Funeral Rites In Islam


Published on

Funeral Rites In Islam

Dr. Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips
Language: English | Format: PDF | Pages: 108 | Size: 2.5 MB

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Funeral Rites In Islam

  1. 1. Funeral Rites in IslamAll Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, the [One Who] Sustains theHeavens and Earths, Director of all that is created, who sent the Messengers (may thepeace and blessings of Allah be upon all of them) to rational beings, to guide themand explain the religious laws to them with clear proofs and undeniable arguments. Ipraise Him for all of His bounties. I ask Him to increase His Grace and Generosity. Ibear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah alone, who has nopartner, the One, Who Subdues, the Generous, the Forgiving. I bear witness that ourleader Muhammad is His servant and Messenger, His beloved and dear one, the bestof all creation. He was honoured with the Glorious Qur’an that has been an enduringmiracle throughout the years. He was also sent with his guiding Sunnah that showsthe way for those who seek guidance. Our leader Muhammad has been particularisedwith the characteristic of eloquent and pithy speech, and simplicity and ease in thereligion. May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, the other Prophets andMessengers, all of their families and the rest of the righteous.NO Copyrights!!!This book can be printed or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic,mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, includingphotocopying and recording, without permission from the pub¬lisher for the sake ofspreading the True teachings of Islam.
  2. 2. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in IslaamCHAPTER ONE: THE DYING PERSONIf one finds oneself on his or her deathbed or what appears to be the deathbed, oneis obliged or recommended to do certain acts of worship and people around thedying individual are encouraged to be supportive and to provide certain basicservices.1. The ShahaadahThose people who are present should encourage the dying person to repeat afterthem the Declaration of Faith (Shahaadah) until he or she passes away confirmingAllaah’s unique oneness (Tawheed). Both Aboo Sa ‘eed al-Khudree and AbooHurayrah quoted the Prophet (r) as saying, ‫ﺠﻨﺔ‬ ‫ ﱠ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺨﹶلَ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ِ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ ِﻨﹾ‬ ‫ ِ ﱠ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ ﻜﹶﻼﹶ ِ ِ ﻻ ِﻟﹶ‬ ‫ ﺁَﺨﹶ‬‫ ﻜﹶﺎﻥ‬‫ﻥ‬   ‫ ِ ﱠ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ ﻻ ِﻟﹶ‬‫ﺘﹶﺎ ﹸﻡ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫)) ﻟﹶ ﱢ ﹸﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺭ ﻤﻪ ﹶ ﺇ ﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻠﻪ ﻋ ﺩ ﻤ ﺕ ﺩ‬ ‫ﻘﻨ ﻤ ﻜ ﹶ ﺇ ﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻠﻪ ﻭﻤ‬ ((  ‫ﺎ‬ َ‫ﺎ ﺃ‬  ِ ‫لَ ﺫﹶ‬‫ ﻗﹶﺒ‬  ‫ﺎ‬ َ‫ ﺃ‬‫ِﻥ‬ ،ِ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ِ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻙ ﻤ ﺼ ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻤ ﻤﻥ ﺩ ﺭ ﻭﺇ ﺼ ﺒﻪ‬“ Prompt your dying ones (to say): laa ilaaha il-lal-laah1 and whoever’s lastwords before dying are: laa ilaaha il-lal-laah, will enter paradise one day, even if 2he is afflicted before that by punishment.” This prophetic statement does not simply mean that the Shahaadah should bementioned by others in the presence of the one who is dying. The dying person,himself or herself, should be instructed to say the Shahaadah, as is evident fromthe Prophet’s statement “whoever’s last words are: laa ilaaha il-lal-laah”. Thefollowing hadeeth narrated by Anas indicates the Prophet’s practise in this regard:1 Sahih Muslim, vol.2, p.435, no. 1996, Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.2, p.887, no.3111, Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol.2, p.365, no.1444, Mishkat Al-Masabih, vol.1, p.337 and Riyadh-us-Saleeheen, vol.2,p.474, no. 918.2 This addition is only found in Saheeh Ibn Hibbaan and it is authenticated in Irwaa al-Ghaleel,vol.3, p.150. 3
  3. 3. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaam‫َ ﻴ ل ﻗ ﹶ ﺇ ﻪ ﺇﻻ‬‫ ِ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺨﹶﺎ ُ ﹸلْ ﻻ ِﻟﹶ‬ )):‫ﺎﺭِ ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎل‬ ‫ ﺍﹾﻷَﻨﹾ‬ ِ ‫ ﹰ‬   ‫ﺎ‬ r ِ ‫ﻭلَ ﺍﻟﱠ‬   َ‫ﺎِﻙٍ ﺃ‬ ِ ‫ ﺃَﻨﹶ ٍ ﺒ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺩ ﺭﺠ ﻼ ﻤ ﻥ ﺼ‬ ‫ﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺱ ﻥ ﻤ ﻟ ﻥ ﺭﺴ‬‫ ؟‬ ‫ ِ ﱠ ﺍﻟﱠ‬ ‫ ﺃَ ﹸﻭل ﻻ ِﻟﹶ‬‫ ِﻲ ﺃَﻥ‬ ‫لْ ﺨﹶﺎ ٌ (( ﻗﹶﺎلَ: ﻓﹶﺨﹶﻴ‬ ‫ ؟ ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎلَ: )) ﻻﹶ‬  ‫(( ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎلَ: ﺃَﺨﹶﺎ ٌ ﺃَﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻗ َ ﹶ ﺇ ﻪ ﺇ ﻻ ﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻟ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ل ﻋﻡ‬ ‫ﻠﻪ‬ (( ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ :)) ﻨﹶ‬r  ِ ‫ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎلَ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻨﺒﻲ‬Anas ibn Maalik reported that the Messenger of Allaah (r) visited a man fromamong the Ansaar and said to him,“ O Uncle, say : laa ilaaha il-lal-laah. Theman asked, “Am I a maternal uncle or a paternal uncle?” and the Prophet (r)replied,“Indeed you are paternal.” The man then asked, “Is it better for me to say: laa ilaaha il-lal-laah? The Prophet (r) replied, ‘Yes. ’”3 Muslims are also encouraged to be present when non-Muslims are dying inorder to present Islaam to them, in the hope that they would accept Islaam prior totheir death. For the acceptance of Islaam at this point to be of any benefit, it mustbe based on knowledge,4 it must be expressed sincerely5 and with certainty, 6 andit must take place before the actual throes of death begin.7 This point is evident inthe Prophet’s (r) attempt to get his uncle Aboo Taalib to bear witness to Allaah’soneness when the latter was on his deathbed. 8 Aboo Taalib knew about Allaah,Islaam, and the Prophet (r) very well. Similarly, the following incident involvingthe Prophet’s servant is one of a person who knew about Allaah and the Prophet(r).3 Collected by Ahmad and authenticated in al-Fat-h ar-Rabbaanee, vol.7, p.57, no.34 as well asin Ahkaamul-Janaa’iz, p.11.4 {ُ ‫“ } َﺎﻋَْ ُﻮاْ َﱠ ُ ﻵ َِ َ إ ﱠ ا‬Know that there is no god worthy of worship besides Allaah.” Chapter ‫ﻓ ﻠﻤ أﻧﮫ إﻟﮫ ﻻ ﷲ‬Muhammad, (47):19.5 { َ ‫“ } َ َﺎ ُ ِ ُواْ إ ﱠ َِﻌُْ ُواْ ا َ ُﺨِْ ِﯿ َ َ ُ اﻟ ﱢﯾ‬The were only commanded to worship Allaah, making ‫وﻣ أﻣﺮ ﻻ ﻟﯿ ﺒﺪ ﷲ ﻣ ﻠﺼ ﻦ ﻟﮫ ﺪ ﻦ‬the religion sincere for Him alone.” Chapter al-Bayyinah, (98):5.6 Aboo Hurayrah reported Allaah’s Messenger as saying, “I testify that there is no god worthy ofworship but Allaah and that I am the Messenger of Allaah. Any servant who meets Allaah withthose two [testimonies], having no doubt in them, will enter paradise.” (Sahih Muslim, vol.1,p.20, no.41)7 The Prophet (r) was reported by ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar to have said, “Allaah, Most Great andGlorious, will accept His servant’s repentance until the throes of death begin.” (Collected by at-Tirmithee and Ibn Maajah and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah, vol.2, p.418, no.3430.See also Riyadh-us-Saleheen, vol.1, p.12, no.18, for an English translation of this hadeeth).8 See Sahih Muslim, vol.1, p.18, no.36. 4
  4. 4. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaamr ‫ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺒِﻲ‬‫ ﻓﹶﺄَﺘﹶﺎﻩ‬‫ﺭِﺽ‬‫ ﻓﹶﻤ‬r ‫ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺒِﻲ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺨﹾﺩ‬‫ ﻴ‬‫ﻭﺩِﻱ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ ﻴ‬ ‫ ﻏﹸﻼﹶ‬‫ ﻗﹶﺎلَ ﻜﹶﺎﻥ‬‫ﻨﹾﻪ‬‫ ﻋ‬‫ﻀِﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬‫ ﺃَﻨﹶﺱٍ ﺭ‬‫ﻥ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ِ ِ ‫ﺎ ﺍﻟﹾ ﹶﺎ‬ َ‫ ﺃ‬‫ ﺃَ ِﻊ‬ ‫ ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎلَ ﻟﹶ‬  ‫ ِﻨﹾ‬   ِ ‫ ِﻟﹶﻰ ﺃَ ِﻴ‬ ‫ (( ﻓﹶﻨﹶﻅﹶ‬‫ ِﻡ‬‫: )) ﺃَﺴ‬ ‫ﺃْ ِﻪِ ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎلَ ﻟﹶ‬  ‫ ِﻨﹾ‬  ‫ ﻓﹶﻘﹶ‬  ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻪ ﻁ ﺒ ﻘ ﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺭ ﺇ ﺒ ﻪ ﻭ ﻫ ﻭ ﻋ ﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻌ ﺩ ﻩ ﻌ ﺩ ﻋ ﺩ ﺭ ﺴ‬، ‫ﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ ِ (( ] ﻓﹶﻠﹶ‬ ِ  ‫ ِ ﱠ ِ ﺍ ﱠ ِﻱ ﺃَﻨﹾﻘﹶﺫﹶ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ ﹸﻭ ُ: )) ﺍﻟﹾ‬    r  ِ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬  ‫ ﻓﹶﺨﹶ‬‫ﻠﹶﻡ‬‫ ﻓﹶﺄَﺴ‬r ‫ﻤ ﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﻩ ﻤﻥ ﻨ ﺭ‬ ‫ﺤ ﺩ ﻟ ﻠ ﻪ ﻟﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﻴﻘ ل‬ ‫ﺭﺝ ﻨﺒﻲ‬ [(( ‫ﺎ ِ ِ ﹸﻡ‬ ‫ ﹶﻰ‬ ‫ ﱡﻭﺍ‬ )) :َ ‫ﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﺼ ﻠ ﻋ ﻠ ﺼ ﺤ ﺒﻜ‬ ‫ﻗل‬Anas also reported that, “When a Jewish youth, who used to serve the Prophet (r)got sick, the Prophet (r) visited him. The Prophet (r) sat by his head and said tohim, “ Accept Islaam.” The boy looked at his father who was near him and theman said, “Obey Abul-Qaasim.” So the boy accepted Islaam and the Prophet (r)left saying, “All praise is due to Allaah who saved him from the Fire.” 9 (Whenthe boy died the Prophet (r) said, “Make salaah for your comrade.”)102. Good Words People present may pray aloud for the dying person, letting them hear theirconcern and compassion for them. Those present should also avoid sayinganything in the dying person’s presence which is not good. Negative words willonly increase the difficulties which the sick and dying are facing. On the otherhand, good words and positive thoughts will make the process of dying easier andthe recovery from illness more bearable.‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺕﹶ ﻓﹶ ﹸﻭ ﹸﻭﺍ ﹶﻴ‬  ‫ ﺃَ ِ ﺍﻟﹾ‬‫ ِﻴﺽ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬‫ﺭ‬  ‫ : )) ِﺫﹶﺍ‬r ِ ‫ﻭ ُ ﺍﻟﱠ‬  ‫ﺔﹶ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹶﺕﹾ ﻗﹶﺎل‬ ‫ﻠﹶ‬  ُ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻤﻴ ﻘ ﻟ ﺨ ﺭ‬ ‫ﺇ ﺤﻀ ﺘﻡ ﻤﺭ‬ ‫َ ﺭﺴ ل ﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺃﻡ ﺴ ﻤ‬ (( ‫ﺎ ﺘﹶ ﹸﻭ ﹸﻭ‬ ‫ﻠﹶﻰ‬  ‫ ﹸﻭ‬ َ‫ﺅ‬ ‫ﻼﹶ ِﻜﹶﺔﹶ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ِ ‫ﻓﹶ‬ ‫ﺈﻥ ﻤ ﺌ ﻴ ﻤﻨ ﻥ ﻋ ﻤ ﻘ ﻟ ﻥ‬Umm Salamah reported that the Prophet (r) said, “If you are in the presence of asick or dying person, you should say good things for verily the angels say“ Aameen” to whatever you say.”119 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.2, p.246, no.438, Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.2, pp.881-82, no.3089 andMishkat Al-Masabih, vol.1, p.328.10 This addition is found in Musnad Ahmad and is authenticated in Ahkaamul-Janaa’iz, p.11.11 Sahih Muslim vol.2, p.436, no.2002, Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.2, p.887, no.3109, Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol.2, pp.366-7, no.1447 and Mishkat Al-Masabih, vol.1, p.337. 5
