya‘aqub al- glis Ankuna Ba hin Burdal Raghusa nad with its relationship with itself, and with the Nabal iqa Bisha Manubas Munt Mayur Shaghubiyya Mashiliyya modern world? Tarakuna J. al-Nar Labiuna Messina Kashtara Such questions are no longer academic, but Qartajanna J. Qurshiqa Barsana al-Mariyya J. Sardaniyya J. Siqilliyya are arguably of vital concern to most of the Jalfuniyya Jaza’ir bani peoples living on this planet. Few would deny Mazjani Lebda Fas that Islam, or some variation thereof— Tarabulus Surt l Da ran Barqa whether distorted, perverted, corrupted, or J aba Jabal Daran hijacked by extremists—has become a force to Mastih Jabal Tantana be reckoned with, or at least a label attached to Jabal Ghaghara ARD Nebranta a phenomenon with menacing potentialities. KAMNURIYYA al L uni a al-Qasaba Jab Numerous atrocities have been attributed to Jabal Banbuan ARD GHANA Nil a l-Sudan Takrur Kuku and claimed by Islamic extremists, both before Ghana and since 9/11, causing mayhem and carnage in many of the world’s cities and tourist desti-6
  • 7. INTRODUCTION (to God) is etymologically related to the word emies, are accused of viewing Islam through salaam, meaning peace. The standard greet- the misshapen lens of Orientalism, a disci- ing most Muslims use when joining a gather- pline corrupted by its associations with impe- ing or meeting strangers is “as-salaam rialism, when specialist knowledge was alaikum”—“Peace be upon you.” Westerners placed at the service of power. who accuse Islam of being a violent religion This is fraught, contested territory and misunderstand its nature. Attaching the label writers who venture into it do so at their own “Muslim” or “Islamic” to acts of terrorism is peril. As with other religious traditions, every grossly unfair. When a right-wing Christian generalization about Islam is open to chal- fanatic like Timothy McVeigh blew up a US lenge, because for every normative descrip- federal building in Oklahoma city, the worst tion of Islamic faith, belief, and practice, atrocity committed on American soil before there exist important variants and consider- 9/11, no one described him as a “Christian” able diversity. The problem of definition is terrorist. In the view of many of Islam’s made more difficult because there is no over- adherents, “Westerners” who have aban- arching ecclesiastical institution, no Islamic doned their own faith, or are blinkered by papacy, with prescriptive power to decree religious prejudice, do not “understand” what is and what is not Islamic. (Even Islam. Certain hostile media distort Western Protestant churches define their religious viewpoints, prejudicing sentiments and atti- positions in contradistinction to Roman tudes with Islamophobia—the equivalent of Catholicism.) anti-Semitism applied to Muslims instead of Being Muslim, like being a Jew, embraces The world according Jews. Some scholars, trained in Western acad- ancestry as well as belief. People described as to al-Idrisi 549–1154 Ar da Truiyya l- Tabunt ARD LASLANDA Buhayrat Janun Sinubun Ku JANUB BILAD ma niy N ah s i AL-RUSIYYA br ya na rA a Nahr Dnas t .D mi Majuj Kaw N Labada l ? Quruqiyya Khagan Majui Shahadruj Jabal Su Adkash Rushiyya n?? ARD MAJUJ Basjirt ? Bahr Nitas al-Dakhila Filibus Arsan Hiraqliyya Askisiyya al-Qostantino Atrabezunda Samandar Bahr Jabal Mazrar Ard Buhayrat Ghargun Maqaduniyya Abidus al-Khazar Jajun ARD un Salanik Qashtamuni r Kharba Akhrida Ladikiyya Tiflis J. Karkuniyya ga YAJUJ As Dahistan Buhayrat al Buhayrat Quniyya Ardabil Khwarazem Jab Jabal Janf Tehama l Lalan Nah Tabriz Nahr Sha Jaba Amul r al s Nahr h al-Mawsil l Ashla th Fra Rudus Jaba ?? D y l Arkadiyya al- Sha ARD AL-KIMAKIYYA i ??? m ? Iskandaruna Tus MIN AL-ATRAK al F arg a Jazira Qum h J. Iqritish Antakiyya Sisian an Qibris Bukhara Buhayrat Baghdad Jujar al- Dimyat Dimashu Sarakhs Nashran Iskandariyya Abadan Yazd Harat BILAD AL-TIBET Khirkhir Jazira al-Taghlibiyya MIN AL-ATRAK Qulzum al Yakut Laka Buhayrat Khaybar Bazwan Jab Wakhan Yathrib al A al-Multan la qa Kashmir al-Kharija lul ttam l Ja Suhar Qandahar AQSA BILAD Baja Makka a Jab Asyut AL-HIND Sinis Aydhab Tabala Kanbaya Lulua BILAD Sur Daybul Katigura Jazira Aurshin AL-SIN M isr Ba ARD AL-ABADIYA Jazira Khanfun Sa’ala ba N il Sandan l- M NUBIA MIN an MIN AL-YAMAN Jazira Jazira Manquna da Jazira al-Mand Kulom Mak al-Romi AL-SUDAN b Adan Jazira al- J. Suqutra Qotsoba al-Gharb Jazira Sarandib Jazira al-Qamr Donqola Aqent Malot Jazira al-Sila Jazira Sarandib ARD SUFALA ARD AL-ZANJ AL-NABR ARD AL-WAQWAQJ ab 7 a l a l- K a m r
  • 8. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD Muslims are religiously observant in different one of his companions, Abu Bakr (r. 624–632), ways. One can be culturally Muslim, as one who was accepted as Caliph or successor by can be culturally Jewish, without subscribing agreement of the main leaders in the communi- to a particular set of religious prescriptions ty after the death of the Prophet. He, in turn, or beliefs. It would not be inappropriate to appointed Umar (r. 634–644), who on his describe many nonreligious Americans and deathbed designated Uthman (r. 644–656), after Europeans as “cultural Christians” given the consultation with leading Muslims. Uthman seminal importance played by Christianity in was succeeded by Ali (r. 656–661), again with the development of Western culture. The fact the consent of leading Muslims of the time. In that the term is rarely, if ever, used is reveal- the view of the Sunni majority the four caliphs ing of Western cultural hegemony and its constitute a “rightly guided Caliphate.” pretensions to universality. The Christian Over time the Shiites and Sunni both devel- underpinning of Western culture is so taken oped distinctive community identities. They for granted that no one troubles to make it are divided into various branches and organ- apparent. At the same time the term ized into different movements and tendencies. “Christian” has been appropriated by While these, and other groups, differed with Protestant fundamentalists who seek to each other and often fought over their differ- define themselves in contradistinction to sec- ences, the general tenor of relations, in pre- ular humanists or religious believers with modern urban societies, allowed for a degree whose outlook they disagree. of mutual coexistence and intellectual debate. Similar problems of definition apply in the In recent times, however, there has been a Muslim world. Just as there are theological tendency for extremist sects and radical disagreements between Christian churches groups to anathematize their religious oppo- over all sorts of questions of belief and ritu- nents, or to declare those ruling over them to al, within the Islamic fold there are groups be outside the pale of Islam. This narrow which differ among themselves ritualistically perspective may be contrasted with a growing or in terms of their respective tradition of awareness among the majority of Muslim interpretation and practice. people of the diversity and plurality of inter- Among the major groups in Islam, histor- pretations within the Umma. ically, the two most significant are the Sunni Currently, the climate of religious intoler- and Shiites. ance manifested in some parts of the Muslim The Shiites maintain that, shortly before world has complex origins and may be symp- his death, the Prophet Muhammad (c. tomatic, like the puritan extremism that 570–632 ) designated Ali, his first cousin and flourished in Europe in the seventeenth cen- husband of his daughter Fatima, as his succes- tury, of the dislocating effects of economic sor. They further believe that this succession and social changes. As the maps and essays continued in a line of Imams (spiritual lead- that follow make clear, modernity came to ers) descendent from Ali and Fatima, each the Muslim world on the wings of colonial specifically designated by the previous Imam. power, rather than as a consequence of inter- The larger body of the Shiites, the “Twelvers” nally generated transformations. The “best or Imamis, believe that the last of these lead- community” decreed by God for “ordering ers, who “disappeared” in 873, will reappear the good and forbidding the evil” has lost the as the Mahdi or messiah at some future time. moral and political hegemony it held in what The Sunnis, on the other hand, maintain that was once the most civilized part of the world the Prophet had made an indication favoring outside China. When Islam was in the ascen-8
  • 9. INTRODUCTIONdant, so was the climate of tolerance it detail. The story of Muhammad’s career asengendered. Muslim scholars and theolo- Prophet and Statesman (if one can use agians polemicized against each other but rather modern term for the leader of thewere careful not to denounce those who movement that united the tribes of theaffirmed the shahada—the declaration of Arabian Peninsula) was constructed from afaith—and who prayed toward Mecca. As the different body of oral materials. Known asAmerican scholar Carl Ernst observes, “In Hadith (traditions or reports about theany society in the world today, religious plu- Prophet’s behavior), they acquired writtenralism is a sociological fact. If one group form after Muhammad’s death.claims authority over all the rest, demanding The Koran is divided into 114 sectionstheir allegiance and submission, this will be known as suras (rows), each of which is com-experienced as the imposition of power posed of varying numbers of verses calledthrough religious rhetoric.” [Carl Ernst, ayas (signs or miracles). Apart from the firstFollowing Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in sura, the Fatiha, or Opening, a seven-versethe Contemporary World, London and invocation used as a prayer in numerous ritu-Chapel Hill, p. 206.] als, including daily prayers or salat, the suras In principle, if not always in practice, a are arranged in approximate order ofMuslim is one who follows Islam, an Arabic decreasing length, with the shortest at theword meaning “submission” or, more pre- end and the longest near the beginning. Mostcisely, “self-surrender” to the will of God as standard editions divide the suras into pas-revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. These sages revealed in Mecca (which tend to berevelations, delivered orally over the period shorter, and hence located near the end ofof Muhammad’s active prophetic career from the book) and those belonging to the periodabout 610 until his death, are contained in of the Prophet’s sojourn in Medina, where hethe Koran, the scripture that stands at the emigrated with his earliest followers tofoundation of the Islamic religion and the escape persecution in Mecca in 622, the Yeardiverse cultural systems that flow from it. A One of the Muslim era. Meccan passages,few revisionist scholars working in Western especially the early ones, convey vivid mes-universities have challenged the traditional sages about personal accountability, rewardIslamic account of the Koran’s origins, argu- and punishment—in heaven and hell—whileing that the text was constructed out of a celebrating the glories and beauty of the nat-larger body of oral materials following the ural world as proof of God’s creative powerArab conquest of the Fertile Crescent. The and sovereignty. The Medinese passages,great majority of scholars, however, Muslim while replicating many of the same themes,and non-Muslim, regard the Koran as the contain positive teachings on social and legalwritten record of the revelations accumulat- issues (including rules governing sexual rela-ed in the course of Muhammad’s career. tions and inheritance, and punishments pre-Unlike the Bible, there are no signs of multi- scribed for certain categories of crime). Suchple authorship. In contrast to the New passages, supplemented with material fromTestament in particular, where the sayings of the Hadith literature, came to be the keyJesus have been incorporated into four dis- sources for the development of a legal systemtinct narratives of his life presumed to have known as the Sharia. Different scholars ofbeen written by different authors, the Koran Muslim thought added other sources to cre-contains many allusions to events in the ate a methodology for the systematizationProphet’s life, but does not spell them out in and implementation of the Sharia. 9
  • 10. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD For believing Muslims, the Koran is the Islam beyond Arabia occurred on the basis of direct speech of God, dictated without human the Arab conquest of the Fertile Crescent and editing. Muhammad has been described by lands further afield in the century or so fol- some modern Muslim scholars as a passive lowing the Prophet’s death in 632. Faith in transmitter of the Divine Word. The Prophet Islam and the Prophet’s divine calling—as himself is supposed to have been ummi (illiter- well as the desire for booty—united the ate), although some scholars question this as he Arabian tribes into a formidable fighting was an active and successful merchant. For a machine. They defeated both the Byzantine majority of Muslims, the Koran, whose text and Sasanian armies, opening part of the was written down and stabilized during the Byzantine Empire and the whole of Persia to reign of the third caliph, Uthman (r. 644–656), Muslim conquest and settlement. At first was “uncreated” and coeternal with God. Islam remained primarily the religion of the Hence, for believing Muslims, the Koran occu- “Arab”. Muslim commanders housed their pies the position Christ has for Christians. God tribal battalions in separate military canton- reveals himself not through a person, but ments outside the cities they conquered, leav- The illuminated double page from the Koran in the Bihariscript. This copy was completed in 1399, the year after Timur’sconquest of Delhi. The passage, from the Al-Tawba (Sura of Repentance), refers to theProphet’s Bedouin allies who are not to be excused for failing to join one of his campaigns. through the language contained in a holy text. ing their new subjects (Christian, Jewish, or Other religious traditions, including Buddhism, Zoroastrian) to regulate their own affairs so Christianity, Hinduism, Judaism, Sikhism, and long as they paid the jizya (poll-tax) in lieu of Zoroastrianism, privilege their foundational military service. The process of Islamization texts as sacred. Muslim rulers recognized this occurred gradually, through marriage, as the common principle by granting religious tolera- leading families of the subject populations tion to the ahl al-kitab (Peoples of the Book). sought to join the Muslim elites. It also In its initial phase the rapid expansion of occurred as impoverished or uprooted sub-10
  • 11. INTRODUCTIONjects found support in the religion of their patterns of state and religious authority thatrulers, or as people disenchanted with their prevailed during the vast sweep of Islamicformer rulers found a congenial spiritual history from the time of the Prophet to thehome in one that honored their traditions present. But it is hoped that they will illumi-while representing their teachings in a new, nate important aspects of that history bycreative synthesis. The role of early Muslim opening windows into significant areas ofmissionaries was also crucial in this process. the distant and recent past, thereby helping Muslim theology, however, did have one to explain the legacy of conflicts—as well asdynamic cultural dimension, which may help opportunities—the past has bequeathed toto explain its evolution of an “Arab” religion the present. Geography is vital for the under-into a universal faith. As the quintessential standing of Islamic history and its problem-“religion of the Book,” which represented the atic relationship with modernity.divine Word as manifested in a written text, As the maps in this atlas illustrate, the cen-Islam carried with it the prestige of learning tral belt of Islamic territories stretching from A world map drawn in 1571–72and literacy into illiterate cultures. The cult of the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus Valley was by the al-Sharafi al-Sifaqsi familythe book, like La Rochefoucauld’s definition perennially at the mercy of nomadic or semi- in the town of Sfax, Tunisia.of hypocrisy, was the homage not of vice to nomadic invaders. In premodern times,virtue, but of illiteracy to learning. However before gunpowder weapons, airrevelation is perceived—whether proceeding power, and modern systems ofdirectly from God or by way of an altered communication broughtmental state comparable to the operations of peripheral regions underhuman genius—Muhammad’s epiphany came the control of centralin the form of language. Time and again the governments (usuallynomadic peoples on the fringes of the Muslim under colonial aus-empires would take over the centers of power, pices), the cities wereand in so doing civilize themselves, becoming vulnerable to attackin turn the bearers of Muslim cultural pres- by nomadic preda-tige. After the disintegration of the great tors. The genius ofAbbasid Empire, the dream of a universal the Islamic systemcaliphate embracing the whole of the Islamic lay in providing theworld (and, indeed, the rest of humanity) converted tribesmenceased to be a viable project. The lines of com- with a system of law,munication were too long for the center to be practice and learning withinable to suppress the ambitions of local a foundation of faith to whichdynasts. But the prestige of literacy, symbol- they became acculturated over time.ized by the Koran and its glorious calligraphic In his Muqaddima, or “Proglomena” toelaborations on the walls of mosques and the History of the World, the Arab philoso-other public buildings, as well as in the metic- pher of history Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406)ulously copied versions of the book itself, was developed a theory of cyclic renewal and statepowerful. Even Mongol invaders, notorious formation, which analyzed this process in thefor their cruelty, would succumb to the spiri- context of his native North Africa. Accordingtual and aesthetic power of Islam in the west- to his theory, in the arid zones where rainfall isern part of their dominions. sparse, pastoralism remains the principal The maps in this book do not aim to pro- mode of agricultural production. Unlike peas-vide a comprehensive account of the shifting ants, pastoralists are organized along “tribal” 11
