Family system in islam


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Family system in islam

  1. 1. Family System In Islam By Dr.Zeenat Kauther -Il -I I fl .....- r.. - .- - - • , ./ . ~,I . . ~ --... . . . , _. ... L ,. - . r;~. - - -- - - --II. ~. - ~ ,..... ~ .. _.. - - - -";/ - <
  2. 2. - #sIslam on Sexuality,ReproductionIslam on Sexuality) Reproduction and and Family System Family System PaperPresented the Paper Presented to theInternational Conference NGOsInternational Conference ofNGOs of Seoul,Korea Seoul) Korea 10-16 October 10-16 October 1999 1999 By Dr. Zeenath Zeenath Kausar KausarWorld AssemblyofMrnlim youth" Assembly ofMuslim Youth, (wAtvfY) (WAMY) Riyadh,SaudiArabia Riyadh) Saudi Arabia
  3. 3. PREFACE PREFACEAs the title of the paper suggests, Dr. Zeenath Kausar has the tide of the paper sugests, Zeenath Kausar hasattemgtedattempted to present the Islamic perspective on sexuality, present the Islamic perspective se<uality,reproduction and family system.reproduction and family system.Family values play an important role from the IslamicFamily values play an imporant rore Islamicpoint of view. Islam seeks to create durable bases for of view. Islam seeks create durable basesrelationship within the familr, which is the building blockrelationship within family, is buildingof a society. When each of these blocks is firmly placed,gf society. when each of theseblocks is nrmlyilaced,the " social structure of the society rests on a strong social struch*e of the society rests afoundation. Where the cohesive bond gets diluted, thefoundation. wfhere the cohesive gets diluted, th;society begins to tumble.societybegins nrmbleThe Western society presents a glaring example of this westem society presents a glaringexampleof thisphenomenon. The growing number of single-parentphenomenon. grovdng tt.t*b.r or rittgt.-parentfamiliesfamilies in the wake of rampant divorces has created a wake of divorces has"created ""*p*t asihrationsituation in which uninhibited sex has culminated in the uninhibited ro has culminated theoutbreak of AIDs and other sexually transmitted diseases.outbreak of ArDs and sexuallytransmitteddiseases.An important factor for the breakdown of marriages in rmporant the breakdown of marriagesthe West is the fact that marital relations in Westernthe west is the fact marial relations sTestemsocieties are governed by material considerations, such associeties are govemed materialconsiderations, such aswealth, beauty or fame. These are ephemeral valueswealth beauty fame. These are ephemeral values _doomed to self-erosion in the course of time. When thatdoomed self-erosion the courseof time. when thathappens, the fragile relationship gets swerved andhappens, the fragile relationship gets swerved and themarriage ends in divorce.marriageends divorceBy contrast, marital ties in the Muslim society are on contrasg marital ues the society arefirmer ground. Families seeking afriancesalsoFurner ground. Families seeking alliances also look forpartners qdth apartners with a strong moral character, among other character, amongthings. Thus if the married life of a couple becomes a bitthirp. Thus if the married of a couple becomis abumpy, they stillbumpy, they still pull on for th~ sake of their children to the childrenwhom they owe a religious obligation to bring up - th.y owe z religious obtigationproperly.properly.
  4. 4. I-et me concludewith thesewords of wisdom from CdiphLet me conclude with these words ofwisdom from CaliphOmar. Once a man sought his adviceon divorcing his wife. Omar. Once a man sought his advice on divorcing his wife.When Cdiph Omar asked him for the reason,the manWhen Caliph Omar asked him for the reason, the manreplied: "Im no more in love with her." Whereupon,replied: "Im no more with her." Whereupon,Caliph Omar retorted: "Are families built upon love alone? Omar retorted: families built alone?X/hat about inter-family relationship and the sharedlifeWhat relationship sharedwith children?"with their children?"Dr. Maneh H. Al-JohaniDr. Maneh FI. Al-JohaniSecretaryGeneralSecretary General (WAMY)World Assemblyof Muslim Youth CX/AlvfY) Assembly ofFtiyadh,Saudi~bi~Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  5. 5. ISLAM ON SEXUALITY, ISLAM ON SEXUALITY, REPRODUCTIONAND FAMILY REPRODUCTION AND FAMILY SYSTEM SYSTEM Introduction:Introduction: 1. Life an IntegratedWhole:1. Life an Integrated Whole: Islam, which implies willing and completeIslam, which implies willing and complete submission to Allah submission Allah to (tn"tl is a completeway of life embracingall aspects life(swt) is a complete way of life embracing all aspects of life including sexual,reproductive, maritalandfamilial. underlinesincluding sexual, reproductive, marital and familial. It underlinestwo importantpoints:two important points:Firstly, Islam perceiveslife as an integratedwholeand for thisFirstly, Islam perceives life as an integrated whole and for this reasonsexualityand reproductionare parts the whole Islamicreason sexuality and reproduction are parts of the whole Islamic system life, not outside it.system of life, not outside it. secondly, Islam which is a Divinely ordainedsystem life,Secondly, Islam which is a Divinely ordained system of life,possesses injunctionsand regulations its texts the euran andpossesses injunctions and regulations in its texts - the Quran andthe Prophetic traditions for the regulation of sexuality,the Prophetic traditions for the regulation of sexuality,reproduction all that are related to these. andreproduction and all that are related these.Islamlc philosophy of Tawhid integrates aspectsof lifeIslamic philosophy Tawhid integrates all aspects of life. allTawhid implies unity of God,unityof the prophets,Tawhid implies unity of God, unity of the prophets, unityof life, unity of life,unity of mankind,unity of the purposeof creation,unity oiunity of mankind, unity of the purpose of creation, un,ity ofknowledge,etc. The fundamentalbeliefs -knowledge, etc. The fundamental beliefs -i) That thereis no god but Allah (swt) andthe prophetMohammadi) That there no god (swt) and the Prophet Mohammad(pbuh)is the lastmessenger Allah (surt)for the wholemankind;(pbuh) is the last messenger of Allah (swt) for the whole mankind; ofii) That mans life in this rvorrd is temporaryand he/shehas toii) That mans life in this world is temporary and he/she has tofollow Allahs ordainedway of rife (Isllm) in all aspects be follow Allahs ordained way of life (Islam) in all aspects to be tosuccessful andin Hereafterand~ successful here and in Hereafter and; hereiii) That with Allah restsall the finaljudgementsofrewardsand iii) That with Allah rests all the final judgements of rewards andpunishmentsin the akhirah(life, hereaftei;are all basedon these punishments in the akhirah (life, hereafter) are all based on theseunity, Tawhid. Hence,questions onsexuality Unity, Tawhid. Hence, questions sexuality andreproduction, on and reproductionarealsoanchored the Tawhidicparadigm. are also anchored on the Tawhidic paradigm. on