  5. 5. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in IslaamWhen Umm Salamah asked the Prophet what should she say, he replied: (( ‫ﻨﹶ ﹰ‬  ‫ﻰ‬ ‫ﻘﹾ‬  ‫ ِﻲ ِﻨﹾ‬‫ ِﺒ‬‫ﺃَﻋ‬  ‫ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ ِﻲ‬‫ ﺍﻏﹾ ِﺭ‬  ‫)) ﹸ ِﻲ: ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻠﻬﻡ ﻔ ﻟ ﻭ ﻪ ﻭ ﻘ ﻨ ﻤ ﻪ ﻋ ﺒ ﺤﺴ ﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠ‬“Say: Allaahumma-ghfir lee wa lahu wa a‘qibnee minhu ‘uqba hasanah [OAllaah, forgive him and me, and grant me a good substitute after him.]”123. Soorah Yaaseen The practice of specifically reading the 36th chapter of the Qur’aan, SoorahYaaseen, in the presence of the dying has no basis in the authentic Sunnah.13Neither the Prophet (r) nor his companions did it or recommended that it bedone. However, it does fall under the general heading of ‘good things’ whichcould be said in the presence of one who is dying, but it carries with it no specialvalue. Reciting this chapter is like reciting any other chapter in the Qur’aan.Consequently, one may read it for the dying, if one wishes to do so, or if the dyingperson requests it due to his or her personal preference for it. However, to specifythat Soorah Yaaseen should be read for the dying and to believe that doing so hasspecial value is considered Bid’ah; a sinful innovation in the religion.4. Facing Qiblah Turning the body of one who is dying so that he or she faces the Qiblah[Makkah] has no foundation in the practise of the Prophet (r) and hiscompanions. The body should be turned to face Makkah when it is placed in thegrave, according to the Prophet’s instructions. However, at the time of dying,there were not such instructions. Turning the body, became a custom after thetime of the Prophet’s companions, but was objected to by the scholars of thattime. For example, Sa‘eed ibn al-Musayyib, 14 one of the leading scholars among12 Sahih Muslim vol.2, p.436, no.2002.13 There is an unauthentic hadeeth narrated by Ma‘qil and collected in Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.2,p.889 no.3115 and Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol.2, p.367 no.1448. See also Mishkat Al-Masabih,vol.1, p.338. It is declared unauthentic in Da‘eef Sunan Abee Daawood, p.316, no.683.14 Sa‘eed ibn al-Musayyib ibn Hazn (634-713CE), from the Madeenite tribe of Makhzoom, wasone of the seven leading legal scholars of Madeenah. He was known as the most knowledgeable 6
  6. 6. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaamthe students of the Prophet’s companions, openly expressed his dislike for thispractise. Zar‘ah ibn ‘Abdir-Rahmaan reported that he saw Aboo Salamah ibn‘Abdir-Rahmaan with Sa‘eed ibn al-Musayyib when he was on his deathbed.When Sa‘eed lost consciousness, Aboo Salamah instructed that his bed be turnedtowards the Ka‘bah. When Sa‘eed regained consciousness he asked, ‘Did youmove my bed?” When they replied that they had done so, he looked at AbooSalamah and said, ‘I think it was done with your knowledge?” He replied, “I toldthem to do so.” Then Sa‘eed instructed them to return his bed to its originalposition.”155. Acceptance of Fate The dying individual is obliged to accept his lot gracefully so that it becomesa source of reward and blessing for him on the Day of Judgement. The Prophet(r) taught that patiently bearing the trials of this life is an act of righteousnesswhich expiates sins.‫ﻠﻪ ﺇﻨ ﺘ ﻋﻙ‬  ‫ ﻟﹶ ﹸﻭ‬‫ﻭلَ ﺍﻟﱠ ِ ِ ﱠﻙ‬  ‫ﺎ‬ :‫ ﻓﹶ ﹸﻠﹾ ﹸ‬  ‫ﻭ‬    r ِ ‫ﻭ ِ ﺍﻟﱠ‬  ‫ﻠﹶﻰ‬ ‫ﺨﹶﻠﹾ ﹸ‬ ‫ ِﺍﻟﱠﻪِ ﻗﹶﺎل‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﻴ ﻋﻙ ﻘ ﺕ ﻴ ﺭﺴ‬ ‫َ ﺩ ﺕ ﻋ ﺭﺴ ل ﻠ ﻪ‬ ‫ﻋ ﻋﺩ ﻠ‬‫ﺭﻥ‬ِ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ ﺃَﺠ‬‫ ﻟﹶﻙ‬ َ‫ ﺃ‬‫ (( ﹸﻠﹾ ﹸ: ﺫﹶِﻙ‬‫ﻼﹶ ِ ِﻨﹾ ﹸﻡ‬    ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ ﻜﹶ‬  ‫لْ ِ ﱢﻲ ُﻭ‬ َ‫ﺍ ﻗﹶﺎلَ: )) ﺃ‬ ‫ ﹰﺎ ﺸﹶ ِﻴ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻗﺕ ﻟ ﻥ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺇﻨ ﺃ ﻋ ﻙ ﻤ ﻴ ﻋ ﻙ ﺭ ﺠ ﻥ ﻤ ﻜ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻜ ﺩﺩ‬ِ ِ ‫ َﺎ‬  ‫ﺎ‬ ِ  ‫ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺎ ِ ﱠ ﻜﹶ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻗﹶ‬‫ﺎ ﻓﹶﻭ‬ ‫ﻜﹶ ﹲ ﻓﹶ‬‫ ﺃَ ﹰﻯ ﺸﹶﻭ‬  ‫ ِﻴ‬ ٍ ِ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺎ ِﻥ‬  ِ ‫ ﻜﹶﺫﹶ‬‫لْ ﺫﹶ ِﻙ‬ َ‫ﻗﹶﺎلَ :)) ﺃ‬‫ﻬ ﺇﻻ ﻔﺭ ﻠﻪ ﺒﻬ ﺴﻴﺌ ﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﻙ ﻤ ﻤ ﻤ ﻠﻡ ﻴﺼ ﺒﻪ ﺫ‬ ‫ﺠ ﻟ‬ .((‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﹶ‬  ‫ ﹸ‬  ‫ ﱡ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺘﹶ‬ ‫ﻜﹶ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺤﻁ ﺸﺠﺭﺓ ﻭﺭ ﻬ‬‘Abdullaah stated that he visited Allaah’s Messenger (r) while he was sufferingfrom a high fever and said to him, “O Messenger of Allaah, you have a highfever.” He replied, “Yes, I have a fever equal to what two of your menexperience.” I asked, “Is is because you will have double the reward?” Hereplied, “Yes, it is so. Any Muslim who is afflicted with the harm of a thron prickor more will have, as a result of it, some of his sins expiated the way a tree shedsits leaves.”16scholar about ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab’s legal principles and his rulings. He lived on what he earnedfrom the sale of olive oil and never accepted grants. (Al-A‘laam, vol.3, p.155).15 Collected by Ibn Abee Shaybah in al-Musannaf and authenticated in Ahkaamul-Janaa’iz, p.11,nt.15.16 Sahih Al Bukhari, vol.7, p.374, no.551and Sahih Muslim, vol.4, p.1364, no.6235. 7
  7. 7. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaam Pitying those who are dying is counterproductive, because pity will onlymake it more difficult for those dying to accept their fate. Instead, those on theirdeathbed should be encouraged to think positively by being told that they arefortunate. They should be informed that, according to the Prophet (r), Allaah haschosen them for a special reward. ((  ‫ ِﻨﹾ‬‫ ِﺏ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ ِﻪِ ﺨﹶﻴ‬ ‫ ِ ِ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ )): r ِ‫ﻭ ُ ﺍﻟﱠﻪ‬  َ‫ ﹸﻭ ُ : ﻗﹶﺎل‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻴ‬  ‫ ﺃَ ِﻲ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺭ ﻴﺼ ﻤ ﻪ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻴﺭﺩ ﻠﻪ ﺒ‬ ‫ﺭﺴ ل ﻠ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺒ ﻫﺭ ﺭ ﹶ ﻴﻘ ل‬Aboo Hurayrah stated that Allaah’s Messenger (r) said, “Whoever Allaah wishesgood for, He afflicts with trials.”17 Those on their deathbeds should be instructed to avoid questions like, “Whyme?” and statements like, “I’m too young to die!” and “It’s not fair!” as all ofthese indicate Kufr (disbelief). They should be reminded that it is all for the best,if only they remain patient.‫ﺫﻙ‬ ‫ ﹶﺍ‬‫ﺱ‬‫ﻟﹶﻴ‬  ‫ ﺨﹶﻴ‬ ‫ﻩ ﹸ ﱠ‬ ‫ ﺃَﻤ‬ ِ ِ ِ ْ‫ﺅ‬ ‫ ِ ﺍﻟﹾ‬‫ﺎ ِﻷَﻤ‬   )): r ِ ‫ﻭ ُ ﺍﻟﱠ‬  َ‫ﺏٍ ﻗﹶﺎلَ ﻗﹶﺎل‬‫ﻴ‬  ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ ﻜﻠﻪ ﺭ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭ ﻤ ﻤﻥ ﺇﻥ ﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺠﺒ‬ ‫ﺭﺴ ل ﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺼﻬ‬‫ﺭ ﻪ ﻭﺇ ﺼ ﺒ ﻪ ﻀﺭ ﺀ ﺼﺒ ﻓﻜ ﻥ‬ ‫ ﹶ ﹶﺎ‬‫ﺭ‬   ‫ﺍ‬   ‫ﺘﹾ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ َ‫ ﺃ‬‫ِﻥ‬  ‫ﺍ ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ ﺨﹶﻴ‬‫ ﻓﹶﻜﹶﺎﻥ‬‫ ﺸﹶﻜﹶﺭ‬ ‫ﺍ‬   ‫ﺘﹾ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ َ‫ ﺃ‬‫ﺅْ ِ ِ ِﻥ‬ ‫ ٍ ِ ﱠ ِﻠﹾ‬ َ‫ِﻷ‬ ‫ﺤﺩ ﺇﻻ ﻟ ﻤ ﻤﻥ ﺇ ﺼ ﺒ ﻪ ﺴﺭ ﺀ‬ ((  ‫ﺍ ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ﺨﹶﻴ‬ ‫ﺭ ﻪ‬Suhayb reported that the Prophet (r) said, “A believer’s affair is amazing; it is allfor the good and that is not the case of anyone besides the believer. If good timescome to him, he is thankful and thus it is good for him, and if bad times befallhim, he is patient and, thus, it is also good for him.”18 The dying individuals should also have good thoughts about Allaah and beconvinced that Allaah has chosen the most appropriate time and way for them todie. In that way, they are able to protect their faith from doubts and fears..‫ﻴ ﻡ ﻴﻘ ل‬ُ ‫ ﹸﻭ‬ ٍ ‫ﺎ‬ َ‫ ِ ِ ِﺜﹶﻼﺜﹶﺔِ ﺃ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ل‬‫ ﻗﹶﺒ‬r ِ ‫ﻭلَ ﺍﻟﱠ‬  ‫ ﹸ‬‫ ِﻌ‬ ‫ ﻗﹶﺎل‬ ِ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ ِ ﺍﻟﱠ ِ ﺍﹾﻷَﻨﹾ‬‫ﺒ‬ ِ ‫ﺎ ِ ِ ﺒ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫َ ﻤ ﺘﻪ ﺒ‬ ‫ﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺠ ﺒﺭ ﻥ ﻋ ﺩ ﻠﻪ ﺼ ﺭﻱ َ ﺴﻤ ﺕ ﺭﺴ‬ .((‫ ﱠ‬    ِ ‫ ِﺎﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ِ ‫ﺤ‬    ‫ ِ ﱠ‬‫ ﹸﻡ‬  َ‫ ﺃ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﹶ‬  ‫:))ﻻ‬ ‫ﹶ ﻴﻤ ﻥ ﺤﺩﻜ ﺇﻻ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻴ ﺴﻥ ﻅﻥ ﺒ ﻠﻪ ﻋﺯ ﻭﺠل‬17 Sahih Al Bukhari, vol.7, p.373, no.548.18 Sahih Muslim, vol.4, p.1541, no.7138. See also Mishkat Al-Masabih, vol.2, p.1098. 8
