5. For Magda, Andrés, and FedericoIn Memory of Julio H. Campo (1925–2006) Que bonita es esta vida . . .
6. contents KAbout the Editors and Contributors ixList of Illustrations and Maps xvPreface xviiAcknowledgments xixIntroduction xxiChronology xxxviiENTRIES A TO Z 1Bibliography 725Index 731
7. about the editors and contributors KSeries Editor program. He specializes in the comparativeJ. Gordon Melton is the director of the Institute for study of the cultural formations of Islam in the the Study of American Religion in Santa Bar- Middle East and South Asia, sacred space and bara, California. He holds an M.Div. from the pilgrimage, and political Islam in the contexts Garrett Theological Seminary and a Ph.D. from of modernity. His research has taken him to Northwestern University. Melton is the author Egypt, where he has lived, studied, or taught of American Religions: An Illustrated History, The for nearly six years, as well as India, Saudi Encyclopedia of American Religions, Religious Arabia, Bahrain, Turkey, Malaysia, Singapore, Leaders of America, and several comprehensive Thailand, and Israel. Professor Campo’s first works on Islamic culture, African-American book, The Other Sides of Paradise: Explorations religion, cults, and alternative religions. He has in the Religious Meanings of Domestic Space in written or edited more than three dozen books Islam, won the American Academy of Religion’s and anthologies as well as numerous papers and award for excellence, in 1991. He has edited articles for scholarly journals. He is the series or contributed articles to a number of leading editor for Religious Information Systems, which reference works, including Merriam-Webster’s supplies data and information in religious stud- Encyclopedia of World Religions, Encyclopedia of ies and related fields. Melton is a member of the the Qur’an, and the Macmillan Encyclopedia of American Academy of Religion, the Society for Islam and the Muslim World. His current projects the Scientific Study of Religion, the American include a comparative study of modern Muslim, Society of Church History, the Communal Stud- Hindu, and Christian pilgrimage. ies Association, and the Society for the Study of Metaphysical Religion. Contributors Fahad A. Alhomoudi holds a Ph.D. from McGillVolume Editor University. He is the vice dean of academicJuan E. Campo, associate professor of religious research at al-Imam Muhammad bin Saud studies at the University of California, Santa Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He Barbara, holds an M.A. and Ph.D. from the specializes in Islamic thought and Islamic law, University of Chicago’s History of Religions with a focus on its origins. He is the author of ix
8. K Encyclopedia of Islam Protecting the Environment and Natural Resource relations and shared religious spaces. Her cur- in Islamic Law (published in Arabic, 2004). He rent book project is called Sharing the Sacred: has presented numerous scholarly papers on Devotion and Pluralism in Muslim North India. topics such as Islamic law and the modern state: Vincent F Biondo III is assistant professor of reli- . conflict or coexistence? and a critical study of gious studies at California State University in the translations of Hadith terminology. Fresno. He received a Ph.D. from the UniversityJessica Andruss earned an M.A. in religious stud- of California, Santa Barbara. His specialization ies at the University of California, Santa Bar- is the religious traditions of the West, with a bara, and is now a Ph.D. candidate at the focus on Islam in America and Great Britain. He University of Chicago’s Divinity School. Her is author of several articles and coeditor of Reli- area of specialization is in medieval Jewish and gion in the Practice of Daily Life (forthcoming). Muslim scriptural exegesis. Stephen Cory received a Ph.D. in Islamic historyJon Armajani earned a Ph.D. in religious studies from the University of California, Santa Bar- with a focus in Islamic studies and Near East- bara. His specialty is the history of North Africa ern studies from the University of California, and Islamic Spain during the late medieval and Santa Barbara. His areas of expertise include early modern periods. He is currently an assis- modern Islam and Muslim-Christian relations. tant professor in history and religious studies He is the author of Dynamic Islam: Liberal at Cleveland State University. Muslim Perspectives in a Transnational Age and David L. Crawford is assistant professor of sociol- assistant professor in the Department of The- ogy and anthropology at Fairfield University. He ology at the College of St. Benedict/St. John’s received a Ph.D. from the University of Califor- University in Minnesota. nia, Santa Barbara. He specializes in the study ofReza Aslan is assistant professor at the University the societies of North Africa with a focus on the of California, Riverside and author of No god, Amazigh people of Morocco. He is the author but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of of Amazigh Households in the World Economy: Islam. He is also a research associate at the Labor and Inequality in a Moroccan Village and a University of Southern California’s Center on number of articles and chapters on contempo- Public Diplomacy. His commentaries on Islam rary Moroccan society and politics. and the Middle East have appeared in the Los Maria del Mar Logrono-Narbona received a Ph.D. Angeles Times, the New York Times, the Wash- in history, with a focus on modern Middle ington Post, and the Boston Globe. He has also Eastern history, from the University of Cali- appeared on a number of major network and fornia, Santa Barbara. She specializes in the cable news programs. transnational connections between Syrian andA. Nazir Atassi is assistant professor of history Lebanese diasporas in Latin America during at Louisiana Tech University. He received a the first half of the 20th century. She is cur- Ph.D. from the University of California, Santa rently visiting professor at Appalachian State Barbara. He specializes in Islamic and Middle University, North Carolina. Eastern history, with a focus on early Islamic Caleb Elfenbein is a Ph.D. candidate in religious society. studies at the University of California, SantaAnna Bigelow is assistant professor of religious Barbara. He specializes in Islamic studies, with studies at North Carolina State University. She a focus on Islam in colonial and postcolonial received a Ph.D. from the University of Califor- societies. nia, Santa Barbara, in 2004. Her research focuses Kenneth S. Habib is an assistant professor in the on South Asian Islam, especially interreligious music department of the California Polytechnic
9. About the Editors and Contributors xi J State University, San Luis Obispo. His Ph.D. in Service Institute of the U.S. Department of State ethnomusicology is from the University of Cal- in Washington, D.C. He holds a Ph.D. in Islamic ifornia, Santa Barbara, with specializations in studies from the University of California, Santa Middle Eastern and American popular music. Barbara. His research interests include medi- He also has taught music at Pomona College eval Islamic history, Muslim-Christian rela- and the University of California, Santa Barbara, tions, and modern Egyptian saints. taught Arabic at Santa Barbara City College, Linda G. Jones received a Ph.D. in the history and served as assistant to the director of the of religions from the University of California, Middlebury College Arabic School. Santa Barbara, with a focus on medieval IslamAysha A. Hidayatullah is a Ph.D. candidate in and Christianity in Spain and North Africa. She religious studies at the University of Califor- has edited and coauthored (with Madeleine nia, Santa Barbara. Her dissertation research Pelner Cosman) the Handbook to Life in the examines newly emerging forms of feminist Middle Ages. She is currently Juan de la Cierva theology in Islam. She has written on a number Researcher at the Spanish National Research of topics concerning gender and sexuality in Council (Department of Medieval Studies) in Islam, including the life of Mary the Copt, the Barcelona, Spain. prophet Muhammad’s Egyptian consort. Heather N. Keaney is an assistant professorJosh Hoffman is a Ph.D. student at the Univer- of history at American University in Cairo. sity of California, Santa Barbara, where he She received a Ph.D. from the University of specializes in modern Middle Eastern history. California, Santa Barbara. She specializes in His fields of expertise also include premodern debates on religiopolitical legitimacy in Islamic Middle Eastern history, global/world history, history and historiography. She has published nationalism, political Islam, international “The First Islamic Revolt in Mamluk Collec- law, and human rights. tive Memory: Ibn Bakr’s (d. 1340) PortrayalShauna Huffaker is on the history faculty at the of the Third Caliph Uthman” in Ideas, Images, University of Windsor, Canada. She holds an and Methods of Portrayal: Insights into Classical M.A. from the School of Oriental and African Arabic Literature and Islam, edited by Sebastian Studies in London and a Ph.D. from the Uni- Gunther. versity of California, Santa Barbara. Her spe- Jeffrey Kenney received a Ph.D. in religious stud- cialization is in Islamic history, with a focus on ies from the University of California, Santa Bar- social history during the Middle Ages. bara. He is a specialist in Islam and the authorAmir Hussain holds a Ph.D. from the University of Muslim Rebels: Kharijites and the Politics of of Toronto. He is associate professor in the Extremism in Egypt. He is currently a professor Department of Theological Studies at Loyola at DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana. Marymount University. He specializes in the Ruqayya Yasmine Khan received a Ph.D. from the study of Islam, with a focus on contemporary University of Pennsylvania. She is a specialist Muslim societies. He is the author of Oil and in Islamic studies. Her book Self and Secrecy Water: Two Faiths, One God. His commentaries in Early Islam is forthcoming from the Univer- and interviews on contemporary Islam have sity of South Carolina Press (Studies in Com- appeared in the Los Angeles Times, the New parative Religion). She is currently an associate York Times, the Washington Post, and the Chris- professor at Trinity University in San Antonio, tian Science Monitor. Texas.John Iskander is director of the Near East/North Nuha N. N. Khoury is associate professor of the Africa Division of Area Studies at the Foreign history of art and architecture at the University
10. K xii Encyclopedia of Islam of California, Santa Barbara. She specializes in bara. She specializes in the study of Pacific Rim the history of Islamic architecture and urban- religions, with a focus on the Philippines. ism, medieval Islamic iconography, and modern Kathleen M. O’Connor is assistant professor of Arab art. Her research has appeared in Muqar- religious studies at the University of South nas: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture, Florida. She specializes in Islamic studies, with the International Journal of Middle East Studies, focuses on Islam in the African American com- and the Journal of Near Eastern Studies. She also munity, Islamic medicine, and folk religion. She contributed to Autobiography in Medieval Arabic has published articles and chapters on Islamic Tradition, edited by Dwight Reynolds. healing systems and African American Islam,Max Leeming is on the religion faculty of Vassar and contributed to the Encyclopedia of the College, where she teaches Islamic studies and Quran. Her current book project is The Worlds the history of religions, with a focus on sacred of Interpretation of African American Muslims. space in the Islamic Middle East. Patrick S. O’Donnell holds an M.A. in religiousLaura Lohman received a Ph.D. from the Uni- studies from the University of California, Santa versity of Pennsylvania and specializes in the Barbara, and is an adjunct instructor in the music of the Middle East. Her research on Department of Philosophy at Santa Barbara City Egyptian singer Umm Kulthum appears in College. He has published articles, reviews, and Music and the Play of Power in the Middle East, bibliographies in the following journals: The North Africa and Central Asia (Ashgate). She Good Society, Globalization, Radical Pedagogy, is an assistant professor of music at California Theory and Science, and Philosophy East West. State University, Fullerton, where she is com- Among the encyclopedias he has contributed pleting a study of the singer’s late career and to are the Biographical Encyclopedia of Islamic reception history (Wesleyan University Press). Philosophers and the Encyclopedia of Love inGregory Mack is a Ph.D. candidate at the Institute World Religions. of Islamic Studies at McGill University. He Kate O’Halloran is a writer and editor specializing holds an M.A. from the University of Toronto. in world history. She holds an M.A. in modern His specialization is Islamic law; his research literature and languages (French and German) presently focuses on legal reforms in the Mid- from Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland and has dle East. published several books for students.Garay Menicucci is the associate director of the Sophia Pandya is an assistant professor of reli- Office of International Students and Scholars gious studies at California State University, at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Long Beach. She received a Ph.D. from the He has a Ph.D. in Middle East history from University of California, Santa Barbara. Her Georgetown University. He is a past editorial specialization is in the area of women, religion, committee member and author for the Middle and the developing world, with an emphasis on East Report and teaches an introduction to Mid- women and Islam. She has authored an article dle East studies and Arab cinema at the Univer- on women and religious education in Bahrain. sity of California, Santa Barbara. He has also Firoozeh Papan-Matin is the director of Persian organized and led several summer seminars in and Iranian studies at the University of Wash- Egypt and Jordan for California K-12 teachers ington, Seattle. She has a master’s in English and administrators, funded by Fulbright-Hays literature and a second master’s and a doctor- Group Projects grants. ate in Iranian studies from University of Cali-Tara Munson is a Ph.D. student in religious stud- fornia, Santa Barbara. Her dissertation research ies at the University of California, Santa Bar- is on 12th-century Islamic mysticism in Iran.