  6. 6. II.II. Vicegerency - Purpose of Life: VicegerencY- PurPoseof Life:The very raisondetreof manscreationaccordingtothe QuranThe very raison detre of mans creation accordingto the Quran is the peribrmance of the vicegerencyofAllah (swt). The Quranis the perfonnance of the vicegerency of Allah (swt). The Qur1an says:says: Behold Thy Lord said to the angels:BeholdThy Lord saidto the angels:II will createa vicegerenton earth. will create a vicegerent on earth.Hence, anythoughtand activity of man in Islam,be that sexualorHence, any thought and activity of man in Islam, be that sexual orreproductiue,rhould be ultimately related to this purposeof lifereproductive, should be ultimately related to this purpose of lifevicegerency ofvicegerency Allah (swt) of (swt).Sexuality and ReProduction:Sexualifyand Reproduction:With this brief background ofIslamic worldview, it is easiernow this background Islamicworldview, of easierto look into the Islamic texts on sexuality and look into the Islamictextson sexualityandreproduction.Sexuality in Islam is not trivializedas mansanimalisticfunctionSexuality in Islam is not trivialized as mans animalistic functionto be tackled by his own whim and fancy. Sexualityis perceivedto be tackled by his own whim and fancy. Sexuality is perceived mans life to be regulatedas one of the essential parts of mans life to be regulated andas one of the essentialparts and throughthe properguidance.disciplined through the proper guidance.disciplinedA man and a woman in Islam can enterinto sexual relationshipA man and a woman in Islam can enter into sexual relationshiponly after marriage,which is reckoned a as signof Allah (swt)only after marriage, which is reckoned as a sign of Allah (swt) The Quransays:and the ways of the prophets , The Qur1an says:andthe ways of the prophets, And amongHis Signsis this that He created spouses you from forAnd among His Signs is this that He created spouses for you fromyourselves, ye may dwell in tranquility with them.yourselves, that ye may dwell in tranquility with them. that beforeyou (O Mohammad)We indeed sent messengers before you (0 Mohammad) and We We indeed sent messengers andWeassigned them wives and children. assigned themwivesandchildren. It implies that in Islam,the very basisof the maritalrelationshipIt implies that in Islam, the very basis of the marital relationship between husbandand wife through which they can enter intobetween husband and wife through which they can enter into love. Furthermore,Allah (swt) implants sexual relationshipissexual relationship is love. Furthermore, Allah (swt) implants 2
  7. 7. this lovein husband wife towardseachothersothat they maythis love in husband and wife towards each other so that they may andlive in peace and harmony. Such an Islamic attitude towards live in peace and harmony. such an Islamic attitudetowardssexuality goes entirely against the mere lusty cravings in sexuality goes entirely against the mere lusty cravings inman/woman and its satisfaction through legitimate or illegitimate man/womanand its satisfaction throughlegitimate illegitimate orways. In Islam, it is the love and the strong covenant (nikah) that ways. In Islam,it is theloveandthe strongcovenant (nikah)that unite man and woman not force or temporaryarrangementsunite man and woman not force or temporary arrangementsoutside marriage or cohabitation. For this reason, all types of pre- outside marriage cohabitation. this reason, typei of pre- or For allmarital and extra marital relationships, fornication, illicit carnality marital andextramaritalrelationships, fornication,illitit are completely condemned Islam and manis ordained"u*alityare completely condemned is Islam and man is ordained not to go is nor ro go nearerto adultery The Quransays:nearer to adultery. The Quran says:Nor comenigh to adulteryNor come nigh to adultery For it is a shameful (deed) For it is a shameful (deed)And an evil, opening roadAnd an evil, opening the road the(to otherevils).(to other evils).Islam thus makes a distinction betweenIslam thus makes a distinction between sexuality that is sexuality that isconstrainedand disciprined through maritarconstrained and disciplined through marital relationship and relationshipandsexuality,which transgressessexuality, which transgresses morality and spirituality and turns morarity and spiritualityandturnsanimalism. Islam does not overlookthe sexuaranimalism. Islam does not overlook the sexual drive in man but drive man butinstitutionalizeinstitutionalize it through marriage ro protect man through marriage to protect man fromimmorality.Theprophetimmorality. The Prophet Mohammad (pbuh)said: Mohammad (pbuh) said:o young men! Those amongyou who cansupporta wife shouldo young men! Thoseamong you who can support -ftor shouldmarry for it restrains *y*r from castingmarry for restrains eyes casting t.uir grunces)and (evil glances) andpreserves from immorality.preserves onefrom immorality. oneIslam is quite sensitive a[ issuesIslam is quite sensitive in all issues pertaining marriage pertaining to marriage and to andsexuality. As sexuaritysexuality. As sexuality outsidemaniageis iilegTtim"i., marriage outside marriage illegitimate, *u.riug*without the proper consentis declaredwithout the proper consent is declared invar-id. The Prophet invalid. The rrophetMohammadMohammad (pbuh)said: (pbuh) said:AA widow shail not be marrieduntil shebe consulted, shall a widow shall not be married until she be consulted, nor nor shailavirgin be marrieduntil her consentvirgin be, married until her consent be asked;and that a woman be asked; and that a womanrip^ein years shail haveher consenf ripe in years shall have her consent askedi" *--"g" e and if she asked in marriag and if sherefuses, shallnot bemarriedby force., refuses, sheshall not be married by force. she
  8. 8. marriage in Islam, unlike radical feminism is neither anTherefore, marriage Islam,unlikeradicalfeminism neitheranTherefore,imprisonment for woman that is thrust or forcedupon her as aimprisonment woman that is thrust forced upon her aspunishmentnor enslavementthat makesher subservient man.punishment enslavement that makes her subservient to man.Marriage is a covenantof faith and consentand a bondof love andMarriage covenant of faith and consent and bond of love andconcern.concern.Marital relationship Islam is neitherpatnarchaland political norMarital relationship in Islam neither patriarchal and politicaleconomic and sexual for its own sake as against the commoneconomic and sexual sake as against the commonperceptionof gender feminists, but moraland spiritual In fact,perception of gender feminists, moral and spiritual. fact,husband and wife complement eachother in Islam sincehusbandhusbandand complement each other Islam since husbandprovides economic and sexual securityto his wife and his childrenprovideseconomicand sexualsecurity his and his childrenand his wife guards her chastityand her husbandsand his possessions as guardsher chastity and her husbands possessions asher moral obligation. The Quransays:her moralobligation The Quran says:Men are the protectorsMen arethe protectorsAnd maintainers of women, because GodAnd maintainers women,because of GodHas giventhe onesmore(strength)Has given the ones more (strength)Than the other, and becauseThan the other, and becauseThey support themThey supportthemFrom their meansFrom their meansTherefore the righteous womenTherefore righteouswomen theAre devoutly obedientand guardAre devoutly obedient and guardIn (the husbands) absenceIn (the