  8. 8. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in IslaamJaabir ibn ‘Abdillaah reported that he heard Allaah’s Messenger (r) say, threedays before his death,“ None of you should die except thinking the best ofAllaah.”.19 Among those who will die with bad thoughts about Allaah are those whowere only cultural Muslims. The only do some of the Islamic rites and ritualsbecause it is the custom of their people without ever accepting true faith in theirhearts throughout their lives. When death approaches, they will not want toaccept their fate and their deathbed doubts will often tear down their false claimsof belief, leaving them expressing statements of clear disbelief as deathovercomes them. It will be a big surprise for those around them, for everyoneassumed that they were Muslims destined for paradise, based on their practise ofsome or most of the basic religious rites. Prophet Muhammad (r) addressed thisphenomenon as follows:‫ل ﺠﻨﺔ‬ِ ‫ ﱠ‬ ‫ ِ ﺍﻟﹾ‬‫لَ ﺃَﻫ‬  ُ  ‫ﻌ‬ ِ ‫ل‬  ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ِ )) : ‫ ﻗﹶﺎل‬r ِ ‫ﻭلَ ﺍﻟﱠ‬   َ‫ ﺃ‬ ِ ِ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ ٍ ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻌ‬ ِ ‫ ِ ﺒ‬‫ﻬ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺭﺠ َ ﻟﻴ ﻤل ﻋﻤ‬ َ ‫ﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺴ ل ﻥ ﺴ ﺩ ﺴ ﻋﺩﻱ ﻥ ﺭﺴ‬ .((ِ ‫ ِ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ‬‫ ﺃَﻫ‬‫ ِﻥ‬   ِ ‫ﻭ ِﻠ ﱠﺎ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ِﻴ‬ ‫ل ﻨﺭ‬ ‫ﻓ ﻤ ﻴ ﺩ ﻟ ﻨ ﺱ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤ‬Sahl ibn Sa ‘d quoted the Prophet (r) as saying, “Indeed a man may appear topeople to do the deeds of the people of paradise, yet he will be of the people ofhell.”20 And in another narration related by Aboo Hurayrah, he quoted theProphet (r) as saying, “Surely, a person may do the deeds of the people ofparadise for a long time, then terminate his deeds with the deeds of the people ofhell.”21 Since everyone’s deeds were already recorded in the book of destiny,prior to the creation of the world, the change in deeds from good to bad was alsoreferred to by the Prophet (r) as the record or destiny overtaking the individual.‫ ﹸﻡ‬  َ‫ ﺃ‬ ِ )) : ‫ﻭ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺎ ِ ﹸ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬   r ِ ‫ﻭ ُ ﺍﻟﱠ‬  ‫ﻭﺩٍ ﻗﹶﺎلَ: ﻗﹶﺎل‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ِ ‫ ِﺍﻟﱠ ِ ﺒ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺇ ﻥ ﺤ ﺩﻜ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﺼ ﺩﻕ ﻤ ﺩ ﻕ‬ ‫َ ﺭﺴ ل ﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋ ﻋ ﺩ ﻠﻪ ﻥ ﻤ ﻌ‬ِ   ِ ُ  ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ ﻓﹶ‬ ‫ ِ ﺍﻟﹾ ِﺘﹶﺎ‬‫ﻠﹶﻴ‬ ‫ ِ ﹸ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ ﻓﹶ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ِ ‫ ِ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻨﹶ‬‫ﻴ‬  ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﹶ‬‫ﻴ‬  ‫ ﹸﻭ‬ ‫ ﱠﻰ ﻻ‬ ِ ‫ ﱠ‬ ‫ ِ ﺍﻟﹾ‬‫لِ ﺃَﻫ‬  ِ ُ  ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻟﹶ‬‫ل ﺠﻨﺔ ﺤﺘ ﹶ ﻴﻜ ﻥ ﺒ ﻬ ﻭﺒ ﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺫﺭ ﻉ ﻴ ﺒﻕ ﻋ ﻪ ﻜ ﺏ ﻴ ﻤل ﺒﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻴ ﻤل ﺒﻌﻤ‬ .((  ‫ ﹸ ُ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ ِ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎﺭِ ﻓﹶ‬‫ﺃَﻫ‬ ‫ل ﻨ ﻴ ﺨل ﻨ ﺭ‬19 Sahih Muslim, vol.4, p.1492,no.6877, Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.2, p.886, no. 3107 and MishkatAl-Masabih, vol.1, p.334.20 Sahih Muslim, vol.4, p.1395, no.6408.21 Sahih Muslim, vol.4, p.1394, no.6407. 9
  9. 9. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaam‘Abdullaah ibn Mas‘ood quoted Allaah’s Messenger (r), the truthful, as saying:“One of you may do the deeds of the people of paradise until only an arm’s lengthremains between him and paradise, then what was written overtakes him and hedoes the deeds of the people of hell and enters hell.”226. Between Fear and Hope The dying person should be in a psychological state between fear and hope.The person should fear Allaah’s punishment for his or her sins and, at the sametime, hope for Allaah’s mercy and forgiveness. The true believer is not sure aboutwhether he or she is going to paradise, no matter how good his or her life mayhave been, because the Prophet (r) said that no one would enter Paradise solelyon the basis good deeds.23 Every human makes many errors during his or herlifetime. Although a person may consider some of his or her errors insignificant,they may have had exceedingly bad results. The dying person also should notgive up hope in Allaah’s mercy, no matter how great his or her sins may havebeen, for Allaah is able to forgive all sins as He said, { ‫} َ َﻘْ َ ُﻮا ِﻦ ﱠﺣْ َ ِ ا ِ ِ ﱠ ا َ َﻐْ ِ ُ اﻟ ﱡ ُﻮ َ َ ِﯿْ ًﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗ ﻨﻄ ﻣ ر ﻤﺔ ﷲ إن ﷲ ﯾ ﻔﺮ ﺬﻧ ب ﺟﻤ ﻌ‬ “Do not lose hope of Allaah’s mercy, for verily Allaah forgives all sin.”24The only exception to that rule being the sin of Shirk, as it negates the verypurpose of creation : { ُ ‫} ِ ﱠ ا َ َ َﻐْ ِ ُ َن ﱡﺸْ َ َ ِ ِ َ َﻐْ ِ ُ َﺎ ُو َ َ ِ َ ِ َﻦ ﱠ َﺎ‬ ‫إن ﷲ ﻻ ﯾ ﻔﺮ أ ﯾ ﺮك ﺑﮫ وﯾ ﻔﺮ ﻣ د ن ذﻟﻚ ﻟﻤ ﯾﺸ ء‬ “Verily Allaah will not forgive Shirk but He forgives anything besides it for whomsoever He wishes.”2522 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.9, pp.411-2, no.546 and Sahih Muslim, vol.4, p.1391, no.6390.23 Sahih Muslim, vol.4, pp.1473-4, nos.6390 & 6770.24 Soorah az-Zumar 39:53.25 Soorah an-Nisaa 4:48, 116. 10
  10. 10. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaam‫ﻭ ﻠﻪ‬ِ ‫ﺍﻟﱠ‬ :َ‫(( ﻗﹶﺎل‬  ِ ‫ﻑﹶ ﺘﹶ‬‫ﺕِ ﹶﻘﹶﺎل : )) ﻜﹶﻴ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ ِﻲ ﺍﻟﹾ‬    ‫ﻠﹶﻰ ﺸﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﹶل‬ r  ِ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ َ‫ ﺃَﻨﹶﺱٍ ﺃ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﺩ ﻙ‬ َ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻓ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺩ َﻋ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻨﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻋ‬‫ﺎ ِ ِﻲ‬ ِ ‫ﺘﹶ‬‫ﺠ‬ ‫ :))ﻻ‬r ِ ‫ﻭ ُ ﺍﻟﱠ‬  ‫ِ ﱢﻲ ﺃَﺨﹶﺎ ﹸ ﹸ ﹸﻭ ِﻲ ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎل‬  ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﱠ‬ ‫ﻭلَ ﺍﻟﱠ ِ ِ ﱢﻲ ﺃَﺭ‬  ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﹶ ﻴ ﻤﻌ ﻥ ﻓ‬ ‫َ ﺭﺴ ل ﻠ ﻪ‬ ‫ﻑ ﺫﻨ ﺒ‬ ‫ﺠ ﻠﻪ ﻭﺇﻨ‬ ‫ﻠﻪ ﺇ ﻨ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺭﺴ‬ .((‫ﺨﹶﺎ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ِ  ‫ﻨﹶ‬ ‫ﺁ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺎ‬  ‫ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻁﹶﺎ‬‫ ِ ِ ِ ﱠ ﺃَﻋ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺫﹶﺍ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ِ ‫ ٍ ِﻲ ِﺜﹾ‬‫ﺒ‬ ِ ‫ﻗﹶﻠﹾ‬ ‫ﻩ ﻠﻪ ﻤ ﻴ ﺠ ﻭ ﻤ ﻪ ﻤﻤ ﻴ ﻑ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻋ ﺩ ﻓ ﻤ ل ﻫ ﻤ ﻁﻥ ﺇﻻ‬Anas reported that the Prophet (r) visited a dying youth and asked him, “How doyou find yourself? ” He replied, “By Allaah, O Messenger of Allaah, verily I hopefor the best from Allaah and fear my sins.” Allaah’s Messenger (r) said,“ Whenever two come together in the heart of a slave (of Allaah) in such asituation, Allaah gives him what he hopes for and protects him for what hefears.”267. The Death Wish No matter how severe the pain of the sickness may become, one is notallowed to hope or wish for death. The death wish reflects a belief that Allaah hasburdened one beyond his capacity and indicates a lack of patience. The longerpeople live, the more opportunity they have to do good and improve their lot.‫ﻤﻨ ﻋﺒ ﺱ‬ ‫ﺎ‬  ‫ ﱠﻰ‬ ‫ﺸﹾﺘﹶ ِﻲ، ﻓﹶﺘﹶ‬ ِ ‫ﻭ ِ ﺍﻟﱠ‬     ‫ﺎ‬   ،‫ ِﻡ‬‫ﻠﹶﻴ‬ ‫ﺨﹶل‬ r ِ ‫ﻭلَ ﺍﻟﱠ‬   َ‫لِ ﺃ‬‫ ﺍﻟﹾﻔﹶﻀ‬ ُ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﻪ ﺩ َ ﻋ ﻬ ﻭﻋﺒ ﺱ ﻋﻡ ﺭﺴ ل ﻠﻪ ﻴ ﻜ‬ ‫ﻥ ﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺃﻡ‬‫ ِ ﹰﺎ، ﹶﺄﻥ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ ﹸﻨﹾﺕﹶ‬‫ ِﻥ‬ ‫ﺕﹶ، ﻓﹶِ ﱠ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬  ‫! ﻻﹶ ﺘﹶﺘﹶ‬  ‫ﺎ‬ )) : r ِ ‫ﻭ ُ ﺍﻟﱠ‬   ‫ﺕﹶ، ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎلَ ﻟﹶ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ﺈﻨﻙ ﺇ ﻜ ﻤ ﺴﻨ ﻓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻋﻡ‬ ‫ﻪ ﺭ ﺴ ل ﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫ﺘﺏ ﻤ ﺇﺴ ﺌﺘﻙ‬ ِ َ ‫ﺎ‬ ِ ‫ ِﻥ‬ ِ ‫ﺘﹶﻌ‬‫ ﻓﹶﺘﹶﺴ‬‫ ﹸﺅَ ﱠﺭ‬‫ ًﺎ ﻓﹶﺄﻥ‬‫ ِﻴ‬ ‫ ﹸﻨﹾﺕﹶ‬‫ ِﻥ‬ ، ‫ ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ ﺨﹶﻴ‬‫ﺎ ِﻙ‬ ‫ﺎ ﹰﺎ ِﻟﹶﻰ ِﺤ‬ ‫ ِﺤ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ ﺘﹶﺯ‬‫ﹸﺅَ ﱠﺭ‬ ‫ﺘ ﺨ‬ ‫ﺭ ﻙ ﻭ ﺇ ﻜ ﻤﺴ ﺌ‬ ‫ﺩﺩ ﺇ ﺴﻨ ﺇ ﺇ ﺴﻨ‬ ‫ﺘ ﺨ‬ .((‫ﺕﹶ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬  ‫، ﻓﹶﻼﹶ ﺘﹶﺘﹶ‬ ‫ ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ﺨﹶﻴ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺭ ﻙ‬Umm al-Fadl reported that the Prophet (r) came to see them while the Prophet’s(r) uncle ‘Abbaas, was complaining (of his sickness). When ‘Abbaas wished fordeath the Prophet (r) told him, “ O uncle, don’t wish for death, for verily if youwere good and your death is delayed, it will add more good to your previousgoodness and it will be better for you ; and if you were bad, find fault in your bad(and seek forgiveness) and it will be better for you, so don’t wish for death.” 2726 Collected by at-Tirmithee and Ibn Maajah and authenticated in Ahkaamul-Janaa’iz, p.3, nt.2.See Mishkat Al-Masabih, vol.1, p.335 for the English text.27 This narration is found in al-Mustadrak, vol.1, p.339 and is authenticated in Ahkaamul-Janaa’iz,p.4. 11