  • 12. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD lines (patrilineal kinship groups). They are rel- a common or corporative asabiyya. The atively free from government control. Enjoying absence of bourgeois solidarity, in which the greater mobility than urban people, they can- corporate group interests of the burghers not be regularly taxed. Nor can they be transcend the bonds of kinship, may partly brought under the control of feudal lords who be traced to the operations of Muslim law. will appropriate a part of their produce in Unlike the Roman legal tradition, the Sharia return for extending protection. Indeed, in the contains no provision for the recognition of arid lands it is the tribesmen who are usually corporate groups as fictive “persons.” armed, and who, at times, can hold the city to In its classic formulation, Ibn Khaldun’s ransom, or conquer it. Ibn Khaldun’s insights theory applied to the North African milieu tell us why it is usually inappropriate to speak he knew and understood best. But it serves as of Muslim “feudalism,” except in the strictly an explanatory model for the wider history limited context of the great river valley systems of Western Asia and North Africa, from the of Egypt and Mesopotamia, where a settled coming of Islam to the present. The theory is peasantry farmed the land. In the arid regions, based on the dialectical interraction between pastoralists move their flocks seasonally across religion and asabiyya. Ibn Khaldun’s concept the land according to complex arrangements of asabiyya, which is central to his outlook with other users. Usufruct is not ownership. on Muslim social and political history, can be Property and territory are not coterminous, as made to mesh with modern theories of eth- they became in the high rainfall regions of nicity, whether one adopts a “primordial” or Europe. Here feudalism and its offshoot, capi- “interactive” model. The key to Ibn talism, took root and eventually created the Khaldun’s theory may be found in two of his bourgeois state that would dominate the coun- propositions singled out by the anthropolo- tryside, commercializing agriculture and sub- gist and philosopher Ernest Gellner: (1) jecting rural society to urban values and con- “Leadership exists only through superiority, trol. In most parts of Western Asia and North and superiority only through group feeling Africa, in contrast, the peoples at the margins (asabiyya)” and (2) “Only tribes held togeth- continued to elude state control until the com- er by group feeling can live in the desert.” ing of air power. Even now the process is far The superior power of the tribes vis-à-vis from complete in places such as Afghanistan, the cities provided the conditions under which where tribal structures have resisted the dynastic military government and its variants, authority of the central government. royal government underpinned by mamlukism Urban Moroccans had a revealing term for or institutionalized asabiyya, became the the tribal regions of their country: bled al- norm in Islamic history prior to the European siba—the land of insolence—as contrasted colonial intervention. The absence of the legal with bled al-makhzen, the civilized center, recognition of corporative bodies in Islamic which periodically falls prey to it. The supe- law prevented the artificial solidarity of the riority of the tribes, in Ibn Khaldun’s theory, corporation, a prerequisite for urban capitalist depends on asabiyya, a term which is usually development, from transcending the “natural” translates as group feeling or social solidari- solidarities of kinship. In precolonial times the ty. This asabiyya derives ultimately from the high cultural traditions of Islam constantly harsher environment of the desert or arid interacted with these primordial solidarities lands, where there is little division of labor, or ethnicities: they did not replace them. and humans depend for their survival on the Formally the ethic of Islam is opposed to bonds of kinship. City life, by contrast, lacks local solidarities, which privilege some12
  • 13. INTRODUCTIONbelievers above others. In theory there exists eleventh centuries was far ahead of itsa single Muslim community—the umma— Christian competitor eventually fell behind,under the sovereignty of God. In practice this to find itself under the political and culturalideal was often modified by recognition of dominance of people it regarded—and whichthe need to enlist asabiyya or tribal ethnicity some of its members still do regard—as infi-in the “path of God.” Islamic practice stress- dels.es communitarian values through regular The Islamic system of precolonial times,prayer, pilgrimage, and other devotional embedded in the memory of contemporarypractices, and given time, generates the urban Muslims, was brilliantly adapted to the polit-scripturalist piety of the high cultural or ical ecology of its era. Even if the strategy of“great” tradition. But it does not of itself “waging jihad in the path of God” wereforge a permanent congregational communi- adopted for pragmatic or military reasons,ty strong enough to transcend the counter- Islamic faith and culture were the beneficiar-vailing dynamic of local ethnicities. Be they ies. The nomad conquerors and Mamlukssecular—based on differences of tribe, vil- (soldier-slaves), imported from peripherallage, or even craft—or sectarian religious— regions to keep them at bay, became Islam’sbased on divisions between different mad- foremost champions, defenders of the faith-habs (schools of jurisprudence), or the mysti- community and patrons of its cultures andcal Sufi orders which are often controlled by systems of learning.family lineages, or the differences between The social memory of this system exercisesSunnis and Shiites—such divisions militate a powerful appeal over the imaginations ofagainst the solidarity of the Umma. many young Muslims at this time. This is espe- Like the Baptist movement in the United cially true when the more recent memory ofStates, Islam (especially that of the Sunni modernization through colonization can bemainstream, comprising about 90 percent of represented as a story of humiliation, retreat,the world’s Muslims) is a conservative, pop- and betrayal of Islam’s mission to bring univer-ulist force, which resists tight doctrinal or sal truth and justice to a world torn by divisionecclesiastical controls. While Muslim scrip- and strife. The violence that struck America onturalism and orthopraxy provide a common September 11th 2001, may have been rooted inlanguage which crosses ethnic, racial, and the despair of people holding a romantic, ide-national boundaries—creating the largest alized vision of the past and smarting under the“international society” known to the world humiliation of the present. While those whoin premodern times—it has never succeeded planned the operation were almost certainly,in supplying the ideological underpinning for educated, sophisticated men, fully cognizanta unified social order that can be translated with the workings of modern societies, it doesinto common national identity. In the West not seem accidental that most of the fifteenthe institutions of medieval Christianity, hijackers were Saudi citizens, several from theallied to Roman legal structures, created the province of Asir. This impoverished mountain-preconditions for the emergence of the mod- ous region close to the modern borders ofern national state. In Islamdom the moral Yemen was conquered by the Al Saud family inbasis of the state was constantly undermined the 1920s, and still retains many of its linksby the realities of tribal asabiyya. These with the Yemeni tribes. Like all decent people,could be admitted de facto, but never accord- Ibn Khaldun would have been horrified by theed de jure recognition. This may be one rea- indiscriminate slaughter of 9/11: but it isson why a civilization that by the tenth and doubtful that he would have been surprised. 13
  • 14. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDFoundational Beliefs and Practices In the majority of Islamic traditions, all nal bliss in the gardens of heaven. Those Muslims adhere to certain fundamentals. who have failed in their duty will be sen- The most important is the profession of tenced to the fires of hell. faith, a creedal formula that states: The Koran also articulates a frame- “There is no God but God. Muhammad is work of practices which have become the Messenger of God.” Stated before normative for Muslims over time. witnesses, this formula—called the One of them is worship, which takes Shahada—is the sufficient requirement several forms, such as salat (ritual for conversion to Islam and belonging to prayer), dhikr (contemplative prayer), or the Umma. dua (prayers of exhortation and praise). Muslims affirm tawhid (the Unity and Muslims performing salat prostrate Uniqueness of God). They believe that themselves in the direction of the Kaba, God has communicated to humanity the cubic temple covered in an embroi- throughout its history by way of dered cloth of black silk that stands at the Messengers, who include figures like center of the sacred shrine in Mecca. Abraham, Moses, and Jesus, and that Salat is performed daily: early morning, Muhammad was the final Messenger to noon, mid-afternoon, sunset and evening, whom was revealed the Koran. In person- or combined according to circumstance. al and social life, Muslims are required to Prayer may be performed individually, at adhere to a moral and ethical mode of home, in a public place such as a park or behavior for which they are accountable street, or in the mosque (an English word before God. derived from the Arabic masjid, “place of As well as tawhid, articles of faith prostration”) or other congregational adhered to by Muslims include the belief places. The call to prayer (adhan) is made that angels and other supernatural from the minaret which stands above the beings act as divine emissaries; that Iblis mosque. It includes the takbir (allahu or Satan, the fallen angel, was cast out of akbar “God is most great”), as well as heaven for refusing God’s command to shahada and the imperative: “Hurry to prostrate himself before Adam; and that salat.” In the past, before electronic Muhammad is the “seal” of the amplification, the beautifully modulated prophets, the last in a line of human sounds of the adhan were delivered in messengers sent by God to teach and person by a muezzin from the minarets warn humanity. The Koran affirms that five times a day. The noon salat on Friday the recipients of previous revelations— is the congregational service, and is the Christians and Jews—have corrupted accompanied by a khutba (sermon) spo- the scriptures sent down to them. It ken by the Imam, or prayer leader or warns of the Day of Judgement when all other religious notable. In the early cen- individuals, living or dead, will be turies of Islam, the name of the caliph or answerable to God for their conduct. ruler was pronounced with the khutba. The virtuous will be rewarded with eter- When territories changed hands between14
  • 15. INTRODUCTIONdifferent rulers (as frequently happened), Another significant ritual practice isthe official indication of a change of gov- the Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca, whichernment came in the form of the procla- practicing Muslims are required to per-mation of the new ruler’s name in the form at least once in their lifetimes, ifcountry’s leading mosques. able to do so. Historically the Hajj has Another foundational practice is been one of the principal means by whichzakat, sharing of wealth (not to be con- different parts of the Muslim worldfused with voluntary charity or sadaqa). remained in physical contact. In pre-In the past, zakat was intended to foster modern times, before mass transporta-a sense of community by stressing the tion by steamships and aircraft broughtobligation of the better-off to help the the Hajj within the reach of people ofpoor, and was paid to religious leaders or modest or average means, returning pil-to the government. At present, different grims enjoyed the honored title of HajjiMuslim groups observe practices specific and a higher social status within theirto their traditions. communities than non-Hajjis. As well as Sawm is the fast in daylight hours dur- providing spiritual fulfilment, the Hajjing the holy month of Ramadan, when sometimes created business opportunitiesbelievers abstain from eating, drinking, by enabling pilgrims from differentsmoking, and sexual activity. Abu Hamid regions of the world to meet each other. Ital-Ghazali, the medieval mystic and the- also facilitated movements of religious-ologian, listed numerous benefits from political reform. Many political move-the discipline of fasting. These included ments were forged out of encounters thatpurity of the heart and the sharpening of took place on the pilgrimage—from theperceptions that comes with hunger, Shiite rebellion that led to the foundationmortification and self-abasement, self- of the Fatimid caliphate in North Africamastery by overcoming desire, and soli- (909) to modern Islamist movements ofdarity with the hungry: the person who is revival and reform. The end of Ramadansated “is liable to forget those people is marked by the Id al-Fitr (the Feast ofwho are hungry and to forget hunger Fast Breaking), while the climax of theitself.” Ramadan is traditionally an occa- Hajj involves the Id al-Adha (Feast ofsion both for family reunions and reli- Sacrifice) in which all Muslims partici-gious reflection. In many Muslim coun- pate by sacrificing animals. These twotries, the fast becomes a feast at sun- feasts are the major canonical festivalsdown—an occasion for public conviviali- observed by Muslims everywhere. Therety that lasts well into the night. Ramadan are, in addition, many other devotionalis the ninth month in the hijri (lunar cal- and spiritual practices among Muslimsendar) which falls short of the solar year that have developed over the centuries,by 11 days: thus Ramadan, like other based on specific interpretations of theMuslim festivals, occurs at different sea- practice of faith and its interaction withsons over a 35-year cycle. local traditions. 15
  • 16. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDGeophysical Map of the Muslim World Although lands of the Islamic world now highlands of Yemen and Dhufar, which catch occupy a broad belt of territories ranging the Indian Ocean monsoons, and the Junguli from the African shores of the Atlantic to the region lying south of the Caspian Sea under Indonesian archipelago, the core regions of the northern slopes of the Elburz, which Western Asia where Islam originated exer- catches moisture-laden air flowing southward cised a decisive influence on its development. from Russia. Compared to Western Europe and North Before recent times, when crops such as America, the region is perennially short on wheat, requiring large amounts of water, rainfall. During the winter, rain and snow appeared in the shape of food imports, and underground fossil water (stored for millionsOriginally built in the fourteenth of years in aquifers) became available through century, the mosque at Agades, modern methods of drilling, agriculture was in Niger, is made of mud. Its highly precarious. A field that had yielded structure is constantly renewed wheat for millennia would fail when the annu- by workers bearing new mud al rainfall was one inch instead of the usual who climb up the wooden posts twenty. Ancient peoples understood this well,that protrude from the sides and and provided themselves with granaries. serve as scaffolding. However, agriculture did flourish in the great river valleys of Egypt and Mesopotamia (now Iraq). Here the annual flooding caused by the tropical rains in Africa and melting snows in the Anatolian and Iranian highlands pro- duced regular harvests and facilitated the development of the complex city-based cul- tures of ancient Sumer, Assyria, and Egypt. The need to manage finely calibrated systems of irrigation using the nutrient-rich waters of the Tigris, the Euphrates, and the Nile required complex systems of recording and control, making it necessary for literate priestly bureaucrats to govern alongside the holders of military power. Together with the Yellow River in China and the Indus Valley, the three great river systems of the Fertile Crescent are at the origins of human civiliza- born by westerlies from the Atlantic fall in tion. The first states, in the sense of orderly substantial quantities on the Atlas and Riffian systems of government based on common Mountains, the Cyrenaican massif, and legal principles, appeared in these regions Mount Lebanon, with the residue falling more than five millennia ago. intermittently on the Green Mountain of The limited extent of the soil water neces- Oman, the Zagros, the Elburz, and the moun- sary for agricultural production had a decisive tains of Afghanistan. But the only rains that impact on the evolution of human societies in occur with predictable regularity fall in the the arid zone. Though conditions vary from16