husbands) absenceWhat God would havethemguard.What God would have them guard. Islam complement eachother anddoThus, husband and wife in Islam complement each other and doThus, husbandand wifenot competefor dominationand supremacy.They are friends andnot compete for domination and supremacy. They are friends andco-partners their co-venture-vicegerency Allah(swt). Both inco-partners in their co-venture-vicegerency of Allah (8wt). Bothenjoy rights and duties towards each other and both haveenjoy rights and duties towards each other and both haveobligations to Allah (swt). This is very clearly stated in theobligations to Allah (swt). This is very clearly stated in theQuranic verse which proclaimsequality in the very creationofQuranic verse which proclaims equality in the very creation qfmanandwomaq pointingout their creationfrom a singlesoul:man and woman, pointing out their creation from a single soul: o mankind, be conscious of your duty to your Lord, Who created O mankind, be conscious your duty your Lord, Who created you from a single soul, created like nature,her mate,and from you from a single soul, created of like nature, her mate, and from the two created spread and manymen andwomen;and be mindful the two created and spread many men and women~ and be mindful 4
  9. 9. of your duty to God by whose nameyou appear one anotherof -yourduty to God by Whose name you appeal to one another toandto (theties of) womb. Verily God witch.jouer you.and to (the ties ot) womb. Verily God watches over you.Even if the sexual satisfactionis performed man andEven if the sexual satisfaction is perfonned by man and woman by womanwhile being mindful of its etiqurtti ur ordained thewhile being mindful of its etiquette as ordained in the Quran and in eur,anandsunnah, it is reckoned as tbadnh and sadaqah (charity), TheSunnah, it is reckoned as ibadah and sadaqah (charity). TheProphet MohammadProphet Mohammad (pbuh) said: (pbuh)said.Did Allah not makefor you that from which you can giveDid Allah not make for you that from which you can give sadaqa? sadaqdlverily, every time you saysuhhanaAlrah, ihere is sadaqua_andVerily, every time you say Subhana Allah, there is aJsadaqua-andfor everytime you say Allahu Akbar there is a sa*qa;-for every time you say Allahu Akbar there is a sadaqa;Every time you say Laa iraha iil Ailah, thereis sadaqa andEvery time you say Laa ilaha ill Allah, there is aaiadaqaand for t for you sayAlhamdulillah,thereis a sadaqa;lurry timeevery time you say Alhamduli/lah, there is a sadaqa;Every actEvery act of enjoining what is right there is sadaqa and in every enjoining. what is right there is sacraqaand every inact of forbidding evil there is i sadaqa, and inact of forbidding evil there is a sadaqa. and in your sexualrelationsalsothereis a sadaqa. fo.r, sexualrelations also there is a sadaqa.Thereuponthe companionsThereupon the companions asked: 0 Messenger of Allah! Is there asked: Messenger Alrah! Is there oa rewardfor one us whenhe satisfies sexuara reward for one of us when he satisfies his sexual desire? his desire?The Prophet replied: Dont you see, had he satisfied it with theThg.lpptet replied:Dont you see,had hesatisfied itwiththeforbidden would there not haue been a sin upon him?forbidden would there not have 6een a sin upon him? The Thecompanionscompanions said: "yes". said:"yes".r$ Prophet (pbuh) said:The froghet (pbuh) said: In the same way, whenhe satisfies the same way, when he satisfieswith the lawful,thereis for him in that a reward. it the lawful, there is him that reward.Tlrus,sexuality neverperceived Isramas mereThus, sexuality is never perceived by Islam as a merecarnar carnal desire desireof man to be fulfilled in anyanimalisticof man be fulfilled any animalistic *uy.r tr* ft"ur*r. eut way as he pleases. Butman in Islam is ordained folrow certain.tiq* Islam ordained to follow certain etiquette in his se*uar his sexualrelationshipso that he shourdrememberAllahrelationship so that he should remember Allatr (swt) even beforethis act and do not fall a prey to the satanic;;ill trortl euenuerorethis act and not fall prey the Satanic trap. ihi, canbe This can beeasily gleaned tkough a careful reading of few propheticeasily gleaned through careful reading of iew Prophetictraditions,traditions, eitherpracticed spoken him Jn thesematters. either practiced or spoken by him on these matters. 5
  10. 10. It is exhorted that the husbandshould place his hand on the exhorted that the husband should place his hand theforelock of her wife at the time of consummating marriageandforelock of her the of consummating the marriage and thepray for Allahsblessings.The ProphetMohammad(pbuh) said:pray Allahs blessings. The Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) said:When any of you marriesa woman he shouldhold her forelochWhen any of you marries woman he should hold forelock,mention Allah most high, and pray for His blessingsmention Allah most high, and pray saying:O His blessings saying: 0Allah, I ask You for the good in her and the good with which YouAllah, ask the good her and the goodhave createdher; and I seek refuge in You from the evil in her andhave created her; and seekrefuge the her andthe evil with which You havecreatedher.the which have created her.Furthermore, according someother traditions, desirableifFurthermore, according to some other traditions,it is desirable ifthe husband presentsto his wife something to drink to showthe husband presents his something showkindness her and prayer together remain closely everkindness to her and to offer prayertogetherto remainclosely everafter the good and seekrefuge (s.w.t)after for the good and seek refuge in Allah (s.w.t) from the evil. It the also evidenced from several traditions that it is commendable to also evidencedfrom severaltraditionsthat is commendablemake wudhu (ablution) after sex before sleep obligatorymake wudhu (ablution) after sex before sleep but obligatory totake bath after sexbefore after sleepwheneverpossible.take bath after sex before or after sleep whenever possible. the above discussion that senralityIt is quite obvious from the above discussion that sexuality in is quite obviousIslam neither perceived as an objective ofIslam is neither perceived as an objective of life to be totally be no other moral and spiritual considerationsimmersed in it with no other moral and spiritual considerations norimmerseda beastly act to be fulfilled throu,~ any way and mean for its owna beastlyact be throu,ghany way and mean sexualdesire manand alsoexpects fromsake. Islam disciplines sexual desire of man and also expects fromsake. Islamdisciplineshim that he should remember Allah (swt) evenwhilehim that he should remember Allah (swt) even while joining his his sexand even pray (sw) protecthis childwife for sex and even pray to Allah (swt) to protect his child from granted a child after the sex. is clear from theevil, if he is granted a child after the sex. It is clear from the evil, if he prayerandthe Prophetictradition:following prayer and the Prophetic tradition: the name Allah, O Allah! Keep us awayIn the name of Allah, 0 Allah! Keep us away from the devil, and the devil, andkeep the devil away from that which may grant uskeep the devil away from that which You may grant us(offspring).(offspring).The Prophet (pbuh)said:The Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) said: MohammadAfter that, Allah decreesthat theyAfter that, if Allah decrees that they will have a child, the devil havea child, the devilwill never be able to harm that child. neverbe ableto harmthat child. 6