  11. 11. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaam‫ﹶ ﻴ ﻤ ﻨ ﻴ ﻥ ﺤﺩﻜﻡ ﻤ ﹶ ﻤ ﻀ ﺭ‬  ‫ﺕ ِﻥ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬  َ‫ ﺃ‬  ‫ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺘﹶ‬ ‫ : ))ﻻ‬r  ِ ‫ ﻗﹶﺎلَ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻨﹾ‬  ‫ ِﻲ ﺍﻟﱠ‬ ٍ ِ‫ﺎ‬ ِ ‫ ﺃَﻨﹶ ِ ﺒ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺱ ﻥ ﻤ ﻟﻙ ﺭ ﻀ ﻠ ﻪ ﻋ ﻪ‬ِ ‫ ﱠ ِﻲ ِﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺘﹶ‬ ‫ﺍ ِﻲ‬ ‫ﺎ ﹸ ﺨﹶﻴ‬  ‫ﺎ ﻜﹶﺎﻨﹶ ِ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ ِ ِﻲ‬‫ ﺃَﺤ‬  ‫ ﹸ ِ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ ﻓﹶﺎ ِﻼﹰ ﻓﹶﻠﹾ‬  ‫ ﻻﹶ‬‫ ﻜﹶﺎﻥ‬‫ ﻓﹶ ِﻥ‬  ‫ﺎ‬ َ‫ﺃ‬‫ﺒﺩ ﻋ ﻴﻘل ﻠﻬﻡ ﻴﻨ ﻤ ﺕ ﺤﻴ ﺓ ﺭ ﻟ ﻭ ﻭﻓﻨ ﺇ ﻜ ﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺼ ﺒﻪ ﺈ‬ .((‫ﺍ ِﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﹶﺎ ﹸ ﺨﹶﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺓ ﺭ ﻟ‬As Anas reported that the Prophet (r) said, “None of you should wish for deathbecause of some harm which has afflicted him. But if one must do it, let him say:Allaahumma ahyinee maa kaanatil-hayaatu khayran lee [Oh Allaah keep mealive as long as living is best for me] wa tawaffanee ithaa kaanatil-wafaatukhayran lee [and take my life if death is better for me].”288. Debts If dying individuals have in their possession certain rights belonging toothers, they should return them, if they are able to do so, in order to avoid havingto pay them back from their good deeds on the Day of Judgement. The Prophet(r) warned his followers of this reality as follows:‫ ﹲ ِﻷَ ِﻴ ِ ِﻥ‬ ‫ﻅﹾﻠﹶ‬  ‫ ﻜﹶﺎﻨﹶﺕﹾ ﻟﹶ‬‫ﻥ‬ )) : r ِ ‫ﻭ ُ ﺍﻟﱠ‬  ‫ ﻗﹶﺎلَ ﻗﹶﺎل‬ ‫ﻨﹾ‬  ‫ ِﻲ ﺍﻟﱠ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻴ‬  ‫ ﺃَ ِﻲ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻪ ﻤ ﻤﺔ ﺨ ﻪ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫َ ﺭﺴ ل ﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺒ ﻫﺭ ﺭ ﹶ ﺭﻀ ﻠﻪ ﻋ ﻪ‬‫ﻪ ﻋﻤل‬ٌ    ‫ ﻟﹶ‬‫ ﻜﹶﺎﻥ‬‫ ِﻥ‬  ‫ﻻ ِﺭ‬  ‫ ِﻴﻨﹶﺎ‬ ‫ ﹸﻭ‬ ‫ ﻻ‬‫لَ ﺃَﻥ‬‫ ﻗﹶﺒ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ ِﻨﹾ‬ ‫ ﱠﻠﹾ‬ ‫ﺘﹶ‬ ‫ﺀٍ ﻓﹶﻠﹾ‬‫ ﺸﹶﻲ‬‫ ِﻪِ ﺃَﻭ‬‫ِﺭ‬ ‫ﹶ ﻴﻜ ﻥ ﺩ ﺭ ﻭ ﹶ ﺩ ﻫﻡ ﺇ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺤﻠ ﻪ ﻤ ﻪ ﻴ ﻡ‬ ‫ﻋ ﻀ‬‫ﻜ ﻪ ﺤﺴ ﺕ ﺃﺨ ﹶ ﻤ ﺴﻴ ﺕ ﺼ ﺤﺒ ﺤﻤ ل‬َ ِ  ‫ﺎ ِ ِﻪِ ﻓﹶ‬ ِ ‫ﺌَﺎ‬  ‫ﻨﹶﺎ ﹲ ُ ِﺫ ِﻥ‬   ‫ ﻟﹶ‬‫ ﺘﹶ ﹸﻥ‬‫ ﻟﹶﻡ‬‫ِﻥ‬ ِ ِ  ‫ﻅﹾﻠﹶ‬ ِ ‫ ِﻘﹶﺩ‬ ‫ ُ ِﺫ ِﻨﹾ‬ ِ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺼ ﻟﺢ ﺃﺨ ﹶ ﻤ ﻪ ﺒ ﺭ ﻤ ﻤﺘﻪ ﻭﺇ‬ ((ِ ‫ﻠﹶﻴ‬ ‫ﻋ ﻪ‬“Whoever has with him a wrong taken from the honor of his brother Muslim orfrom his wealth, should return it before the Day of Judgement when neitherdirham nor deenaar will be accepted; if he has righteous deeds, it will be takenfrom them, and if he doesn’t have righteous deeds, it will be taken from his friendsbad deeds and put on him.”2928 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.7, p.390, no. 575, Sahih Muslim, vol.4, p.1411 nos. 6480 & 6485, SunanAbu Dawud, vol.2, p.884, no. 3102 and Mishkat Al-Masabih, vol.1, p.333.29 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.3, p.377, no. 629 and Mishkat Al-Masabih, vol.2, p.1062. 12
  12. 12. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaam If those that are dying are unable to pay back their debts, they should, at least,have the sincere intention to do so and should inform their relatives about theirdebts. Either, one of their relatives will repay their debts after their death, or theProphet (r) will take responsibility for the debts. The Prophet (r) established thebasic principle of divine accounting that if a person intends to do a good deed butis unable, they are rewarded by God for their intention. Consequently, he said,،  ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﹾ ِﻱ ﻗﹶ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻥ‬  ،  ِ  ‫ ﻓﹶﺄَﻨﹶﺎ‬  ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﹾ ِﻱ ﻗﹶ‬    ‫ﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﹶﺎﻥِ ، ﻓﹶ‬‫ﻴ‬  ‫ﻴ‬ ‫)) ﺍﹶﻟ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻤ ﻤ ﹶ ﹶ ﻴ ﻭ ﻀ ﺀﻩ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻤ ﹶ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻴ ﻭ ﻀ ﺀﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﻥ ﺩ‬ ((   ‫ﻻ ِﺭ‬  ‫ ِ ٍ ِﻴﻨﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬  ‫ﻨﹶﺎ ِ ِ، ﻟﹶﻴ‬  ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺅْﺨﹶ ﹸ‬ ‫ ﺍ ﱠ ِﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﹶﺫﹶﺍ‬ ‫ﻙ ﻟﺫ ﻴ ﺫ ﻤ ﺤﺴ ﺘﻪ ﺱ ﻴ ﻤﺌﺫ ﺩ ﺭ ﻭ ﹶ ﺩ ﻫﻡ‬“There are two types of debt : whoever dies intending to repay them, I will beresponsible for them, and whoever dies with no intention to repay them, will haveit taken from his good deeds. There will not be any deenaars or dirhams on thatDay.”309. Waseeyah (Will) Before dying, everyone should write or dictate a will giving away up to onethird of their wealth to those who would not inherit from them based on theinheritance laws. This recommendation was instituted by the Allaah to protect therights of non-inheriting relatives and friends. It is under this principle ofwaseeyah that Muslims may leave wealth for non-Muslim relatives or receivewealth from dead non-Muslim relatives. According to Islamic law, wealthobtained by waseeyah is not considered to be inheritance. Islaam considersinheritance to be the portions of the deceased’s wealth which the law assigns tovarious family members in the absence of a will. According to the system ofIslamic inheritance laws (Faraa’id), non-Muslims cannot be classified as heirs ofMuslims. Likewise, Muslims have no right to take portions of their dead non-Muslim relatives’ wealth allotted by non-Islamic systems of inheritance. TheProphet (r) was reported to have said, “A Muslim must not inherit from adisbeliever, nor should a disbeliever inherit from a Muslim.”3130 Collected by at-Tabaranee and authenticated in Ahkaamul Janaa’iz ,p.5.31 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.8, p.498, no. 756 and Sahih Muslim, vol.3, p.852, no. 3928. 13
  13. 13. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaam Consequently, the Prophet (r) encouraged Muslims to record a will and keepit as soon as the need arises.‫ﻤ ﺤﻕ ﺭﺉ ﻤ ﻠﻡ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ ِ ٍ ﹶ‬‫ﺴ‬ ٍ ِ ‫ ﱡ ﺍﻤ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ )): ‫ ﻗﹶﺎل‬r َ‫ﻭل‬   َ‫ﺎ ﺃ‬  ‫ﻨﹾ‬  ‫ ِﻲ ﺍﻟﱠ‬    ِ ‫ ِﺍﻟﱠ ِ ﺒ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ َ ‫ﻋ ﻋ ﺩ ﻠﻪ ﻥ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺭﻀ ﻠﻪ ﻋ ﻬﻤ ﻥ ﺭﺴ‬ .((  ‫ ﹲ ِﻨﹾ‬ ‫ﻜﹾ ﹸﻭ‬  ‫ ﹸ‬ ِ   ‫ ِ ِ ﱠ‬‫ﻠﹶﺘﹶﻴ‬‫ ِﻴ ﹸ ﻟﹶﻴ‬ ِ ‫ﻭ ِﻲ ِﻴ‬  ‫ﺸﹶﻲ‬ ‫ﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻭﻭﺼﻴﺘﻪ ﻤ ﺘ ﺒﺔ ﻋ ﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺀ ﻴ ﺼ ﻓ ﻪ ﻴﺒ ﺕ‬“It is not right for a Muslim who has something to bequeath to pass two nightswithout having it in writing with him.”3232 Reported by Ibn ‘Umar and collected in all of the six books of hadeeth. Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.4,p.1, no.1, Sahih Muslim, vol.3, p.863, no.3987, Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.2, p.805, no.2856, MishkatAl-Masabih, vol.1, p.656, and Muwatta Imam Malik, p.329, no.1449. 14
  14. 14. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in IslaamCHAPTER TWO: AFTER DEATHObligatory Actions on Those Present Once the person expires, the relatives and those present are obliged toperform particular services for him or her.1. Closing the Eyes and Du‘aa (Supplication) The eyes of the dead person should be closed and a du‘aa made for himbased on the following hadeeth of Umm Salamah:)): َ‫ ﻗﹶﺎل‬ ‫ﻪ ﹸ‬  ‫ ﻓﹶﺄَﻏﹾ‬    ‫ ﺸﹶ ﱠ‬‫ﻗﹶﺩ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻠﹶ‬ ‫ﻠﹶﻰ ﺃَ ِﻲ‬ r ِ ‫ﻭ ُ ﺍﻟﱠ‬  ‫ﺨﹶل‬ ‫ﺔﹶ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹶﺕﹾ‬ ‫ﻠﹶ‬  ُ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺒ ﺴ ﻤ ﹶ ﻭ ﻕ ﺒﺼﺭﻩ ﻤﻀ‬ ‫ﺩ َ ﺭﺴ ل ﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺃﻡ ﺴ ﻤ‬‫ﻔﺴﻜ ﺇﻻ ﺒﺨ ﺭ‬ٍ ‫ ِ ﱠ ِ ﹶﻴ‬‫ﻠﹶﻰ ﺃَﻨﹾ ﹸ ِ ﹸﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ‬ ‫ ِﻪِ ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎلَ ﻻﹶ ﺘﹶﺩ‬‫ ﺃَﻫ‬‫ ِﻥ‬ ‫ ﻨﹶﺎ‬  ‫ ﻓﹶ‬   ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬  ِ ‫ ﺘﹶ‬‫ ِﺫﹶﺍ ﹸ ِﺽ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ِ ‫ﻋ ﻋ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻪ ﺒﺼﺭ ﻀﺞ ﺱ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺭ ﺡ ﺇ ﻗﺒ‬ :َ‫ ﻗﹶﺎل‬ ‫ (( ﹸ‬‫ﺎ ﺘﹶ ﹸﻭ ﹸﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﹶﻰ‬  ‫ ﹸﻭ‬ َ‫ﺅ‬ ‫ﻼﹶ ِﻜﹶﺔﹶ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ِ ‫ﻓﹶ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﺈﻥ ﻤ ﺌ ﻴ ﻤﻨ ﻥ ﻋ ﻤ ﻘ ﻟ‬“Allaah’s Messenger (r) came in and found Aboo Salamah’s eyes staring so heclosed them and said,“ Verily when the soul is snatched, the eyes follow it.” Somepeople from his family began to scream so he said, “ Do not call on yourselvesexcept good for verily the angels say “ Aameen” to whatever you say, He thenprayed:‫ﺒﺭ ﻥ‬ ‫ ِ ِ ِ ِﻲ ﺍﻟﹾﻐﹶﺎ ِ ِﻴ‬ ‫ ِﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﹾ ﹸﻔﹾ‬  ‫ﻴ‬ ِ ‫ﻬ‬ ‫ ِﻲ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ﺘﹶ‬   ‫ﻓﹶﻊ‬‫ﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻠﹶ‬ ‫ ِﻷَ ِﻲ‬‫ ﺍﻏﹾ ِﺭ‬  ‫)) ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺩﻴ ﻥ ﻭ ﻠ ﻪ ﻓ ﻋﻘﺒﻪ ﻓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠ ﻪ ﻓ‬ ‫ﻠﻬﻡ ﻔ ﺒ ﺴ ﻤ ﹶ ﻭ‬ ((ِ ‫ ِﻴ‬ ‫ ﻟﹶ‬‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﹶ‬ ِ ِ ‫ ِﻲ ﻗﹶﺒ‬ ‫ ﻟﹶ‬‫ﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﹾ‬  ‫ﺎﻟﹶ ِﻴ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬  ‫ﺎ‬  ‫ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ ﻟﹶﻨﹶﺎ‬‫ﺍﻏﹾ ِﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻪ ﻴ ﺭ ﺏ ﻌ ﻤ ﻥ ﻭ ﺴ ﻪ ﻓ ﺭﻩ ﻭ ﻭ ﻪ ﻓ ﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻔ‬Allaahummagh-fir li Abee Salamah warfa‘ darajatahu fil-mahdeeyeen [OAllaah, forgive Aboo Salamah and raise his level among the rightly guided,]wakhlufhu fee ‘aqibihi fil-ghaabireen [and let his remaining offspring be likehim.] wagh-fir lanaa walahu yaa Rabbal-‘Aalameen [Forgive us and forgivehim, O Lord of all the worlds] wafsah lahu fee qabrihee wa nawwir lahu feeh[and expand his grave and illuminate it for him.]11 Sahih Muslim, vol.2, pp.436-7, no.2003, Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.2, p.888, no.3112, Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol.2, pp.370-1, no.1455 and Mishkat Al-Masabih, vol.1, p.337 3