  • 17. GEOPHYSICAL MAP OF THE MUSLIM WORLDone region to another, certain features distin- Unlike peasant cultivators, a portion ofguish the patterns of life from those of the whose product may be extracted by priests intemperate zones to the north or tropical zones the form of offerings or by the ruler in taxes,to the south. Where rainfall is scarce and nomadic pastoralists will often avoid the con-uncertain, animal husbandry—the raising of fines of state power. People are organized intocamels, sheep, goats, cattle, and, where suit- tribes or patrilineal kinship groups descendedable, horses—offers the securest livelihood for from a common male ancestor. Militarysubstantial numbers of humans. The “pure prowess is encouraged because, where fooddeserts” or sand seas of shifting dunes shaped resources are scarce, tribal or “segmentary”by the wind, which cover nearly one-third of groups may have to compete with each other,the land area of Arabia and North Africa, are or make raids on settled villages, in order to As Islam established itself along the Silk Road, mosques were built for travelers and local converts. This mosque in the Xinjiang province of China reflects the Central Asian influence in its design.wholly unsuitable for human and animal life, survive. Property is held communally, classi-and have generally been avoided by herdsmen, cally in the form of herds, rather than in thetraders, and armies. But in the broader semi- form of crop-yielding land. Property and ter-desert regions complex forms of nomadic and ritory are not coterminous (as they tended toseminomadic pastoralism have evolved. In become in regions of higher rainfall) becausewinter the flocks and herds will range far into the land may be occupied by different users atthe wadis or semidesert areas, to feed on the different seasons of the year. Vital resources,grasses and plants that can spring up after the such as springs or wells in which everyone haslightest of showers. In the heat of summer an interest, are often considered as belongingthey will move, where possible, to pastures in to God, and are entrusted to the custodian-the highlands, or cluster near pools or wells. ship of special families regarded as holy. 17
  • 18. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDMuslim Languages and Ethnic Groups There are approximately one billion Muslim Indonesia could overtake Arabic as the most people—about one-fifth of humanity—living in widely spoken Muslim language. the world today. Of these the largest single- In addition to Muslims living in their coun- language ethnic group, about 15 percent, are tries of ethnic origin, there are now millions of Arabs. Not all Arabs are Muslims—there are Muslims residing in Europe and North America. substantial Arab Christian minorities in Egypt, Given that English is the international language Palestine, Syria, and Iraq, and small numbers of of commerce, scholarship, and science, with sec- Arabic-speaking Jews in Morocco—although ond-generation European, American, and the numbers of both these communities have Canadian Muslims speaking English (as well as rapidly declined in recent decades, mainly French, German, Dutch, and other European through emigration. As the language of the tongues) the growth of English among Muslims Koran, of Islamic scholarship and law, Arabic is a significant recent development. long dominated the cultures of the Muslim The modern nation-state, based on interna- world, closely followed by Persian—the lan- tionally recognized boundaries, a common lan- guage of Iran and the Mughal courts in India. guage (in most cases), a common legal system, The spread of Islam among non-Arab peo- and representative institutions (whether these are ples, however, has made Arabic a minority lan- appointed or elected) is a recent phenomenon in guage—although many non-Arab Muslims most of the Muslim world. Often imposed by read the Koran in Arabic. An ethnographic sur- arrangements between the European powers, vey published in 1983 lists more than 400 eth- modern boundaries cut across lines of linguis- nic/linguistic groups who are Muslim. The tic/ethnic affiliation, leaving peoples such as largest after the Arabs, in diminishing order, Kurds and Pushtuns divided into different states. are Bengalis, Punjabis, Javanese, Urdu speak- Before the colonial interventions began to lock ers, Anatolian Turks, Sundanese (from Eastern them into the international system of UN mem- Java), Persians, Hausas, Malays, Azeris, ber states, Muslim states tended to be organized Fulanis, Uzbeks, Pushtuns, Berbers, Sindhis, communally rather than territorially States were . Kurds, and Madurese (from the island of not bounded by lines drawn on maps. The power Madura, northeast of Java). These groups of a government did not operate uniformly with- number between nearly 100 million (Bengalis) in a fixed and generally recognized area, as hap- down to 10 million (Sindhis, Kurds, and pened in Europe, but rather “radiated from a Madurese). Of the hundreds of smaller groups number of urban centers with a force which tend- listed, the smallest—the Wayto hunter gather- ed to grow weaker with distance and with the ers in Ethiopia—number fewer than 2,000. existence of natural or human obstacles.” However, three of the languages spoken by [Albert Hourani A History of the Arab Peoples more than 10 million people—Javanese, London, Faber, revised ed. 2002, p. 138.] Patriot- Sundanese, and Madurese—are in the course ism was focused, not as in Renaissance Italy, of being overlaid by Bahasa Indonesia, the offi- England, or Holland, on the city, city-state, or cial language taught in Indonesian schools. nation in the modern territorial sense, but on the With Indonesians constituting the world’s clan or tribe within the larger frame of the largest Muslim-majority nation, Bahasa umma, the worldwide Islamic community Local .20
  • 19. MUSLIM LANGUAGES AND ETHNIC GROUPSsolidarities were reinforced by endogamous prac- through military power was balanced by thetices such as marriage between first cousins, a moral force and cultural prestige of Islam.requirement in many communities. Clan loyalties Time and again in precolonial times the pred-were further buttressed by religion, with tribal ators were converted into Islam’s most trustedleaders often justifying their rebellions or wars of defenders. To borrow a phrase of the anthro-conquest by appealing to the defense of true pologist Ernest Gellner, “the wolves becomeIslam against its infidel enemies. sheepdogs.” Just as the Prophet Muhammad Viewed from the perspective of modern had tamed the Arabian tribes by his personalWestern history the systems of governance that example, the eloquence of the Koran, and theevolved in the arid region were divisive and system of governance that proceeded from it,unstable. In Europe, a region of high rainfall, so the Sharia (divine) law and human systemsthe state emerged out of constitutional struggles of fiqh (jurisprudence) to which it gave risebetween rulers and their subjects animated by mediated the perennial conflicts between pas-conflicts between social classes, within ethnical- toral predators, cultivators, and townsfolk.ly homogeneous populations sharing common The system, embedded in the social memorynational, political, and cultural identities of today’s Muslim populations, was based on(although these were sometimes contested, as in the duty of the ruler to uphold social justice by A Tuareg policeman in the SahelIreland). In the arid zone dominant clans or trib- governing in accordance with Islamic law. The region south of the Sahara. Fromally based dynasties exercised power over subor- formidable task facing contemporary Muslim their center at Timbuktu, thedinate groups or tried to ensure their dominance states is to harness political and social tradi- Tuareg controlled the tradeby importing mamluks (slave-soldiers), from dis- tions forged in a very different context from routes between thetant peripheries, who had minimal social con- modern-day conditions. Mediterranean and West Africa.tacts with the indigenous populations. Peasantcultivators and townsfolk remained vulnerableto the predations of nomadic marauders—theproverbial “barbarians at the gates.” Theasabiyya (loyalties or group solidarity) thatbound the clans was stronger than urban soli-darity. Lacking the corporate ethos of theirWestern counterparts, the Muslim urban classesfailed to achieve the “bourgeois” or capitalistrevolutions that gave rise to the modern statesystems of Europe and North America. There is, however, a different way of view-ing the same historical landscape. Given thepredominance of pastoral nomadism in thevast belt of territories where Islam took root,stretching from the Kazakh steppes to theAtlantic shores (and in similar regions innorthern India and south of the Sahara) theinability of relatively weak agrarian states totax nomadic predators or control them 21
  • 22. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDLate Antiquity Before Islam The Muslim community emerged in seventh- Byzantines and the Lakhmids, who gave century Arabia in a region dominated by allegiance to the Sasanian Empire. ancient civilizations, empires, cultures, and A major influence on intellectual life that ethnic groups. Traces of Mesopotamian cul- was to emerge in the Muslim world came ture still survived in the Tigris and Euphrates from the academies and learning institutions valleys, and the areas bordering the that preserved influences from Persia, Greece, Mediterranean and the Gulf had long felt the and India. In particular, the Hellenistic and impact of the adjoining powers that plied the Persian legacies in the fields of medicine, the maritime trade in these waters. Byzantium, sciences, and philosophy would bring about a This rock relief from Magshi-i the Eastern Roman and Orthodox state based strong tradition of intellectual inquiry in Rus Van depicts Ardeshir I, in Constantinople, was the primary Christian Muslim societies.founder of the Sasanian dynasty, kingdom in the region and The cultures in the regions were influencedfacing a hostile Parthian warrior. at odds with the powerful by the cosmopolitan nature of this Mediterranean world to different degrees, preserv- ing the heritage of classi- cal antiquity and the Hellenistic legacy in its various forms, architec- tural, philosophical, artis- tic, urban, and agricultur- al. Of the major religions in the region, Christianity in its orthodox form also held sway in southern Arabia while Zoroastrian- ism predominated in Iran and Mesopotamia. Juda- ism had a long history in Zoroastrian Sasanian Empire based in Persia the Near East and small Jewish communities (modern Iran). The ebb and flow of conflict had also settled in Yemen and the oases of between the various major states influenced Arabia, such as Medina. The inherited values, trade as well as relations with the prosperous literature, and practices of all these traditions region of Arabia to the south. The history of coexisted in this vast, multifaith and multieth- some of the ancient Arab kingdoms is still nic milieu, which within a century of the death preserved in archaeological remains, such as of the Prophet Muhammad would be overtaken those of the Nabateans at Petra (first century by Muslim conquest. Over time it would form BC —first century AD ), Palmyra (second— part of a larger set of civilizations linked by the third century AD), and of the Ghassanids in faith of Islam, while still preserving continuities later centuries, whose patrons were the with the various heritages of antiquity.24
  • 23. LATE ANTIQUITY BEFORE ISLAM 30° 35° 40° 45° 50° 55° 60° Black Sea Cauca Constantinople su s M40° t s Arabia before the Muslim conquests Ankyra Occupied by Sasanians 607–28 Anatolia KALB Arab tribe E A S T E R N R O M A N Ardabil Caspian Attaleia Edessa Dara Sea Dabiq Harran Nisibis Aleppo Qazvin Antioch Ti gr Rayy is35° Hamah C Y PRU S Eu ph Tripoli Homs ra t Palmyra es Jafula Mediter ranean Nihavand M Sea Damascus es Tyre op ot Ctesiphon S A S A N I A N E M P I R E Yarmuk Karbala am Caesarea Isfahan Alexandria Kufa ia Jerusalem Ajnadain Qadisiya P e r s i a30° Mu’tah al-Fustat (Cairo) Petra GHASSAN Basra Istahar LAKHM (Persepolis) KALB E M P I R E Pe BAKR Siraf rs GHATAFAN N i a ile A n Sahara G u l f Gulf25° Desert r JUHEINA o f Medina R e Bedr a OmTropic of Ca an ncer KINDA al-Yamama d H HANIFAH S e E N O BATI A b JA MAZUN a S U L AY M Z DE i SE Mecca Q U R AY S H RT20° a NO HAWAZIN MA MA K K U R A DS li ha te r KDES Dongola al ar AZD qu MAHRAH ub Sa ERT y R pt san em NOM t he ian ADS15° A LWA Arabian Sea De Ye m N pe AX U M n en en d cies 0 200 km H I M YA R 0 200 miles 25
  • 24. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDMuhammad’s Mission and Campaigns (r. 644–656), the Koran is composed of 114 chapters, or suras. These are said to have been revealed in Muhammad’s native city of Mecca, where he was a respected merchant, and suras also date from the period of his sojourn in Medina (622–632). In Mecca, the Koran’s condemnation of the sins of pride, avarice, and the neglect of social duties, its warnings of divine judgement, and its attacks on pagan deities brought Muhammad and his followers into conflict with the leaders of his own tribe, the Quraish. His fellow clansmen were boycotted, with Muslim converts subjected to persecution, and a num- ber took refuge in Axum (Ethiopia). However, Muhammad’s fame as a prophet and trusted man of God spread beyond Mecca. He was invited to act as judge and arbitrator between the feuding tribal factions of Yathrib, later renamed Madinat al-Nabi (“the city of the Prophet”), usually shortened to Medina, an oasis settlement about 250 miles northeast of Mecca. The hijra (migration) of the Muslims in 622 marks the beginning of the Muslim era. The passages in the Koran dating from the Medina period, when Muhammad was the effective ruler, contain some of the legislative material (such as rules regarding marriage and inheritance) that would form the basis of what Although Muhammad’s image is Islam is an Arabic noun from the verb aslama, became Islamic law. After a series of campaigns considered taboo, pictures of the to surrender oneself. In its primary sense the against the Meccans, the Muslims emerged vic- heroic deeds of his uncle, Hamza, active participle muslim means someone who torious. In the last year of his life Muhammadand others were circulated to show surrenders himself or herself to God as returned in triumph to Mecca, receiving the the first epic battles of the revealed through the teachings of the Prophet submission of the tribes along the way. HeMuslims. This painting from India Muhammad (c. 570–632). Muhammad is reformed the ancient ceremonies of the hajj c. 1561–76 is from a series of believed by Muslims to have communicated (pilgrimage), discarding their animist aspectslarge-format illustrations shown to God’s revelation in the Koran, a text Muslims and reorienting them to what he believed to be audiences while the epic stories regard as the final revelation of God to the original monotheism of Abraham. After were read aloud. humankind. Collected under the third of further expeditions he returned to Medina. He Muhammad’s successors, the Caliph Uthman died there after a short illness in 632.26
  • 25. MUHAMMAD’S MISSION AND CAMPAIGNS Muhammad’s Missions and Campaigns to 632 Muhammad moves to Medina 60° 30° 35° 40° 45° 50° 55° Campaigns Conquered by Muhammad to 632 Conquered by Abu Bakr 632–34 A n a t o l i a Battle site with date Marash Samosata Edessa Dabiq Harran Aleppo Mosul Qazvin Ti Antioch gr Rayy is35° Raqqa Cyp r u s Hamadan Tripoli Homs Jafula S A S A N I A N E Mediter ranean Nihavand Eu ph PIR Sea Damascus ra Ctesiphon E M P I R E t es Caesarea Wasit Damietta Gaza Kufa Isfahan E M Alexandria Jerusalem Qadisiya 636 Heliopolis30° Eal-Fustat Basra Kerman (Cairo) N Dumat al-Jandal I T Shiraz B Y Z A N Pe rs Siraf ia H N n i le E JA G u l 25° f Z G ul Aswan 625 f o Medina al-Yamama f Oman R e 624 A r a b i a 632 Muscat NOBATIA d S e 630 a Mecca r20° l i t e a r h MAKKURA K a u a l q u b t y R p e m t h e 633 ALWA A r a b i a n S e a15° Sana N AXUM 633 0 400 km 0 400 miles 27
  • 26. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDExpansion of Islam to 750 10 ° 0° FR NG N K A I A N Muhammad’s death left the Muslim communi- K E AS SH I O D C TU M ty without an obvious leader. One of his oldest O AQ RI AS UI IC companions, Abu Bakr (r. 632–634), was TA T IN acknowledged by several leaders as the first E N LA caliph, or successor. Under Abu Bakr and his T A successor Umar (634–644), the tribes, who had begun to fall away on the death of Muhammad, were reunited under the banner of Islam and Ag a di r converted into a formidable military and ideo- Rome logical force. The Arabs broke out of the penin- B E sula, conquering half the Byzantine provinces R B E as well as defeating the armies of Sasanian R S Persia. Ctesiphon, the Persian capital, fell in Ca r Ka thage 637, Jerusalem in 638. By 646, under Umar’s iro ua 698 I F n6 70 S successor Uthman (r. 644–656), the whole of R I Q The Dome of the Rock in Egypt had come under Arab Muslim control. I Y a Jerusalem, built by the Caliph Acquiring ships from Egypt and Syria, the nomadic preda- A Tr ipo li 6 47 Abd al-Malik in 691–92, is the Arabs conducted seaborne raids, conquering tors would have h first great building to have been Cyprus in 649 and pillaging Rhodes in 654. taken the plunder or Religious differences between the Byzantine held onto land, dispersing a constructed after the Arab conquest. Embellished with rulers and their subjects in Egypt and Syria as landlords or peasants r Koranic quotations proclaiming ensured that the Muslims were met with indif- among the conquered peoples. the unity of God, the building ference, or even welcomed by fellow monothe- In a farsighted decision Caliph a surrounds the rock from where ists embittered by decades of alien Byzantine Umar encouraged the tribes to settle Muhammad is believed to have rule. But secular factors were also important. with a system of stipends paid from the embarked on his miraculous The Arabs were motivated by desire for plun- common treasury, which took control of “night journey” to heaven. der, as well as religious faith. In previous eras the conquered lands. The Arabs were kept apart from the population in armed camps that evolved into garrison cities such as Basra and Kufa in Iraq. Although the tensions over the distribution of booty would erupt into open civil war the overall control exercised by the fledgling Islamic government remained under dynastic rule. Though individual dynasties would often be challenged as ruling contrary to Islamic principles of equality and justice, the dynastic system of governance fitted the pre- vailing form of social organization, the patriar- chal kinship group, and remained the norm until modern times. Under the Umayyads the remarkable expansion of Islam continued, with the Arab raiders reaching as far as central France and the Indus Valley.28