  11. 11. It alsoimpliesthat Islam not only enjoinsmanto rememberIt also implies that Islam not only enjoins man to remember Allah Allah (swt) before his sexual relationship alsomakeshim conscious(swt) before his sexual relationship but also makes him conscious but of his responsibilitytowards his prospectiveof his responsibility towards his prospective child to protect him chirdto protecthim from the cunningSatan.from the cunning Satan.Family: ParentsObligations Towards ChildrenFamily: Parents Obligations Towards Children sexuality, reproduction and childrens responsibility areSexuality, reproduction and childrens responsibility are interconnected Islam throughan institution,family. Family is ininterconnected in Islam through an institution, family. Family is considered the frrst schoolof childrenwherethey are not only asconsidered as the first school of children where they are not only nurtured but also taught basic morals and etiquette so that thenurtured but also taught basic morals and etiquette so that the children can appreciatechildren can appreciate Islamic ethos and values. A stable family Islamicethosandvalues. stabre family will give rise to a stablewill give rise to a stable society and a stable civilization. All this societyanda stablecivilization. this requiresthat both parents childrenshouldbe mindful theirrequires that both parents and children should be mindful of their and obligationstowards eachotheralongwith their rights so that theyobligations towards each other along with their rights so that theymay love and respect each other. Islam enjoins its adherentsmay love and respect each other. Islam enjoins its adherents tolove children and to be mindful their responsibilitieslove children and to be mindful of their responsibilities towards towardsthemfrom the very beginning of their inception and even earlier tothem from the very beginning their inceptionandevenearlierit. The Quransays:it. The Quran says: And be mindful your duty God whose name you appeal And be mindful of your duty to God in whosenameyou appealto oneanother and the ties of the one another and to the ties of the womb.Jhus, Islam emphasizes parents should realizethatThus, Islam emphasizes that parentsshouldrealize that the proper that properdevelopment the child beginsfrom the mothersdevelopment of the child begins from the mothers womb itself. of itselfFI:l* the parents should be concerned abouttheir prospectiveHence the parents should concerned about prospectivechild from the very beginning.child from the very beginning.It has been scientifically proved that a pregnantwoman shouldIt has been scientifically proved pregnant woman shouldabstain from alcoholicdrinksand narcotics avoidtensions. Ifabstain from alcoholic drinks and narcotics and avoid tensions. If andshe fails to consider alr these precautionarymeasures,anyshe fails to consider all these precautionary measures, anycomplicationin her own healthandthatof the child in the wombcomplication in her own health and that of the in the wom6 "iitocan hardlybe prevent:d ft is alsopointedout that the relationshipcan hardly be prevented. It is also pointed out that the relationshipbetween the prospectivemother and the prospectivefather shouldbetween the prospective moth*r the prospective father shouldnot be conflict-riddenbecause"ndnot be conflict-ridden because it advers*tyaffects the mentaland it adversely uiT*rt, the mental and 7
  12. 12. physical health of the prospective mother and eventually thephysical heatth the prospective mother and eventuallyprospective child.prospec tive child. Islam through the above quoted verse Islam through the above quoted verse ofemphatically makes it clear that parents should be mindful of theirempiratically makes clear that parentsshouldbeduties towards their childrendutlestowardstheir children from the very inception. the inception take care of the physicalIslam commands its believers not only to take careof the physicalIslam commands believersnotupbringing of their children also educational,moral andupbringing of their children but also their educational, moral and The Quran says:spiritual development. The Quranspiritual development. says:oo you who believe! Strive to protect yourselves and your wives you who believe! strive protectyourselvesandand children from the fire.and children the fire.Obviously, the best way of protecting children frol lhe fire is byobviously, the best way protectingchildren from the theproviding adequate education and proper training. .More than theprovidini adequate educationand proper training More than children require best educationwealth and the material property, childrenwealth and thi materialproperty, requirebest educationfor their real success here and in the Hereafter. The Prophet real successheie ind the Hereafter. The ProphetMohamMohammadmad (pbuh) said: (Pbuh)said:Of all that a father can give to his children the bestis their good all that a father cangive his childrenthe best their goodeducatioeducationn and training. and training-In the contemporary age, where Muslim Ummah is facing the contemporary age, where Muslim Ummah facingmultitudes ofmultitudes intellectualchallenges, aboveProphetic tradition intellectual challenges, the above Prophetic the traditionneeds greater focus. Unless children are mentallywell fed with;."dr gleater focus. Unless childrenare mentally fedproper education and skills, they becomeproper"education and skills, they easily susceptible to become easily susceptiblealien culture and lifestyles. Todays children are tomorrowsalien culture and lifestyles. Todays children are tomorro wsfuture.future. The strong foundation of the future prospects Islamic The strong foundation the future prospects of Islamic ofculture and civilizationdepends strongeducational on foundationculture and civilization depends on strong educational foundation the children. deemsof the children. It deems necessary them be acquainted necessary for them to be well acquaintedof the the dominantideologies, well as,Islam as the comprehensive dominant ideologies, as well as, Islam as the comprehensive assystem of life so that they should be the role models in the future system so that they shouldbe the role models the futureto take care of the Ummahs responsibility vis-a-vis mankind The to take care the Ummahsresponsibility vis-a-vismankind. The Qu/an teaches Quran teaches its adherents to pray to Allah (swt) for their its adherents pray (sovt) their children with these aspirations-. children theseaspirations- 8