  15. 15. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaam2. Covering the Body A sheet of cloth large enough to cover the whole body of the deceased shouldbe drawn over body. This was the approved practise of the Prophet (r) and therecorded practise of the Prophet’s companions.‫ ﹶﺩ‬ r ِ ‫ﻭ ِ ﺍﻟﱠ‬  ‫ﻱ‬   ‫ﻴ‬  ِ  ‫ ﱢل ِﻪِ ﻓﹶ‬ ‫ﻗﹶﺩ‬ ٍ  ُ  ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ ِﺄَ ِﻲ‬ ‫ﺎ ِ ٍ ] ﻗﹶﺎلَ [ : ِﻲ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺀ ﺒ ﺒ ﻴ ﻡ ﺃﺤﺩ ﻭ ﻤﺜ َ ﺒ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺒ ﻥ ﻴﺩ ﺭﺴ ل ﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺠ ﺒﺭ‬ ِ  ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ ﻓﹶﻠﹶ‬‫ ِﻊ‬ ‫ ﻓﹶ‬r  ِ ‫ ِ ِ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬  َ‫ ِﻲ ﻓﹶﺄ‬‫ﺎ ِﻲ ﻗﹶﻭ‬ ‫ ﻓﹶﻨﹶ‬ ‫ﻨﹾ‬ ‫ ﺃَﻜﹾ ِﻑ‬‫ ﺃَﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﹾ ﹸ ُ ِﻴ‬  ‫ﺏٍ ﻓﹶ‬‫ ِﺜﹶﻭ‬  ‫ﺭﻓ ﻤ ﺭﻓ ﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﺭ ﺒﻪ ﻨﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺸ ﹶ ﻋﻪ ﻬﻨ‬ ‫ﺠﻌ ﺕ ﺃﺭ ﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﺠﻲ ﺒ‬‫ﻓﻼ‬‫ ٍﻭ ﻗﹶﺎلَ: )) ﹶ ﹶ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ ُﺨﹾ ﹸ‬‫ ٍﻭ ﺃَﻭ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ ِ ِ ِﻨﹾ ﹸ‬ ‫ ِ ِ؟(( ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎﹸﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ )) : َ‫ﺔٍ ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎل‬ ِ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫ﻭ‬  ِ  ‫ﺃ ﺕﻋﺭ‬ ‫ﻟ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺒ ﺕ ﻋ ﺭ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺴﻤﻊ ﺼ ﹶ ﺒ ﻜﻴ‬ .(( ‫ ِﻊ‬ ‫ ﱠﻰ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ِ  ِ ‫ ِﺄَﺠ‬ ‫ﻼﹶ ِﻜﹶ ﹸ ﹸ ِﱡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﹶ ِ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ ِﻲ‬‫ ﺘﹶﺒ‬‫ ﻓﹶ ِﻡ‬‫ ِﻲ ﺃَﻭ‬‫ﺘﹶﺒ‬ ‫ﻠ ﻜ ﻤ ﺯ ﺕ ﻤ ﺌ ﺔ ﺘﻅﻠﻪ ﺒ ﻨﺤﺘﻬ ﺤﺘ ﺭﻓ‬ ‫ﻜ‬Jaabir said, “After the Battle of Uhud, my father - who had been mutilated - wasbrought and placed in front of the Messenger of Allaah (r). He was covered in acloth and I wanted to uncover him, but the people forbade me. The Prophet (r)instructed that he be uncovered and when the cloth was lifted, he heard the voiceof a woman crying. He asked, ‘Who was that?’ They replied that it was ‘Amr’sdaughter or sister and he said, ‘Don’t cry, for the angels were shading him withtheir wings until [his soul] was lifted up.’”2 . ٍ   ِ ِ ‫ ِﻲ ﹶﻭ‬   r  ِ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ َ‫ﺎ ِﺸﹶﺔﹶ ﺃ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ ﻋ ﺌ ﻥ ﻨﺒﻲ ﺴﺠﻲ ﻓ ﺜ ﺏ ﺤﺒﺭﺓ‬‘Aa’ishah reported that a striped Yemeni cloak3 was drawn over the Prophet’sbody [when he died].4 In the case of someone who dies in a state of Ihraam5 during Hajj or ‘Umrah,neither the head nor face should be covered by a sheet.2 Saheeh Sunan an-Nasaa’ee, vol.2, p.397, no.1738.3 Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol.2, p.766, note.1. The style of cloak called hibarah had greenstripes and was made of cotton from Yemen.4 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.2, pp.188-9, no.333, Sahih Muslim, vol.2, p.447, nos.2053 and 2056,Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.2, p.888, no.3114, and Mishkat Al-Masabih, vol.1, p.337. 4
  16. 16. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaam‫َ ﺒ ﻤ ﺭﺠل ﻭ ﻗﻑ ﺒﻌﺭ ﹶ ﺇ ﻭ ﻊ ﻋ ﺭ ﺤ ﺘ ﻭ ﺼ ﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﹾ‬ ‫ﻗﹶ‬ ‫ﺍ ِﻠﹶ ِﻪِ ﻓﹶ‬ ‫ﻥ‬  ‫ﻗﹶ‬ ‫ﻓﹶﺔ ِﺫﹾ‬  ِ ‫ﺍ ِ ﹲ‬ ٌ   ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﹶ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ ﻗﹶﺎل‬‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﹾ‬  ‫ ِﻲ ﺍﻟﱠ‬ ٍ ‫ﺎ‬  ِ ‫ ِ ﺍﺒ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ ﻥ ﻋﺒ ﺱ ﺭﻀ ﻠﻪ ﻋ ﻬ‬‫ﺒ ﻥ ﻭ ﺘﺤﻨﻁ ﻩ ﻭ ﻻ‬‫ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﱢ ﹸﻭ‬ ‫ﻻﹶ ﹸ‬ ِ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ ِﻲ ﺜﹶﻭ‬ ‫ﻜﹶ ﱢ ﹸﻭ‬ ٍ ‫ ِﺩ‬ ٍ ‫ﺎ‬ ِ  ‫ :))ﺍﻏﹾ ِ ﹸﻭ‬r  ِ ‫ ﻗﹶﺎلَ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺘﹾ‬ ‫ﻗﹶ‬‫ ﻗﹶﺎلَ ﻓﹶﺄَﻭ‬‫ﺃَﻭ‬ ‫ﺴﻠ ﻩ ﺒﻤ ﺀ ﻭﺴ ﺭ ﻭ ﻔﻨ ﻩ ﻓ‬ ‫ﻨﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﻪ‬ .(( ‫ﺎ‬  ‫ﻠﹶ‬ ِ  ‫ﺎ‬ ِ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺒ‬  ‫ ﻓﹶ ِ ﱠ‬  ْ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ‬  ‫ﹸﺨﹶ‬ ‫ﺘ ﻤﺭ ﺭ ﺴﻪ ﺈﻨﻪ ﻴ ﻌﺙ ﻴ ﻡ ﻘﻴ ﻤﺔ ﻤ ﺒﻴ‬Ibn ‘Abbaas said, “While a man was standing at ‘Arafah, he fell off his horse andhis horse trampled him to death. The Prophet (r) said, “ Wash him with waterand lotus blossoms, wrap him in his two sheets of cloth but do not put perfumedoil on him, nor cover his head and face, for verily Allaah will resurrect him on theDay of Resurrection making Talbeeyah6’.”73. Hasten the Burial Once death is evident, the body should be prepared and taken out of thehouse for prayer and burial as soon as possible. In this way, contact with the deadbody is minimized which, in turn, keeps the grief and hurt of seeing the deaddown to a minimum. Aboo Hurayrah reported that the Prophet (r) said, (( ِ  ‫ﻭﺍ ِﺎﻟﹾ ِﻨﹶﺎ‬ ِ ‫)) ﺃَﺴ‬ ‫ﺭﻋ ﺒ ﺠ ﺯﺓ‬ “ Hasten the funeral rites.”84. Location of Burial The dead should be buried in the same area where they died. Transportingthe body to another area or another country is not permissible, because itcontradicts the Prophet’s (r) order to hasten the burial and it also necessitates5 Ihraam represents the consecrated state of one who has made the intention for pilgrimage andhas put on the specified garments.6 Talbeeyah a the prayer repeated aloud by pilgrims at the beginning of ‘Umrah or Hajj.7 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.2, pp.199-200, nos. 355-357, Sahih Muslim, vol.2, pp.596-7, nos.2747 &2750 and Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.2, p.920, no.3232.8 Collected in all of the six books of hadeeth. Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.2, p.225, no.401, SahihMuslim, vol.2, p.448, no.2059, Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.2, pp.897-8, no. 3153, Sunan Ibn -i-Majah, vol.2, p.382, no.1477 and Mishkat Al-Masabih, vol.1, p.338. 5
  17. 17. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaamunnecessary aditional expenses. Furthermore, the Prophet (r) specificallyforbade his followers from transferring of bodies from the local in which theydied.‫ﻓﻘ ل‬َ ‫ ﹶ ﹶﺎ‬r  ِ ‫ﻨﹶﺎ ِﻱ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬  ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ ﻓﹶ‬‫ﻡ‬ ‫ ِﻨﹶ‬‫ ٍ ِﻨﹶﺩ‬ ُ  ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻠﹾﻨﹶﺎ ﺍﻟﹾﻘﹶﺘﹾﻠﹶﻰ‬  ‫ ِ ﺍﻟﱠﻪِ ﻗﹶﺎلَ : ﹸ ﱠﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬ ِ ‫ﺎ ِ ِ ﺒ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻡ ﺃﺤﺩ ﻟ ﻓ ﻬ ﺠ ﺀ ﻤ ﺩ ﻨﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻜ ﻨ ﺤﻤ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺠ ﺒﺭ ﻥ ﻋ ﺩ ﻠ‬ . ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﹶﺎ‬‫ﺩ‬  ‫ ﻓﹶ‬‫ﺎ ِ ِ ِﻡ‬  ‫ ِ ﹸﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﹾﻘﹶﺘﹾﻠﹶﻰ ِﻲ‬‫ ﺘﹶﺩ‬‫ ﺃَﻥ‬‫ ﹸﻡ‬  ْ‫ﺄ‬ r ِ‫ﻭلَ ﺍﻟﱠﻪ‬   ِ ‫ﻓ ﻤ ﻀ ﺠ ﻌﻬ ﺭ ﺩ ﻫ‬ ‫ﻓﻨ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻤﺭﻜ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺇ ﻥ ﺭﺴ‬Jaabir ibn ‘Abdillaah said, “On the day of the Battle of Uhud, 9 the dead werebeing carried [back to Madeenah] for burial in al-Baqee‘, 10 when the Prophet’s(r) announcer called out: Allaah’s Messenger orders you to bury the dead wherethey lie.” This [announcement came] after my mother had already tied my fatherand uncle to the sides of her camel, in order to bury them in al-Baqee’. However,she returned them to where they were killed (for burial).”11 Imaam an-Nawawee in his book, al-Athkaar , said, “If [the dying person]requests writes in his will that his body be transported to another country, itshould not be fulfilled. Because transporting the dead to another local is haraamaccording to the authentic position held by most scholars.”125. Debts All outstanding debts of the dead person should be repaid from the wealth heor she left behind, even if it consumes all of the inheritance. If dead person waswithout wealth or the inheritance was not sufficient to cover all of his or herdebts, the state will be responsible to repay the remainder, if the dead person hadmade serious efforts to pay it. ‘Aa’ishah reported that the Prophet (r) had said,9 Uhud is a volcanic hill with a plain stretching before it on the western outskirts of Madeenah.The Quraysh defeated the Muslims there in the third year of the Hijrah (625 CE). (The ConciseEncyclopaedia of Islam, p.68).10 The name given to the city of Madeenah’s graveyard.11 Collected by the Four Sunans. Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.2, p.899, no.3159, Sunan Ibn-i-Majah,vol.2, p.403-4, no.1516 and Mishkat Al-Masabih, vol.1, p.356. It is authenticated in Saheeh SunanAbee Daawood, vol.2, p.610, no.2710 and in Ahkaamul-Janaa’iz, p.14.12 Saheeh Kitaab al-Athkaar, vol.1, p.433. 6
  18. 18. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaam .((   ِ  ‫ ﻓﹶﺄَﻨﹶﺎ‬  ِ ‫ﻘﹾ‬ ‫لَ ﺃَﻥ‬‫ﺎﺕﹶ ﻗﹶﺒ‬  ‫ﺎ ِ ِ ﹸ‬ ‫ ِﻲ ﻗﹶ‬    ‫ ﹰﺎ ﹸ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ ِﻲ‬ ُ ‫ل ِﻥ‬  ‫ﻥ‬ )) ‫ﻭﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻀﻴ ﻪ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺤﻤ َ ﻤ ﺃﻤﺘ ﺩ ﻨ ﺜﻡ ﺠﻬﺩ ﻓ ﻀ ﺌﻪ ﺜﻡ ﻤ‬“ Whoever among my Ummah carries a debt and strives to repay it, but dies(before being able to do so), I will be responsible for it.” 13 Allaah identified the ghaarimoon (debtors) as being among those eligible toreceive Zakaah. If, however, the state was unable to do repay the dead person’sdebts, any Muslim may voluntarily repay the debts as a act of charity.‫ ﹸ َﻥ‬‫ﺩ‬ َ‫ﺍ ﻓﹶﺄ‬ ‫ﺍ ِﻐﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﹶ‬   ‫ﺘﹶ‬ ٍ ‫ ﺜﹶﻼﹶﺙ ِﺎﺌَ ِ ِﻴﻨﹶﺎ‬‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﹶ‬ ‫ﺎﺕﹶ ﺃَ ِﻲ‬ ‫لِ ﻗﹶﺎل‬ ‫ ِ ﺍﹾﻷَﻁﹾ‬‫ ِ ﺒ‬‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﹶ ﻤ ﺔ ﺩ ﺭ ﻭ ﺭﻙ ﻭ ﺩ ﺼ ﺭ ﺭ ﺕ ﺃ‬ ‫ﺨ ﻭﺭ‬ ‫َﻤ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺴ ﺩ ﻥ‬((  ‫ﻨﹾ‬ ِ ‫ ﻓﹶﺎﻗﹾ‬‫ﺏ‬ ‫ ِﻪِ ﻓﹶﺎﺫﹾ‬‫ﻴ‬ ِ  ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺤ‬  ‫ ﺃَﺨﹶﺎ‬ ِ )) : r ِ ‫ﻭ ُ ﺍﻟﱠ‬  ‫ ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎل ِﻲ‬‫ ِﻡ‬‫ﻠﹶﻴ‬ ‫ُﻨﹾ ِﻕ‬ ‫ﺽ ﻋﻪ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﺇ ﻥ ﻙ ﻤ ﺒ ﺱ ﺒﺩ ﻨ‬ ‫َ ﻟ ﺭﺴ ل ﻠ ﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻔ ﹶ ﻋ ﻬ‬‫َ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻕ ِ ﱠ ﺍﻤ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻟﹶﻡ‬  ‫ﻨﹾ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ ﻗﹶ‬‫ﻭلَ ﺍﻟﱠﻪِ ﻗﹶﺩ‬  ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ ِﺌْ ﹸ ﻓﹶ ﹸﻠﹾ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻨﹾﻪ ﹸ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ ﹸ ﻓﹶﻘﹶ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻗﹶﺎلَ ﻓﹶﺫﹶ‬‫ﻀ ﺕ ﻋ ﻪ ﻭ ﻴ ﹶ ﺇﻻ ﺭ ﺃ ﺓ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ ﺜ ﻡ ﺠ ﺕ ﻘ ﺕ ﻴ ﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﻫ ﺕ ﻀ ﺕ ﻋ‬ .(( ‫ﺎ ِﻗﹶ ﹲ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻓﹶ ِ ﱠ‬ ِ ‫ﻨﹶ ﹲ ﻗﹶﺎلَ:)) ﺃَﻋ‬  ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺕﹾ ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ﻟﹶﻴ‬ ِ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ ِﻲ ِﻴﻨﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﹶ‬ ‫ﻁﻬ ﺈﻨﻬ ﺼ ﺩ ﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻋ ﺩ ﺭ ﻥ ﻭ ﺴ ﻬ ﺒﻴ ﺔ‬Sa‘d ibn al-Atwal reported that his brother died and left behind him three hundreddirhams and a family, and he, Sa‘d, wanted to spend it on his brother’s family, butthe Prophet (r) informed him, “ Verily your brother is imprisoned by his debt, sogo and pay it off.” Sa‘d went and paid it off, then came to the Prophet (r) andsaid, “I have paid it all off except for two dinars claimed by a woman who doesnot have any proof.” The Prophet (r) told him, “ Give it to her for verily she istruthful.”14Permissible Actions by Those Present1. Uncovering the Face and Kissing it Those present at the individual’s death or those who come to see the deadperson for the last time are allowed to uncover the face and kiss it. Kissing the13 Collected in Musnad Ahmad, vol.6, p.74 and authenticated in Ahkaamul-Janaa’iz, p.19.14 Collected in Musnad Ahmad, vol.4, p.136 and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah, vol.2,p.57, no.1973 and Ahkaamul-Janaa’iz, p.15. For the English text, see Mishkat Al-Masabih, vol.1,p.626. 7