  • 27. EXPANSION OF ISLAM TO 750 10 ° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° 90° S Expansion to 750 L A V S Arab advance B U L G A R S Battle site Expansion of Islam: AV AR Under Muhammad EM 50° PI RE H U N G A R I A N S Under Abu Bakr (632–634) KK. OF THE L H A Under Umar (634–644) Z A R Under Uthman (644–656) E M S and Ali (656–661) L A P I E S R E P L Under the Umayyads (661–750) V S OM O BU E LG P BAR AR IA C DS I K Aral S yr Da R Black Sea ry 751 a Sea A T U Talas AN Ca Con T B 673–7stantinop R GH Y 7, 717 le A FER spi –18 40° Z N A an SO N ARMENIA T I Am X Tiflis Derbend uD N E IA ary 0 and 71 a N E M Samark Sea Erzuru A P I R m 710M E A Bukhara ZE e RB d AI i t Tarsu M 664 JA s Edessa Tabriz Ardabil Mery Balkh e r Rhod N e ES r a 654 s N Cypr Antioch A O n e Mosul 641 RG r 651 l 664 PO u a n 649 s GU Nishapu Kabu Eu TA S e Rayy ph LIB a S YRIA Jalula KHU Herat JAB PUN ra M YA Da te s capital mascus 63 RASAN IA from 6 5 58 Kerbela Nehavend Ram 642 la Yarmu 680 N 1 A an 71 Alex k 636 Ctesiphon N I andr ia Fihl S A S A Mult 30° 646 Jerusale m 638 Kufa Susa I A al-Fu Ajnada Qadisiya 636 Isfahan E R S stat 6 in 634 P Faiyu 70 Heliop oli DU m 640 s HIN FA us SEISTAN TES Basra E G 656 R Istahar 648 Ind STA Y P K S Tabuk IR T M SI N D BA Pe A HR rs N Nil ia AI AN n MAKR cer e N Can ic of Gu Trop H lf EJ Badr 624 Suhar Sea AZ Medina O Muscat Arabian Y A M M AN A M 20° M A K A Re Mecca A r a b i a n 622 K U Dong d ola P e n i n s u l a Se R A a I T N Najran U A AN Soba M R A OCE H IAN ALODIA H AD IND YEMEN KINGDOM Aden 0 300 km 10° OF AXUM 0 300 miles 29
  • 28. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDExpansion 751–1700 Islam expanded by conquest and conversion. (including Zoroastrians) the right to maintain Although it was sometimes said that the faith of their religious practices provided they paid the The tower of the great mosque Islam was spread by the sword, the two are not jizya tax (tribute), a payment in lieu of military in Kairouan, now in Tunisia, the same. The Koran states unequivocally, service. Initially Islam remained the religion of dates from the ninth century. Built near the site of ancient “There is no compulsion in religion” (2:256). the Arabs, a badge of unity and mark of superi- Carthage, the design of three Following the precedent established by the ority. When conversions did occur the convertssuperimposed towers is based on Prophet, who allowed the Jews and Christians were required to become mawali (clients) of thethe lighthouses and watchtowers to keep their religion if they paid tribute, the Arab tribes, the assumption being that the of classical antiquity. caliphs granted all the people of the Book Arabs retained a hegemonic role. Many factors, however, encouraged conver- sion after the initial conquests. For those Christians who were tired of centuries of eru- dite theological wranglings over the precise bal- ance between Christ’s divine and human natures, Islam provided the hospitality of a reli- gion in which Christ had an honored place as a forerunner to Muhammad. Likewise for Jews Islam could appear as a reformed faith in the tradition of Abraham and Moses. Zoroastrians, deprived of state support for their religion after the Arab conquest of the Sassanian Empire, would find in Islam a religion, like theirs, of individual ethical responsibility and later, in the Shiite idea of a Mahdi (messiah) from the House of Ali, a concept similar to the Saoshyant of Zoroastrian eschatology. Messianic ideas have a universal appeal, and are found in nearly all religious traditions. After the Islamic con- quests in India, the Awaited Imans of the Shiite eschatology would sometimes be identified with a forthcoming avatar of Vishnu. In the metro- politan areas converts from the older traditions helped to detribalize the Arabian religion by asserting their rights as Muslims, by emphasiz- ing the universality of its message, and by stress- ing its legitimizing function in the establishment of the new social order and forms of political power. Further afield the simplicity of the con- version process (the mere utterance before wit- nesses of the formula: “There is no god but30
  • 29. EXPANSION 751–1700God. Muhammad is the Messenger of God”) numerous guises: educated, literate mer-would contrast favorably with the often com- chants, wandering scholar-teachers, charis-plex conversion procedures of the mystery reli- matic dervishes, native princes with impres-gions. In Subsaharan Africa local spirits could sive retinues, sophisticated intellectuals andbe Islamized by incorporating them into the dais (missionaries) from esoteric traditions This Koran, written usingKoranic storehouse of angels, djinns, and devils. who specialized in tailoring their message muhaqqaq script, was producedAncestor cults could be accommodated by and rituals to suit audiences of widely differ- in Baghdad in 1308. The largegrafting local kinship groups onto Arab or Sufi ent cultural backgrounds. Lacking a central- format indicates that thisspiritual lineages. ly directed missionary program, the religion manuscript was a presentation There were also more worldly considera- has proved itself sufficiently adaptable to copy, used for public recitationtions behind many conversions. Islamic mar- spread organically. in the mosque.riage rules are weighted in favor of spreadingthe faith, for while a woman from one of theahl al-dhimma (protected communities) whomarries a Muslim is not required to changeher religion, the converse does not apply, andthe children are expected to be brought up asMuslims, ensuring the Islamization of subse-quent generations. This demographic advan-tage would have carried considerable weightin societies where it was customary for thevictors to marry the women of defeatedtribes. More generally, there exists the natu-ral tendency of bright and ambitious individ-uals to enter the ranks of the ruling elites. AsIslamic society developed in metropolitanareas such as the cities of Iran and Iraq,knowledge of the Law and the Traditions ofthe Prophet, alongside secular learning insuch fields as literature, astronomy, philoso-phy, medicine, and mathematics, became themark of distinction among the patricianclasses. Conversions inspired by social ambi-tion should not be dismissed as mere oppor-tunism: at its high point in the classical era,the Islamic world was the most developedand sophisticated society outside China. Themodels of urbane sobriety and order itoffered would have exercised their ownappeal quite apart from conscious missionaryactivity. Peoples on the fringes of the coreregions would have encountered the faith in 31
  • 30. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD 165° 150° 135° 120° 105° 90° 75° 60° 45° 30° 15° 70° Arctic Circ Greenland le 60° Iceland (to Denmark) 50° Rupert’s Land SCOTLAND IRELAND ENGLAND 40° Newfoundland New France Nova Scotia FRANCE British Colonies Madrid PORTUGAL 30° Azores SPAIN Madeira ATLANTIC MOROCCO Tropic of Cancer Florida PACIFIC OCEAN Canary Is. Bahamas S a h OCEAN V 20° ic e- Cuba R Hispaniola oy al Belize Jamaica ARMA ty Puerto Rico of St. Louis Cape Verde Is. Ne TERKUR SONGHAI Mosquito w S KALI SEGU 10° Coast pain Potugese Guinea Mossi Trinidad MALI states ASHANTI Santa Fé Elmina de Bogotá 0° Quito Vi Recife ce -R 10° Lima Bahia oy Expansion 750–1700 al La Paz ty of Muslim expansion to 900 Peru 20° Muslim expansion to 1300 rn Tropic of Caprico Muslim expansion to 1500 Muslim expansion to 1700 Santiago 30° Muslim land lost by 1300 Muslim land lost by 1500 Muslim land lost by 1700 40° 50° 60° 165° 150° 135° 120° 105° 90° 75° 60° 45° 30° 15° 032
  • 31. EXPANSION 751–1700 0° 15° 30° 45° 60° 75° 90° 105° 120° 135° 150° 165° 180° 165° 80° ARCTIC OCEAN 70° AY RW 60° O N & RK EN S i b e r i a Okhotsk DENMA D E W St Petersburg 50° R U S S I A N E M P I R E S Moscow HOLY POLAND ROMAN EMPIRE NOGAIS 40° HUNGARY KIRGHIZ TU UZ KALMYKS RKO BE MA Constantinople KS MANCHU NS KOREA JAPAN PAPAL E CHINESE STATES R PI EMPIRE 30° EM SAFAVID OTTOMAN EMPIRE TIBET MU GH Cairo A A ra L Shan PACIFICh a r a States b E Formosa OCEAN i MP IRE 20° a Oman Mecca LA ARAKAN AVA OS AN FU Philippine Is. NA YA NJ AIR KANEM- Goa M DARFUR HA ET HI O BORNU WADAI MARATHA Manila Yemen AYUTT TERRITORY Hausa Hindu 10° states AWSA Kingdoms CAMBODIA PI A OYO SAYLAN OROMO ACEH Malacca Borneo 0° Islamic city states Celebes Mombasa INDIAN Sumatra Spice Is. LUNDA LUBA CONGO New Guinea OCEAN MATARAM Luanda Comoro Is. Timor 10° Mozambique ROZWI Madagascar Mauritius Bourbon (Réunion) 20° Delagoa Bay Fort Dauphin New Holland Cape Town 30° 40° 50° 60°0° 15° 30° 45° 60° 75° 90° 105° 120° 135° 150° 165° 180° 165° 33
  • 32. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDSunnis, Shiites, and Khariji 660–c. 1000 The major divisions of Islam, revolving decision to seek a compromise with around the question of leadership, go back Muawiya provoked a rebellion among his to the death of the Prophet but were intensi- more militant supporters, who came to be fied by the first civil war (656–661) and its known as Kharijis (seceders). Though Ali aftermath in the following generation defeated the Kharijis in July 658, enough of (680–81). The first caliph, Abu Bakr, had them survived to continue the movement, been one of the Prophet’s oldest companions which has lasted to this day in a moderate and the father of his youngest wife, Aisha. version known as Ibadism. One of the On the Prophet’s death he had been chosen Khariji leaders, Ibn Muljam, avenged his by acclamation with the powerful support of comrades by murdering Ali in 661. Ali’s Umar, an early convert and natural leader. elder son Hasan made an accommodation When Abu Bakr died Umar’s caliphate was with the victorious Muawiya, who became generally acknowledged, and it was during the first Umayyad caliph. On Muawiya’s his ten-year reign that the Muslim state death in 680, when the succession passed to began to take shape. Under Umar the ten- Muawiya’s son, Yazid, Ali’s younger son sions resulting from the conquests, over the Hussein made an unsuccessful bid to restore distribution of booty and the status of trib- the caliphate to the Prophet Muhammad’s al leaders in the new Muslim order, began to closest descendants. The massacre of surface. The tensions were kept in check Hussein and a small group of followers at under Umar’s stern and puritanical rule but Karbala in 680 by Yazid’s soldiers provoked would surface disastrously during the reign a movement of repentance among Ali’s sup- of his successor, Uthman, who was mur- porters in Iraq. They became known as the dered in Medina by disgruntled soldiers Shiites, the “partisans” of Ali. returning from Egypt and Iraq. Though renowned for his commitment to the new religion as an early convert, Uthman was linked to the Umayyad clan in Mecca that had originally opposed Muhammad’s mes- sage. He was accused of favoring his fellow clansmen at the expense of more pious Muslims. The latter congregated around The Mughal emperors and their descendants had Ali, the Prophet’s cousin and closest surviv- an abiding interest in the history and wisdom of ing male relative, who was already regarded their faith. This was expressed both in their by some of his followers as the originally memoirs and in their paintings. By the mid- designated successor to the Prophet, and 1600s, the Emperor Jahangir’s artists had who now assumed the role of caliph. Ali’s developed a format in which two or more sages, failure to punish Uthman’s assassins pro- or holy men, were depicted seated in discussion. voked a rebellion by two of Muhammad’s Mughal artists did not shrink from depicting closest companions, Talha and Zubayr, sup- fabled holy men from the past as if they were ported by Aisha. Though he defeated Talha still alive. The figures in this painting represent and Zubayr, Ali failed to overcome the Muslim orthodoxy, with the only Uthman’s kinsman Muawiya, the governor nonconformist being the bare-headed dervish of Syria, at the Battle of Siffin. His eventual seated at the lower left.34
  • 33. SUNNIS, SHIITES, AND KHARIJI 660–c. 1000 35
  • 34. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDAbbasid Caliphate under Harun al-Rashid Byzantines kept them at bay. Upon becoming caliph in 764, Harun established diplomatic relations with Charlemagne (r. 742–814) and the Byzantine emperor. Diplomatic and com- mercial ties were also established with China. Harun’s reign is often referred to as the Gold- en Age, a period of significant cultural and lit- erary activity during which the arts, Arabic grammar, literature, and music flourished under his patronage. Al-Rashid figures prominently in the 20° 10° famous literary compila- tion One Thousand and One Nights. Among his 40 ° courtiers were the poet Abu Nuwas (d. 815), who was renowned for his Li sb on wine and his love poetry, Um 756 ayya To –10 ds led and the musician Ibrahim Sev 31 o ille al-Mawsili (d. 804). Abu Ta Cor Uma dova, c ngi y ap er Gib yad Em ital of ’l Hasan al-Kisai (d. 805), Rab ral irate tar at who was tutor to al- Id Tle mc 789 risids en –92 Rashid and his sons, was 6 Rus Ma rrak S 776 tamids esh ijilmas –906 the leading Arabic gram- 30° sa marian and Koran reciter of his day. The classical texts were translated from Greek, Syriac, and other A romanticized nineteenth- The reign of caliph Harun al-Rashid (r. languages into Arabic. century portrait of Harun al- 764–809) marked the height of military con- Harun was famous for his Rashid with an Ottoman-style quests and territorial acquisition under the largesse: a well-turned mosque in the background. The Abbasids, with the caliphate extending from the poem could earn the gift revival of the caliphate by the boundaries of India and Central Asia to Egypt of a horse, a bag of gold, 20° Ottoman sultans was intended and North Africa. or even a country estate. to grant them rights over the N Harun rose through the ranks as a military His wife Zubaida was Muslim subjects of European commander before assuming the caliphate from famous for her charities, powers to balance the rights his murdered brother al-Hadi (r. 785–86) and especially for causing claimed by the latter over the sultan’s Christian subjects. served variously as governor of Ifriqiya (mod- numerous wells to be dug ern-day Tunisia), Egypt, Syria, Armenia, and on the pilgrimage route Azerbaijan. His military campaigns against the from Iraq to Medina.36
  • 35. ABBASID CALIPHATE UNDER HARUN AL-RASHID Sufism (Islamic mysticism) flourished under Barmaki family, led to a period of political Abbasid Empire the caliph. The famous ascetic and mystic and territorial decline. Harun’s decision to c. 850 Maruf al-Karkh (d. c.815) was among the lead- divide the empire between his two sons al- Extent of Abbasid Empire 786–809 ing expositors of Sufism in Baghdad. By con- Amin and al-Mamun, appointing the elder al- Other Muslim dynasties trast, Harun instituted a policy of repressing the Amin (r. 809–813) as his successor, con- Islamic expansion 750–850 Shiites, who were thought to challenge this rule. tributed to a two-year civil war that was fol- Byzantine Empire The latter half of Harun’s reign was lowed by periods of continued instability and Abbasid campaigns marked by political instability. The granting insurrection. The reign of al-Mamun (r. Islamic naval attacks of semiautonomy to the governor of Ifriqiya, 813–833), though intellectually brilliant, was Saffarid incursions Ibrahim b. al-Aghlab, in 800, followed by marked by territorial decline and the waning Qarmation expansion Harun’s destruction of the all-powerful al- of Abbasid influence. ° ° 0° 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70 80 r ga sh Ka ya R EF D ar A N U l S yr K Ara a IS R Se nd rka Vo H O lga ma EM P E h A nc Sa N PIR rge ZM E U I IA AR ara SO X W lkh Ca KH kh N Ba bu l Bu R A D arya Ka sp s anid T A mu ia n Corsic Se Sam –1005 819 a a bent rv N i 850 Rome Black Sea Derr Me SA azn 846 A Gh jan UR ar Tiflis Aze rbai ah Sard Naple le pur KH rat nd inia s Constantinop Nis ha He 861 Ka 827 PIRE m E NIA Arda bilAlg BYZANTINE EM Erzuru ARM Indus iers Palerm iz o 831–33 Tabr 873 831 M es ids Tahir 73 AN Messina o 821– ST Tunis 834 Athens Izmir Marash p o ossu l SI M Kairo 762–805 Edessa A t a han arid s uan Syracuse Tarsus R I rra Isfa Saff –1495 Aghla SY m a M Sam a 800–9bids 878 i Sus 867 If Malta comes 09 ad be e a d Baghdsid capital ri 870 871 876 it Q Crete IRA Abba qi er ra uz r a 825 us 762 905 Bas IA rm Damasc S Ho ya Tripoli R n e a n S e a 899–805 PE Bengazi m Jerusale sca t 901 B Alexandria A Mu ian H Ar ab R A OM Sea Cairo IN Tulunids AN 868–905 EGYPT H dh E ina Riya JA Med s ation Z Qarm–1200 ul a 894 ins n Pen R ca bia e Mec Ara d Tropic of Cancer N S a h S e EA a r a a OC D e s e r t IA N D IN EN A EM F Y n R A Ade I C Khartou m 37