  13. 13. My Lord makeme keepprayerand(also)let my offspring(do so)My Lord make me keep prayer and (also) let my offspring (do so)Our Lord accept my appeal! Our Lord, forgive my parentsandOur Lord accept my appeal! Our Lord, forgive my parents Lordl Grant us in our spouses our offspringthe comfortOur Lord! Grant us in our spouses and our offspring the comfort andof our eyesandmakeus a modelfor the needful.of our eyes and make us a model for the needful. It also implies that Islam completelyrejects the perceptionofIt also implies that Islam completely rejects the perception of those who look to women and children as burden or as anthose who look to women and children as burden or as an oppressed class. In fact, Islaminspiresoppressed class. In fact, Islam inspires men to look at their wives mento look at their wives and childrenasthe comforters their eyes,astheir sourceand children as the comforters of their eyes, as their source ofjoy, of ofjoy, peaceand solace and not a suppressed oppressedpeace and solace and not a suppressed and oppressed class to be and classto be dominated andover-powered. Mansdominationdominated and over-powered. Mans domination and suppression andsuppression of woman and childrengo against very spirit Islam,whichof woman and children go against the very spirit of Islam, which the assertsthat commandis only for Allah, not for man. The timeasserts that command is only for Allah, not for man. The time when a child is born,the Islamicclarioncalrthat thereis no godwhen a child is born, the Islamic clarion call that there is no god but Allah is conveyed into his ears,but Allah is conveyed into his ears, which implies that he should which impliesthat he should submit to nonesaveAllah. Besides, is arsoevidentfrom one submit to none save Allah. Besides, it is also evident from one of the traditions that whenevera child the prophets (pbuh)the traditions that whenever a child in the Prophets (pbuh) householdbegins speak,the prophet (pbuh)thought him thehousehold begins to speak, the Prophet (pbuh) thoughthim the second verse surah al-Furqanwhich gives the message of second verse of Surah al-Furqan which gives the message of Allahs Sovereignty and the Unity of God (Tawhid). The Allahs Sovereignty and the Unity of God (Tawhid). The translation its verseis asfollows: translatioJ:l of its verse as follows:He to Whom belongsHe Whom belongsThe dominionof the heavensThe dominion of the heavensAnd the earth-no sonAnd the earth- no sonHasHe begotten, HasHeHas begotten, nor HasA partnerin His dominionA partner dominionIt is He Who createdIt is He createdAll things,andorderedthemAll things, and ordered themIn dueproportions.In due from the very beginning,Islam emphasizes childrenshouldSo from the very beginning, Islam emphasizes that children should thatbe ingrainedwith the Tawhidic messageand that they shouldbe ingrained with the Tawhidic message and that they shouldwillingly submitto nonebut Ailah. It dols not howevermean thatwillingly submit to none but Allah. It does not however mean that 9
  14. 14. they are not expected to obey their parents rather Islam enjoins they are not. expected to obey their parents rather Islam enjoinschildren to be good to their parents which shall be discussed later. children to be good to their parentswhich shall be discussedlater.Islam also encourages that both parents, mother and father should Islam also encouragesthat both parents, mother and father shouldexpress their utmost love to their children, give them time, play express their utmost love to their children, give them time, playwith them and cheer them up through many ways of interactionwith them and cheer them up through many of interactionwith them. It is reported that Hadrat Amir (may Allah be pleased with them. It is reported that Hadrat Amir (may be pleasedwith him) who held a high position in the government during thewith him) who held a high position in the government thereign of Hadrat Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) once reign of Hadrat Umar (may be pleased oncevisited the house of Hadrat Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) visited the house of Hadrat Umar (may be pleasedand was surprised to see that few children had mounted the chest and was surprised to see that had mounted chestof Caliph and were engaged in playing. Seeing the astonishment of Caliph and were engaged Seeing astonishmentof Amir (may Allah be pleased with him) the Caliph enquired of Amir (may be pleased enquiredabout his treatment to his children? Upon this, he replied: "Amir about his treatment his children? this, he replied: "Amirul-Muminin, as soon as I enter my house the people of my ul-Muminin, as soon as enter house people ofhousehold are struck with terror and stand dumb with fear. On household are and stand with fear. hearing this,hearing this, the Caliph said: "Amir (may Allah be pleased with said: "Amir Allah pleased withyou) you are a follower of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings are follower of the Holy (peace and blessingsbe upon him) and yet are ignorant of the important injunction that be and are of Muslim should behavea Muslim should behave towards his family members with familv members with extremeextreme love and deep tenderness. " and deep tenderness.It explicitly revealsIt explicitly reveals that Islam is completely against the despotic againstandand tyrannical attitude of father and male members of the family of and members of familyover wives and children. Islam expects from man a gentlemanly and expectsbehavior not harsh approach towards his family. The prophet harsh approach family. Prophet(pbuh) said: said:The best of you is he who is the best to his family, and II am theThe best of who family, thebest to my family.bestThe relationship between man and woman in Islam is not thereforeThe relationship woman in Islam not thereforethe relationship of master and servant but that of garments to eachthe relationship of but that of garments toother and also protecting friends of one another. The euran says:other and also protecting friends of The Quran says:They are garments for you and you are garments for them.They are garments for you you garments for them. l0 10
  15. 15. Thus the very basis family in Islam are faith, love, concernThus the very basis of family in Islam are faith, love, concern andandcare eachother so that turns out be a groundcare for each other so that it turns out to be a civilizing ground forchildren. Husbandand peaceand lovechildren. Husband and wife who live in peace and love with each who eachother can concentrateother can concentrate well over their children and can bring them over their children and can bring themup moral excellence,up with moral excellence, best education and spiritual orientation. best education and spiritual orientation.Such children would not only contribute their potentialitiesSuch children would not only contribute their potentialitiestowards the construction society future, but remainas atowards the construction of society in future, but will remain as ablessing;br their parentseven after the death their parents.blessing lur their parents even after the death of their parents.Parents suchchildrenParents of such children will continue to enjoy the rewards of their continue enjoythe rewards theirbest education training,which they imparted their children. andbest education and training, which they imparted to their children.TheProphet (pbuh)said-.The Prophet (pbuh) said-.The actionsof man cease his death. there are three deedsThe actions of man cease with his death. But there are three deedswhose rewardand blessingcontinue reachwhose reward and blessing continue to reach him even after death. evenafter death.One that he should make a sadaqa