11. About the Editors and Contributors xiii J She has published articles on classical and in postcolonial media theory, Asian cinemas, modern Persian literature. She is the author of and Marxist cultural theory. He is the author The Love Poems of Shamlu and The Unveiling of of Mourning in the Nation: Indian Cinema in the Secrets Kashf al-Asrar: The Visionary Autobiog- Wake of Partition (forthcoming, 2008) and has raphy of Ruzbihan Baqli. published essays on philosophies of visualityDavid Reeves is a Ph.D. candidate in history at and Indian and Chinese popular cinemas in the University of California, Santa Barbara. He anthologies and journals such as Quarterly specializes in the history of Islam in the Soviet Review of Film and Video, Rethinking History: Union, with a focus on Azerbaijan during the Theory and Practice, and New Review of Film Stalin era. He has been awarded a Fulbright- and Television Studies. Hayes Fellowship, a University of California, Megan Adamson Sijapati is assistant professor of Santa Barbara, Department of History Regent’s religion at Gettysburg College. She received her Dissertation Fellowship, and a Social Science Ph.D. in religious studies from the University Research Council Pre-Dissertation Fellowship, of California, Santa Barbara. Her specialization among others, to conduct his research. is in the religions of South Asia, with a focus onMehnaz Sahibzada earned an M.A. in religious contemporary Islam. studies from the University of California, Mark Soileau received a Ph.D. in religious stud- Santa Barbara, and an M.A. in Middle Eastern ies, with a focus on Islam, from the University studies from the University of Texas at Austin. of California, Santa Barbara. He is currently Her areas of interest include Islam in America an assistant professor of religious studies at and Asian American literature. She teaches Albion College in Michigan. English at Moorpark High School in Southern Varun Soni is currently a doctoral candidate in the California. Department of Religious Studies at the Univer-Judy Saltzman is emeritus professor of religious sity of Cape Town, South Africa. He received studies at California Polytechnic University a J.D. from the University of California, Santa in San Luis Obispo. Her Ph.D. is from the Barbara, School of Law, an M.T.S. from Har- University of California, Santa Barbara. She vard Divinity School, and an M.A. from the specializes in the history of Asian religions, University of California, Santa Barbara. Indian philosophy, Vedanta, and modern Ger- Eric Staples received a Ph.D. in history from the man philosophy. University of California, Santa Barbara. He spe-Kerry San Chirico is a doctoral candidate in the cializes in medieval and early modern Middle Department of Religious Studies at the Univer- Eastern history, and focuses on the social history sity of California, Santa Barbara. He specializes of early modern Morocco, the maritime history in the religions of South Asia, with a focus on of the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean regions, Hindu-Christian relations. and underwater archaeology. He is currentlyLeslie Sargent is a Ph.D. candidate in history at involved in a project to build a replica of a medi- the University of California, Santa Barbara. She eval Indian Ocean vessel under the auspices of specializes in the history of the Russian Empire the governments of Oman and Singapore. and the Caucasus in the late 19th and early Nancy L. Stockdale is assistant professor of his- 20th centuries. tory at the University of Northern Texas.Bhaskar Sarkar is associate professor of film and She received her Ph.D. from the University media studies at the University of California, of California, Santa Barbara. Her specializa- Santa Barbara. His Ph.D. is from the Univer- tion is modern Middle Eastern history, with a sity of California, Los Angeles. He specializes focus on the history of Palestine, imperialism,
12. K xiv Encyclopedia of Islam and gender studies. She is the author of Colo- focuses on the interaction of religion and poli- nial Encounters among English and Palestinian tics in the Middle Eastern context, including Women, 1800–1948. Algeria’s civil conflict in the 1990s. Her mostJamel Velji is a Ph.D. student in religious studies recent research is on the Sayyida Zaynab shrine at the University of California, Santa Barbara. in Damascus. He specializes in Islamic studies, with a focus Z. David Zuwiyya is associate professor of Spanish on Ismaili Shiism and the comparative study of at Auburn University in Alabama. He received apocalyptic movements. a Ph.D. in Spanish medieval literature from theMichelle Zimney is a doctoral candidate in the University of California, Santa Barbara. He is Department of Religious Studies at the Univer- the author of Islamic Legends concerning Alex- sity of California, Santa Barbara. Her research ander the Great.
13. list of illustrations and maps K Illustrations Boats on the Nile River at European Muslim community Aswan 110 Center 218Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud with Bookbinder in Cairo 112 Poster of the evil eye 220 President Franklin D. Painting of a depiction of Al- Mosque of al-Hakim of the Roosevelt 3 Buraq 118 Fatimid dynasty 232Women selling produce in the Drawing of medieval Aerial view of Fez 237 market 21 Cairo 122 Friday prayer service 243A tower in the city of Seville, Aerial view of Cairo’s City of Flags of Afghanistan, Iran, Andalusia 41 the Dead 132 Iraq, and Saui Arabia 244Photograph of an arabesque in Muslim family 136 Men baking bread 247 architecture 50 Shrine of the Chishti Sufi Kasbah Garden, Chefchaouen,The Arabic alphabet 54 Order, India 140 Morocco 256The Ibn Tulun Mosque, St. Catherine’s Monastery and Tomb of Chishti saint in Delhi, Cairo 60 mosque at Sinai 143 India 301The Court of the Lions, Movie billboards in Cairo, Marketplace commerce 302 Granada 61 Egypt 145 Excerpt from the Quran,A man painting a ceramic Coffeehouse in Cairo, written in Arabic and plate 64 Egypt 155 Hindi 307A statue of Ataturk 69 Coptic Church, Cairo 167 Murals on the side of aGenealogy of Muhammad, the Umayyad Mosque, residential house 311 caliphs and Shii imams 72 Damascus 180 City of Husayniyya 318A mural showing Quran Water containers on a street in Statue of Ibn Rushd, verses 77 Cairo 194 Cordoba 337The al-Azhar Mosque 80 Turkish meal 198 Visitors at a Muslim shrine,Bazaar in Morocco 97 Female students at Hijaza India 349A Muslim wedding School, Upper Egypt 210 Man reading in his sitting ceremony 104 Modern Cairo 211 room, Iran 363 xv
14. K xvi Encyclopedia of IslamSüleymaniye Mosque in Chefchaouen minaret, Inside Rumi’s tomb 593 Istanbul 384 Morocco 480 Poster of Chishti saints 599Aerial view of Jerusalem 391 Mount Sinai 482 Islamic centers in U.S.Muhammad Ali Jinnah posing Traditional mosques, Cairo 485 cities 692, 693, 694, 695 with his sister 400 Taj Mahal 489 Usama bin Ladin 697The Treasury, in Petra, Hilya poster 491 Image of Wahhabi Jordan 405 Mosque of Muhammad Ali, horsemen 705Three men at Husayn Mosque, Cairo 496 Turkish and American women Karbala 423 Men seated in a music shop 505 at a picnic 711Ayatollah Ruhollah Visitors to shrine of a Chishti College women from Khomeini 434 saint, Delhi, India 723 the Muslim StudentsTomb of Mahdi, Sudan 448 Association 510Mosque of Sultan Salahuddin List of the 99 names of God, in Abdul Aziz Shah, Arabic and English 516 Maps Malaysia 451 Traditional decorations forMalcolm X 453 Global Distribution of the Navruz 525Tiles depicting Mecca 466 Muslim Population xxviii Mosque of Sultan Ahmed,Poster portraying the city of Early Expansion of Islam, 622– Istanbul 539 Medina 469 Traditional prayer 557 750 xxxSchoolboys wearing clothing Image of the Tree of Historic Cairo 121 of the Mevlevi Sufi Prophets 560 Historic Delhi 187 Order 472 Photograph of a Quran Stations of the Hajj 282Praying in a mihrab 473 manuscript page, 13th–14th Historic Jerusalem 392Image of minarets, Cairo 474 century 570 Shii Populations 625
15. preface KThe Encyclopedia of World Religions series has in India across southern Asia and then throughbeen designed to provide comprehensive coverage Tibet and China to Korea and Japan. Each timeof six major global religious traditions—Buddhism, it crossed a language barrier, something was lost,Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Roman Catholicism, but something seemed equally to be gained, andand Protestant Christianity. The volumes have an array of forms of Buddhism emerged. In Japanbeen constructed in an A-to-Z format to provide a alone, Buddhism exists in hundreds of differenthandy guide to the major terms, concepts, people, sect groupings. Protestantism, the newest of theevents, and organizations that have, in each case, six traditions, began with at least four different andtransformed the religion from its usually modest competing forms of the religious life and has sincebeginnings to the global force that it has become. splintered into thousands of denominations. Each of these religions began as the faith of At the beginning of the 19th century, the sixa relatively small group of closely related eth- religious traditions selected for coverage in thisnic peoples. Each has, in the modern world, series were largely confined to a relatively smallbecome a global community, and, with one nota- part of the world. Since that time, the world hasble exception, each has transcended its beginning changed dramatically, with each of the traditionsto become an international multiethnic com- moving from its geographical center to become amunity. Judaism, of course, largely defines itself global tradition. While the traditional religions ofby its common heritage and ancestry and has an many countries retain the allegiance of a majorityalternative but equally fascinating story. Surviving of the population, they do so in the presence of thelong after most similar cultures from the ancient other traditions as growing minorities. Other coun-past have turned to dust, Judaism has, within the tries—China being a prominent example—have nolast century, regathered its scattered people into a religious majority, only a number of minorities thathomeland while simultaneously watching a new must periodically interface with one another.diaspora carry Jews into most of the contempo- The religiously pluralistic world created byrary world’s countries. the global diffusion of the world’s religions has Each of the major traditions has also, in the made knowledge of religions, especially religionsmodern world, become amazingly diverse. Bud- practiced by one’s neighbors, a vital resource in thedhism, for example, spread from its original home continuing task of building a good society, a world xvii
16. K xviii Encyclopedia of Islamin which all may live freely and pursue visions of dominate or form an important minority voice,the highest values the cosmos provides. where it has developed a particularly distinct In creating these encyclopedias, the attempt style (often signaled by doctrinal differences), orhas been made to be comprehensive if not exhaus- where it has a unique cultural or social presence.tive. As space allows, in approximately 800 entries, While religious statistics are amazingly difficulteach author has attempted to define and explain to assemble and evaluate, some attempt has beenthe basic terms used in talking about the religion, made to estimate the effect of the tradition on themake note of definitive events, introduce the selected countries.most prominent figures, and highlight the major In some cases, particular events have had aorganizations. The coverage is designed to result determining effect on the development of thein both a handy reference tool for the religious different religious traditions. Entries on eventsscholar/specialist and an understandable work such as the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (forthat can be used fruitfully by anyone—a student, Protestantism) or the conversion of King Asokaan informed lay person, or a reader simply want- (for Buddhism) place the spotlight on the fac-ing to look up a particular person or idea. tors precipitating the event and the consequences Each volume includes several features. They flowing from it.begin with an essay that introduces the particular The various traditions have taken form astradition and provides a quick overview of its his- communities of believers have organized struc-torical development, the major events and trends tures to promote their particular way of belief andthat have pushed it toward its present state, and practice within the tradition. Each tradition has athe mega-problems that have shaped it in the con- different way of organizing and recognizing thetemporary world. distinct groups within it. Buddhism, for example, A chronology lists the major events that have has organized around national subtraditions. Thepunctuated the religion’s history from its origin to encyclopedias give coverage to the major group-the present. The chronologies differ somewhat in ings within each tradition.emphasis, given that they treat two very ancient Each tradition has developed a way of encoun-faiths that both originated in prehistoric time, sev- tering and introducing individuals to spiritualeral more recent faiths that emerged during the last reality as well as a vocabulary for it. It has alsofew millennia, and the most recent, Protestantism, developed a set of concepts and a language tothat has yet to celebrate its 500-year anniversary. discuss the spiritual world and humanity’s place The main body of each encyclopedia is consti- within it. In each volume, the largest numbertuted of the approximately 800 entries, arranged of entries explore the concepts, the beliefs thatalphabetically. These entries include some 200 flow from them, and the practices that theybiographical entries covering religious figures of have engendered. The authors have attempted tonote in the tradition, with a distinct bias to the explain these key religious concepts in a nontech-19th and 20th centuries and some emphasis on nical language and to communicate their meaningleaders from different parts of the world. Special and logic to a person otherwise unfamiliar withattention has been given to highlighting female the religion as a whole.contributions to the tradition, a factor often Finally, each volume is thoroughly cross-overlooked, as religion in all traditions has until indexed using small caps to guide the reader torecently been largely a male-dominated affair. related entries. A bibliography and comprehen- Geographical entries cover the development sive index round out each volume.of the movement in those countries and partsof the world where the tradition has come to —J. Gordon Melton