  • 36. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDSpread of Islam, Islamic Law, and Arabic Language The rapid spread of Islam acted as a formida- Being the language of the Koran, Arabic ble force of change in the Old World. By the was carried to the new converts. Becoming end of the reign of Umar ibn al-Khattab (d. the lingua franca of medieval Islam, the dis- 644), the whole of the Arabian Peninsula was tinctiveness of Arabic was evident in all conquered, together with most of the Sasan- spheres of high culture, from religious to ian Empire, as well as the Syrian and Egyptian legal, official, intellectual, and literary dic- provinces of Byzantium. Following the tragic tions. While in the western provinces Arabic Battle of Karbala, which led to the death of dominated the vernacular dialects, Persian Imam al-Hussein (AD 680), a new phase was remained in use eastward; witnessing a liter- ushered in with the making of the Umayyad ary revival in the tenth century AD with the Empire (661–750), which eventually extended unfurling of an Arabo-Persian idiom, which its dominion from the Ebro River in Spain to became prevalent across Iran as well as the Oxus Valley in Central Asia. Claiming uni- Transoxiana and northern India. versal authority over far-reaching frontiers, A theme that recurs in this formative peri- the Umayyad dynasty took Damascus as its od of Islamic thought is the relationship, capital city, and remained virtually unchal- often tense, between revelation and reason. lenged in its reign until the rise of the Abbasid Under the Abbasid caliph al-Mamun (r. caliphate with its capital in Baghdad 813–833) there existed a group of theologians (749–1258). While Spain continued to be known as the Mutazila. They had absorbed under Umayyad rule (756–1031), new regional the work of Greek philosophers and adopted powers confronted the Abbasid hegemony, like a rationalist style of argumentation that the Fatimids in Egypt (909–1171), and the equated God with pure reason. For the Saljuqs in Iran and Iraq (1038–1194), along Mutazila the world created by God operated with waves of Crusader invaders in the Levant. according to rational principles humans could Numerous traditions in thought flourished, understand by exercising reason. As free like the Sunni schools of legal reasoning agents, humans were morally responsible for (hanafi, maliki, shafii, hanbali) and the their actions, and since good and evil had “Twelver Shiite” lineage descending from the intrinsic value, God’s justice was constrained Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (d. 661). The upsurge in by universal laws. They held to the view that intellectual activities was also marked by the the Koran was created in time, inspired by founding of the mutazila and ashari methods of God in Muhammad, but not part of his kalam, in addition to the maturation of philos- essence. Their opponents, the hadith scholars, ophy, the sciences, and mysticism. Many insisted that the Koran was “uncreated” and notable centers of learning were established, coeternal with God. They believed it was not along with associated productions of manu- for man to question God’s injunctions or scripts, like al-Azhar in Cairo, the Zaytuna in explore them intellectually, and that all Tunis, the Qarawiyyin in Fez, the coteries of human action was ultimately predetermined. Córdoba in Andalusia, the schools of Najaf and The Mutazili view, buttressed by the mihna Karbala in Iraq, and those of Qumm and Mash- (an “inquisition” or test applied to ulama and had in Iran. public officials), held sway for a period. How-38
  • 37. SPREAD OF ISLAM, ISLAMIC LAW, AND ARABIC LANGUAGEever, it was reversed underhis successor al-Mutawakil(r. 847–61) as a result ofpopulist pressures focusedon the heroic figure ofAhmad ibn Hanbal (d. 855)who resisted imprisonmentand torture to defend the“uncreated” Koran. A kindof compromise betweenreason and revelation wasreached in the work of AbulHasan al-Ashari (d. 935).He used rationalistic meth-ods to defend the “uncreat-ed” Koran and allowed for adegree of human responsi-bility. However, the conse-quences of the Mutazilidefeat were far reaching.The caliphs ceased to be theultimate authorities in doc-trinal matters. MainstreamSunni theologians espousedthe command theory ofethics: an act is rightbecause God commands it,God does not command itbecause it is right. Mutazil-ism is a term of abuse formany conservative Islamists,especially in Saudi Arabia,which follows the Hanbalitradition in law. The courtyard at al-Azhar in Cairo, founded by the Shiite Fatimids in 970. Al-Azhar became the foremost center of Sunni scholarship and an important source of manuscripts. 39
  • 38. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDSuccessor States to 1100 autonomy in return for an annual tribute, founded a dynasty that lasted until 909. The puritanical Kharijis, who held to the princi- ple of an elected imam or caliph, established independent states based in Wargala oasis, Tahert, and Sijilmassa. Of Tahert, destroyed 10° Ta he Ro rt me Tu nis Ifriqiy This clay model clearly shows the physical features that Araband Persian commentators notedas typical of the Turkish soldiers M a Tr ed ipo recruited by the caliphs. li it er ra A ne an f Even at its maximum extent the Abbasid r Empire failed to contain the whole Islamic world. In Spain an independent dynasty had i been founded by an Umayyad survivor, Abd c al-Rahman I (r. 756–788). A grandson of the a Caliph Hisham, he escaped the massacre of his kinsmen and after various adventures made his way to the peninsula. Here he per- suaded feuding Arabs and Berbers to accept Post-Imperial Successor him as their leader, instead of the governor Regimes late 10th Century sent by the Abbasids. In what is now Moroc- Abbasid Caliphate c. 900 co, a descendant of Ali and Fatima, Idris bin Byzantine Empire Abdullah, who escaped from Arabia after Fatimids the failure of a Shiite revolt in 786, arrived at Hamadanids the old Roman capital of Volubilis. Here he Buyids formed a tribal coalition, which rapidly con- Samanids quered southern Morocco. His son Idris II founded Fez in 808. In Tunisia (Ifriqiya) the Ghurids descendants of Ibrahim ibn Aghlab, Harun al-Rashid’s governor, who had been granted40
  • 39. SUCCESSOR STATES TO 1100 by the Fatimids in the tenth century, the At the heart of the empire, however, polit- chronicler Ibn Saghir wrote: ical and religious tensions were rife. The dis- “There was not a foreigner who stopped in puted succession between Harun’s sons the city but settled among them and built in Amin and Mamun led to a civil war that last- their midst, attracted by the plenty there, the ed a decade, weakening the Abbasid armies equitable conduct of the Imam, his just behav- and the institution of the caliphate. Though ior toward those under his charge, and the Mamun won the war, his attempt to impose security enjoyed by all in person and property.” the Mutazili doctrine of the “created” Koran 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° E u 50° r o p e Vo i a lga A s Blac k Se Con a stan BY tino ple Aral ZA Sea NT CasAth IN na gha ens E E Sm p ian yrn MP Khwarizm r a IRE A rm eni a Fa xus) a (O gar Tiflis Kash 40° Sea ary Tr ns Sy rD a ox Samarkan d Bukhara ia n a A Alepp Tabriz m uSe o Mosul D ar a Syria Daylam ya Balkh Eu Tabaristan Khurasan Kabul ph Alex Tig r ra and ria te Rayy Ghazni s is Samarra Qom Herat Jerus Baghdad Afghanistan alem Cair Karbala o Isfahan Iraq an Egy pt Basra Mult Ahwaz 30° Sistan us Shiraz Ind Pe Fa Kirman Indi a rs ia rs n A r a b Gu i a Bahrain lf R e He r f Cance jaz Medina Tropic o d O ma n S e Mecca a Arabian 20° Nu Sea N bia t au m ra dh Ha Y em e n 41
  • 40. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD met with strong resistance from the populist Mamun’s most effective general, Tahir, ulama (religious scholars) grouped around established a hereditary governorate. To off- Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. For the latter, who saw set the power of the Tahirids Mamun’s suc- the divine text as “uncreated” or eternal, the cessor Mutasim relied increasingly on merce- doctrine of the created Koran derogated naries recruited from Turkish-speaking from the idea of the Koran as God’s speech. tribes in Central Asia—a practice that has- They looked to the Koran and the emerging tened the breakup of the empire and the corpus of hadiths (traditions or reports establishment of de facto tribal dynasties. about the Prophet Muhammad) as the sole The construction of a new capital at Samar- sources of religious authority, with them- ra further isolated the caliph from his sub- selves as qualified interpreters. They regard- jects. By the end of the tenth century the ed the caliph as the executive of the will of Abbasid caliphs were mainly titular mon- the community, not the source of its beliefs. archs, their legitimacy challenged by As the caliph’s religious authority weak- claimants in the line of Ali. The most radical ened, so did his political and economic con- of these movements, the Qaramatians, trol. In cultivated regions including Iraq the fomented peasant and nomad rebellions in system of iqta (tax-farming) built up a class Iraq, Syria, and Arabia in the name of a mes- of landlords at the expense of central gov- siah descended from Ali through his descen- ernment. In Iran and the eastern provinces dant Ismail bin Jaafar. In the 920s the Qara- Ta 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° he Ro E u 50° rt me r o p e a BY Tu Vo nis s i l ga Ifriqiy A Z Blac A N Con k Se a T stan IN tinop Aral le Sea Ath E Ca s M ens EM Tr a ipo ed Smy han p ian PI Khwarizm rg a li rna RE A rm eni a Fa it ya er Tiflis gar 40° ar Kash Sea D Tr A ra Sy r ne ns a an ies Bukhara ox Sa markand t f Se Local dynas ia n a A a Alepp Mosul Tabriz m u o Da r Syria Daylam ry a Merv Balkh Eu Ale Tabaristan Kabul ph i xan Khurasan Ghazni ra dria te s Samarra Rayy c Jerus Baghdad Qom Herat alem an a Cair Karbala Afghanist o Isfahan Iraq an Egy Basra Mult pt Ahwaz 30°Post-Imperial Successor Sistan s Shiraz duRegimes early 11th Century In Pe Fa Kirman Indi a rs ia rs Byzantine Empire A r a b n Gu i a R e Bahrain lf He r Medina of Cance jaz Fatimids Tropic O d ma n Qarkhanids Mecca S e Arabian 20° a Buyids Nu N bia Sea Ghaznavids t au m ra dh Ha Y em en42
  • 41. SUCCESSOR STATES TO 1100matians, who created an independent state in Turkish tribe of Qarluqs, led by theBahrain, shocked the whole Muslim world by Qaraqanid dynasty, which he did his best topillaging Mecca and carrying off the Black confine to the Oxus basin in the north. Mah-Stone. In 969 Egypt—already semi-inde- mud crossed the Indus Valley, establishingpendent under Ibn Tulun and his successors, permanent rule in the Punjab, and conductedthe Ikhshids—was taken over by the Ismaili raids into northwestern India, plunderingFatimids, who established a new caliphate cities and destroying numerous works of artunder a “living imam” descended from Ali as idolatrous. This earned him a fearsomeand Ismail. In northern Syria and the Upper reputation as a ghazi against the infidel. OnTigris the bedouin Arab Hamdan family— his western front, in the lands of “old Islam”also Shiite—ruled a semi-autonomous, he pushed the Buyids back almost to the fron-sometimes independent, state. In Khurasan tiers of Iraq.and Transoxiana the Samanid familyreplaced the Tahirids as defenders of themixed Arab-Persian high culture againstincoming nomadic tribes. Even in the centralheartlands of the empire—Iraq and westernIran—the caliphs were virtual prisoners ofthe Shiite Buyids, a warrior clan from Day-lam, south of the Caspian. In Inner Asia, where the Samanids hadestablished a flourishing capital in Bukhara,the adoption of Islam by Turk-ish-speaking tribes subverted therole of the Samanids as ghazis.These were frontier warriorsentrusted with the defense ofIslam against nomadic incur-sions. The practice of recruiting warrior-slaves, known as mamluks or ghulams, frommountainous or arid regions hastened thedisintegration of the empire. Whenpower declined at the center, themamluks went on to establishtheir own “slave-dynasties.”Thus the Ghaznavids who supplant-ed their former Samanid overlords in Mahmud of Ghazna crosses the Ganges. TheKhurasan started as slave-soldiers in the fron- Ghaznavids, Turkish military governors, enjoyed greattier region of Ghazna, south of Kabul. When renown in later times as the first to extend Muslimthe Samanid regime collapsed in 999, Mah- power into India. This image is from the Compendium ofmud of Ghazna (r. 998–1030), son of a slave- Chronicals, composed for the vizier Rashid al-Din in thegovernor, divided their territory with the early fourteenth century. 43
  • 42. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDThe Saljuq Era Despite challenges to their authority and the loss Khurasan, laying the foundations of the Saljuq of military and effective political power, the Empire. Defeating the Buyids in 1055 they took Abbasid caliphs retained immense prestige in the control of Baghdad, where the caliph crowned eyes of most townspeople and many of the tribes their leader Tughril Beg Sultan in acknowledg- as the lawful successors to the Prophet and heads of the Muslim 20° 30° HU NG community The division of the . AR Y world into Dar al-Islam and Dar ZE ( S E TA al-Harb facilitated the spread of RB IA) Islam centripetally as well as cen- H E N P E C trifugally: when tribes from the 40° margins who encountered Muslim Sof ia merchants, scholars, or wandering Sal oni Co ka nst Blac Sufis, accepted Islam the caliphs ant ino k ple tended to legitimize their rule, Sino pe appointing their leaders as gover- nors. Conversion civilized the SA L J UQ nomadic and pastoral peoples by fro m S OF RUM 1095 subjecting them formally (if not always in practice) to the Sharia M ed Following the rapid advance of law, reducing the cultural differences between ite Antioch rra nethe Saljuqs into Anatolia, Konya the peoples of the desert and steppes and those an Sea(formerly Iconium) became their of the cities and settled regions. Tribes recently 30° capital. This elaborately converted often became the greatest builders and S U Acre decorated portal from the Ince L A patrons of Islamic high culture in art, architec- Y N Jerus alem Minare Madrasa shows the ture, and literature. At the same time conversion extraordinary richness of the Cairo made it difficult for rulers to defend their heart- Saljuq style. The “Slender E g lands from nomadic predators, since if the y p Minaret” from which the school t nomads were no longer infidels the jihad (strug- FA T IMID takes its name was partially CA L gle or “holy war”) launched against them lost its IPH destroyed by lightning in 1900. AT E Trop ic of R raison d’être. Can cer e Two Turkish-speaking peoples, the Qarluqs d Nile and the Oghuz, established states that made sig- nificant contributions to this process. In Tran- 20° soxiana the Qaraqanid dynasty accepted the N nominal authority of the Abbasid caliphs, becoming the patrons of a new Turkish culture derived in part from Arab and Persian models. After defeating the Ghaznavids the Oghuz peo- ple, led by the Saljuq family, became the rulers of44
  • 43. THE SALJUQ ERA ment of his supreme authority In exchange for . Crusade in 1096. Although the Saljuqs con- formal recognition, the sultans agreed to uphold quered half of Anatolia, laying the foundations Islamic law and defend Islam from its external for later Ottoman-Turkish rule, their system of enemies. The massive defeat inflicted by the authority was too fragmented to maintain the Saljuqs on the Byzantine army at Manzikert in unity of the empire, or to defend the frontiers of 1071 was one of the factors leading to the First Islam against further nomadic incursions. 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° 90° E G S Sarkel Vo 1028–38 S U R lg a G H t o C h e r n i g ov U I K H A Z A R S Aral Sea Sea gar r rya Kash Otra Da Ca .A Ca yr S mu D uc a su Urgench kent sp Trebizo sM Tash nd a ry ia ou a nta nD A NI ins d SHME rkan ND Sama Se EMIR na soxia AT E Dandangan Bukhara Tran a from 109 sh 5 Manzikert 108 Ku 0 1071 du in Merv H Aleppo Mosul Balkh l Kabu war Homs Nishapu r Pesha Eu 1042 ph ot ra Damasc te s Rayy Sialk 2 us 1040–4 Hamadan Baghdad Kermanshah Isfahan I r a q s du Shiraz In A R A B Pe S rs a i n Siraf G ul Medina f The Saljuq Era Major Saljuq campaign A O Muscat r a b i m Saljuq sultanate at its a a n maximum extent, c. 1090 Mecca Byzantine Empire, c. 1095 S Sea Territory lost to Byzantine bian e Ara Empire and Crusader states, 1097–99 a Extent of the Khwarizm Shahdom, c. 1220 45