jariah (recurring charity);One that he should make a sadaqajariah (recurring charity);Secondly,he should leave behind a legacy knowledgeSecondly, he should leave behind a legacy of knowledge from fromwhich people may continue derive benefit; Thirdly, piouswhich people may continue to derive benefit; Thirdly, piousoffspringwho continuouslyoffspring who continuously invoke mercy of Allah upon him. invokemercyof Allah upon him.Children are the blessingswhich Allah (svw)bestow parents.Children are the blessings which Allah (swt) bestow to parents. if these children are not educated trainedproperly,they andBut if these children are not educated and trained properly, theybecome nuisance the parentsandthe society. Whereas, the ifbecome nuisance to the parents and the society. Whereas, if thechildren are adequatelyeducated andtrained,they shall becomechildren are adequately educated and trained, they shall becomebearers Islamic mission, transmitters Islamicculturein thebearers of Islamic mission, transmitters of Islamic culture in thesocietyandalsobestrewards their deceased parents.society and also best rewards for their deceased parents.Islamforbidsabortionand infanticide.The Quransays.Islam forbids abortion and infanticide. The Quran says:Slay not your childrenfearingpoverty. We shallprovide themSlay not your children fearing poverty. We shall provide for themandfor you. Lo! The slaying themis greatsin.and for you. Lo! The slaying of them is great sin.Those who their children out their foolishnessThose who kill their children out of their foolishness are the are thegreatest losers.greatest losers. 11
  16. 16. Thus, abortions, child-abuse and infanticide are all considered asThus, abortions,child-abuse and infanticideare all considered as Isiam. Islam by its very natureis againstcrueltyheinous sins in lsiam. Islam by its very nature is against crueltyheinous sinsand barbarity. use of contraception loop, shield,plasticand barbarity. Any use of contraception loop, shield, plastic or cause abortion is forbidden. Even if abortion is doneanything to cause abortion is forbidden. Even if abortion is doneanything seven days, is unlawful, sincethe fertilizedovum goingin seven days, it is unlawful, since the fertilized ovum is going tobe a human being. However, only on one conditionabortionisbe a human being. However, only on one condition abortion isallowed - savethe of the mother.allowed - to save the life of the mother. point out here that Islam is not againstIt is also important to point out here that Islam is not against is also importanttechnology, but misuse of, but misuse instance, if technology. For instance, iftechnological devices help mothers lessensometechnological devices help mothers to lessen some of their theircomplicationsduring prenatalperiodand childbirth Islam hasnocomplications during prenatal period and childbirth, Islam has noobjection. But, if the technological devices are discovered andobjection. But, if the technological devicesare discovered andused to let unmarried women or teenage girls to have babies ifused let unmarried women teenage havebabiesifthey wish to, Islam strongly objects it. Similarly, if suchthey wish to, Islam strongly objects it. Similarly, if suchcontraceptive devices are invented through which unmarriedcontraceptive devices are invented through which unmarriedwomen teenage girls can engage sexualrelationshipswomen or teenage girls can engage in sexual relationships without withoutbecoming pregnant,Islam rejects completely.Likewise,Islambecoming pregnant, Islam rejects it completely. Likewise, Islamcondemn high-tech reproductive aids developed to produceconderr.n high-tech reproductive aids developed produceartificial mothers, fathers and children, as well as, technologicalartificial mothers,fathers and children,aswell as,technologicalways and means through which lesbians and homosexuals engageway$ and means throughwhich lesbians homosexuals and engage their deviant sexuality get children. fact, Islam is totallyin their deviant sexuality to get children. In fact, Islam is totallyagainst all deviant forms of sexuality. The Quran says:against deviantforms sexuality. The Quransays: allWould you really approach men your lustsratherthanwomen?Would you really approach men in your lusts rather than women?Nay, ye are a people(grossly)ignorant.Nay, ye are a people (grossly) ignorant.Islam, no doubt encouragesIslam, no doubt encourages man to beget children, but through man begetchildren,but throughrightful mean not by unlawful act. The Qur1an points out how onerightful meannot by unlawful act. The Quranpointsout how one the Prophets Hadhrat Zakaia (peacebe upon him) prayedof the Prophets Hadhrat Zakaria (peace be upon him) prayed toAllah (swt) the piousoffspringeven a very old age:Allah (swt) for the pious offspring even in a very old age:Lord! Bestow upon me by Thy bounty goodly offspring - Lo!Lord! Bestow upon me by Thy bountygoodly offspring LolThou art the Hearer prayer.Thou art the Hearer of prayer. 12 12
  17. 17. As far as the invitro fertilization (IVF) andtesttubebabiesAs far as the invitro fertilization (IYF) and test tube babies are are concerned, Islam allows only if theovacomesconcerned, Islam allows only if the ova comes from the mother from the mother and the sperm from the fatherandthe embryois transferredand the sperm from the father and the embryo is transferred into into the uterusof onesown wife. Any otherusage theinvitrothe uterus of ones own wife. Any other usage of the invitro of fertilization by any womanor manwho are not marriedwith eachfertilization by any woman or man who are not married with each other but would like to follow this technologyis not acceptableother but would like to follow this technology is not acceptable inin Islam.Islam. Islamic stanceon artificial inseminationis also quite clear. ItIslamic stance on artificial insemination is also quite clear. It forbids the use of the sperm of anyone other thin that of theforbids the use of the sperm of anyone other than that of the husbandto be usedin the process artificial insemination.suchhusband to be used in the process of artificial insemination. Such of an act tantamountto adultery, from Islamicperspective,an act tantamount to adultery, from Islamic perspective, since it sinceit - fallsoutside martialunion manandwoman. the offalls outside the martial union of man and woman.Obligations Children Towardstheir parents: ofObligations of Children Towards their Parents:There is a reciprocity rightsanddutiesin Islam. while parenrsThere is a reciprocity of rights and duties in Islam. While parentsare enjoinedto be mindful their childrenare enjoined to be mindful of their children for their overall their overalldevelopment, childrenarealsoexhorted be obedient kinddevelopment, children are also exhorted to be obedient and kind to andtheir parents.their parents.Both parents childrenhave corresponding dutiestowardseach andBoth parents and children havecorresponding duties towards eachother alongother along with their rights. Thereare several their rights. There are several euranic verses Quranic versesand Propheticand Prophetic traditionswhich tkow abundance light on the of traditions which throw abundance irtigtt theetiquette childrentowardstheir parents.The euran saiys:etiquette of children towards their parents. The Quran says: ofThy Lord hathdecreed ye worshipnonesaveHim and(that yeThy Lord hath decreed that ye worship none save Him and (that ye thatshow)kindness kindness to parents. toIslam thusordainedchildren to be kind andgratefulto his parents.Islam thus ordained childrento be kind and grateful to his parents.Good conduct towards parentsis even regardedas a key toGood conduct towards parents is even regarded as a key toparadise.The Prophet(pbuh) said: paradise. The Prophet (pbuh) said:Your entry into Paradiseor Hell depends on your goodor badYour entry into Paradise or Hell depends on your good or badconducttowards your parents.conduct towards your parents. 13