17. acknowledgments KIn publishing the Encyclopedia of Islam I am ful to Garay Menicucci (University of California,indebted to a great many people. Creating an Santa Barbara), Nuha N. N. Khoury (University ofencyclopedia on any topic is necessarily a group California, Santa Barbara), Kathleen M. O’Connorproject, requiring the shared knowledge, insights, (University of South Florida), Amir Hussainperspectives, skills, and experiences of many. (Loyola-Marymount University in Los Angeles),The task is made even more challenging when it Jon Armajani (College of St. Benedict/St. John’sinvolves religion, which encompasses so many dif- University in Minnesota), Firoozeh Papan-Matinferent subjects—ranging from the historical, social, (University of Washington), Mark Soileau (Albionpolitical, and cultural to the spiritual, philosophi- College), Anna Bigelow (North Carolina Statecal, and doctrinal. Moreover, the global nature of University, Megan Adamson Sijapati (GettysburgIslam and the sometimes intense differences that College), Aysha Hidayatullah (Emory Univer-have arisen among Muslims and between Muslims sity), Caleb Elfenbein (University of California,and non-Muslims during the nearly 1400 years of Santa Barbara), Linda G. Jones (Spanish Nationalits history pose additional challenges when seek- Research Council in Barcelona), Patrick O’Donnelling to realize the ideals of comprehensiveness, (Santa Barbara City College), Nancy L. Stockdalefactual accuracy, and fairness. (University of North Texas), Stephen Cory (Cleve- In order to meet the challenges facing this land State University), Shauna Huffaker (Univer-undertaking, I have made a particular effort to sity of Windsor), Heather N. Keaney (Americandraw upon the wide-ranging and deep scholarly University in Cairo), and Reza Aslan (Universitytalents of the faculty, postgraduate, and graduate of California, Riverside). These individuals wrotestudents of the University of California, Santa a number of articles for the volume, offering freshBarbara, especially those specializing in Islamic perspectives obtained from their recent researchand Middle East studies. My editorial assistants, in their respective fields of expertise.John Iskander (now at the U.S. Department of Among other colleagues at the University ofState) and Michelle Zimney, helped me launch California, Santa Barbara, who have provided sup-the project and assisted with editing early drafts port and inspiration are R. Stephen Humphreys,of many of the contributed articles. Among the the holder of the King Abd Al-Aziz ibn Saud Chairmore than 40 contributors, I am especially grate- of Islamic Studies; Mark Juergensmeyer, director xix
18. K xx Encyclopedia of Islamof the Orfalea Center for Global and International sions, travel experiences, and the conversations weStudies; Scott Marcus, associate professor of eth- shared in Egypt, which enriched my understand-nomusicology; Kathleen Moore, associate profes- ing of the K-12 curriculum and the challenges oursor of law and society; Nancy Gallagher, professor teachers face in instructing young people aboutof history; and Professors Dwight Reynolds, W. unfamiliar religions, civilizations, and languages. IClark Roof, Catherine Albanese, and Richard am especially obliged to Karen Arter, Frank Stew-Hecht in religious studies. My approach to this art, and Paul and Ruth Ficken for their encourage-project was also guided by the humanism and ment and interest in this publication.spirit of public service exemplified by our late I am also grateful for the hospitality andcolleague Walter Capps and his wife, Lois. Over warmth extended to me by several cultural, inter-the years, Richard C. Martin, Fredrick M. Denny, faith, and religious organizations, including theRichard Eaton, Azim Nanji, Barbara Metcalf, Wil- Turkish-American Pacifica Institute of Los Ange-liam Shepherd, Steve Wasserstrom, Bruce B. Law- les and Orange Counties, the Interfaith Initiativerence, Gordon Newby, Jane D. McAuliffe, Zayn of Santa Barbara County, the University ReligiousKassam, Tazim Kassam, and scholars and teachers Center in Isla Vista, and the community of St.at other colleges and universities, too many to Mark’s Parish Catholic Church in Isla Vista.mention by name, have also provided invaluable At Facts On File, I owe a great debt to Claudiainspiration, directly or indirectly. Schaab and J. Gordon Melton for valuable advice My deep gratitude also goes to Kendall Busse, and infinite patience in bringing the publicationPh.D. student in religious studies, who provided to completion. Gordon graciously shared pho-skilled editorial support and helpful feedback tographs of mosques taken during his travelsalong the way, and to several undergraduate around the world.research assistants: Maria Reifel Saltzberg, Has- Publishing this book would not have beensan R. Elhaj, and Hassan Naveed. Their work was possible without the support of a wide circle offunded by the Freshman Seminar Program at the family and friends extending from the UnitedUniversity of California, Santa Barbara. Through States to Colombia (the land of my birth), Egypt,the years, my undergraduate students have con- and India. These include Shafik and Gilane, Galalsistently affirmed my belief that education is an and Negwa, Amr and Janet, Mahmoud and Suhair,ongoing process with mutual benefits that extend Said and Soraya, Mehran and Nahid, Zaveeni,well beyond the classroom. and Viji and Sujata. Above all, I am indebted to Funding provided by Fulbright-Hayes Group my wife, Magda, to whom this book is dedicated,Projects grants presented me with opportuni- for her unwavering love and encouragement inties to accompany two groups of California K-12 good times and bad, and to our sons Andrés andteachers and administrators to Egypt in 2003 and Federico as they begin to follow their own paths2004. I benefited greatly from our workshop ses- in the world.
19. introduction KAmong the world’s religions, few have attained the architectural styles to the New World, beginninghistorical, cultural, and civilizational stature and in the 16th century, which would later be adapteddiversity that Islam has. Since the seventh cen- by European and American architects for ourtury, when it first emerged in the western region modern homes, hotels, cinemas, concert halls,of the Arabian Peninsula known as the Hijaz, it shopping centers, and amusement parks. Many ofhas been continuously adapted and carried forth our homes are now decorated with beautiful rugsby its adherents, who call themselves Muslims, to and carpets that bear intricate arabesque designsnew lands and peoples in the wider Middle East, from Iran, Turkey, Pakistan, or Kashmir. CoffeeAfrica, Asia, Europe, and, more recently, to the and sugar, the favored beverages of many Ameri-Americas, Australia, and New Zealand. Indeed, cans and Europeans, are both Arabic in origin andthe new religio-historical syntheses brought about were cultivated and enjoyed in Muslim lands wellby the back-and-forth interactions of Muslims and before they reached the West.non-Muslims, and of the many different cultures Despite the record of some 14 centuries ofto which they belong, have had significant influ- such achievements, knowledge about Islam andence for centuries, not only upon the religious Muslims has been very limited, especially in theexperience of a large part of humankind, but also Americas. The modern study of Islam was mostlyupon the development of philosophy, the arts and relegated to a few elite universities until thesciences, and even the very languages we speak 1980s, and it was hardly mentioned in social stud-and the foods we eat. European scholars eagerly ies textbooks used by secondary school studentssought to acquire the wisdom achieved by Mus- and teachers. What Americans knew of Muslimslims in the fields of philosophy, mathematics, was largely confined to those who had lived orastronomy, and medicine during the Middle Ages. traveled in Muslim countries, met Muslim immi-The different Islamicate architectural styles devel- grants, or heard about famous African-Americanoped in a wide variety of locales, ranging from Muslims like Malcolm X, the boxer MuhammadSpain to sub-Saharan Africa, India, Central Asia, Ali, or Karim Abdul Jabbar. What the averageand Southeast Asia, were adapted by non-Muslims person thought or imagined about the Near orin many parts of the world. Spanish settlers and Middle East was based on the Arabian Nightsimmigrants brought “Moorish” (Spanish-Islamic) stories and motion picture images. The situation xxi
20. K xxii Encyclopedia of Islambegan to change in the 1980s as a result of the consequence of the persistence of this knowledgeIslamic revolution in Iran of 1978–79, the Leba- “gap” is that some have exploited it to spread inac-nese civil war and the 1983 bombing of the United curate, prejudiced views about Islam and MuslimsStates Marine barracks in Beirut, and the assas- by citing anecdotal evidence or weaving togethersination of Egyptian president Anwar al-Sadat, an scattered bits of factual information, heresay, andAmerican ally, by a radical jihadist group in 1981. even falsehoods. At times this is done to serveEven these developments, which were widely some greater ideological objective, but at greatreported in the news media, did not have a long- cost to the public’s ability to make wise judgmentsterm impact on public awareness or knowledge of their own, based on accurate information andabout Islam and Muslims, although they inspired scholarly expertise. The Encyclopedia of Islam isa number of Hollywood movies based on stereo- part of a much wider effort undertaken by manytypes. One important exception, however, was the scholars and area studies experts to meet theinclusion of lessons about Islam and the Middle demand for accurate information about Islam, par-East in secondary school curricula that involved ticularly with regard to its place in the contempo-consultations with experts and representatives of rary world. This undertaking is based on a growinglocal Muslim organizations. body of research involving the contributions of This situation changed dramatically as a result people who not only have knowledge and fluencyof the terrorist attacks conducted by al-Qaida in the relevant languages but have spent extendedagainst the New York World Trade Center and periods of time in the Middle East and other partsthe Pentagon in Washington, D.C., on Septem- of the world where Muslims live, work, and striveber 11, 2001. Islam, especially Islamic terrorism, to achieve what we might call “the good life.” Thepermeated the media—most notably the 24-hour reader is encouraged to explore the variety of top-cable news channels and talk radio. Politicians, ics covered by this reference work and follow upscholars, policy experts, and religious leaders gave with more specialized readings listed at the endmany interviews and talks about Islam, the Mid- of each entry and in the bibliography provided indle East, and religious violence. American colleges the back of the book. Before proceeding, however,and universities hired dozens of new lecturers and it will be worthwhile to consider some questionsprofessors specializing in Islamic studies and the anyone interested in exploring the subject of Islamlanguages and histories of the Middle East. The ought to be asking.number of Middle East National Resource Centersbased at leading American research universitieswas increased with the help of additional funding What Is Islam?by the U.S. Department of Education, which was This is a question that Muslims have beencommitted to enhancing public understanding answering for centuries when it is raised inabout the contemporary Middle East and other their homes, schools, and in the circles of giftedregions where large Muslim populations live. scholars, powerful rulers, and wealthy merchantsIncreased resources were also provided for teach- and businessmen. It is also a question posed bying Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu, Pashto, and many non-Muslims—never more than now, inother critical languages. the first decade of the 21st century. The answers Today there still exists, despite these significant given by Muslims, like those proposed by non-steps forward, a widespread hunger in the United Muslims, have varied greatly, depending on theirStates and many other countries for even the most education, social status, background, and thebasic knowledge about Muslims—their religion, wider historical and cultural contexts in whichhistories, cultures, and politics. One unfortunate they live.