  • 44. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDMilitary Recruitment 900–1800 The recruitment of armies from the peripher- military rulers had no ethnic, cultural, lin- al regions, mainly from the steppelands of guistic, or historical connection with the peo- inner Asia, the Caucasus, and the Balkans, ples over whom they ruled, society tended to became the most distinctive feature of the develop outside the purview of the state, with Islamic systems of governance until modern the ulama—the religious scholars and experts times. Known as mamluks—“owned ones”— on law—merging with merchant and these warriors were purchased as slaves from landowning families to form elites of nota- the highlands and steppes or captured from bles whose prestige was dependent on reli- defeated tribes. Brought in as the sultan’s pri- gious knowledge. While allowing a form of vate armies and palace bodyguards, they were civil society to develop separately from the taught the rudiments of the Islamic faith and military state, the practice of mamlukism culture and trained in the military arts. militated against the type of communal loy- Attaching the word “slave” to mamluks (as in alties or patriotisms that would emerge in “slave-warriors” or “slave-dynasties”) is Western Europe at a later period. The pattern somewhat misleading. Though mamluks and ghulams (household slaves) were bought and 0° T H E 15° sold as personal property, their social position Paris H O LY R O M A N reflected that of their masters, rather than E M P I R E Buda AT L A N T I C their own servile status. Eventually manumit- FRANCE OCEAN Venice ted they became freedmen, clients of their for- Milan mer masters entitled to property rights, mar- Santiago Marseilles riage, and personal security, with some of Corsica Rome them rising to become rulers. Madrid Barcelona PORTUGAL Naples The practice of mamlukism started with S PA I N Balearic Is. Sardinia Lisbon the Abbasid caliphs, who recruited tribes i t e d e from Transoxiana, Armenia, and North M r r Sicily Algiers Tunis a Africa to offset the power of the Tahirids. Ceuta n ALGIERS TUNIS e They balanced these tribes with Turkish ghu- a lams who were purchased individually before being trained and drafted into regiments 5 A F R I C A under individual commanders. Since they were housed in separate cantonments, with their own mosques and markets, their alle- S a h a r a giance was to their commanders, rather than to the caliphs. In the breakup of the empire Military Recruitment c. 1500 after 945 the practice was adopted by the de- Movements of troops facto rulers who inherited the political power 1 Janissaries, from Balkans of the Abbasids. All the post-Abbasid states in the East—the Buyids, Ghaznavids, Qara- 2 Circassians, from Caucasus qanids, and Saljuqs—were created by ethnic 3 Turkic nomads, from Central Asia minorities, including mercenaries from the 4 Al-Qaitis, from Yemen Caspian region, and Turkish and other nomadic peoples from inner Asia. Since new 5 South Atlas, from South Atlas Mountains46
  • 45. MILITARY RECRUITMENT 900–1800 of recruiting erstwhile nomadic predators to the Circassians in the Caucasus) the Egyptian defend society against other nomads—of mamluks resisted becoming absorbed into the making “wolves into sheepdogs”—is found ranks of the indigenous elites. For the most throughout the Muslim heartlands, from the part they remained a one-generation aristoc- Maghreb to the Indus Valley. racy, without ties of blood to the rest of The system of military slavery reached its Egyptian society. fullest development in Egypt, a densely popu- Under the Ottomans military slavery lated country of peasant cultivators without evolved in a somewhat different direction. an indigenous military class. The system was From the late fourteenth century the sultans institutionalized so successfully that mamluk began to offset the power of their sipahi cav- rule lasted for more than two and a half cen- alry units levied from the estates of the nobil- turies (1250–1517), and resurfaced in a mod- ity or recruited as mercenaries from Arabic, ifed form under the Ottomans (1517–1811). Kurdish, and Farsi-speaking nomads, an By constantly replenishing their ranks from infantry corps of “new troops”, Janissaries, abroad (firstly from among the Kipchak levied mainly from its Christian provinces in Turks from Central Asia, later from among the Balkans. The levy (known as the 30° 45° 60° 75° 90° POLAND-LITHUANIA Sarai-Berke MOLDAVIA Pest KHANATE KHANATE HUNGARY OF CRIMEA OF ASTRAKHAN Crimea Aral 15° Sea 1 WALLACHIA 2 Caspian MONGOLISTAN Sofia B l a c k S e a Tiflis Sea 3 Constantinople Kucha C a Shemakha Tashkent O u ca U Z T su Baku B E K H S T s O M E A N E M PIR SA Balkh Kashgar Morea Athens Adalia F A Tabriz Aleppo V Mosul I Kabul Crete D Cyprusa n S KHORASAN KASHMIR e a Baghdad E Isfahan PUNJAB TIBET M LO P DI Alexandria IR SU E LT MULTAN 30° AN EMP IRE OF Cairo TE A Pe Delhi NEPAL Bandar Abbas OF rs MA MLUK E S DE LHI i a RAJPUTANA N A r a b i a n Hormuz Gul BIHAR ile f Re SIND BUNDEL- d MALWA KHAND Muscat BENGAL GUJERAT Se Mecca Diu a Arabian Damah BERAR Suakin Sea ORISSA Bay of UT AHMADNAGAR BIDAR GOLCONDA Bengal MA Hyderabad RA BIJAPUR YEMEN DH HA 45° 4 VIJAYANAGAR ABYSSINIA 47
  • 46. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD devshirme) was conducted in the villages about every four years: the towns were usual- ly exempt, as the sons of townsfolk were con- sidered too well educated or insufficiently hardy. Boys between 13 and 18 were selected (although there are reports of children as young as 8 being chosen). Since married men were exempt, the Orthodox peasants often married off their children very young to avoid the levy. The selected boys (estimates are put at around 20 percent) were given Muslim identities and trained in the arts of war, with the brightest selected for personal service to the sultan, where they often rose to be rulers of the empire. Although slave recruitment ceased in the 1640s the Janissaries continued to prosper, with increasing numbers of Mus- lim-born boys joining their ranks. Having substantial commercial interests, salaries, and state-funded pensions they became a privi- leged and tyrannical elite, resistant to change. In 1826 Sultan Mahmud II used his newly formed military force to slaughter most of them at a muster in Istanbul. The Janissary corps, dressed in their gold finery, parade at a court reception. Originally recruited from the Christian Balkans, the Janissaries became a formidable power within the state. Sultan Mahmud II abolished the Janissaries in 1826, as part of his program of modernization.48
  • 47. MILITARY RECRUITMENT 900–1800 49
  • 48. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDFatimid Empire 909–1171 10° The Shiite Ismaili caliphate of the Fatimids was the Fatimid caliphate 0° established in Ifriqiya in the Maghreb when a embarked on its decline. group of Kutama Berbers accepted the claims of Northern Syria was Abdallah al-Mahdi to be the rightful descen- irrevocably lost in dant of Ali and Fatima and rose against the 1060. By then, a l- An Aghlabids in 909. By 921, al-Mahdi had settled the Fatimids da Có rd lus in his new capital city of Mahdiyya on the were con- ob E a AT coastline of Ifriqiya. As successors to the Agh- fronted E MI R D labids, the Fatimids also inherited their fleet and with the YA AY UM Ag the island of Siqilliyya (Sicily). By the end of al- grow- a di r M Mahdi’s reign (909–934), the Fatimid state ing ag hr extended from present-day Algeria and Tunisia eb to the Libyan coast of Tripolitania. The third F A Fatimid caliph al-Mansur (r. 946–953) built a Tu Sicil T n new capital city named Mansuriyya after him- Ka is iro y I ua n self. Situated near Sabra to the south of M M ah diy ya Qayrawan, Mansuriyya served as the Fatimid I capital from 948 until 973. D S Tr ipo Fatimid rule was firmly established in North a li C Africa only during the reign of the fourth mem- h A ber of the dynasty al-Muizz (r. 953–975), who L a transformed the Fatimid caliphate from a menace r regional power into a great empire. He suc- of the Saljuq a ceeded in subduing the entire Maghreb, with Turks, who were the exception of Sabra, before concerning him- laying the foundations self with the conquest of Egypt, an objective of a new empire. In 1071, attained in 969. A new Fatimid capital city was Damascus became the capital of built outside Fustat; it was initially called the new Saljuq principality of Syria and Mansuriyya, but renamed al-Qahira al- Palestine. By the end of al-Mustansir’s rule, of Muizziyya (Cairo), “The Victorious City of al- the former Fatimid possessions in Syria and Muizz,” when the caliph took possession of his Palestine, only Ascalon and a few coastal new capital in 973. The extension of Fatimid towns, like Acre and Tyre, still remained in power in Syria became the primary foreign pol- Fatimid hands. By 1048, the Zirids, ruling over icy objective of al-Muizz’s son and successor al- Ifriqiya on behalf of the Fatimids, placed them- Aziz (r. 975–996). By the end of his reign, the selves under Abbasid suzerainty. By 1070, when Fatimid Empire had attained, at least nominal- they lost Sicily to the Normans, Barqa had ly, its greatest extent, with Fatimid suzerainty become the western limit of the Fatimid Empire, being recognized from the Atlantic and the which soon became effectively limited to only western Mediterranean to the Red Sea, the Egypt. Ascalon, the last Fatimid foothold in Hejaz, Syria, and Palestine. By 1038, the Syria-Palestine, was lost to the Franks in 1153. Fatimids had also extended their authority to Fatimid rule ended in 1171, when Salah al-Din the emirate of Aleppo. (Saladin), who became the last Fatimid vizier In the long reign of al-Mustansir (1036–94), after taking over Egypt, had the khutba (ser-50
  • 49. FATIMID EMPIRE 909–1171 mon) read in Cairo in the name of the reigning Fatimid Empire and other Abbasid caliph while the last Fatimid caliph, al- Islamic States c.1000 Adid (r. 1160–71), lay dying in his palace. Fatimid Empire c. 1000 Abbasid caliphate at its greatest extent Ceramic bowl from Fustat (Cairo), tenth–eleventh Abbasid caliphate, c. 900 century. The lusterware design has 10° characteristically Fatimid motifs, with a hare Major battle at the center and the sides decorated with stylized plants. 20° 80° 30° BY 70° 40° ZA 50° 60° N T IN KHAZAR E B l a S Aral S yr Talas Da Ca c k S e a TURKS Sea r ya 40° sp Con stant inople ia Am u n Da r ya EM Tiflis Derbend PI and RE SamarkM Bukhara Se e Erzurum D S d A N I a i t Tarsu e s S A M r r Tabriz Ardabil Balkh Ale Merv Antio ppo Edess a n Bar a Ti qa e a ch gr is n Mosul r Nishapu l Kabu S e a Eu Rayy phI Herat ni Jalula Ghaz at r Tyre Dama es Nehavend P scus Acr BUWAYHID EMIRATES H Asca e Kerbela 30° Alex lo andr n ZN I Je - OF GHA Mult an MAHMUD A ia 977 rusalem Baghdad Isfahan Helio Susa T Cair polis E Faiy o 969 um 971 Basra s u Istakar Ind Tabu k Pe rs Nil A ncer of Ca ia Tropic e n KA RM Gu lf AT r Medina IA Sea Arabian Badr NS Suhar Muscat a 20° b M AK KURA Re Mecca i Dong d ola Se a a Najran AN Soba OCE IAN IND N 0 300 km 10° Aden 0 300 miles 51
  • 50. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDTrade Routes c. 700–1500 Muhammad is said to have traveled outside the frequency with which such measures were Arabia as a merchant. His tribe, the Quraish, denounced as illegal, oppressive, and unjust who led the Arab conquests, were among the indicates that the general temper remained foremost traders in the peninsula. Merchants favorable to mercantile activity, even under continued to be held in high esteem, often adverse political conditions. marrying into the families of ulama, who they Initially the Arab conquest had the effect of supported by endowing their educational bringing two oceanic trade routes—through institutions. Islamic rituals favor commercial the Persian Gulf and Red Sea—within a single activity. Mosques are often adjacent to mar- market based on common law, language, and kets, and though Friday is the day for congre- currency. Under the Abbasids the most attrac- gational prayer, it was not treated as a sab- tive route for goods from East and South Asia bath until recent times. Markets opened to the Mediterranean went up the Tigris to before and after the noonday prayer. Since the Baghdad, or up the Euphrates to an easy whole male population was gathered in town, portage to Aleppo and from there to a Syrian Fridays were good days for doing business. port such as Antioch. The towns along these Similarly, the pilgrimages to Mecca (umra and routes depended on the exchange of commodi- hajj), where Muslims from distant parts of ties for their existence. the world meet each other, have always been a The Mesopotamian cities absorbed luxury facilitator of trade. Pilgrims would finance goods from India and China. These were sold the long and arduous journey (which in pre- in the markets alongside necessities such as modern times could take half a lifetime) by food grains, fuel, timber, and cooking oils. trading goods or working as artisans. Mer- Mesopotamia was also the terminus of the chants would join the pilgrim caravans to sell chief land route to China and India as well as their goods in the Hejaz. north to the Volga basin and the well-watered By bringing vast areas of territory and lands of Eastern Europe, sources of fur, amber, coastlands under a single government, the metal goods, and hides. In the earliest period Arab conquests created an enormous area of Muslim ships from ports such as Basra or free trade, facilitating the expansion of trade Hormuz went all the way to China, returning far beyond the empire’s borders. The extent of after two or three years with cargoes such as this trade has been revealed by archaeology, silk, porcelain, jade, and other valuables. How- with significant numbers of coins from ever, as the trade became more sophisticated Abbasid times discovered in Scandinavia, and merchants no longer traded directly with Chinese silks and ceramics found in burial sites Guangzhou (Canton) and Hangzhou, but in western Asia. Muslim merchants were not acquired goods from China at ports in Java, subject to tariffs within the empire. Foreign Sumatra, or the Malabar coast. merchants who entered the lands of Islam were Muslim merchants from the Maghreb subject to the same rates imposed on Muslim were active in the gold trade, which took merchants in their homelands. The new elite of them across the Sahara Desert to the Sahel the caliphal courts, with their demand for lux- cities of Timbuktu and Gao, and beyond, to ury goods, boosted trade. Though the breakup the goldfields of western Africa. The chain of the empire led to economic decline in some of commercial centers established by Muslim areas, with rival dynasties augmenting their traders on the east African coast, including budgets by imposing extra taxes and tariffs, Lamu, Malindi, and the island of Zanzibar,52
  • 51. TRADE ROUTES c. 700–1500extended as far south as Sofala in modern The land routes linking western Asia andMozambique. Intrepid Muslim travelers the Mediterranean with eastern and south-penetrated the African interior in search of ern Asia were just as important as the mar-gold, slaves, ivory, rare woods, and precious itime routes. With many cities landlocked orstones centuries before Europeans followed distant from rivers and oceans, even bulkyin their paths. items had to be carried by animals. Careful When the decline of Abbasid power and planning was needed before the caravans setthe incursions of Turkish tribesmen made out on long journeys. Food had to be pro-the trans-Syrian route less secure the alter- cured for animals and humans, and nomadicnative water route, via the Red Sea and the tribes had to be hired as guards. In remoteNile, came into prominence. It was the more areas networks of khans (overnight resting By the 1500s, the Ottoman Empire, with its capital at Con- stantinople, had become one of the Islamic world’s most impor- tant trading centers. The sultan’s court, together with his advisors, took careful account of annual trade.difficult as the land route from the Gulf of places) or khaniqas (Sufi lodges) providedSuez to the Nile was more arduous than the food and hospitality. Some were built likeroute across Syria, except for a brief period fortresses for defense against Bedouinwhen the Mamluk sultans revived an ancient marauders. The vast distances over roughcanal originally dug by the pharaohs. Red terrain, combined with the breakdown inSea ports such as Aden, Jidda, Aydhab, and territorial authority, made road constructionQulzum benefited from this trade, as did impracticable. Even by late Roman times,Cairo and Alexandria. Trade on the Indian wheeled traffic had all but disappeared. TheOcean was monopolized by Muslims until results can be seen in many of the cities ofthe arrival of the Portuguese, followed by western Asia and North Africa. Before mod-the English and Dutch from the sixteenth ern times few of them had boulevards broadcentury onward. enough for carts or carriages. 53
  • 52. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD 30° 15° 0° 15° LAPP R E I N DE E R 30° 45° 60° H E R DE R S Iceland WA - NOR ARK (Denmark) Y EN ED M SW DEN 60° RU S S I A SCOTLAND ARS TAT ENGLAND POLAND- KA ZAN HOLY LITHUANIA ROMAN A T LA N T I C O CE AN NOG EMPIRE AIS N HUNGARY HA AK S FRANCE TR AR Astrakhan 45° Venice AS TAT TUR Pisa O Marseille Rome TT Edirne OM KO VENICE Constantinople AN M PAPAL SPAIN NS A STATES Amalfi Bursa EMP PORTUGAL IRE Azores Denia Ardabil (Port.) Cordoba Konya Tabriz Algiers Tunis Palermo Izmir Lajazzo Nishapur Almeria ALGIERS Kairouan Mahdia Crete Cyprus Samarra Damghan Tlemcen Damascus Fez TUNIS Baghdad S A F AV I D Meknes Tripoli Marrakech TRIPOLI Jerusalem Basra EMPIRE 30° MOROCCO Cairo A Siwa R Canary Is. Sijilmasa A (Spain) B Ghat N Tropic of Cancer Kubra Medina O M C A M E Muscat L A N O M D OMAN A D Mecca S S Suakin GHARRA FUNJ Timbuktu MAHRA Cape Verde Is. Sanaa 15° (Port.) SENEGAL SONGHAI KANEM- Soba HADRAMAUT Abeche YEMEN Cacheu BORNU (Portugal) MOSSI Aden MALI STATES HAUSA WADAI DARFUR STATES Zaila ADAL AKAN OYO ETHIOPIA N NI Benin BE Elmina Galla (Portugal) Fernando Póo DROMO (Port.) Mogadishu 0° Lamu LUBA Mombasa (Portugal) CONGO LUNDA Zanzibar ISLAMIC CITY-STATES 15° Madagascar54
  • 53. TRADE ROUTES c. 700–1500 75° 90° 105° 120° 135° 150° 165° Trade Routes and Empires c. 1500 SIBERIAN REINDEER HERDERS Empires Routes Portuguese Trading routes Spanish Gold trade State society Silk road SIBIR TATARS Other EURASIAN S AINU HUNTER- TEPPE AN D DESE RT NOMA GATHERERS DS MONGOLS KI RG UZ HI KALMYKS BE Z KS TashkentChiwa Bukhara Samarkand KashgarMerv Schar-i-Sabz KOREA N A Balkh P MUGHAL JAHerat EM TIB E T MING Lahore CHINESE PI EMPIRE ISL R Delhi E AM IC A RAJPUTANA N D HI ND U ST BURMESE Taiwan Kambaya AT E S BENGAL KINGDOMS P A C I FIC OCE AN Thana LAOS Goa ORISSA (Portugal) PEGU AN A NA Y HA M VIJAYANAGARA Philippine TT Islands CAMBODIA Kulum Mali AY U SAYLAN Colombo Ceylon (Portugal) ACEH Malacca (Portugal) MALACCA Borneo I NDI A N O C E AN Sumatra M AL AYA New Guinea N IS L A M N IC STATES Java Timor (Port.) AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINAL HUNTER-GATHERERS 55