  19. 19. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaamface of the dead is considered a part of the sunnah of the Prophet (r) and hiscompanions.‫ﻴ ﺒل ﻋ ﻤ ﻥ ﻥ ﻤ ﻌ ﻥ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﻴﺕ ﺤﺘ ﺭﺃ ﺕ‬‫ ﹸ‬‫َﻴ‬ ‫ ﱠﻰ‬ ‫ ﹲ‬     ٍ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻅﹾ‬  ‫ ﺒ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺜﹾ‬ ُ  ‫ﻘﹶ‬ r ِ ‫ﻭلَ ﺍﻟﱠ‬  ‫ ﹸ‬‫ﺃَﻴ‬ ‫ﺎ ِﺸﹶﺔﹶ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹶﺕﹾ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺭ ﺕ ﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﻋ ﻋﺌ‬ .ُ ‫ ﺘﹶ ِﻴ‬‫ﻭﻉ‬  ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴل‬ ‫ﺩﻤ‬‘Aa’ishah reported that when the Prophet (r) came to see ‘Uthmaan ibnMath‘oon after he had died, he uncovered his face, bent over him and kissedhim.15‫ﺒ ﺒ ﺒ ﺭ ﺭ ﻀ ﻠﻪ ﻋ ﻪ‬ ‫ﻨﹾ‬  ‫ ِﻲ ﺍﻟﱠ‬ ٍ ‫ﻜﹾ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ َ‫لَ ﺃ‬ ‫ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹶﺕﹾ: ﺃَﻗﹾ‬ ‫ﺘﹾ‬  ‫ ﺃَﺨﹾ‬r  ِ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﹾ‬  ‫ ِﻲ ﺍﻟﱠ‬ ‫ﺎ ِﺸﹶﺔ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺭ ﻪ‬ ‫ﻋ ﻋ ﺌ ﹶ ﺭﻀ ﻠﻪ ﻋ ﻬ ﺯ ﺝ ﻨﺒﻲ‬‫ﹶﻰ‬ ‫ﺨﹶل‬ ‫ ﱠﻰ‬  ‫ﻜﹶﱢﻡِ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ‬ ‫ ﻓﹶﻠﹶﻡ‬‫ ِﺩ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺨﹶلَ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫لَ ﻓﹶ‬ ‫ ﱠﻰ ﻨﹶ‬ ِ ‫ﻨﹾ‬ ‫ﻜﹶ ِ ِ ِﺎﻟ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ ِ ِ ِﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﹶﻰ ﻓﹶ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻠ ﻨ ﺱ ﺤﺘ ﺩ َ ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺠ‬ ‫ﺭﺴﻪ ﻤ ﻤ ﻨﻪ ﺒ ﺴ ﺢ ﺤﺘ ﺯ ﺩ‬ ‫ﻋ‬‫ﹶ ﻋ ﻭ ﻬ ﻪ ﺜ ﻡ ﺃﻜ ﺏ‬ ‫ َ ﹶ‬ ‫ ِ ِ ﹸ‬‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺓٍ ﻓﹶﻜﹶﺸﹶﻑ‬  ِ ِ ‫ﺭ‬ ِ ‫ﻰ‬      r  ِ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬   ‫ﺎ ﻓﹶﺘﹶ‬ ‫ﻨﹾ‬  ‫ ِﻲ ﺍﻟﱠ‬ ‫ﺎ ِﺸﹶﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺴﺠ ﺒﺒ ﺩ ﺤﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺌ ﹶ ﺭﻀ ﻠﻪ ﻋ ﻬ ﻴﻤﻡ ﻨﺒﻲ‬ .‫ﻜﹶﻰ‬  ‫ﻠﹶﻪ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻪِ ﻓﹶﻘﹶ‬‫ﻠﹶﻴ‬ ‫ ﺜﻡ ﺒ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻋ‬‘Aa’ishah said, “Aboo Bakr came riding on his horse from his home in Sunh. Hedismounted and entered the masjid without saying anything to the people until heentered ‘Aa’ishah’s house. He then went to the Prophet (r), who was covered inhis striped yemeni cloak, uncovered his face, then bent over and kissed him[between his eyes]16 and cried. 172. Crying Those present and the relatives of the deceased are allowed to cry for amaximum period of three days.15 Collected by at-Tirmithee (Hasan) Sunan Abu Dawud vol.2, p.898, no. 3157, Sunan Ibn-i-Majahvol.2, p.371 no.1456 and Mishkat Al-Masabih, vol.1, p.338.16 This addition is found in Saheeh Sunan an-Nasaa’ee, vol.2, p.396, no.1735.17 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.2, p.188, no.333. The colour of the cloak was green see footnote.16. 8
  20. 20. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaam‫ﻻ‬‫ ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎلَ )) ﹶ‬‫ﻡ‬ ‫ ﺃَﺘﹶﺎ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬‫ﻡ‬  ِ ْ‫ﺄ‬ ‫ﻔﹶﺭٍ ﺜﹶﻼﹶ ﹰﺎ ﺃَﻥ‬‫ﻌ‬ ‫لَ ﺁل‬ ‫ ﺃَﻤ‬r  ِ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ َ‫ﻔﹶﺭٍ ﺃ‬‫ﻌ‬ ِ ‫ ِ ﺍﻟﱠ ِ ﺒ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺘﻴﻬ ﺜﻡ ﻫ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﻬ َ ﺠ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻨﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻋ ﻋ ﺩ ﻠﻪ ﻥ ﺠ‬ (( ِ‫ﻡ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻠﹶﻰ ﺃَ ِﻲ‬ ‫ ﹸﻭﺍ‬‫ﺘﹶﺒ‬ ‫ﻜ ﻋ ﺨ ﺒﺩ ﻴ‬The Prophet (r) delayed coming to visit Ja‘far’s family for three days after hisdeath, then he came to them and said, “ Do not cry for your brother after today.”18 In the previous hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah’s concerning ‘Uthmaan ibn Math‘oonshe mentioned that the Prophet (r) cried until tears over flowed from his eyelids.‫ﻤﻊ ﺭﺴ ل ﻠﻪ ﻋ ﺒ ﺴ ﻑ ﻥ ﻭﻜ ﻥ‬ ‫ ﹶﺎ‬ ِ ‫ ٍ ﺍﻟﹾﻘﹶﻴ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠﹶﻰ ﺃَ ِﻲ‬ r ِ ‫ﻭ ِ ﺍﻟﱠ‬    ‫ﺨﹶﻠﹾﻨﹶﺎ‬ ‫ ﻗﹶﺎل‬ ‫ﻨﹾ‬  ‫ ِﻲ ﺍﻟﱠ‬ ٍ ِ‫ﺎ‬ ِ ‫ ﺃَﻨﹶ ِ ﺒ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺱ ﻥ ﻤ ﻟﻙ ﺭ ﻀ ﻠ ﻪ ﻋ ﻪ َ ﺩ‬‫ﻋ ﻪ ﺒ ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ِ‫ ﹶ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻌ‬ ِ ‫ﻠﹶﻴ‬ ‫ﺨﹶﻠﹾﻨﹶﺎ‬  ‫ﻪ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺸﹶ‬  ‫ﻠﹶ‬ ‫ ﻓﹶﻘﹶ‬‫ﺍ ِﻴﻡ‬ ‫ ِﺒ‬r ِ ‫ﻭ ُ ﺍﻟﱠ‬  ‫ﻼﹶﻡ ﻓﹶﺄَﺨﹶﺫ‬ ‫ ِ ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻠﹶﻴ‬  ‫ﺍ ِﻴ‬ ‫ﺍ ِ ِﺒ‬ ْ‫ِﺌ‬ ‫ ﺜ ﻡ ﺩ‬ ‫ﹶ ﺭ ﺴ ل ﻠﻪ ﺇ ﺭ ﻫ ﺒ ﻪ ﻭ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻅﺭ ﻹﺭﻫﻡ ﻋ ﻪ ﺴ‬ٍ ‫ﻭ‬  ‫ ِ ﺒ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺒ‬  ‫ ﺘﹶﺫﹾ ِﻓﹶﺎﻥِ ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎلَ ﻟﹶ‬r ِ ‫ﻭ ِ ﺍﻟﱠ‬  ‫ﻨﹶﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠﹶﺕﹾ‬  ‫ ِﻨﹶﻔﹾ ِﻪِ ﻓﹶ‬ ‫ﻭ‬   ‫ﺍ ِﻴ‬ ‫ِﺒ‬‫ﻪ ﻋ ﺩ ﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻥ ﻋ ﻑ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺇ ﺭ ﻫ ﻡ ﻴﺠ ﺩ ﺒ ﺴ ﺠﻌ ﻋ ﺭﺴ ل ﻠﻪ‬‫ﻯ‬ ‫ﺎ ُِﺨﹾ‬   ‫ ﺃَﺘﹾ‬ ‫ ﹲ.(( ﹸ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ ٍ ِ ﱠ‬‫ﻭ‬  ‫ﺎ ﺍﺒ‬ )) :َ‫ﻭلَ ﺍﻟﱠﻪِ ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎل‬  ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺃَﻨﹾﺕ‬  ‫ﻨﹾ‬  ‫ ِﻲ ﺍﻟﱠ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻥ ﻋ ﻑ ﺇﻨﻬ ﺭ ﻤﺔ ﺜﻡ ﺒﻌﻬ ﺒﺄ ﺭ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺭﻀ ﻠﻪ ﻋ ﻪ ﻭ ﹶ ﻴ ﺭﺴ‬‫ﺎ‬  ِ ‫ﺍ‬ ِ ِ ‫ِ ﱠﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﹶﺎ‬  ‫ﻰ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻻﹶ ﻨﹶ ﹸﻭ ُ ِ ﱠ‬   ‫ﺤ‬  ‫ﺍﻟﹾﻘﹶﻠﹾ‬   ‫ ﺘﹶﺩ‬‫ﻥ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ِ )) : r َ‫ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ﻭ ﺏ ﻴ ﺯﻥ ﻭ ﻘ ل ﺇﻻ ﻤ ﻴ ﻀ ﺭﺒ ﻭﺇﻨ ﺒﻔﺭ ﻗﻙ ﻴ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻌ‬ ((. ‫ﻭ ﹸﻭ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ﺍ ِﻴ‬ ‫ِﺒ‬ ‫ﺇﺭﻫﻡ ﻤ ﺯ ﻨ ﻥ‬Anas ibn Maalik also reported that they went with the Prophet (r) to visit AbooSayf, the husband of Ibraheem’s19 wet nurse, and the Prophet (r) took Ibraaheem,cuddled him and kissed him. When they later went back to visit him, Ibraheemwas breathing his last and the Prophet’s (r) eyes became filled with tears.‘Abdur-Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf asked, “Even you, O Messenger of Allaah?” TheProphet (r) replied, “O son of Awf, verily it is a mercy.” His eyes again becamefilled with tears and he said, “ Verily the eyes become filled with tears and theheart feels sorrow, but we only say that which pleases our Lord. Indeed, we aresorrowful at your parting, O Ibraaheem.”2018 Reported by ‘Abdullaah ibn Ja‘far Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.3, p.1165, no.4180 and Mishkat Al-Masabih, vol.2, p.934.19 Ibraaheem was the Prophet’s son by his Egyptian Coptic wife, Maria.20 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.2, pp.219-20, no.390, Sahih Muslim, vol.4, p.1243, no.5733, Sunan AbuDawud, vol.2, p.891 no.3120, Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol.2, p.442, no. 1589 by Asmaa bint Yazeedand Mishkat Al-Masabih, vol.1, p.360. 9
  21. 21. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaam3. Patience Relatives of the deceased are obliged to be patient, practice self restraint, andgracefully accept Allaah’s decree because Allaah has already promised mankindthat He would test them. ‫وﻟﻨ ﻠﻮﻧﻜ ﺑﺸ ء ﻣﻦ ﺨ ف و ﺠ ع وﻧ ﺺ ﻣﻦ ﻷ ﻮ ل‬ ِ ‫} َ َ َﺒْ ُ َ ﱠ ُﻢْ ِ َﻲْ ٍ ﱢ َ اﻟْ َﻮْ ِ َاﻟْ ُﻮ ِ َ َﻘْ ٍ ﱢ َ اْ َﻣْ َا‬ { َ ‫َاْ َﻧْ ُ ِ َاﻟ ﱠ َ َا ِ َ َ ﱢ ِ اﻟ ﱠﺎ ِ ِﯾ‬ ‫و ﻷ ﻔﺲ و ﺜﻤﺮ ت وﺑﺸﺮ ﺼ ﺑﺮ ﻦ‬ “Verily I21 will test you with some fear, hunger and a loss of wealth, life and the fruit (of your labor) so, give glad tidings to the patient ones.”22Among the glad tidings for those who are patient when loved ones are lost is ahome in paradise. Aboo Moosaa al-Ash‘aree quoted Allaah’s Messenger (r) assaying:‫ﺓ‬  ‫ ﹶ‬‫ ﹸﻡ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ ﹸﻭ ُ ﻗﹶ‬ ‫ ﻓﹶ‬‫ﻡ‬ ‫ ﻨﹶ‬‫ ﹸﻭ ﹸﻭﻥ‬ ‫ ِﻱ ﻓﹶ‬‫ﺒ‬  ‫ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ ﹸﻡ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﻼﹶ ِﻜﹶ ِﻪِ ﻗﹶ‬ ِ  ‫ﺩِ ﻗﹶﺎلَ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ‬ ‫)) ِﺫﹶﺍ‬‫ﻌ ﻴﻘ ل ﺒ ﺘ ﺜﻤﺭ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻠﻪ ﻟﻤ ﺌ ﺘ ﺒ ﺘ ﻭ ﺩ ﻋ ﺩ ﻴﻘ ﻟ‬ ‫ﺇ ﻤ ﹶ ﻭﺩ ﻌ‬‫ ﹸﻭﺍ‬‫ ﺍﺒ‬ ‫ ﹸﻭ ُ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ ﻓﹶ‬‫ﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﹶﺭ‬‫ﺍﺴ‬   ِ   ‫ ﹸﻭ ﹸﻭ‬ ‫ ِﻱ ﻓﹶ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺎﺫﹶﺍ ﻗﹶﺎل‬ ُ ‫ ﹸﻭ‬ ‫ ﻓﹶ‬‫ﻡ‬ ‫ ﻨﹶ‬‫ ﹸﻭ ﹸﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﹸﺅَﺍ ِﻩِ ﻓﹶ‬ ‫ﺠ ﻴﻘ ل ﻠﻪ ﻨ‬ ‫َ ﻋ ﺩ ﻴﻘ ﻟ ﻥ ﺤﻤﺩﻙ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻌ ﻴﻘ ل ﻤ‬ ‫ﻓ ﺩ ﻴﻘ ﻟ‬ .((ِ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺕﹶ ﺍﻟﹾ‬‫ﻴ‬  ‫ﻭ‬   ِ ‫ ﱠ‬ ‫ ﹰﺎ ِﻲ ﺍﻟﹾ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ ِﻱ‬‫ﺒ‬ ِ ‫ﺤ ﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻌ ﺩ ﺒ ﺘ ﻓ ﺠﻨﺔ ﻭﺴﻤ ﻩ ﺒ‬“If a child of [Allaah’s] slave dies, Allaah will say to His angels: You took Myslave’s child. They will reply: Yes. He will then say: You took the love of hislife23, and they will reply: Yes. He will then ask: What did My slave say? andthey will reply: He praised you and said, ‘Surely, we belong to Allaah and to Himwe will return.’ Allaah will then say: Build a house in paradise for My slave andcall it the house of praise.”24 However, true patience for which Allaah’s promises reward is that which ispractised when the calamity first strikes. The real test of patience is at the time of21 Literally “we” known in English as the “majestic we” or the “royal we”, used by those of greatimportance.22 Soorah al-Baqarah 2:15523 Literally “the fruit of his heart”.24 Saheeh Sunan at-Tirmithee, vol.1, pp.298-9, no.814. 10