21. Introduction xxiii J Rather than beginning with a single, defini- mad and his followers, known as his Companions,tive response as to what Islam is, a more fruitful said and did. The hadith, which number in theapproach is to begin with the proposition that tens of thousands, were systematically collectedIslam is to a large extent what Muslims have made by Muslims during the early centuries of Islam.of it based on their different religious sensibilities, One of them, known as the Hadith of Gabriel,cultural identities, social statuses, and historical provides another, more complex understanding ofcircumstances. Many of the faithful start with Islam. According to this story, the angel Gabriel,the Quran, the Islamic holy book, which they appearing as a man dressed in a pure white gown,believe to be a collection of revelations from God approached Muhammad while he was among his(called Allah in Arabic) as delivered in the Arabic friends and interrogated him about his religion.language via the angel Gabriel to Muhammad When Gabriel asked Muhammad about Islam, he(ca. 570–632) over a 23-year period while he was replied, “Islam is that you witness that there is noliving in the western Arabian towns of Mecca god but God and that Muhammad is God’s mes-and Medina (formerly known as Yathrib). It is senger; that you perform prayer; give alms; fastabout the length of the Christian New Testament, [the month of] Ramadan; and perform the hajjconsisting of 114 chapters and more than 6,200 to the house [of God in Mecca] if you are able toverses. About Islam, the Quran itself declares, do so.” In this statement, Islam is defined in terms of Upholding equity, God, his angels and those its Five Pillars, thus underscoring the importance with knowledge have witnessed that there is of performing sacred actions, or worship, in this no god but he, the mighty and wise. Indeed, religion. Even the first pillar, known as the sha- religion [din] in God’s eyes is Islam [literally hada (witnessing) is regarded as a sacred action, “submission”]. Those who received the book because it involves pronouncing the two founda- disagreed among themselves out of jealousy tional tenets of Islam: belief both in one god and only after knowledge had come to them. in Muhammad as a prophet of God. Recitation Whoever disbelieves in God’s sacred verses, of the shahada in Arabic occurs throughout a (let him know that) God is swift in reckon- Muslim’s lifetime. Muslims repeat it during their ing. (Q 3:18–19). five daily prayers, and even at the moment of death, when it should be the last words spoken This passage links Islam, the religion, to by a dying person, or spoken by someone elsebelief in one God, in opposition to disbelief on his or her behalf. Islamic tradition regards the(kufr), which will incur God’s anger. It also states other four of Islam’s pillars—prayer, almsgiving,that the revelation of God’s book brings with it fasting, and hajj—as forms of worship required ofboth knowledge and disagreement among human all Muslims in order to attain salvation. The finebeings. The Muslims, therefore, in contrast to points of Muslim worship were elaborated as partdisbelievers, are those who believe in God’s revela- of the Muslim legal tradition, known as sharia,tions (the sacred verses) and submit to God’s will. by qualified religious authorities known as theThe Arabic word muslim literally means “one who ulama (sing. alim, “one who has knowledge”).submits.” The Quran promises Muslims rewards The Hadith of Gabriel next takes up theboth in this world and in the hereafter for their subject of belief, as Gabriel, acknowledging thatbelief and good deeds. Muhammad has correctly defined Islam, contin- In addition to the Quran, Muslims also look ues his questioning by asking Muhammad aboutto the hadith—sacred narratives, usually short in iman (faith, believing). According to the story,length, that contain accounts about what Muham- Muhammad replies that iman involves belief in
22. K xxiv Encyclopedia of Islamone God, his angels, his books, his messengers, from the West and the religions of Judaism andand the Last Day (Judgment Day), as well as pre- Christianity. They thought of it as a religion thatdetermination. Again, Gabriel affirms the correct- had been tainted by political despotism and irra-ness of the reply. The Quran mentions iman much tionality. Others classed it racially, as a “Semitic”more than Islam, and even though the two words religion, in contrast to the religions of the Indo-differ slightly in their root meanings (security Europeans, which included Christianity. Ratherfor the first, safety for the second), many Mus- than calling it Islam, a term used by Muslimslim commentators have regarded them as being themselves, many scholars in the 19th and 20thnearly synonymous. It likewise uses a related centuries decided to call it Mohammedanism,term, mumin, more that it uses the word muslim. incorrectly assuming that Muhammad’s status inThe aspects of faith Muhammad mentions in his Islam was analogous to that of Jesus Christ inreply to Gabriel were subsequently elaborated Christianity or the Buddha in Buddhism. Despiteand debated for centuries by Muslim theologians, these missteps, and others, some religious studiesknown as the mutakallims, or those who practice scholars concluded that it was more accurate tokalam (literally “speech,” but more precisely classify Islam together with Judaism and Chris-translated as “dialectical theology”). tianity as a Western religion, or as monotheistic By addressing both Islam and iman, the Hadith one, which recognizes a key belief in Islam (beliefof Gabriel teaches that religious practice and in one God), as well as its historical relationshipbelief are interrelated aspects of Islamic religion— with the other two religions. Scholars have evenone cannot be accomplished without the other. grouped it with Christianity and Buddhism as aBut the Hadith of Gabriel is not content with only “world” religion that has extended its reach glob-mentioning these aspects of religion. It introduces ally through missionary work and conversion.a third—ihsan. When asked about what this is, Today many scholars are studying Islam as anMuhammad declares that it calls upon the faith- Abrahamic religion, in relationship with Judaismful to be mindful of God’s watchfulness and do and Christianity. This designation is based on thewhat is good and beautiful (hasan). Ihsan adds a figure of Abraham (Ibrahim), about whom manyspiritual or aesthetic aspect to religion, one that is stories are told in the Bible’s book of Genesis andimplicitly connected with its other aspects—prac- in the Quran. These sacred stories, or myths,tice and believing. as they are called in religious studies scholar- During the Middle Ages, Christian church ship, also talk about Abraham’s descendants,leaders viewed Islam for the most part as idolatry, whom Jews, Christians, and Muslims regard asor a false religion inspired by Satan. Such preju- the spiritual ancestors of their communities.diced views can still be encountered in Christian While Muslims link their religion to Ishmaelcircles, unfortunately, although most Christian (Ismail), Abraham’s oldest son through Hagarleaders today are more likely to want to improve (from Egypt), Jews and Christians relate theirrelations with Muslims through inter-religious religion to Isaac (Ishaq), Abraham’s son throughdialogue and cooperation. Modern scholars spe- Sarah. In addition to sharing a sacred genealogycializing in the history and comparison of reli- that connects all three religions with Abraham,gions have thought about Islam from a different there are other important “family resemblances”set of perspectives. In Europe, in the 18th and that they share. These include 1) monotheistic19th centuries, when religion began to be studied beliefs; 2) beliefs in prophets and supramundanein terms of the humanities and social sciences beings such as angels and saints; 3) possessionrather than theology, some scholars sought to of holy books, revealed through prophets, thatexoticize it as an Eastern religion that stood apart serve as the basis for doctrine, worship, ethics,
23. Introduction xxv Jand community identity; 4) a linear view of his- lowers in 622. Muslims have come to see this eventtory from creation to Judgment Day, overlapped as being so momentous that they use it to mark theby cyclical celebrations of weekly and seasonal year one on their lunar calendar. The community inholy days; 4) claims to possession of a holy land Medina became exemplary for succeeding genera-connected with stories about the origins of each tions of Muslims, especially with regard to mattersof the religions and the performance of pilgrim- of piety, worship, and law. The embodiment of theages (religious journeys); and 5) belief in human umma as a territorial entity ruled by Muslims andmortality, followed by resurrection, judgment, and following the sharia, or sacred law, was expressed byreward or punishment in the afterlife. the concept of the dar al-Islam, or “house of Islam.” Identifying the family resemblances shared by This territorial understanding was superseded bythe three Abrahamic religions does not mean that modern nation-states created in Muslim lands dur-they are therefore identical, nor that they have ing the 19th and 20th centuries.remained unchanged in history. Rather, it draws In addition to viewing themselves as a commu-our attention to their relative degrees of similarity nity united in their belief in God and his prophet,and difference and begs further inquiry concern- Muslims also identify themselves with differenting how to account for resemblances and degrees strands of Islamic tradition. The main ones areof difference, as well as the changes these religions Sunnism, Shiism, and Sufism. Sunni Muslims arehave undergone through time as a result of the the majority and today make up about 85 percentmutual interactions. Seen in this light, Islam can of the total Muslim population (estimated to bebe understood relationally, rather than isolated 1.4 million in mid-2007, according to the Ency-from other religious traditions and communi- clopaedia Britannica). Their name comes from anties. Muslims themselves understand their reli- Arabic phrase meaning “the