  • 54. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDCrusader Kingdoms 35° The Crusades occurred at a time of Islamic disunity and retreat. SALJUQS OF RUM There were Christian County advances in Spain— Gargar GREAT Behesni Toledo fell in 1085— Marash SALJUQ of Samosata and in Sicily which , Sis EMPIRE Cilicia Rancular the Normans con- Aintab Saruj quered in 1091–92. Adana Tarsus Turbessel Eu Economically, the Ravendam BYZANTINE EMPIRE decline of the Abbasid ph Alexandretta rate 1097 Edessa ch t io s Asas caliphate and the Saljuq inva- An Antioch sions had diverted the East Asian of St. Simeon Kafr Aleppo it y 1097 Tab trade away from Baghdad and p al n tes n ci Cerep Constantinople. Sending it through Egypt Or o P ri Latakia 1103 and into the hands of Italian merchant shipping, it Nicosia Jabala 1109 enriched the Italian cities. Harassed by Muslim Cyprus Famagusta Valania 110935° Maraclea 1102 Masyaf pirates, Pisa and Genoa destroyed Mahdia, the polit- Rafaniyan Tortosa 1102 ical and commercial capital of Muslim North Africa Limassol in 1087. The fluctuating frontiers between the oli Homs ri p Mediterranean Tripoli 1109 Byzantine and Fatimid Empires allowed the cities of T of Botron 1104 Syria and Palestine considerable autonomy making it , ty un Gibelet 1104 Baalbek Sea difficult for them to unite against the invaders. The Co Beirut 1110 defeat of the Byzantine army at Manzikert in 1071 ni opened the rich Anatolian pastures to migration by ta Sidon 1110 Li Damascus bands of Oghuz Turks, not all of them under Saljuq Tyre 1124 control. Alarmed at the danger to Christendom Acre 1104 Lake posed by the Turks as well as by Norman attacks on Haifa 1099 Tiberias Tiberias Byzantine lands in Italy Pope Urban II launched a , EMIRATE Caesarea 1101 OF Holy War for the defense and unity of Christendom. DAMASCUS The movement was stimulated by charismatic, pop- Arsur 1101 Jo r d a n Jaffa 1099 Nablus ulist preachers such as Peter the Hermit and by the as-Salt growing popularity of the pilgrimage to Jerusalem as Ascalon Jerusalem Gaza Dead a way of earning spiritual merit or as an act of atone- Darum Hebron Sea ment for sins such as murder. Krak des Moabites Christian Crusades In the event, the knights from the Latin West, Segor First Crusade, Norwegian FATIMID (including England, Scandinavia, Germany Italy , , 1099–1100 Crusade, 1107–40 CALIPHATE KINGDOM OF N JERUSALEM Territory held by Crusaders to Crusades of Pope and France) supported by ragtag armies of towns- Calixtus II, 1122–26 Montréal 1100 folk and peasants lured by the promise of indul- Crusaders’ Crusade of 1128–29 S i n a i gains, 1100–44 gences, were not wholly interested in saving 1110 Date of Crusaders’ Crusaders’ D e s e r t losses, 1144–45 conquest Christendom by helping their Orthodox brethren. 0 50 km Muslim territory Maximum range of (They actually sacked Constantinople in 1204, 0 50 miles Egyptian warfleet Aila Other Christian inflicting untold damage on the capital of Eastern territory Prevailing wind Christianity They wanted to carve out feudal .)56
  • 55. CRUSADER KINGDOMSdomains in the well-watered lands of the 35°Mediterranean littoral. The remarkable success ofthe First Crusade, culminating in the capture of SALJUQS SULTANATE OF KONYAJerusalem from the Fatimids in 1099, contained theseeds of the Byzantine Empire’s eventual demise.The need to support the intrusive Latin states whose Sisexistence depended on Muslim disunity overrode M E N I A A Rthe need to maintain Byzantium’s eastern frontiers. F OFor the most part the Franks, as the invaders were M Tarsus Mamistra D Oknown, were hated as oppressors by Muslims and K I N G Corycus Alexandretta Syrian Gates Trapezaclocal Christians alike—not to mention the Jews, Gaston Principalitywho lost the protection they had enjoyed under of Antioch Antioch Aleppo St. SimeonMuslim rule, and were massacred in Palestine as Cursatthey had been in Europe. Far from checking the Saone SYRIA OrontesTurkish advance on Christian domains, the Kyrenia LatakiaCrusaders’ attacks on Byzantium helped to destroy Nicosia Gastria Jabala Apameathe only polity that could have prevented it. Though 35° KINGDOM Famagusta Margat Shaizar OF CYPRUS Maraclea Masyaf Hamahthe Latin kingdoms were eventually eliminated, Tortosa Coible Mamluk tributary from 1260 Limassoltheir existence damaged the previously good rela- 1270 Mamluk fleet Christian until 1302 Ruad Chastel Blanc Krak des Chevaliers founders off Limassol Coliat County Homstions that had existed between the eastern churches, Villejargon of Halba Tripoli Etheir Muslim protectors, and local Islamic commu- Nephin Tripoli Gibelcar Botronnities, leaving a legacy of mistrust of the West that T Gibelet Baalbekhas lasted to the present. Beirut ni a Lit A KINGDOM ANTI OF LEBANONEntry of the Crusaders into Damietta, Egypt, in June 1249. Sidon JERUSALEM Damascus NAfter losing Jerusalem, the Crusaders made several attacks Belfort Tibnin e tt a Tyre Belinas mion Egypt in the hope of regaining territory in the Holy Da Toron Chastel Neuf Montfort ro m A f Jacob’s FordLand. From an illuminated manuscript painted in Acre Acre Safad (Saphet) Hammon Tiberias Haifa GALILEE L. Tiberias Château Pèlerin Nazareth Tshortly after 1277. This school of illuminators was probably Zir’in Meggido Jisr al-Majamifounded by Louis IX during his stay in Palestine, 1250–54. Caesarea Belvoir Bethsan L Mediterranean Caco Jenin Nablus Arsur Jo r d a n U SAMARIA Sea Jaffa al-Awja Jericho S Ascalon Jerusalem Bethleem Gaza Dead Darum Hebron Sea K The Mamluk conquest U Kerak of the coast (Krak des L Moabites) 1263–1291 Muslim conquests N M 1263–1271 A Montréal Muslim conquests M 1285–1290 Muslim conquests, 1291 Christian territory after 1291 0 50 km Aila Castle 0 50 miles 57
  • 56. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDSufi Orders 1100–1900 The Sufi orders were and remain the most spiritual guidance of Sufi masters from important organized expression of Islamic whose baraka (blessedness or charismatic spirituality. The word Sufism (from the spiritual power) they derived benefit. Further Arabic Sufi, one who wears wool), is afield the Sufi orders were instrumental in thought to derive from the coarse woolen spreading Islam in peripheral regions such as garments worn by early Muslim ascetics the Malay archipelago, Central Asia, and who sought to develop an inner spirituality. Subsaharan Africa. Access to the normative, This was sometimes expressed as the quest textual Islam of the ulama, based on the for union with God and it set them apart Koran, hadith, fiqh (jurisprudence), and from believers who were content with the tafsir (hermeneutics), required knowledge of formal observance of Islamic law and ritual. Arabic, restricting its appeal. The Sufi Early adepts, sometimes known as “drunk- shaikhs and pirs, however, were adept at en” Sufis, cultivated mental states that spiritual improvisation and were able to con- would lead them to experience annihilation vey Islamic teachings verbally, using local of the self in the divine presence. The desire languages. The esoteric Sufi rituals, known for ecstatic union with the divine, and the as dhikrs (ceremonies held in remembrance pain of separation from it, is the theme of of God), allowed them to develop spiritual much Sufi poetry. Drunken Sufism some- techniques that meshed with practices times displayed itself in extravagant displays derived from non-Islamic traditions such as aimed at demonstrating contempt for the ritual dances or controlled yoga-style breath- flesh, such as piercing the body with iron ing practiced in India. In Africa Sufis and rings or handling dangerous animals. Sober Marabouts (from the Arabic murabit) were Sufism—exemplified in the teachings of Abu able to propagate Islam by assimilating local Hamid al-Ghazali (d. 1111)—insisted that deities or spirits to the numinous forces such the path to spiritual fulfillment lay firmly as djinns and angels referred to in the Koran. within the boundaries of normative legal Ancestor cults could be accommodated by and ritual practice. adding local kinship structures onto Arab Present from the beginnings of Islam, all lineages or Sufi silsilas, chains of spiritual Sufi movements would claim to have their authority linking the shaikhs and Marabouts origins in the religious experience of to the Prophet and his Companions. In Muhammad and his closest Companions peripheral regions such as the High Atlas Abn Bakr and Ali. Organized Sufism, how- these silsilas provided a quasi-constitutional ever, was consolidated in the twelfth and framework through which segmentary tribal thirteenth centuries, gaining ground rapidly groups achieved a basic minimum of cooper- in Asia in the aftermath of the Mongol ation, with leaders of saintly families acting invasions, when the institutional fabric of as arbiters in intertribal conflicts. In all parts Muslim life was severely dislocated. of the Muslim world Sufi holy men (and Internally the Sufi orders cemented the occasionally women) became the objects of sociopolitical order by providing rulers with popular veneration. In due course such cults popular sources of religious legitimacy, sup- became the targets of reformers who regard- plementing the formal authority conferred ed the excessive devotion given to saintly by the ulama. Many rulers were patrons of mediators as a violation of the Islamic pro- Sufi orders and placed themselves under the hibition on idolatry.58
  • 57. SUFI ORDERS 1100–1900A group of Mevlevi Sufis ordervishes (mendicants)perform their traditionalwhirling ritual. The“dance,” a dhikr, or“remembrance of God,”brings the adept closer tothe divine, balancingspiritual ecstasy withformal discipline. TheMevlevi order was foundedby Jalal al-Din Rumi(1207–73), the famous Sufipoet and mystic. 59
  • 58. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD In contrast to the ulama, who tended to in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. reflect the consensus of the learned, the Sufi The term “neo-Sufism” is sometimes applied tariqas developed elaborate hierarchical to movements that strive to balance “out- organizations with spiritual power concen- ward” political activity with “inner” spiritu- trated into the hands of the leader—known al experience, with the structure of the variously as the shaikh, murshid, or pir. tariqa providing the vehicle for the transmis- Murids (members or aspirants) were bound sion and implementation of ideas. A well- by the baya, oath of allegiance, to the leader known example is the Nurculuk movement or murshid who headed a hierarchy of ranks in Turkey founded by Said Nursi (1876– within the order based on ascending spiritu- 1960). A Naqshbandi-trained preacher and al stages. Although the systems varied con- writer, he sought to revitalize Islamic siderably, with some tariqas being more thought by integrating science, tradition, exclusive and tightly controlled than others, theology, and mysticism in a new version of the combination of devotion to the leader the Naqshbandi slogan of “the hand turned and rankings within the organization made to work and the heart turned to God.” In it possible for the tariqas to convert them- contrast to the Muslim Brotherhood in selves into formidable fighting forces. In the Egypt, which was also influenced by Sufi Caucasus the Imam Shamil waged his cam- ideas, the movement works with the grain of paign against the Russians from 1834 to 1839 Turkey’s secular state. under the spiritual authority of his murshid In recent decades Sufi ideas and devotion- and father-in-law Sayyid Jamal al-Din al- al practices have come under attack from two Ghazi-Ghumuqi, shaikh of the Khalidiyya quarters—modernists, who regard Sufism as branch of the Naqshbandiyya. In North retrograde, and Wahhabi-inspired Islamists, Africa Abd al-Qadir, a shaikh of the who have taken over many Islamic insitutions Qadiriyya, took the lead in the struggle with financial support from Saudi Arabia against the French; in Cyrenaica the and other oil-rich countries. Though the two Sanusiyya were at the forefront of resistance agendas are somewhat different, the conse- against the Italian occupiers. In other region- quences are the same. Modernists, adapting al contexts, however, the tariqas ran with the the ideas of the European Enlightenment, flow of colonial power. In Morocco during began with demands for a “rational” reli- the late nineteenth and early twentieth cen- gion. They ended by turning against religion turies the influential Tijaniya order accepted altogether. The Islamists, reacting against the lavish subsidies from the French, who used modernists, are caught in the same “all-or- the order to further their colonial interests. nothing” attitudes. In Senegal the Muridiya order founded by Sufism occupies the middle ground Amadu Bamba (c. 1850–1927) turned away between modernism and fundamentalism, from resistance to develop a work ethic enabling religion to accommodate itself to based on peanut cultivation that brought changing social conditions. Without the medi- economic stability to the country under the ating, adaptive power of Sufism, it is unlikely French-dominated regime. that the advocates of political Islam (or The tariqas, in many cases, provided the “Islamism”) will succeed in accommodating leadership for the reform and revival move- the variegated strands of Islam within the ments that swept through the Islamic world “restored” Islamic order that they seek.60
  • 59. SUFI ORDERS 1100–1900 Order Founding Saint Site Location Suhrawardiyya Shihab al-din Abu Hafs Umar (1145–1234) Baghdad Rifaiyya Ahmad ibn Ali al-Rifai (1106–82) Umm Abida Sufi Orders 1145–1389 Qadiriyya Abd al-Qadir al-Jifani (1077–1106) Baghdad Shrine of founding saint of most important Orders Shadhiliyya Abu Madyan Shuaib (1126–97) Tiemcan Egyptian and North African tradition derived from Iraqi tradition Abul Hasan Ali al-Shadhili (1196–1258) Iranian and Central Asian traditions from al-Junaid and al-Bistami Pupil of a pupil of Abu Madyan who gave his name to the Order Iraqi tradition from al-Junaid Badawiyya Ahmad al-Badawi (1199–1276) Tanta RIFAIYA Major Order in development of institutional Sufism. All subsequent Orders Kubrawiyya Najm al-din Kubra (1145–1221) Khiva trace their lineage back to one or more of these Orders. Located where they first developed, although by 1500 they had spread widely beyond these regions except for Mawlawiyya, Qadiriyya, and Chishtiyya Yasawiyya Ahmad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ali of Yasi (((d. 1166) Turkestan Mawalawiyya Jalal al-din Rumi (1207–73) Konya Alwaiya Other Orders of importance in 1500, located where they were most prominent Naqshbandiyya Muhammad Baha al-din al-Naqshbandi (1318–89) Bukhara Abd al-Khaliq al-Ghujdawani (d. 1220) is regarded as the first organizer of the Order Chishtiyya Muin al-din Hasan Chishti (1142–1236) Ajmer 15° 0° 15° 30° 60° 45° 60° 75° 90° 0 0 20 200 km 0 200 miles Aral Laka Balkhash 45° Sea YASAWIYYA Black Se a Turkestan Caspian Sea Khiva Bektashiyya Khalwatiyya Shamsiyya Safawiyya Rukniyya KUBRAWIYYA MAWLAWIYYA Bukhara Haidariyya Medite Konya NAQSHBANDIYYA rr Ightishashiyya an Yunusiyya ean Dhahabiyya Tiemcen Sayyadiyya QADIRIYYA Sea Nurbakshiyya Shuaibiyya SHADHILIYYA Baghdad Hahiyya Sadiyya SUHRAWARDIYYA Hazmiriyya Tanta Umm Abida Sanhajiyya Dasuqiyya RIFAIYYA 30° Nimatailahiyya Hamadaniyya BADAWIYYA Pe Ashtalfiyya rs ia n Gu Ajmer Shaltariyya Wafaiyya lf FirdawsiyaTropic of Cancer CHISHTIYYA Humalthira Re dS Alwaiyya Ba y o f ea Alwaniyya Ben ga l 15° A ra b i a n S e a N INDIAN OCEAN 0° 61
  • 60. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDAyyubids and Mamluks Having established themselves in a fragment- Fatimid caliphs. He and his descendants, the ed part-Muslim world, the Crusader king- Ayyubids, broadened the appeal of Sunnism Saladin, depicted here as the doms eventually stimulated a united in Egypt by allowing scholars from the differ- archetypically heroic Saracen by response. The revival can be traced to the ent legal schools to work alongside each Gustave Doré (1884), was seizure of Aleppo by the Saljuq governor of other, while popular devotion to the House of equally admired by the Muslims Mosul, Zangi, in 1128. His son Nur al-Din, Ali was permitted at the mosque of Hussein, and his Crusader foes for his who ruled in Damascus from 1154 to 1174, where the martyr’s head is buried. From Egypt sense of honor and humanity. consolidated his power in Syria and Meso- Saladin conquered Syria and upper Meso- His reputation in the West was potamia, sending his Kurdish general Salah potamia, restoring a unified state in the East enhanced by the popularity of al-Din (Saladin) to take control of Egypt in for the first time since the early Abbasids. In Sir Walter Scott’s novel The 1169. Two years later Saladin assumed power 1187 he crowned his achievement by taking Talisman (1825). symbolically by deposing the last of the Jerusalem from the Franks. Saladin’s Ayyubid dynasty, however, was not to endure. In 1250 the last Ayyubid sultan was killed by his Turkish mamluk soldiers. They proclaimed their own general sultan, initiating more than two and a half centuries of mamluk rule. Ten years later the brilliant mamluk gen- eral Baybars defeated the Mongol invaders at Ayn Jalut in Syria. By 1291 his successors had reunited Syria, expelled the last Crusaders, and expanded the boundaries of their empire into the upper Euphrates valley and Armenia. The mamluks kept their Turkish names and the exclusive right to ride horses and to own other mamluks as slaves. For the most part they mar- ried the female slaves who had been imported with them. If they married local women or took on Muslim-Arab names, they lost caste among themselves. When the supply of Kipchak Turkish slaves began to run out the Kipchak mamluks (known as Bahris) were replaced by Circassians (known as Burjis). Though most of the sultans tried to establish dynasties, their efforts were rarely successful, since minors or weaklings were invariably ousted by more powerful rivals. Nevertheless they demonstrated their devotion to Islam by patronizing scholarship and the Sufi orders, and by the magnificent buildings, including mosques, seminaries, and inns, which they lav- ished on Cairo in the distinct and ornate style that carries their name.62