  22. 22. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaamthe calamity. Being patient after the initial shock and reaction has worn off, is notconsidered real patience.‫ﺭٍ ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎل: )) ِ ﱠ ِﻲ‬‫ ﻗﹶﺒ‬‫ ِﻲ ِﻨﹾﺩ‬‫ﺃَﺓٍ ﺘﹶﺒ‬ ‫ ِﺎﻤ‬r  ِ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬  :َ‫ ﻗﹶﺎل‬ ‫ﻨﹾ‬  ‫ ِﻲ ﺍﻟﱠ‬ ٍ ِ‫ﺎ‬ ِ ‫ ﺃَﻨﹶ ِ ﺒ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍ ﺘﻘ‬ َ ‫ﺒ ﺭ ﻜ ﻋ‬ ‫ﻤﺭ ﻨﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺱ ﻥ ﻤ ﻟﻙ ﺭﻀ ﻠﻪ ﻋ ﻪ‬‫ﺭ ﻪ ﻘ ﻬ ﺇﻨﻪ ﻨﺒ ﻲ‬ ِ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺎ ِ ﱠ‬ ‫ ﻓﹶ ِﻴلَ ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ ِﻓﹾ‬‫ ﺘﹶﻌ‬‫ﻟﹶﻡ‬ ‫ ِﻲ‬ ‫ ِﻴ‬ ِ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬‫ ﻟﹶﻡ‬‫ ﱢﻲ ﻓﹶِ ﱠﻙ‬  ‫ ِ ِﻱ (( ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹶﺕﹾ: ِﻟﹶﻴ‬‫ﺍﺼ‬  ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺘﺼ ﺒﻤﺼ ﺒﺘ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺇ ﻙ ﻋﻨ ﺈﻨ‬ ‫ﻠﻪ ﻭ ﺒﺭ‬‫ﺇﻨﻤ ﺼ ﺭ ﻋ ﺩ‬ ‫ ِﻨﹾ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎلَ: )) ِ ﱠ‬‫ ِﻓﹾﻙ‬‫ ﺃَﻋ‬‫ ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎﻟﹶﺕﹾ: ﻟﹶﻡ‬‫ﺍ ِﻴﻥ‬    ‫ ِﻨﹾ‬‫ ﺘﹶ ِﺩ‬‫ ﻓﹶﻠﹶﻡ‬r  ِ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ ﻓﹶﺄَﺘﹶﺕﹾ‬r ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺠ ﻋ ﺩﻩ ﺒﻭ ﺒ‬ ‫ﺒ ﺏ ﻨﺒﻲ‬ .((‫ ِ ﺍﹾ ُﻭﻟﹶﻰ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ ﻤﺔ ﻷ‬Anas ibn Maalik related that once the Prophet (r) passed by a woman cryingbeside a grave and said to her, “ Fear Allaah and be patient.” She replied, “Getaway from me, for you haven’t been afflicted with my misfortune. And you don’teven know what it is!” Someone informed her that it was the Prophet (r) [andthe news struck her like death.]25 She then ran to the Prophet’s (r) door - whereshe did not find any guard - and called out, “O Messenger of Allaah, verily Ididn’t know it was you.” The Prophet (r) replied, “ Verily patience is with thefirst shock.”26 Patience and self restraint at the death of children have especially greatrewards because of the severity of their death on their parents. Aboo Hurayrahreported that the Prophet (r) said,‫ﻬﻤ ﻠﻪ ﺒﻔ ل‬ِ ‫ ِ ﹶﻀ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬  ‫ﺨﹶﻠﹶ‬‫ ﹸ ﹸﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﹾ ِﻨﹾﺙ ِ ﱠ ﺃَﺩ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻻﹶﺩٍ ﻟﹶﻡ‬‫ﺎ ﺜﹶﻼﹶﺜﹶ ﹸ ﺃَﻭ‬  ‫ﻨﹶ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻭ ﹸ‬  ِ ‫ﻴ‬ ِ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺎ ِﻥ‬ )) ‫ﺤ ﹶ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻠﻐ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻤ ﻤ ﻠﻤ ﻥ ﻴﻤ ﺕ ﺒ ﻬﻤ‬‫ ﹸ ﹸﻭﺍ‬‫ﻘﹶﺎ ُ ﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺎ ُﻨﹶﺎ ﻓﹶ‬ ‫ ﹸلَ ﺁ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ ﱠﻰ‬  ‫ ﹸﻭ ﹸﻭ‬ ‫ ﱠﺔﹶ ﻓﹶ‬ ‫ ﹸ ﹸﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﹾ‬‫ ﺍﺩ‬  ‫ﻘﹶﺎ ُ ﻟﹶ‬ َ‫ ﱠﺔﹶ ﻗﹶﺎل‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬  ‫ﺎ‬ ِ ِ ِ  ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺠ ﻨ ﻴﻘ ﻟ ﻥ ﺤ ﺘ ﻴ ﺨ ﺒ ﺅ ﻴ ل ﺨ ﻠ‬ ‫ﻴ ل ﻬﻡ ﺨ ﻠ‬ ‫ﺭ ﻤﺘﻪ ﺇﻴ ﻫﻡ ﺠﻨ‬ .(( ‫ﺎ ُ ﹸﻡ‬ ‫ﺁ‬ ‫ ﱠﺔﹶ ﺃَﻨﹾ ﹸﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ﺠ ﻨ ﺘ ﻭ ﺒ ﺅﻜ‬“ Allaah will put any two Muslims who have three children that die, beforereaching maturity, in paradise along with them due to His mercy. 27 The children25 This addition is in the narration of Sahih Muslim.26 Sahih Al-Bukhari vol.2, p.208, no. 372, Sahih Muslim, vol.2, p.439, no.2013, Sunan AbuDawud, vol.2, p.890 no.3118, Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol.2, p.446 no.1596 and Mishkat Al-Masabih,, vol.1, p.361. The wording is from Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol.2, p.452, no.1605.27 Sahih Al-Bukhari vol.2, pp.192-3, nos. 340-2, Sahih Muslim, vol.4, pp.1384-5, nos.6365 & 6368. 11
  23. 23. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaamwill wait at the gates of paradise. When they are told to enter, they will reply,‘Not until our two parents come.’ They will be told to enter paradise along withtheir parents by Allaah’s mercy.” 28‫ﻤﺤ ﺩ ﺜ ﻋ ﺭ ﺴ ل ﻠ ﻪ‬ِ ‫ﻭ ِ ﺍﻟﱠ‬  ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ ِﻲ‬   ‫ﺎ ﺃَﻨﹾﺕﹶ‬ ‫ﻨﹶﺎﻥِ ﻓﹶ‬‫ ﺍﺒ‬ ِ ‫ﺎﺕ‬ ‫ ﻗﹶﺩ‬ ‫ﺓ ِ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬  ‫ ﻗﹶﺎلَ ﹸﻠﹾ ﹸ ِﻷَ ِﻲ‬‫ﺎﻥ‬  ‫ ﺃَ ِﻲ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻗ ﺕ ﺒ ﻫﺭ ﺭ ﹶ ﺇﻨﻪ ﻤ ﹶ ﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺒ ﺤﺴ‬‫ ﹶﹶ ﱠﻰ‬ ِ ‫ ﱠ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ﺎ ِﻴ‬  ‫ﻡ‬  ‫:)) ِﻐﹶﺎ‬‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﹶﺎﻨﹶﺎ ﻗﹶﺎلَ ﻗﹶﺎلَ ﻨﹶ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﹶﺎ‬ ‫ ِﻪِ ﺃَﻨﹾ ﹸ‬  ‫ ِﻴ ٍ ﹸﻁﹶ‬ ِ r ‫ﺼ ﺭﻫ ﺩﻋ ﻤ ﺹ ﺠﻨﺔ ﻴﺘﻠﻘ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺩ ﺙ ﺘ ﻴﺏ ﺒ ﻔﺴ ﻋ ﻤ‬‫ﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﹶﻨﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﹶﺍ ﻓﹶﻼ‬  ِ ‫ ِﻔﹶﺔِ ﺜﹶﻭ‬ ِ ‫ﺎ ﺁ ﹸ ﹸ ﺃَﻨﹶﺎ‬ ‫ ِﻩِ ﻜﹶ‬ ِ ‫ ﻗﹶﺎل‬‫ ِﻪِ ﺃَﻭ‬‫ﺄْ ﹸ ﹸ ِﺜﹶﻭ‬ ‫ﻪِ ﻓﹶ‬‫ﻴ‬  َ‫ ﻗﹶﺎلَ ﺃ‬‫ ﺃَﻭ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ َ‫ ﺃ‬‫ﻡ‬   َ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﹶﻴ ﻫ‬ ‫ﺒﻙ ﻫ‬ ‫َ ﺒﻴﺩ ﻤ ﺨﺫ ﺒﺼﻨ‬ ‫ﺒﻭ ﻴ ﺨﺫ ﺒ ﺒ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻫ ﺒ ﻩ‬ .(( ‫ ﱠﺔﹶ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ َ‫ﺃ‬  ‫ ﺍﻟﱠ‬ ‫ ِﻠﹶ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ ﱠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﹾﺘﹶ ِﻲ‬ ‫ ﻗﹶﺎلَ ﻓﹶﻼ‬‫ﺃَﻭ‬ ‫ﹶ ﻴ ﻬ ﺤﺘ ﻴ ﺨ ﻪ ﻠﻪ ﻭ ﺒ ﻩ ﺠﻨ‬Aboo Hassaan reported: “I said to Aboo Hurayrah that my two children had died.Would you narrate to me anything from Allaah’s Messenger (r) a hadeeth whichwould soothe our hearts in our bereavements ? He said: Yes. Small childrenare the fowls of paradise. If one of them meets his father,29 he would grab hisgarment,30 and he will not remove his hand from it until Allaah causes his fatherto enter paradise.”31 Allaah has promised a special additional reward for women who lose threechildren. Because she suffers even more than her husband when a child dies. It isshe who carries the child within her for nine months, gives birth to him, nurseshim, etc. If she is patient, she will be granted an even greater reward than herspouse.‫ﹶ ﻴﻤ ﺕ ﻹ ﺩ ﻜﻥ ﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ ِ ‫ ﺜﹶﻼﹶﺜﹶ ﹲ‬ ‫ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻭ ﹸ ِ ِﺤ‬  ‫ﺎ ِ: )) ﻻ‬ ‫ ﺍﹾﻷَﻨﹾ‬ ِ ٍ  ‫ ﻗﹶﺎل ِ ِﺴ‬r ِ ‫ﻭلَ ﺍﻟﱠ‬   َ‫ﺓﹶ ﺃ‬ ‫ﻴ‬  ‫ ﺃَ ِﻲ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫َ ﻟﻨ ﻭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺼ ﺭ‬ ‫ﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺒ ﻫﺭ ﺭ ﻥ ﺭﺴ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ِ َ )) :َ‫ﻭلَ ﺍﻟﱠ ِ؟ ﻗﹶﺎل‬  ‫ﺎ‬ ِ ‫: ﺃَ ِ ﺍﺜﹾﻨﹶﻴ‬  ‫ﺃَ ﹲ ِﻨﹾ‬ ‫ ﱠﺔ(( ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎﻟﹶ ِ ﺍﻤ‬ ‫ﺨﹶﻠﹶ ِ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ ِ ﱠ‬  ِ ‫ﺘﹶ‬‫ﻟﹶﺩِ ﻓﹶﺘﹶﺤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺭ ﺓ ﻤ ﻬ ﻥ ﻭ ﻥ ﻴ ﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺩ ﺕ ﺠﻨ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ .((ِ‫ﻥ‬‫ﺍﺜﹾﻨﹶﻴ‬Aboo Hurayrah quoted the Messenger of Allaah (r) as saying to a group ofAnsaaree women, “ Any woman who has three children that die will be shielded28 Saheeh Sunan an-Nasaa’ee vol.2, p.405 no.1770.29 The narrator added, “or he demonstrated with his hand saying: the way I take hold of the hem ofyour garment.”30 The narrator added, “or he said: his parents”.31 Sahih Muslim, vol.4, p.1385 no.6370. 12