people of the sunnagion relationally, although in many respects their and the community of believers” (ahl al-sunnaunderstandings differ from those of non-Muslim wa’l-jamaa). Their Quran commentaries, hadithstudents of religion, as defined within modern collections, legal schools (the Hanafi, Maliki,humanities and social science frameworks. Shafii, and Hanbali schools), and theological tra- ditions are the ones most widely circulated and respected. It is from their ranks that most Muslim Who Are the Muslims? rulers and dynasties have arisen. Leading coun-Discussing what Islam is entails additional discus- tries with Sunni majorities include Indonesia,sion about who the Muslims are. As is the case with Pakistan, Bangladesh, Egypt, Turkey, Morocco,Islam, there are different ways in which this ques- and Nigeria.tion can be answered too. One way to answer this The most prominent alternative, or sectarian,question is to note that from a basic Islamic point of form of Islam is that of the Shia, who today con-view, a Muslim is a person who submits to a single, stitute up to 15 percent of all Muslims, betweenalmighty, and merciful God, as delineated in the 156 and 195 million. Known as the faction of AliQuran and sunna (precedent based on the hadith). (shiat Ali), Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-lawCollectively, Muslims understand themselves ide- (d. 661), they are found in many parts of theally to be members of a single community of believ- world, but they constitute majorities in the mod-ers, known as the umma. The original basis for the ern countries of Iran (89 percent of its popula-universal Muslim community was the community tion), Iraq (60 percent), Bahrain (70 percent), andfounded by Muhammad in Medina after his emigra- Azerbaijan (85 percent). Shii Muslims maintaintion, or Hijra, from Mecca (about 260 miles south that the most legitimate authorities in all mattersof Medina) with a small group of mostly Arab fol- are the Imams—select members of Muhammad’s
24. K xxvi Encyclopedia of Islamfamily, beginning with Ali ibn Abi Talib (d. 661). the first centuries of Islamic history, most SufisSince the seventh century the Shia have vied with became organized into groups or orders known asthe Sunnis about who is best suited to govern “paths” (sing. tariqa) after the 11th century. Eachthe community. In opposition to the Shia, Sunnis tariqa consists of spiritual masters (known asfavored the caliphs—leaders chosen initially by shaykhs and pirs) who attract disciples and initi-consensus of community leaders on the basis of ate them into the mystical teachings and rituals oftheir experience and public reputation. In general the group. Sufis turn to the Quran and sunna forthe Shia believe that 1) their Imams have been inspiration and guidance, and trace the lineages ofdivinely appointed and inspired; 2) they are free their doctrines and practices to Muhammad andfrom sin and error; and 3) they are uniquely quali- the first generation of his followers. Most Sufisfied to provide religious guidance and insight. regard the sharia as a foundational aspect of theirAccording to the Shia, the world itself could not spiritual outlook, and their ranks are filled withexist without an Imam also being present in it. followers from across the spectrum of the MuslimThe largest branch of the Shia, known as the community—including Sunnis and Shiis, rulers,Twelve-Imam Shia, or Imamis, believe that all merchants, scholars, peasants, and ordinary labor-but one of their 12 Imams suffered martyrdom ers as well. There are many different Sufi ordersin defense of their faith and that the 12th will with branches around the world, although therereturn after a period of concealment (ghayba) that are no precise statistics for them. They are oftenbegan in 872 as a messiah (savior) to inaugurate credited with having contributed to the spread ofa reign of universal justice prior to Judgment Day. Islam, especially through the shrines containingThe teachings of the Imams constitute the core of the remains and relics of Sufi saints. These holyShii hadith, and their tombs in Iraq and Iran have places have become the focal points for manybecome sacred centers where pilgrims assemble to forms of popular devotionalism and pilgrimage.obtain their blessings and intercession. Sufism has also produced a rich body of Islamic The Ismailis constitute another division of the literature, including mystical poetry, hagiography,Shia, differing from the Twelvers with regard to and devotional manuals.whom they count among their Imams (beginning In more recent times, other self-identifiedwith their namesake Ismail, the elder son of Jaafar groupings of Muslims have appeared, sometimesal-Sadiq [d. 765]), and the deference they give to labeled as radical Islamist and jihadist move-the authority of the living Imam, rather than to ments. Also known as Islamic fundamentalists,those of the past. Even though they are only about a designation that is declining in use because of10 percent of the estimated Shii population over- its imprecision, these groups are small in termsall, they have played a significant role in shaping of actual numbers with respect to the total Mus-the course of Islamic history and intellectual life. lim population. They have surpassed, however, Sufism (tasawwuf) is a general designation other Muslim groups in terms of the amount ofused for the mystical expressions of Islam, wherein attention given to them by governments, inter-experiential knowledge of God and attainment of national organizations, and the global media.unity in or with him are primary goals. The term This is because of their involvement in activitiesis based on the Arabic word suf, or wool, which aimed at fighting perceived enemies of Islam atwas worn by Christian and Muslim ascetics in home and abroad, which can take a heavy toll inthe Middle East. Sufis also explain it in relation terms of civilian casualties and economic damage.to the Arabic word safa, which denotes the idea The central goal of many of jihadist groups is toof purity. Although the historical roots of Sufism establish governments that will enforce Islamicgo back to individual ascetics who lived during law, uphold public morality, and free Muslims
25. Introduction xxvii Jfrom the control of non-Muslim governments especially those who are more secular in outlook.and influence. In justifying their violent actions, Muslims belong to more than 60 different ethnicthey often make use of the traditional Islamic groups consisting of a million or more members.concept of jihad, which is based on an Arabic In addition, there are also 55 nation-states thatword meaning “to struggle or make an effort” have Muslim-majority populations. As minoritieson behalf of one’s religion and community. Many in countries like the United States, Britain, India,Muslims criticize the way they interpret this con- and Australia, many think of themselves in termscept, which was elaborated in the Islamic legal of the nationality of the country in which theytradition before the modern era. Some jihadist hold citizenship, or the one from which they haveorganizations, despite their violent tactics, win emigrated.popular support by providing needed social ser- The first generations of Muslims were pre-vices that legitimate governmental agencies fail dominantly Arab, and today Arabs still constituteto provide. This is the case, for example, with the the single largest Muslim ethnic group. (It shouldPalestinian Hamas organization and Hizbullah be noted, however, that not all Arabs are Muslims.in Lebanon. Most of these groups act indepen- There are also Arab Christians and Jews.) By thedently, with logistical and economic assistance 11th century, large numbers of Berbers, Persians,from foreign sources. Al-Qaida, the organiza- and Turks had converted to Islam; together withtion founded by Usama bin Ladin (b. 1957) and Arabs, they composed much of classical IslamicAyman al-Zawahiri (b. 1951), began in 1984 as a civilization in the Middle East and North Africa.service office for Arabs fighting against the Soviet Today only about one in four Muslims is an Arab,army in Afghanistan. After the Soviet withdrawal and when all the Middle Eastern ethnic groups toin 1989 and the fall of the Communist-led gov- which Muslims belong are added, they amount toernment, al-Qaida turned its attention to fight- less than half of the total of the world’s Muslims.ing the United States and its allies, especially Other major ethnic groups include the Javanese ofIsrael. To accomplish its objectives, it created a Indonesia, the Bengalis of India and Bangladesh,loosely organized global network of cells, which and the Punjabis of Pakistan and India. More-were involved in planning and executing attacks over, the nation-states with the largest Muslimagainst U.S. embassies in Africa, the USS Cole, populations are located east of the Middle East, inand the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. mainland. Years Indonesia (207 million), Pakistan (160 million),later, however, al-Qaida has still not been able India (between 138 million and 160 million),to win widespread support among Muslims, and and Bangladesh (132.5 million).1 Large Muslimit remains at odds with other Islamist groups in populations also live in the countries of sub-Saha-terms of both ideology and tactics. ran Africa (Nigeria, for example has about 67.5 The estimated number of Muslims in the million Muslims) and Central Asia (Afghanistanworld today is second only to the number of has about 31.5 million Muslims; Uzbekistan 24.5Christians (about 2.2 million) and larger than million).other religiously defined communities, including Muslims can therefore present themselves asHindus and Buddhists. Muslims represent more members of a united community of the faithful,than 20 percent of the world’s population (one as members of particular Islamic subgroups (Sun-out of every five people on Earth). Like members nis, Shiis, Sufis, etc.), or as members of differentof these other religious communities, they alsothink of themselves in terms of ethnicity andnationality. Indeed, many may put their ethnic 1 These figures are based on 2007–08 estimates in the CIAand national identity ahead of their religious one, World Fact Book.