  18. 18. Another tradition of the Prophet (pbuh) also highlights theAnother tradition of the Prophet (pbuh) also highlights thenecessity fair treatment parents children: of to bynecessity of fair treatment to parents by children:Let that man be disgraced, and disgraced again and let him beLet that man be disgraced, and disgraced again and let him bedisgracedeven more. The peopleEnquired:"O Prophetof Goddisgraced even more. The people Enquired: "0 Prophet of God(pbuh) who is that man? The Prophetaffrrmed: "I refer the man(pbuh) who is that man? The Prophet affirmed: "l refer to the manwho finds his parents old in age- both them one themwho finds his parents old in age - both of them or one of them -and yet did not earn entitlement to Paradise renderinggoodand yet did not earn entitlement to Paradise by rendering good byservice them. toservice to them. seems also pertinentto point out herethat althoughchildren areIt seems also pertinent to point out here that although children areexhorted be obedient and kind to both parents, a greaterexhorted to be obedient and kind to both parents, a greateremphasis is given for more better treatment and devotionemphasis is given for more better treatment and devotion tomother. This is obviously because her greatersacrificesmother. This is obviously because of her greater sacrifices and andsufferings children. The Quran says:sufferings for children. The Quran says:And We havecommanded unto man kindness towardsparentsAnd We have commanded unto man kindness towards parents His Hismother beareth himmother beareth him with suffering bringing forth with suffering, sufferingbringing forth suffering,bearinghim andweaning him thirty months.bearing him and weaning of him in thirty months.This is alsoillustrated throughvruiousPropheticThis is also illustrated through various Prophetic traditions: traditions: enjoinman abouthis mother.I enjoin man about his mother. enjoinman abouthis mother.I enjoin man about his mother.I enjoin man about his mother. enjoinman abouthis mother.I enjoin manabout his father. enjoinman abouthis father.Thus motherhood in Islam is not discardedas a burden, aThus motherhood Islam not discarded as burden,stumbling block for womansdevelopment, source oppressionstumbling block womans development, a source of oppression ofand suppression. It is lookeduponwith respectand suppression. is looked upon respect and honor and is and honor al)d isconsideredas a blessing from Allah (swt) to man. Motherlyconsidered as blessing from (swt) man. Motherlyaffection and care deemsindispensable for the properupbringingaffection and care deems indispensable the proper upbringingof childrenalongwith fathersof children along fathers affectionand concern.Motherhood affection and concern. Motherhoodis regarded an essential regarded as an essential institution humancivilization. as institution for human civilization. 14
  19. 19. As discussed above,Islam attaches great importanceto the mutualAs discussed above, Islam attaches great importance to the mutual Iove and concern for eachother in the family. As father is askedlove and concern for each other in the family. As father is asked to prayto Allah (swt) to bring in his wife and childrencomfort forto pray to Allah (swt) to bring in his wife and children comfort for his eyes, children are exhorted to show glancesof love andhis eyes, children are exhorted to show glances of love and devotionto parents.The Prophet(pbuh) said:devotion to parents. The Prophet (pbuh) said: "The pious offspring who castes single look of affection at hisliThe pious offspring who castes a single look of affection at his a parents receives a reward from God equal to the rewardof anparents receives a reward from God equal to the reward of an acceptedHajj." The peoplesubmitted: Prophet Allah (peaceaccepted Hajj.1I The people submitted: 110 Prophet of Allah (peace "O ofbe uponyou), if someone castsa hundred suchglances love andbe upon you), if someone casts a hundred such glances of love and ofaffection at his parents, what then?"The Prophetreplied: "yes,affection at his parents, what then?1I The Prophet replied: IIYes,indeed, even if one does so a hundredindeed, even if one does so a hundred time a day, he will get a time a day,he get ahundred fold reward. God is far greaterthan you imagineand ishundred fold reward. God is far greater than you imagine and iscompletelyfree from petty narrow mindedness.completely free from petty narrow mindedness.Childrenare also exhortedto pray their parents;Children are also exhorted to pray for their parents:O, our Lord! Grant forgiveness my parentsandme and pardon0, our Lord! Grant forgiveness to my parents and me and pardon the faithful on the Day Reckoning.all the faithful on the Day of Reckoning.Few Observationson the Above Discussion:Few Observations on the Above Discussion: I sexuality, reproduction and parents and children relationship1. Sexuality, reproduction parentsand children relationshipin andthe family are all perceivedin Islam as natural and essentialthe family are perceived Islam as natural and essentialaspects of mans life and are not separatedfrom the wholeaspects of mans and are not separated from the wholeTawhidic frameworkof life and thought. Man is alwaysremindedTawhidic framework of and thought. always remindedto be mindful of Allahsguidance throughtheserelationships be mindful of Allahs guidance all through these relationshipswhethersexualor parental.whether sexual parental.2 sexuality and reproduction outside marriage are rejected2. Sexuality and reproduction outside marriage are rejecteddownright and consideredunlawful, no matterall technologicaldownright and considered unlawful, matter technologicaldevicesmake thempossibledevices makethem possible outsidemarriage. outside marriage.I3. A loving, devoted, peaceful and harmoniousrelationship A loving, devoted, peaceful and harmonious relationshipbetween husband and wife is greatly emphasized. Man,s between husband and wife is greatly emphasized. Mansdomination and womans subservience man are completely domination and womans subservience to man are completely to l15 5