  24. 24. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaamby them from the Hellfire.” When a woman asked about two children, he repliedthat would also shield her.324. Al-Istirjaa‘ When the news of death in the family reaches the relatives and friends, theyshould say : { َ ‫} َ ﱠﺎ ِﱠ ِ َ ِ ﱠﺎ ِ ِﯿْ ِ َا ِ ُﻮ‬ ‫إﻧ ﻟﻠﮫ و إ ﻧ إﻟ ﮫ ر ﺟﻌ ن‬ “Innaa lil-laahi wa innaa ilayhi raaji‘oon [Verily we belong to Allaah and verily to Him we must return.]”33In the case of the husband or wife they should add: Allaahumma ajirnee feemuseebatee wakh-luf lee khayran minhaa (or minhu if it is the wife saying it)[Oh Allaah grant me refuge in my affliction and replace her (him) with someonebetter.]‫ﻤ ﻤ ﻤ ﻠﻡ ﺘﺼ ﺒﻪ ﻤﺼ ﺒﺔ ﻴﻘ ل‬ُ ‫ ﹸﻭ‬ ‫ ﹲ ﻓﹶ‬ ‫ ِﻴ‬   ‫ ِ ٍ ﹸ ِﻴ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺎ ِﻥ‬ )) :ُ ‫ ﹸﻭ‬ r ِ ‫ﻭلَ ﺍﻟﱠ‬  ‫ ﹸ‬‫ ِﻌ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹶﺕﹾ‬ ‫ﺔﹶ ﺃَ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻠﹶ‬  ُ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻠﻪ ﻴﻘ ل‬ ‫ﺴﻤ ﺕ ﺭ ﺴ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺃ ﻡ ﺴ ﻤ ﻨﻬ‬‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ ِﻨﹾ‬ ‫ﺃَﺨﹾ ِﻑﹾ ِﻲ ﺨﹶﻴ‬ ‫ ِﻲ‬ ‫ ِﻴ‬ ‫ ِﻲ ِﻲ‬‫ﺭ‬ ْ‫ ﺃ‬  ‫ ( ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ِ ‫ﺍ‬ ِ ‫ِ ﱠﺎ ِﻟﹶﻴ‬ ِ ‫ ) ِ ﱠﺎ ِﱠ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬   َ‫ﺎ ﺃ‬ ‫ﺭ ﻤﻬ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻤﺭﻩ ﻠﻪ ﺇﻨ ﻟﻠﻪ ﻭﺇﻨ ﺇ ﻪ ﺭ ﺠﻌ ﻥ ﻠﻬﻡ ﺠ ﻨ ﻓ ﻤﺼ ﺒﺘ ﻭ ﻠ ﻟ‬‫ َ ِﻲ‬‫ ِﻥ‬ ‫ ﺨﹶﻴ‬‫ِ ِﻴﻥ‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ َ‫ ﹶ ﹸﻠﹾ ﹸ ﺃ‬ ‫ﻠﹶ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ َ‫ﺎﺕﹶ ﺃ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺎ(( ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹶﺕﹾ ﻓﹶﻠﹶ‬ ‫ﺍ ِﻨﹾ‬ ‫ ﺨﹶﻴ‬ ‫ ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ِ ﱠ ﺃَﺨﹾﻠﹶﻑﹶ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺭ ﻤ ﺃﺒ‬ ‫ﺒ ﺴ ﻤ ﺔ ﻗ ﺕ ﻱ ﻤ ﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﻪ ﻪ ﺭ ﻤ ﻬ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬‫ ﹶﺎﹶﺕﹾ‬r ِ ‫ﻭلَ ﺍﻟﱠ‬  ‫ ِﻲ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻓﹶﺄَﺨﹾﻠﹶﻑﹶ ﺍﻟﱠ‬ ‫ ِ ﱢﻲ ﹸﻠﹾ ﹸ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬r ِ‫ﻭ ِ ﺍﻟﱠﻪ‬  ‫ ِﻟﹶﻰ‬  ‫ﺎ‬ ٍ ‫ﻴ‬ ُ  َ‫ﺔﹶ ﺃ‬ ‫ﻠﹶ‬ ‫ﻗﻟ‬ ‫ﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻠﻪ ﻟ ﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ ﺇﻨ ﻗ ﺘﻬ‬ ‫ﺴ ﻤ ﻭ ل ﺒ ﺕ ﻫ ﺠ ﺭ ﺇ ﺭﺴ ل ﻠ‬‫ﺒ ﺒ ﻌ ﹶ ﻴ ﻁﺒﻨ ﻪ ﻘ ﺕ ﺇﻥ ﻟ ﺒ ﺘ ﻭ ﻏﻴ ﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺃَﻨﹶﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ ِﻲ ِﻨﹾ ﹰﺎ‬ ِ ‫ ﻓﹶ ﹸﻠﹾ ﹸ‬ ‫ ِﻲ ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ﺨﹾ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻠﹾﺘﹶ‬ ‫ ﺃَ ِﻲ‬‫ﻥ‬‫ ﺒ‬ ِ ‫ﺎ‬ r ِ ‫ﻭ ُ ﺍﻟﱠ‬   ‫ل ِﻟﹶ‬ ‫ﺃَﺭ‬ ‫ﺤ ﻁﺏ‬ ‫ﺴ َ ﺇ ﻲ ﺭﺴ ل ﻠﻪ‬ ((.ِ  ‫ ِﺎﻟﹾﻐﹶﻴ‬  ‫ﺫﹾ‬ ‫ ﺃَﻥ‬‫ﻭ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺃَﺩ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﹾ‬ ‫ﺎ‬  ِ ‫ﻐﹾ‬ ‫ ﺃَﻥ‬‫ﻭ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻓﹶﻨﹶﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﹶ ﹸ‬‫ﺎ ﺍﺒ‬ َ‫ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺎل: )) ﺃ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻫ ﺏ ﺒ ﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻨﻴﻬ ﻋ ﻬ ﻭ ﻋ ﻠ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺘﻬ ﻋ ﻠ‬ َUmm Salamah reported that Allaah’s Messenger (r) said, “ For any Muslim whois afflicted with a misfortune and says : “ Innaa lil-laahi wa innaa ilayhiraaji‘oon, Allaahumma ajirnee fee museebatee wakh-luf lee khayran minhaa,32 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.2, pp.192-93 no.341 (reported by Aboo Sa‘eed al-Khudree), SahihMuslim, vol.4, pp.1384-85 no.6367 & 6368, Mishkat Al-Masabih,, vol.1, p.367 and Muwatta ,p.112, no. 551.33 Soorah al-Baqarah 2:156. This du‘aa is known in Arabic as al-Istirjaa‘. 13
  25. 25. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in IslaamAllaah will replace it with something better .” She then said, “So when AbooSalamah died I asked myself, ‘Who among Muslims is better than Aboo Salamah,the first family to make the Hijrah?’ When I said [the prayer], Allaah replaced[Aboo Salamah] with Allaah’s Messenger(r). Haatib ibn Abee Balta‘ah was sentby Allaah’s Messenger (r) to propose to me and I said, ‘I have a daughter and Iam very jealous.’ The Prophet (r) said, ‘As for her daughter, we ask Allaah tomake her benefit Umm Salamah, and I ask Allaah to remove her jealousy. ”345. Al-Hidaad : Mourning Women are allowed to avoid all forms of beautification as a sign of mourningfor their husbands, children or relatives. This does not contradict therecommendations for patience, as long as the mourning does not exceed threedays for her child or relative and four months and ten days for her husband.‫ ﺜ ﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺴ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺕﹾ ِﻨﹾﻪ ﹸ‬  ‫ﺕﹾ ِ ِﻴﺏٍ ﻓﹶ‬  ‫ﺎ ﻓﹶ‬ ‫ ﺃَ ﹸﻭ‬‫ ﱢﻲ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬ ‫ ٍ ِﻴ‬‫ﺤ‬ ِ ‫ ِﻨﹾ‬ ‫ﻨﹶ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠﹶﻰ‬ ‫ﺨﹶﻠﹾ ﹸ‬  ‫ﻨﹶﺏ ﹸ‬‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹶﺕﹾ‬ ‫ ﺜﻡ ﺩ ﺕ ﻋ ﺯ ﺏ ﺒ ﺕ ﺠ ﺵ ﺤ ﻥ ﺘﻭﻓ ﺨ ﻫ ﺩﻋ ﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺯ‬)) :ِ  ‫ﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﹾ ِﻨﹾ‬ ُ ‫ ﹸﻭ‬ r ِ‫ﻭلَ ﺍﻟﱠﻪ‬  ‫ ﹸ‬‫ ِﻌ‬ ‫ ﺃَ ﱢﻲ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺔٍ ﻏﹶﻴ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺎ ِﻲ ِﺎﻟ ﱢﻴ ِ ِﻥ‬ ِ ‫ﺍﻟﱠ‬ ‫ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹶﺕﹾ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻘ ل ﻋ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻨ ﺴﻤ ﺕ ﺭ ﺴ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻠﻪ ﻤ ﻟ ﺒ ﻁ ﺏ ﻤ ﺤ ﺠ‬‫ ﺔ‬  ‫ﺝٍ ﺃَﺭ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻠﹶﻰ‬ ‫ﻕﹶ ﺜﹶﻼﹶ ٍ ِ ﱠ‬‫ﺕٍ ﻓﹶﻭ‬  ‫ﻠﹶﻰ‬  ِ ‫ ِ ﺍﹾﻵ ِ ِ ﹸ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ِ ‫ ِﺎﻟ ﱠ‬ ِ ْ‫ﺃَ ٍ ﹸﺅ‬ ‫ ِ ﱡ ِﻻﻤ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﺒﻌ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺙ ﺇﻻ ﻋ ﺯ‬ ‫ﹶ ﻴﺤل ﺭ ﺓ ﺘ ﻤﻥ ﺒ ﻠﻪ ﻭ ﻴ ﻡ ﺨﺭ ﺘﺤﺩ ﻋ ﻤﻴ‬ .(( ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺸﹾ‬  ٍ  ‫ﺃَﺸﹾ‬ ‫ﻬﺭ ﻭﻋ ﺭ‬Zaynab bint Abee Salamah reported that when she went to see Zaynab bintJahsh35 after her brother died, she asked for some perfume. After wearing it, shesaid, “I don’t need any perfume, except that I heard the Prophet (r) say: It is notallowable for any woman who believes in Allaah and the Last Day to mourn forthe dead for more than three (days), except in the case of her husband, in whichcase she may do so for four months and ten days.”3634 Sahih Muslim, vol.2, pp.435-36, no.1999, Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.2, p.888, no.3113, Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol.2, p.447, no.1598, Muwatta , p.112, no. 554 and Mishkat Al-Masabih,, vol.1, p.337.35 The Prophet’s wife and cousin.36 Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.2, p.207, no.370, Sahih Muslim, vol.2, p.776, no. 3540, Sunan AbuDawud, vol.2, p.624, no.2292 and Mishkat Al-Masabih,, vol.1, p.709. 14
  26. 26. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in IslaamForbidden Actions by Those Present1. Wailing The Prophet (r) strictly forbade wailing and screaming, or the hiring ofmourners. Furthermore, he identified such practices as acts of Kufr (disbelief),because they indicate displeasure with what Allaah has decreed. Eemaan (faith)includes the belief that Allaah is the source of all good and all of His actions arewise. Proper Eemaan would never allow those who possess it to commit suchacts of ignorance.‫ ِﻲ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻌ‬ ‫ ﹸﻔﹾ‬‫ﺎ ِ ِﻡ‬  ِ ‫ :)) ﺍﺜﹾﻨﹶﺘﹶﺎ ِ ِﻲ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ‬r ِ ‫ﻭ ُ ﺍﻟﱠ‬  ‫ﺓﹶ ﻗﹶﺎلَ ﻗﹶﺎل‬ ‫ﻴ‬  ‫ ﺃَ ِﻲ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻓ ﻨ ﺱ ﻫﻤ ﺒﻬ ﻜ ﺭ ﻁ ﻥ ﻓ‬ ‫َ ﺭﺴ ل ﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺒ ﻫﺭ ﺭ‬ .((ِ   ‫ﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﱢ‬ ِ  ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺏ ﻭ ﻨﻴ ﺤﺔ ﻋ‬Aboo Hurayrah quoted the Prophet (r) as saying, “There are two practices foundamong people, both of which indicate Kufr: ridiculing the ancestry (of others)and wailing over the dead.”37‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar also reported that Hafsah38 cried when ‘Umar died and hesaid to her “Take it easy. Don’t you know that the Messenger of Allaah (r) said, (( ِ ‫ﻠﹶﻴ‬ ِ ِ ‫ﻜﹶﺎﺀِ ﺃَﻫ‬ ِ  ‫ ﱠ‬  ‫ﺕﹶ‬  ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ِ )) ‫ﻠﻪ ﻋ ﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻤﻴ ﻴﻌﺫﺏ ﺒﺒ‬“ Verily the dead are punished in their grave by the wailing of their family overthem.”39The dead will suffer due to the wailing of relatives in two cases :37 Reported by Aboo Hurayrah and collected by Muslim and al-Bayhaqee Sahih Muslim, vol.1,p.44 no. 128.38 Hafsah was one of the Prophet’s wives and daughter of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab, the secondcaliph.39 Reported by Ibn ‘Umar and collected by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.2,p.213 no.379, Sahih Muslim, vol.2, p.439 no.2015, Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.2, p.891 no. 3123,Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol.2, p.444 no.1593 and Mishkat Al-Masabih,, vol.1, pp.360-61 by‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar. 15
  27. 27. © Islamic Online University Funeral Rites in Islaam(a) When the deceased requested mourning prior to his death.(b) If the deceased knew that it was the practice of the people and he did notrequest that they do not do so over him.2. Striking Cheeks and Tearing of Clothes It was the practice in Arabia at the time of the Prophet (r) for women inmourning to slap or scratch the cheeks of their faces and to rip their clothes.These acts were strictly forbidden as well as all similar practices which involvedself punishment and the destruction of material wealth. These practices all aim atheightening the pain and sorrow accompanying death while Islaam seeks tominimize it. Ibn Mas‘ood reported that the Prophet (r) said, .(( ِ  ِ ِ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻯ ﺍﻟﹾ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ِ ‫ﺎ‬  ‫ ﺃَﻭ‬‫ﻭﺏ‬  ‫ ﺸﹶ ﱠ ﺍﻟﹾ‬‫ ﺃَﻭ‬‫ﻭﺩ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﹾ ﹸ‬   ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ ِ ﱠﺎ‬ ‫)) ﻟﹶﻴ‬ ‫ﺩﻋ ﺒﺩ ﻭ ﺠ ﻫﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻕ ﺠﻴ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻤﻨ ﻤ ﻀﺭﺏ ﺨﺩ‬“ Whoever slaps his face, tears his clothes or invites (others) to an un-Islamicslogan is not of us.”403. Shaving the Head or Dishevelling41 the Hair Since the woman’s hair is considered a part of her beauty, and women inmourning would shun all forms of beauty, they used to either shave off all of theirhair or mess it up and leave it in a state of disarray. In Islaam woman are allowed to shun various forms of beautification, but theshaving of the head and dishevelling of the hair is forbidden, as these go beyondnormal bounds and are associated with pre-Islamic concepts.40 Collected by al-Bukhaaree, Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawud and al-Bayhaqee Sahih Al-Bukhari,vol.2, p.216 no.385, Sahih Muslim, vol.1, p.59, no. 184, Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol.2, p.438 no.1584and Mishkat Al-Masabih,, vol.1, p.361, by ‘Abdullaah ibn Mas‘ood.41 i.e. messing it up and leaving it that way. 16