26. Introduction xxix Jethnic and national bodies. They may even take found that the historical factors involved werepride in tracing their origins to particular regions much more varied and complex than the “con-(like the Hijaz in Arabia), cities and towns, and quest by the sword” thesis would suggest.families and tribes. Education, profession, gender, Early Islamic historical sources and evidenceand social status also contribute to the formation drawn from the Quran and the hadith indicate thatof Muslim identity. The form of Islam by which several different religious currents existed in Ara-Muslims live and in which they believe, therefore, bia in the seventh century. These included nativeis something that is shaped by any combination Arabian religions, different Jewish and Christianof these factors. Muslim understandings of them- doctrines, and Zoroastrianism—the dualistic reli-selves and their religion have also been shaped gion of ancient Persia. Muhammad ibn Abd Allahby their ongoing encounters with non-Muslims, (ca. 570–632), the historical founder of Islam,peaceful and otherwise, through the centuries. was born in Mecca, a regional shrine town in the Hijaz. After receiving what Muslim sources report were his first revelations at the age of 40 while on The Expansion of Islam Mount Hira outside of Mecca, he drew from theseIslam has long been a global religion, but this religious currents and launched a religious move-was not the way it began. It first appeared dur- ment that called for Meccans to worship one Goding the seventh century in the Hijaz, a remote instead of many, perform acts of charity for themountainous area along the western edge of the weak and the poor, and believe that there wouldArabian Peninsula, far from the centers of urban be a final judgment when God would resurrect thecivilization. The dominant powers in the Middle dead and hold each person accountable for his orEastern and eastern Mediterranean regions at the her righteous and wrongful acts. The blessed weretime were the Byzantines, heirs to the Roman promised a place in paradise, the heavenly garden,Empire, and the Persians. These two empires and the damned would suffer the tortures of hell,had been fighting continually with each other for the realm of fire. Muhammad attracted a smallcontrol of trade routes, land, and people. Within following of converts from among his relatives,less than 100 years after Islam’s appearance, Arab friends, former slaves, and even some non-Arabs.Muslim warriors had swept out of Arabia into the Other Meccans, particularly influential membersMiddle East and North Africa, bringing about the of the Quraysh clan, became hostile toward him.downfall of Byzantium and Persia and inaugurat- This opposition resulted in the Hijra (emigra-ing a succession of Islamic states that would rule tion) of Muhammad and his followers to Medinaa large part of the known world until the collapse in 622. The community soon grew larger, thanksof the Ottoman dynasty after World War I. At its to the conversion of Medinan clans to Islam.height in the 10th century, Muslim rule extended They are remembered as the Ansar (helpers).eastward from Spain (known as Andalusia) and The earliest expansion of the Muslim community,Morocco to the eastern frontiers of Persia and therefore, occurred peacefully and involved theAfghanistan. On the basis of the success of the emigration of the first Muslims from their oldMuslim conquests, it has become a commonplace home to new ones. Emigration and resettlementto assert that Islam is a violent religion that was subsequently became important factors in thespread by the sword. Like all stereotypes, it is spread of Islam. During this time, the commu-based on some truth, mixed with distortion and nity also had to defend itself from attacks by theerroneous conclusions drawn from incomplete Quraysh. After engaging in a successful series ofevidence. Scholars specializing in the early his- campaigns against his opponents, Muhammadtory of Islam and its transregional expansion have finally achieved the peaceful surrender of Mecca
28. Introduction xxxi Jin 630. By the time of his death in 632, many of forces, including Shiis and the mawali, fromthe Arabian tribes had established alliances with Iraq and eastern Iran. A surviving member ofhim and converted to Islam, setting the stage of the Umayyads was able to escape to Spain, how-the subsequent conquest of Syria, Iran, Egypt, and ever, where he established the western branchNorth Africa. of the Umayyads in Cordoba, inaugurating an The rapid defeat of Byzantine and Persian era of extraordinary cultural florescence thatarmies, weakened by years of internal dissension was due in large part to the fruitful interactionsand warfare, brought the Arab armies unimagined of Muslims, Jews, and Christians. The defeatnew wealth and power. Led by the caliphs, suc- of the Umayyads in Syria brought the Abbasidscessors to the prophet Muhammad, the fledgling to power. They were a party claiming descentIslamic state at first kept its capital in Medina, from al-Abbas, Muhammad’s paternal uncle.but it later shifted northward to Damascus, Syria, The Abbasid Caliphate, which lasted until it waswhich remained the seat of the Umayyad Caliph- brought down by the Mongol invasion in theate from 661 to 750. Conquest of territories 13th century, moved the capital from Damascusbeyond the Arabian Peninsula did not immedi- to Baghdad, a new garrison city that they hadately result in mass conversions to Islam, how- founded on the banks of the Tigris River. It soonever. Rather, the evidence indicates that Islam became the leading center of commerce, the arts,remained a minority religion in these regions for and Islamic learning of its time. The Arab rul-several centuries after the initial waves of con- ing elite realized that they had to share powerquest. Local populations who accepted Muslim with Muslims who came from non-Arab origins,rule were given the choice of either converting as more of their subjects converted to Islam,or paying special taxes in exchange for accepting intermarried with them, obtained positions inthe status of “protected” non-Muslim subjects government, and became masters of the Arabicknown as ahl al-dhimma, or simply dhimmis. The language—the lingua franca of the empire—andArab Muslim minority formed an aristocracy that Islamic learning. It was during the Abbasid eralived in its own cantonments near the communal that Sunni and Shii doctrines and institutionsmosque and the ruler’s palace. The offspring of were systematized, Greek and Persian texts wereArab Muslim fathers and non-Arab, non-Mus- translated and discussed, and sciences such aslim mothers were raised as Muslims but held a astronomy, geography mathematics, optics, andsecond-class status among their coreligionists. medicine flourished.There were also non-Arab converts called the Each of these developments contributed tomawali (clients), many of whom had been cap- the spread of Islam beyond the Middle East totured as prisoners of war during the conquests, Africa, the Indian Ocean basin, Central Asia,then granted their freedom upon conversion. The and Southeast Asia during the ensuing seven ormajority of Muslim subjects, however, remained eight centuries. Transregional trade south of theChristians, Jews, and Zororastrians. As dhimmis, Sahara, along the Silk Roads to Asia, and acrossthey were secure in their property, communal life, the Indian Ocean as far as Java resulted in theand worship as long as they paid taxes, remained establishment of Muslim trading communitiesloyal to Muslim authorities, and did not either linked to local cultures through intermarriage astry to proselytize to the Muslims or attack their well as commerce.religion. India is an excellent example of the differ- Weakened by dynastic conflicts, tribal rival- ent ways by which Islam became established inries, and local uprisings, the Umayyad Caliph- a new land. Peaceful Muslim trading coloniesate was exterminated in 750 by a coalition of linked to Arabia and Iraq developed along the
29. K xxxii Encyclopedia of Islamsouthern coast around the eighth and ninth the spread of Islam along trade routes and evencenturies. Ismailis from Persia introduced Islam to the remotest areas. Pilgrimage should also beinto northern India around the 10th and 11th recognized as a factor, especially the annual hajjcenturies by winning Hindu converts through to Mecca, which gathered scholars, mystics, mer-their missionary activities. They were followed chants, and ordinary believers from many coun-by Turkish and Afghan warriors who invaded to tries together in one place. After performing thepillage and conquer but ended up establishing required hajj rituals, pilgrims often took up resi-the Delhi Sultanate, which ruled much of the dence in Mecca to study and meet with scholarsnorth and the Deccan Plateau between the 13th and mystics, but eventually they returned homeand 16th centuries. Contrary to the “conquest with stories about the Islamic holy land and newby the sword” thesis, large numbers of Hin- insights about Islam to convey to their familiesdus did not convert to Islam. Rather, scholarly and neighbors.research indicates that there was an inverse rela- These factors continue to be in effect today,tionship between where the centers of Muslim although in modern forms. They have beenpolitical power were and where the most con- involved in Islam’s spread into western Europe,versions occurred, which was on the political the Americas, Australia, and New Zealand. Manyperiphery. The indigenous peoples of Bengal in mosques and Islamic centers have opened inthe northeast, for example, did not convert until these countries since the 1960s, and the Muslimthe 16th century, when rulers of the Mughal presence is being increasingly felt in schools,dynasty encouraged the introduction of wet rice the workplace, and the public sphere. Likewise,agriculture in new land made available when global forces are changing the ways Muslimsthe Ganges River shifted its course eastward. think about themselves and their religion—forThe agents of this development were Sufis and better or worse. This includes the colonization ofMuslim scholars, who built mosques and shrines many Muslim lands by European powers duringthat became magnets for the native people, and the 19th and 20th centuries. The rapid pace witheducational centers for the dissemination of which such changes have occurred, comparedIslamic knowledge and lore. As the historian with earlier times, has been assisted significantlyRichard Eaton has observed, rather than conver- by the widespread availability of motorized trans-sion by the sword, Bengalis were converted by portation and the emergence of the new print andthe plow.2 electronic media, which have closed the distances In summary, conquest was but one among that once posed limitations on the movement ofmany factors that contributed to the expansion of people, commercial goods, and, above all, ideasIslam. Emigration, trade, intermarriage, political and religious beliefs.patronage, the systematization of Islamic tradi-tion, urbanism, and the quest for knowledge mustalso be recognized. Sufis, too, played a role in Scope of this Encyclopedia The purpose of any encyclopedia is to be compre- hensive, balanced, and up-to-date. It should also2 Richard Eaton, “Approaches to the Study of Conversion to provide readers with new information, familiarizeIslam in India.” In Approaches to Islam in Religious Studies, them with foreign concepts and terms, and directedited by Richard C. Martin, 108–123 (New York: One World them to additional publications on the subjectsPress, 1987); ———, “Who Are the Bengal Muslims? Conver-sion and Islamization in Bengal.” In Understanding the Bengal presented in it. It is a challenge to meet all of theseMuslims: Interpretative Essays, edited by Rafiuddin Ahmed, objectives in any single undertaking, particularly25–51 (Oxford and Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001). one such as this, which is limited to one volume
30. Introduction xxxiii Jabout Islam, one of the world’s most important Formatreligions. To meet this challenge, the Encyclopediaof Islam emphasizes the following subject areas in Articles are listed alphabetically. Cross-referencesthe entries it contains: have been provided within and at the end of each entry in small capitals to assist the reader to 1. Islam as the religion of Muslims. This explore the variety of relationships the entry has includes entries on aspects of Islamic his- with others. It is also intended to help the reader tory, practice, belief, and learning, as well become more familiar with the many foreign terms as the major traditions—Sunnism, Shiism, encountered in the study of Islam. In some cases and Sufism. Topics concerning local Islamic an entry and related cross-references are based religious practices, in addition to expres- on native terms (for example, Allah, fiqh, and sions of sacred space and time, are also sharia); in other cases they are given in English represented. (for example, abortion, dietary laws, and women). 2. Islam as an Abrahamic religion. This area In the entry for Allah, for example, the reader is includes entries that take up the interrela- invited to consult articles such as those on the tionships and intersections that Islam has Quran, shahada, prayer, theology, and Muham- had with Judaism and Christianity. Entries mad. The entry for abortion refers the reader to also deal with Islam’s encounters with non- articles on topics such as death, afterlife, different Abrahamic religions, particularly Hinduism schools of Islamic law, children, and birth control and Buddhism. and family planning. 3. Islamicate civilizations and cultures, includ- Each entry is also accompanied by a bibliogra- ing articles pertaining to urban life, lan- phy for readers wishing to pursue a topic in more guages, social and economic life, and the depth. Publications listed in the bibliography are arts and sciences. exclusively in English, owing to the intended read- 4. Islam in the contemporary world. This ership of the encyclopedia, but readers are advised includes entries on most countries with that a significant amount of excellent scholarship Muslim-majority populations, reform and is available in other languages, especially French, revival moments, Islamism, regional con- German, Russian, and, to a lesser extent, Spanish flicts (especially the Arab-Israeli conflicts and Italian. These and more specialized publica- and the Gulf wars), and issues pertaining tions can be found in the books and articles men- to civil society (for example, secularism, tioned in the individual entry bibliographies and in human rights, democracy, and constitu- the references listed in the bibliography provided tionalism). Attention has also been given at the back of the book. Works in the primary to Muslim minority communities and languages of Islam, such as Arabic, Persian, and organizations in the Americas, Europe, Turkish, can also be found in these publications, Australia, New Zealand, and, to a lesser but Islamic texts in translation have been included extent, Asia. in entry bibliographies, where appropriate. The In order to enhance the encyclopedia’s appeal reader is also encouraged to consult the publica-for use by students and teachers in secondary tions listed under the heading “General Referencesschools, a number of entries dealing with edu- and Atlases” in the back of the book. Some entrycational subjects have been included, as well bibliographies include articles published in Saudias articles on animals (camel, cat, dog, horse), Aramco World, a magazine available on the Inter-children, comic strips and comic books, and the net and in print that covers cultural and historicalcinema. topics relating to the Middle East and Islam. Its
31. K xxxiv Encyclopedia of Islamformat is similar to that of National Geographic, and non-Islamic, that have flourished in contextsand it is especially well-suited for students and the where Muslims have held political power or con-general public. It also provides updated listings for stituted a majority of the population, especiallymuseum exhibits and new publications. prior to the 19th century. This kind of literature can include secular poetry, philosophy, and scien- tific writings, as well as the writings of Jews, Chris- A Note on Terminology, tians, and others in Arabic, Persian, and other Transliteration, and Translation languages. Likewise, Islamic architecture refers to those parts of the built environment connectedBecause this Encyclopedia of Islam has been written with Islamic religious practices, such as mosqueswith secondary school students and the general and madrasas (religious schools), whereas Islami-public in mind, I have gone to some lengths to min- cate architecture includes palaces, fortifications,imize reliance upon academic technical vocabulary caravanserais, bazaars, dwelling places, and baths.and words from foreign languages. When techni- Less frequently, I use Islamdom instead of phrasescal terms have been used, it has been to enhance such as the Islamic world to refer to social domainsclarity and understanding. An important exception where Muslims prevail collectively, especiallyhas been my adoption of two terms now widely prior to the 19th century. It is analogous to theused by scholars in the fields of Islamic studies term Christiandom, which denotes social domainsand Middle East studies first proposed by Marshall where Christianity prevails.G. S. Hodgson in his monumental three-volume Following modern standard Arabic pronun-work, The Venture of Islam. These are Islamicate ciation, which is increasingly being acceptedand Islamdom. Occasionally the words Islam and for English transliterations of Arabic words, IIslamic are misleadingly or incorrectly applied to use Quran instead of Koran, Muslim instead ofphenomena that fall outside the boundaries of the Moslem, madrasa instead of madrassa, and Hijrareligion itself, resulting in the confusion of social instead of Hegira. I have extended this principleand cultural phenomena with religious ones. While to Arabic names: for example, Muhammad insteadwe know that the real-life boundaries between the of Mohammed, Hasan instead of Hassan, Husaynreligious and the nonreligious are always shifting instead of Hossein or Hussein, Umar instead ofand being negotiated, it is still helpful to recognize Omar, Usama instead of Osama. Conventionalthat these boundaries nevertheless exist. Using English spellings for Mecca and Medina haveIslam and Islamic too loosely, moreover, obscures been retained for this publication. Instead of Shi-the interrelationships that have developed histori- ite, I use Shii (pronounced Shi-i), parallel to thecally between Muslims, Jews, Christians, Hindus, conventional use of Sunni (instead of Sunnite).and others in contexts where Islam was the domi- Shii is used as an adjective (for example, Shiinant religion but not the only one. Islam, Shii law) and as a noun for an individual Therefore, I have adopted Hodgson’s term member of the minority Shii branch of Islam (forIslamicate in order to describe those aspects of example, “He is a Shii”). The plural in this regard“Islamic” society, history, and culture that cannot is Shiis (pronounced Shi-is). I use the term Shiabe attributed exclusively to the religion Islam. For (pronounced Shi-a), which is based on the Arabicexample, Islamic literature refers to writing tradi- word for “party” or “faction,” to refer to Shii Mus-tions that involve the various religious beliefs, lims as a group or collectivity—the Shia. Shiismdoctrines, practices, laws, and traditions of Islam. is used to refer to the body of beliefs, rituals, doc-Islamicate literature, on the other hand, encom- trines, and traditions that define the Shii branchpasses the variety of writing traditions, Islamic of Islam (see the entry for this term).