  • 61. AYYUBIDS AND MAMLUKS 25° Adrianople 30° 35° 40° 45° 50° Constantinople Black Sea G E Tiflis Nicaea O40° Trebizond R G aly s Amasia I A BYZANTINE H (Amasya) Shemakha Sebastia EMPIRE SELJUQS (Sivas) OF RUM T U R K O M A N S K Smyrna Caesarea U ARMENIANS Ephesus Myriokephalon (Kayseri) Melitene (Malatya) R Caspian Iconium A Z E R BA I JA N Sea D (Konya) ARM E NIA Tabriz Maras S Adalia Mayyafariqin Tarsus Edessa Maragha 1144 Zangi D I YA R BA K I R ISMAILIS Aleppo takes Edessa Mosul AlamutCRETE Antioch Sinjar 1127 Zangi appointed35° 1128 Zangi Raqqa atabeg of Mosul takes Aleppo 1171 Mosul recognizes Hamah CYPRUS Masyaf suzerainty of Nur al-Din Limassol ISMAILIS Homs Tripoli Euphr Hamadan at e Tig SYRIA s Kermanshah ris M e d Damascus i t e r r a n e a n S e a Hattin Acre 1154 Nur al-Din Baghdad takes Damascus I R A N Jaffa Rama Hilla Damietta Ascalon Alexandria Jerusalem Kufa IRAQ Tig30° S Eup hra ris Cairo t es 1169–1171 Saladin overthrows N Basra Fatimid caliphate I E G Y P T U O Pe D rs E A R A B I A an i B N Gu ile lf Qus25° Medina Aswan Yenbo R e HEJAZ d Ibrim Aydhab NUBIA Jedda S Mecca20° e a The Muslim Near East 1127–1174 Suakin Territory of Zangi, c.1145 Alwa Territory of Nur al-Din, c.1174 N ile N Other Muslim territory, c.1174 ite Wh Christian territory, c.1174 Sada 0 100 km Dahlak15° Seat of caliphate (Abbasid) Islands 0 100 miles Massawa Seat of caliphate (Fatimid) Sana YEMEN 63
  • 62. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDThe Mongol Invasion Unlike the deserts of Arabia the steppelands of clear rules of succession. The descendants of inner Asia are comparatively well watered, with Ghenghis Khan competed for his legacy, creating extensive grazing for horses. The horseback several independent, sometimes mutually hostile, Ghenghis Khan in state nomads who dwelt there were organized along states. They included present-day Mongolia, surrounded by his attendants. similar lines to the Arabs in patrilineal tribal for- northern China, the realm of the Golden Horde However luxurious his court, as mations. Like the Arab and Turkish nomads they (centered in the Volga basin), the Chaghatayshown by this lavishly decorated were able to construct large federations for suc- Khanate in the Oxus (Amu Darya) region,yurt, the Great Khan remained a cessful raids on cities and areas of cultivation, and the Ilkhan dynasty, which invaded nomad to the end of his life. creating substantial empires under formidable Iran and destroyed Saljuq power in Ri PO ga leaders: Attila, who Anatolia. LA N D W Legn 1 ravaged central Europe The Mongols were not ar ica sa M w 12 nica in in the fifth century just ruthless and violent sk 4 Leg 241 ES LITI 1 CIPA with his Huns, is a nomads. Their sys- AN P RIN Mo 241 NGA SSI 1 U hi well-known example. tem of communi- RU H Ki The Chinese emperors ev RY BYZANT understood the dan- O de ssa gers of these large for- NE EI mations of horse- MP Co Bl ns ac IR E ta borne invaders, and nt in op kS ea le used their forces to break them up when- SAL J UQ TUR ever strong enough to KS GE OR Tif lis GI De rbe do so. The Great Wall Al AZ A nt ex ER an had been built as a dr ia Da m Al ep BA IJ A as po N Ain cu Ta defensible barrier to Ca iro J 12 alut s bri z 60 Mo keep them out. sul Ala AY TE Y U B I D S U L T A NA mu Early in the thir- t Nile Qa zvi E u ph r n teenth century a Ba Ra i ates gh da new formation d Qo m R e d Se a A developed CA BBAS LI PH ID among the AT E Mongols in A r a remote region bordering the Siberian P er a b sia forests under Ghenghis Khan (c. 1162–1227). nG A clever and ruthless leader, he took command of ul i a f a wide grouping of tribes from about 1206. By OM N the time of his death he had dominated most of AN northern China and his armies had reached the shores of the Caspian. Divided between his sons, the empire continued to expand, overwhelming the rest of northern China and sweeping through eastern Europe as far as Germany As with other . nomadic formations, however, there were no64
  • 63. THE MONGOL INVASION cations and knowledge of the latest warfare families of notables actively collaborated, and Mongol Invasions 1206–59 techniques were sophisticated enough to enable even encouraged attacks on their Muslim ene- OIROTS Original tribe them to wreak unprecedented levels of destruc- mies in order to gain favor with the conquerors. Homeland of the Mongol tion. In the initial conquests, entire populations Members of the ulama rose to prominence and tribes of cities were massacred, without regard to age power. For instance, the Sunni historian al- Mongol Empire, 1206 or gender. Buildings were leveled, rotting heads Juvaini accompanied the Mongol army under Mongol Empire, 1236 stacked in gruesome pyramids. Mongol cruelty the warlord Hulegu to Alamut, where the last was a form of psychological warfare designed to Ismaili stronghold to survive the fall of the Mongol Empire, 1259 send the message that resistance was useless. As Fatimids was destroyed in 1256. After the con- Area paying tribute or under loose Mongol control a strategy, terror was highly effective: the quest of Baghdad two years later, al-Juvaini Mongol campaign 30 amirs who governed in the Iranian high- became its governor. Within a few generations ° ° 60N lands hastened to demonstrate the western Mongols had converted to Islam, City sacked by Mongols ov 0° 14 go 40 ° ro Ya their homage. The local opening a brilliant new era in the story of d ro sla vl 50 bureaucrats and its development. 130 ° a ° tsk Se kk of hoM Vl na os ad ° e co im 60° 120 L O Ry w ir az an 70° 110° 80° 100° 90° ° 50 Bu Ye lg n isG O ar L D ey E N H O Am RVolga ur D BURYATS LS O E NG MO I rty sh OIROTS ITS Ol RK dS ME R era i KERAITS TAR S TA NS IMA NA A m KarakoruCaspian N g EM Aral IA 1235 yan Sea X capital from Liao Sea 40° Sea SO A AN O L I PIR E P M O N G of n TR EM IRE a CHAGA IN Jap Otrar TAI CH KHANA OF TH TE Tash Balasaghun ken t ing son g Pek ijing) ng (Be Kae Nish EM PIRE Dato Bukh Kokend NIXIA ong E KHWARIZM apur ara Sam ggy ark and low Ton Ho xia ng Ning Jini Yel ea an ng Kashgar 1226 Taiyu S a Amu Hu D ary a Balk u ang cho h Pingy Zai ng Hera Kabu Kaife t l A 30° Hsian N t IR LA I Eas na Ghaz ni HM DA C H chou i Ch ea AS Han SHA K KH S T I B E T R E P I H Chengdu E M G S U N u s Ind Lhasa SULTA ng ia NATE O ncer of Ca J F DELHI ng Tropic Cha Delhi n Arab Canto gzhou) n ian Gan ges ASSAM (Gua Sea T RA JE GU BENGAL YADAVA Hanoi A Daluo ISS OR Bay of Bengal 65
  • 64. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDMaghreb and Spain 650–1485 e 10° 0° Tours 10° 20 ATLANTIC 732 Poitiers FRANKISH EMPIRE OCEAN AVAR Limoges Lyon KI ~ Bordeaux N La Coruna Venice G Turin Po Rhône Oviedo AQUITAINE O D 718 Santander CANTA BRIAN Genoa M S BASQ Toulouse O U ES 721 Nice F Eb Florence Marseille Frejus Ancona Ti ro Oporto ber Ad 40° ria 713 T U tic H Zaragoza Corsica Se E 713 LO a Madrid Barcelona Rome M M from gus BA Ta Toledo RD 711 Lisbon 711 712 Sardinia Naples S Valencia Taranto A Palma s Cordoba 711 nd s la c I Y Baleari 712 711 from Granada Cartagena Cádiz Y 711 Gibraltar Sicily Tangier Bône 652–6 8 B A Tunis 698 Tahant D Meknès Kairouan Taza 683 670 M Fes 698 e C d i A t L P H A Gabès Aghmat T E Tripoli Sijilmasa 647 30° Misurata E R B E B R Wargla S Muslim conquests in North Ghadamés Africa and Europe El Galsa 634 to 732 Conquests under Muhammad By 644 Garama By 720 Major Muslim campaign In Saleh Zawilah Murzuk Further campaigns S a Ghat Muslim raids h a r a Tropic of Ca D e ncer s e r t Muslim victory Muslim defeat 0 300 km Trans-Saharan trade routes 20° 0 300 miles66
  • 65. MAGHREB AND SPAIN 650–14850° 30° 40° EMPIRE C a u c a s u s M t s Baku LAZICA by 66 BULGARIA 1 B l a c k S e a be D anu B a l k a n s Varna Resht Qu izi E l U zun Constantinople 716 7 R –7 Salonika 670 I A n a t o l i a Hamadan Aegean P Mosul 4 by 64 Sea M Mts Ti Smyrna Konya us E gri Adana r s Ta u Athens Aleppo E Hama I N Y Z A N T Cyprus Homs Tripoli Euphrate s Crete Candia Beirut Basra Damascus a Haifa S e e r r a n e a n Jerusalem Gaza 642 Ajdabiya Alexandria 646 Tanta al-Fustat al Giza (Cairo) A R A B I A al Faiyum Under Muhammad Awjilah 640 644 al Minya E g y p t N ile R Luxor e al Kharga Medina d S W ad e ia sS a Aswan ub Aidnab ai ny a di Ra Jedda Mecca Wa N Kuffra W to Dongola 652 NUBIANS Suakin 67
  • 66. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD Islamic Spain c. 1030 Al-Andalus is the Arabic name for territories region in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Christian states in the Iberian Peninsula that came under They were the Almoravids (1056–1147) and Caliphate of Córdoba to 1031 Muslim rule and influence for nearly 800 the Almohads (1130–1269). By the end of Granada Islamic kingdoms after 1031 Archdiocese years. The first Muslim contact with the Almohad rule, various Christian rulers had Important Jewish community region came in 711. A Muslim army crossed united to begin the period of reconquista. Population the Straits of Gibraltar from North Africa Except for the rule of the Nasrids in Granada Christian and by 716 a number of cities and kingdoms until 1492, most of the Iberian Peninsula was Mostly Berber and converts had been defeated. The nature and extent of lost to Muslim authority. Mostly Arab Muslim rule in the area was dramatically After the 1492 defeat of Granada, most Muslims and Jews fled to North Africa to avoid the N F R A N C E Inquisition. Some submitted and converted to Christianity, Bilbao Oviedo Vizcaya Guipuzcoa while a small number were 1 02 8– C a 3 5 r uled b Santiago de Pamplona Compostela NAVARRE ARAGON BARCELONA 42° allowed to retain their faith, San Marcos s t y Cas de León but under much more con- Vich i l tile L E Ó N e Saragossa Barcelona S a ra g o ssa strained circumstances. By the Zamora Oporto sixteenth century, however, the Salamanca As Sahla process of conversion and n ds 40° la a Alpuente Is expulsion of Muslims was ci ic Toledo ar n B a d a j o z e Valencia e a l - A n d a l u s Val B al almost complete and the pres- ence of Islam in the region Lisbon Badajoz Denia 38° Merida Córdoba Alicante remained only through cultural Murcia Seville Córdoba Granada Murcia Mediterranean Sea traces. Mertola Ecija Lucena Almería Cartagena The civilization engendered Ben i Niebla Muzai n Bah r i s Seville Moron Granada in Muslim Andalusia was a Ronda g 36° Cádiz la Málaga linked to the broader develop- M á 9° Gibraltar ments in the Middle East and 6° 3° 0° 3° North Africa, but was distinc- tive in several respects. The art F A T I M I D S 0 100 km and architecture associated 0 100 miles with the cities of Córdoba, Granada, Seville, and Toledo affected by the collapse of the Damascus- remain as landmarks. The literary heritage based Umayyad dynasty in 750. A member of that flowered in the later period was also dis- the family fled to Spain, becoming a governor tinctive in its contribution to Romance litera- before initiating a new Umayyad dynasty, ture. But perhaps the most enduring legacies which eventually declared Iberia and North were reflected in the philosophical, theologi- Africa as a separate caliphate. cal, and legal writings of Muslims and Jews, Inspired by a more orthodox vision of which would exercise a great influence on Muslim rule, the two movements arriving in subsequent Latin scholasticism in Europe. North Africa established control over the Among this tradition’s most outstanding68
  • 67. MAGHREB AND SPAIN 650–1485 The court of the lions in the Alhambra palace in Granada. The kingdom of Granada, thereference points were Ibn Rushd (also last Islamic outpost in Westernknown as Averroës), who died in 1198 and Europe, held out for 250 years inIbn Arabi (d. 1240), who wrote many mysti- the face of the Christiancal works that influenced succeeding gener- Reconquista. Despite theations. The great Jewish thinker Moses external pressures, under theMaimonides (d. 1204) also worked in this Nasrid dynasty it remained amost intellectually invigorating and cultur- sophisticated and tolerant centerally resplendent milieu. where Islamic and Western cultures were blended in a brilliant, creative synthesis. 9° 6° 3° 0° 3° B a y o f B i s c a y F R A N C E A s t u r i a s Guipuzcoa Vizcaya Cerdagne G a l i c i a KINGDOM Roussillon Santiago de R. Compostella Eb ro OF Burgos NAVARRE o L e ó n A r a g ó n Miñ R. O l d C a t a l o ñ a 42° Mallén Saragossa Castrotorafe KINGDOM OF ARAGÓN C a s t i l e Belchite Castronuño Caspe Tarragona R . D ou ro Penausende Alfambra KINGDOM C A S T I L E Culla Pulpis Peñiscola Villel Onda OF Consuegra Libros Valencia ds Soure Ocaña l an 40° Bétera Is PORTUGAL Alconétar Toledo Olocau Valencia ic Mora ar Alcázar de e San Juan Torrente Silla B al Belver N e w C a s t i l e Sueca Malagón s Alhambra Anna The Christian gu Montánchez a Ta ia n ua dLisbon R. Coruche R. G Calatrava Reconquest la Vieja Montiel Enguera Almagro Murcia Date of reconquest Almada Alange Palmela Socovos Evora Hornachos Yeste Cieza 1080 Setúbal Usagre Segura Moratalla Ricote 1130 Santiago Moura A n d a l u s i a Caravaca Cehegin 1210 de Cacem Llerena Baeza 1250 38° Setefilla u i vi r alq Aledo 1275 Aljustrel Serpa uad Lora .G Martos Muslim Alcaudete R Mértola domination Estepa 1275 Marachique Seville Archdiocese Muslim a Osuna Benameji Granada Albufeira Cacela retaken e Military orders Morón S G R A N A D A Hospital Cote n Santiago a N lif e Che Caltrava Alcalá de los Gazules a n Alcántra Medina Sidonia r r Avis Vejer i t e Cristo 0 100 km M e d Montesa 36° Ceuta 0 100 miles Tangier S U L T A N A T E O F M O R O C C O 69
  • 68. HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDSubsaharan Africa—East From the time of the ancient pharaohs the prestigious of all Islamic lineages in the form of Upper Nile regions of East Africa had belonged Quraishi pedigrees, a trend that would emerge The southernmost outpost of to the same cultural universe as Egypt. Ethiopia among other religious and tribal leaders. While Dar al-Islam until modern times, was Christianized by Coptic missionaries from Arabic and—in some cases—Persian brought byKilwa had a population of about the fourth century, and according to the earliest mariners retained their prestige as the language 10,000 in 1505, when the Portuguese took the island by Islamic sources, the Christian Negus gave of “True Islam,” vernacular languages devel- storm. The first Muslim refuge to a group of persecuted Muslims from oped rich oral literatures that would eventually occupants were mariners and Mecca even before the Hijra. The Arab con- acquire written form. The first Swahili text merchants from the Persian Gulf querors of Egypt reached Aswan in 641 and for dates from 1652. The Swahili culture that dom- who settled around AD 800. centuries continued to move southward, giving inates the thousand-mile coastal strip from Mogadishu to Kilwa is the fruit of many cen- PLAN OF THE GREAT MOSQUE AT KILWA turies of interaction between the ideas brought by Arab-Persian merchants, traders, and set- tlers, and the indigenous peoples of the eastern seaboard with whom they intermarried. After Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 1498 the Portuguese sys- tematically destroyed the prosperous Swahili cities that had sprung up along the coast. In 1505 Kilwa was captured and Mombasa was sacked. By 1530 the Portuguese controlled the entire coast from their fortresses on Pemba, Zanzibar, and other islands. In the 1650s, however, the Omanis who were Ibadi Muslims0 15 m expelled them from Muscat, restoring the N0 50 ft eastern part of the Indian Ocean to Muslim rule. The Omanis built up the trade in cloth, the Upper Nile region its predominantly Arabic ivory, and slaves between East Africa and character. The Funj sultanate, which main- India. In the nineteenth century, under the sul- tained a monopoly on the gold trade that last- tan Sayyid Said bin Sultan (1804–56), Muscat ed until about 1700, was created by herders and Zanzibar were briefly united under a sin- moving downstream along the Blue Nile. It gle ruler, opening the way to settlement by consolidated the Arabic influence by attracting new waves of Muslim immigrants from South legal scholars and holy men (known locally as Arabia. Much of Zanzibar was turned over to faqis) from Egypt, the Maghreb, and Arabia. the commercial production of cloves and other The Arab character of East African Islam spices, using slave-plantation methods similar was reinforced by the proximity of the coastal to those employed in the United States. After regions to the Hejaz and Yemen. From an early the division of the empire between the sons of period Somali cattle-breeders acquired the most Sultan Said, Zanzibar came under increasing70
  • 69. SUBSAHARAN AFRICA—EAST Mediterranean pressure to abolish the slave trade by Sea the British, who used their navy to Alexandria30° Cairo enforce the antislave trade laws and MA M LU K to pursue their own commercial EMPIRE interests. After becoming a British N Libyan ile Desert R Qusayr protectorate, Zanzibar played host ive Muscat R r to a new wave of immigrants from edTropic of Cancer Aswân Se British India. Many of these a Faras Jedda A r a b i a Mecca