  20. 20. rejected. Men and women complement each other and not rejected. Men and women complement each other and notcompete against each other. Islamic family system is neither compete against each other. Islamic family system is neitherpatriarchalnor matriarchal,ratherconsultational,shura-based.patriarchal nor matriarchal, rather consultational, shura-based.4. An affectionate, cordial, intimate and a deeper relationship4. An affectionate, cordial, intimate and a deeper relationshipbetween parentsand children is strongly upheld in Islam. A stablebetween parents and children is strongly upheld in Islam. A stablefamily of caring parents and devoted children is expectedfor afamily of caring parents and devoted children is expected for abetter society and a healthiercivilization.better society healthier civilization.Conclusion:Conclusion:We cannotafficrdto be complacentand take comfort in the IslamicWe cannot afford complacent andtheories of senrality, reproductioq husbandand wife relationshiptheories of sexuality, reproduction, husband and relationshipand parents and childrtn relationship which are based on theand parents and children relationship are basedQuranic injunctions and Prophetic traditions unless we seetheseQu/anic injunctions and Prophetictraditionsunless see thesetheories are put into Practice.theoriesare practice. generallyfound out that the relationshippatternsFor instance, it is generally found out that the relationship patterns instance, and betweenpafentsand children evenbetween husband and wife and between parents and children evenbetween husbandand societiesare also not satisfactory. Broadly therein some Muslim societies are also not satisfactory. Broadly there someare three problems:arethree problems: L Men tend to keep a despotic attitude towards women and1. Men tend to keep a despotic attitude towards women and communication gap betweenthe malechildren. There is a big communication gap between the malechildren. There is amembersand femalesand children. Men expectfrom women onlymembers and females and children. Men expect from women onlyfamilial serviceof cooking, cleaningand children care. Exchangefamilial service of cooking, cleaning and children care. Exchangeof thoughts and ideas on any problem of the outsideworld, ofof thoughts and ideas on any problem of the outside world, ofMuslim Ummah, of intellectual or of any other field is almostMuslim Ummah, of intellectual or of any other field is almost absent. Insteadof a loving and caring environment,a fearful andabsent. Instead of a loving and caring environment, a fearful and tensedenvironmentprevails in the house because men usuallytensed environment prevails in the house because men usually maintain distance from women and children as a mark of theirmaintain distance from women and children as a mark of their eventurns to beartificial honor. This sort of honor sometimes even turns to be artificial honor. This sort of honor sometimes other family members and distorts all sorts ofhorrific among other family members and distorts all sorts of horrific among relationships. Although it goes against Islamic injunctions asrelationships. Although it goes against Islamic injunctions as evena religioushalo is attached it todescribed above, sometimes even a religious halo is attached to it describedabove, sometimes 16 l6
  21. 21. for which reason women and children could hardly expressfor which reason women and children could hardly express themselves become victims of horror. andthemselves and becomevictims of horror. z- ln some cases, women are aloneexpectedto take over all the2. In some cases, women are alone expected to take over all the responsibilities of children and men completely exempt from it.responsibilities of children and men completely exempt from it. For the better educational upbringing of chi-ldren,For the better educational upbringing of children, both mother and bottr motherand father require to play their important roles. In thosefamiliesfather require to play their important roles. In those families where women are hardly educated, it becomes all the morewhere women are hardly educated, it becomes all the more problematicfor children to get proper educationalfeedback.problematic for children to get proper educational feedback. whereas in some cases, where both parents are educatedandWhereas in some cases, where both parents are educated and working, again children becomethe victims sincethey do not getworking, again children become the victims since they do not get proper attention from their parents. Men claim that ihey are tooproper attention from their parents. Men claim that they are too busy and women blame men for non-co-operation house-choresbusy and women blame men for non-eo-operation in house-chores in and claim that they are over-burdenedand claim that they are over-burdened with double workload and doubleworkload and tend to neglectchildren. children feel that they are alienatedfromtend to neglect children. Children feel that they are alienated from both parents.both parents.3. Due3. Due to lack of mutual understanding and confidence on each lack of mutual understanding confidenceon each andotheq the relationships between husband andother, the relationships between husband and wife grows tensed grows tensedand sometimes givesrise divorce. children of divorcedparentsand sometimes gives rise to divorce. Children of divorced parentsturn out to be aggressivetum out to be aggressive and anti-social. and anti-social. 17
  22. 22. References:References: comprehensive and convincing study on Islam as the1. For a comprehensiveand convincing study-o_nIslam as thel.complete wai of life, see various books of Syed Abul Alacomplete way of see various books of SyedMawdudi such as - Islamic Way of Life, Lahore IslamicMawdudi ruih as - of Lahore IslamicPublications, 1992; see also uS be Muslims, Lumpur,publications, 1992; see also Let us be Muslims, Kuala Lumpur, Foundation, A.S. Noordeen, l99l Islamic Foundation, A.S Noordeen 1991.The IslamicThe For a For Islam, seeMohamcontemporary perspective on Islarq see Mohammadcontemporary perspective Ahmedullah mad Ahmedullah ContemporaryPerspective, Chicago,Siddiqi (ed.), Islam-. A Contemporary Perspective,siddiqi (ed),Islam-. chicago,NAA1.1PS Publication, 1994.NAAMPS Publication, 1994.2. See Ismaiel Raji al-Faruqi, Tawhid: Its Implications for2,. see Ismaiel al-Faruqi, Tawhid: ImplicationsThought and Life,if,ougf,r and Herndon, lIIT, 1982; Mohammad Nejatullah Herndon" IiIT, 1982;MohammadNejatullahSiddiqui, Tawhid- The Concept and the Process, in KhurshidSiddi[ui, Tawhid- The Concept and the Process, KhurshidAhmed andZafarIshaq Ansar ed., IslamicAhmed and Zafar Ishaq Ansar ed., Islamic Perspectives Studies in Perspectives StudiesHonor sayyed Mawdudi, Leicester IslamicHonor of Sayyed Abul Ala Mawdudi, Leicester, IslamicFoundation, 1979, l 7-33.Foundation, 1979, pp. 17-33. PP.3. Al-Quran 2:30~ For a concrete understanding of the universal3. Al-Quran 2:30; a concreteunderstanding the universal ofmissionary role of a Muslim, see Sayyed Abul Ala Mawdudi,mission:aryrole oi a Muslim, see Sayyed A!u! Mawdudi Foundation, 1995 .Witness unto Mankind, Leicester, Islamic FoundationWitnessunto Mankind,Leicester, Islamic 19954. Al-Quran 30:214. Al-Quran30:21 5. Al-Quran 13:38. 5. Al-Quran l3:38. 6. Al-Quran 4-.21. 6. Al-Quran4-.21. Abdur Rauf, Islamic 7. Al-Quran 17-.323-1 see also Mohammed Abdur Rauf, Islamic 7. Al-Qutan l7-.3?3-l seealsoMohammed View of Woman and the Woman and the Family, Chicago Kazi Family, Chicago, Kazi 1996. Publications, 1996. Publications, MarriageHa 8. Sahih ai-Muslim, chapter, The Book of Marriage, Ha L Sahihat-Muslinr,chapter,The 18 IE
  23. 23. i-;rTlpt-6rp),lzlt.-i