32. Introduction xxxv J In order to make the Encyclopedia of Islam c.e. is used for common era dates. These temporalmore accessible to the nonspecialist, no diacriti- demarcations are considered more suitable thancal markings have been used for foreign words. the older ones used for dates in the Western cal-Transliterations for ayn (`) and hamza () have also endar: b.c. (Before Christ) and a.d. (anno domini;been omitted, as has the terminal h, sometimes the year of Our Lord).used for the ta marbuta. Thus, shari`ah is rendered Statistical data given in entries for individualas sharia, sunnah is rendered as sunna, and ummah countries (for example, Afghanistan, Iraq, Saudias umma. In cases where an ayn occurs in the Arabia) are based on the latest 2007–2008 esti-middle or end of a word, preceded or followed by mates provided by the Central Intelligence Agencythe vowel a, I have transliterated the word with a of the United States in its World Fact Book (www.double aa; thus, Ka`ba is rendered as Kaaba, da`wa cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html).as daawa, and bid`a as bidaa. Other statistics have been obtained from a variety of other sources. Although every effort has been made to provide the most current and accurate Dates and Statistical Data statistical information, the reader should be aware that often statistical data is either dated or affectedAll dates given are according to the Western cal- by political, social, or religious biases and circum-endar. Where clarity is required, the abbreviation stances. Care should be taken before making hardb.c.e. is used for dates before the common era and comparisons based on statistical data.
33. chronology Kfourth–sixth century 634¶ Arabia involved in conflicts between Rome/ ¶ Death of Abu Bakr. Byzantium and Persia. 635sixth–seventh century ¶ Conquest of Damascus.¶ Quraysh tribe rises to prominence in Mecca.570? 636¶ Birth of Muhammad ibn Abd Allah in Mecca. ¶ Battle of Qadisiyya: Arab army decisively defeats Persian army in Iraq610¶ Muhammad receives first revelation at Mt. Hira, 637 near Mecca, and begins career as a prophet. ¶ Conquest of Syria and the fall of Jerusalem.622 640¶ The year of the Hijra: Muhammad and the Mus- ¶ Conquest of Persia. lims migrate from Mecca to Medina.630 642¶ Muhammad wins control of Mecca. ¶ Conquest of Egypt; foundation of Fustat (later part of Cairo).632¶ Death of Muhammad; death of Fatima, his 644 daughter; election of Abu Bakr as first caliph. ¶ Death of Umar ibn al-Khattab, second caliph. xxxvii
34. K xxxviii Encyclopedia of Islam653 711¶ Caliph Uthman authorizes collection and offi- ¶ Tariq ibn Ziyad leads conquest of Andalusia cial establishment of the text of the Quran. (southern Spain). ¶ Muhammad ibn Qasim initiates Arab conquest655 of Sind (India).¶ Assassination of Uthman, the third caliph. 712659 ¶ Muslim armies in Persia begin conquest of¶ Muawiya, chief of the Umayyads, conquers Bakhara and Samarqand in Central Asia. Egypt. 719661–80 ¶ Cordoba becomes administrative capital of¶ Damascus becomes new capital of Umayyad Andalusia. dynasty under Muawiya.¶ New wave of conquest begins. 728 ¶ Death of Hasan al-Basri, Muslim ascetic and661 teacher.¶ Death of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth caliph and first Shii imam. 732¶ Muawiya becomes caliph and founder of Umayyad dynasty. ¶ Battle of Tours, France.662 749¶ Revolt of the Khawarij. ¶ Beginning of Abbasid Caliphate.680 750¶ Death of Muawiya. Martyrdom of Husayn, third ¶ Abbasids capture Damascus, ending Umayyad Shii imam, at Karbala, Iraq. rule in Syria; Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah founds Abbasid Caliphate.691¶ Building of the Mosque of Umar (Dome of the 754 Rock) in Jerusalem. ¶ Death of al-Saffah; Abu Jaafar al-Mansur becomes second Abbasid caliph.698¶ Arabic becomes official language of government 756 in the Islamic Empire. ¶ Establishment of Umayyad rule in Spain.700 762–63¶ Conquest and conversion of Berber tribes in ¶ Baghdad founded by Caliph al-Mansur as the North Africa. capital of the Abbasid Empire.
35. Chronology xxxix J765 839¶ Death of Jaafar al-Sadiq, sixth Shii imam. ¶ Muslims capture Sicily and southern Italy.767 855¶ Death of Abu Hanifa, Iraqi jurist and eponym of ¶ Death of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, hadith scholar and the Hanafi Legal School. eponym of the Hanbali Legal School.785–86 866¶ The building of the Great Mosque at Cordoba. ¶ Death of al-Kindi, early Arab philosopher.795¶ Death of Malik ibn Anas, jurist of Medina and 870 eponym of the Maliki Legal School. ¶ Death of al-Bukhari, author of the most respected Sunni canonical collection of hadith.798¶ Death of Abu Yusuf, co-founder of Hanafi Legal 874–939 School. ¶ Period of Lesser Occultation of Muhammad al- Mahdi, the twelfth Shii imam.801¶ Death of female mystic Rabia al-Adawiyya. 909 ¶ Foundation of Fatimid Ismaili Shii dynasty in804 North Africa.¶ Death of Shaybani, Kufan jurist and cofounder of Hanafi Legal School. 910 ¶ Death of the Sufi teacher al-Junayd.808¶ Foundation of Fez in the Maghrib. 912–61 ¶ Golden age of Umayyad rule in Andalusia.818¶ Death of Ali al-Rida, the eighth Shii imam. 922 ¶ Crucifixion of the Sufi al-Hallaj in Baghdad.820¶ Death of al-Shafii, founder of the Shafii Legal 923 School. ¶ Death of the Quran commentator and historian al-Tabari in Iraq.827¶ Abbasid caliph al-Mamun launches inquisition 929 to impose the Mutazili doctrines as the state ¶ Qarmati Shiis attack Mecca and remove the religious ideology. Black Stone from the Kaaba.
36. K xl Encyclopedia of Islam935 1062¶ Death of al-Ashari, Sunni theologian, in Bagh- ¶ Almoravids conquer Morocco. dad. 1064939 ¶ Death of Ibn Hazm, Andalusian jurist and¶ Twelfth Imam enters Greater Occultation accord- scholar. ing to Twelve-Imam Shii doctrine.941 1067¶ Death of al-Maturidi, Sunni theologian, in ¶ Nizam al-Mulk founds the Nizamiyya, a Shafii Samarqand. college, in Baghdad.950 1071¶ Death of the philosopher al-Farabi. ¶ Battle of Manzikert, a decisive defeat of Byzan- tine armies by Seljuq Turks.951¶ Qarmati Shiis return the Black Stone to the 1086 Kaaba. ¶ Almoravids conquer Andalusia.969 1091¶ Beginning of Fatimid Ismaili Caliphate in Egypt; Cairo founded. ¶ Normans recapture Sicily and end Muslim rule there.970¶ Fatimids found Al-Azhar mosque-university in 1096 Cairo. ¶ Pope Urban II launches the First Crusade to conquer Jerusalem.997–1030¶ Reign of Mahmud of Ghazna, who raids north- 1099 west India (Punjab, 1001–21) and puts the con- ¶ Crusaders capture Jerusalem, ending the First quered territories under Islamic authority in the Crusade. name of the Abbasid caliph. 11111021 ¶ Death of Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, philosopher¶ The Fatimid caliph al-Hakim disappears/dies; and theologian. Druze religion begins. 11451037 ¶ Almohad dynasty establishes foothold in Anda-¶ Death of Ibn Sina (Avicenna), philosopher and lusia. physician. ¶ Pope launches Second Crusade.
37. Chronology xli J1166 1230¶ Death of Sufi master Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani in ¶ Death of Muin al-Din Chishti, leading Sufi saint Baghdad. in India.1171 1234¶ End of the Fatimid dynasty; Salah al-Din founds ¶ Death of Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi, Sufi the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt. teacher and founder of the Suhrawardi Sufi order.1187¶ Saladin retakes Jerusalem from crusaders. 1240 ¶ Death of Ibn al-Arabi, Sufi philosopher, in1192 Damascus.¶ Muhammad of Ghur leads Muslim conquest of northern and eastern India. 1250–1519 ¶ Mamluk dynasties rule Egypt and Syria.1193¶ Death of Salah ad-Din, Ayyubid sultan. 1258 ¶ The Mongols sack Baghdad, ending Abbasid1198 Caliphate.¶ Death of Ibn Rushd (Averroes), Andalusian phi- losopher and jurist. 1260 ¶ Mongols are defeated by the Mamluks of Egypt at Ayn Jalut in Syria.1199¶ Conquest of northern India and Bengal by Ghurids. 1273 ¶ Death of Jalal al-Din Rumi, Sufi poet and teacher, in Konya.1203¶ Founding of Mongol Empire by Genghis Khan. 1320? ¶ Death of Yunus Emre, Turkish mystic and1206 poet.¶ Ghurids establish the Delhi Sultanate in India. 13251209 ¶ Death of Nizam al-Din Awliya of Delhi, Sufi¶ Death of Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, theologian. saint of the Chishti order.1215 1328¶ Mongol invasion of the Middle East begins. ¶ Death of Ibn Taymiyya, Hanbali jurist.
38. K xlii Encyclopedia of Islam1338 1520–66¶ Death of Hajji Bektash, Sufi saint. ¶ Reign of the Ottoman sultan Sulayman the Magnificent.1369¶ Death of Ibn Battuta, famed traveler and Maliki 1526–1858 jurist. ¶ Mughal dynasty rules India.1370–1405 1529¶ Timur (Tamerlane) establishes Timurid Empire ¶ Ottomans lift first siege of Vienna and retreat. in Central Asia, the Middle East, and South Asia. 1550 ¶ Islam spreads to Sumatra, Java, the Moluccas,1380–1918 and Borneo.¶ Ottoman Empire rules much of the Middle East and eastern Europe. 1556–1605 ¶ Reign of Akbar, Mughal emperor.1406¶ Death of the historian Ibn Khaldun. 1571 ¶ Christian fleet defeats Ottoman navy at Lep-1453 anto, marking the end of Ottoman dominance¶ Constantinople (Istanbul) falls to Ottomans and in the Mediterranean region. becomes the new Ottoman capital; Byzantine Empire ends. 15961492 ¶ Shah Abbas makes Isfahan the capital of the Safavid Empire.¶ Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabelle of Castile con- quer Granada, ending Muslim rule in Andalusia. 16031501 ¶ Mughal emperor Jahangir begins rule in India.¶ Ismail I establishes the Safavid dynasty in Persia.¶ Twelve-Imam Shiism becomes the state religion 1605 of Iran. ¶ Death of Akbar.1511 1609–14¶ The Saadi Sharifs establish Alid power in ¶ Expulsion of the Muslims from Spain. Morocco. 16241517 ¶ Death of Ahmad Sirhindi, Indian mystic and¶ Ottomans conquer Egypt. reformer.
39. Chronology xliii J1627 1762¶ Mughal emperor Shah Jahan begins reign. ¶ Death of Shah Wali Allah.1640 1798–1801¶ Death of Mulla Sadra, Persian mystic and phi- ¶ French expedition under Napoleon Bonaparte losopher. to Egypt.1654 1792¶ Shah Jahan completes construction of Taj ¶ Death of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, founder of the Mahal. Wahhabi movement.1658 1801¶ Aurangzeb deposes his father, Shah Jahan, and ¶ Wahhabi raiders attack and plunder Karbala in begins reign as Mughal ruler. Iraq.1683 1804¶ Ottomans lift the second siege of Vienna and ¶ Usman dan Fodio establishes Islamic state of retreat. Sokoto in central Sudan. ¶ Wahhabi forces capture Medina.1699¶ Death of Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi, leading 1805 Shii scholar. ¶ Muhammad Ali appointed viceroy of Egypt by Ottomans.1707¶ Death of Aurangzeb, inaugurating era of rapid 1806 Mughal decline. ¶ Wahhabi forces occupy Mecca.1722 1812–16¶ Safavid rule in Iran effectively ended by Afghan ¶ Egyptian troops conduct successful campaign to invasion. end Wahhabi control of Arabia.1750 1816¶ Wahhabi movement, led by Muhammad Abd ¶ British withdraw from Indonesia, restoring it to al-Wahhab, arises in Arabia. Dutch rule.1757–65 1817¶ English East India Company wins control of ¶ Death of Usman dan Fodio, African religious Bengal, India. and political leader.
40. K xliv Encyclopedia of Islam1818 1876¶ British rule extends throughout India. ¶ Britain purchases shares of the Suez Canal and becomes involved in Egyptian affairs.1826 1881¶ Ottomans liquidate the Janissaries and abolish the Bektashi Sufi order. ¶ Muhammad Ahmad declares himself Mahdi in northern Sudan.1830 ¶ Death of the first Aga Khan, Ismaili leader in India.¶ French forces occupy Algeria, ending 313 years of Ottoman rule. 1882 ¶ British forces occupy Egypt.1832–47¶ Abd al-Qadir, Algerian religious scholar, leads 1885 unsuccessful war against French colonial forces. ¶ Death of the Sudanese Mahdi.1850 1891–92¶ Execution of Sayyid Ali Muhammad Shirazi, ¶ Tobacco revolts against British business interests founder of Babi movement in Iran. in Iran.1857 1897¶ Sepoy Rebellion against English East India ¶ Death of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, Muslim Company rule sweeps northern India. reformer and activist.1858 1898¶ British forces suppress Sepoy Rebellion and end ¶ Death of Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Muslim modern- Mughal dynasty; British Crown rule replaces ist reformer. English East India Company rule. ¶ Death of Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya movement.1863¶ Bahaullah appears in Iraq claiming to be the 1899 manifestation of God’s will, founding the reli- ¶ Fall of Mahdist state in the Sudan and its occu- gious community of the Bahais. pation by Anglo-Egyptian troops.1869 1900–08¶ Suez Canal opened. ¶ Construction of the Hijaz railway to Mecca as a pan-Islamic project.1870¶ Muhammad Ahmad ibn Abd Allah appears as 1901 the Sudanese Mahdi. ¶ Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud captures Riyadh.
41. Chronology xlv J1901 1922¶ French forces occupy Morocco. ¶ Mustafa Kemal Ataturk abolishes the Ottoman Turkish sultanate.1905¶ Death of Muhammad Abduh, Egyptian religious 1922–32 scholar and reformer. ¶ Conquest of Libya by Italy.¶ Massacre of Armenians in eastern Turkey. 19241905–11 ¶ The Turkish caliphate is abolished.¶ Constitutional revolution in Iran. ¶ Abd al-Aziz and his Wahhabi army conquer Mecca and Medina.1906¶ All-India Muslim League founded in India. 19251909 ¶ End of the Qajar dynasty in Persia; Reza Khan seizes power in Persia and establishes the¶ Establishment of the Anglo-Persian Oil Com- Pahlavi dynasty. pany. 19281912 ¶ Turkey is declared a secular state and adopts¶ The beginning of the Muhammadiyya reform Latin alphabet. movement in Indonesia. ¶ Hasan al-Banna founds the Muslim Brother- hood.1916¶ Sykes-Picot agreement signed, defining British and French spheres of influence in the post– 1932 World War I Middle East. ¶ Iraq granted independence by League of Nations.1916–18 ¶ Creation of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.¶ Sharif Husayn of Mecca leads Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire. 1935 ¶ Iran becomes the official name of Persia.1920 ¶ Death of Rashid Rida, Syrian religious¶ Syria and Lebanon become French mandate reformer. territories. 19381921 ¶ Death of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, founder of¶ Faysal ibn Husayn is made king of Iraq. modern Turkey.¶ Abd Allah ibn Husayn becomes king of Trans- ¶ Standard Oil of California discovers oil in Saudi jordan. Arabia.
42. K xlvi Encyclopedia of Islam1938 ¶ Indonesia becomes independent.¶ Death of Muhammad Iqbal, Indian intellectual and poet. 1950 ¶ Emirate of Jordan officially renamed the1941 Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan.¶ Iran invaded by British and Russian forces, and Reza Khan is forced to abdicate in favor of his 1951 son Muhammad Reza Shah in Iran. ¶ Libya becomes independent.¶ Jamaat-i Islami founded in India by Abu al-Ala Mawdudi. 1953 ¶ Egyptian Free Officers depose monarchy and1942–45 establish a republic.¶ Japanese occupy Indonesian territories and ¶ Mossadeq government in Iran overthrown in Malay Peninsula. coup sponsored by the United States and Brit- ain.1943 1954¶ Lebanon becomes independent from France. ¶ Beginning of Algerian war of liberation against France.1945 ¶ Jamal Abd al-Nasir becomes president of¶ End of World War II. Foundation of the Arab Egypt. League. 19561946 ¶ Morocco and Tunisia become independent of¶ Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria obtain indepen- France. dence from Britain and France. ¶ Britain, France, and Israel precipitate Suez Cri- sis by attacking Egypt to control the canal.1947¶ Partition of India results in creation of Paki- 1957 stan. ¶ Daawa Party of Iraq founded. Malay Federation wins independence from British rule.1948¶ Establishment of the Jewish state of Israel; Arab- 1958 Israeli war. ¶ Revolution in Iraq under Abd al-Karim Qasim¶ Death of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, first leader of overthrows Hashemite monarchy and estab- Pakistan. lishes the Republic of Iraq.1949 1962¶ Assassination of Hasan al-Banna, leader of the ¶ Algeria becomes independent from France. Muslim Brotherhood. Muslim World League founded.
43. Chronology xlvii J1963 1975–90¶ Islamic Society of North America founded in ¶ Lebanese Civil War. Plainfield, Indiana. 19751965 ¶ Death of Elijah Muhammad, leader of Nation of¶ Malcolm X, leader of the Nation of Islam, assas- Islam among African Americans; Warith Deen sinated. Mohammad takes charge of the movement and renames it World Community of Islam in the1966 West (changed to American Muslim Mission in 1978).¶ Death of Sayyid Qutb, radical Islamic ideo- logue. 19771967 ¶ Death of Ali Shariati, Shii religious thinker.¶ Israel defeats Egypt, Syria, and Jordan in the Six-Day War. 1978 ¶ Anwar al-Sadat, Egypt’s president, shares Nobel1969 Peace Prize with Manachem Begin, Israel’s prime¶ Colonel Muammar Qadhdhafi overthrows King minister. Idris of Libya and establishes Libyan Arab Republic. 1979¶ Organization of the Islamic Conference ¶ Iranian monarchy replaced by a revolutionary founded. Islamic republic with Ayatollah Ruhallah Kho- meini as its supreme leader.1970 ¶ Death of Abu al-Ala Mawdudi, founder of the¶ Egyptian President Jamal Abd al-Nasir dies and Jamaat-i Islami of India and Pakistan. is succeeded by Anwar al-Sadat. ¶ Sacred Mosque in Mecca seized by Sunni reviv- alists proclaiming arrival of the Mahdi.1971 ¶ Soviet Union invades Afghanistan.¶ Bangladesh (former East Pakistan) becomes independent from Pakistan. 1980–89 ¶ Iran-Iraq War.1973¶ October War (Yom Kippur War) between Israel 1980 and a coalition of Arab states, led by Egypt and ¶ Execution of Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir al- Syria. Sadr, leading Shii authority in Iraq.1974 1981¶ Death of Amin al-Husayni, grand mufti of Jeru- ¶ Assassination of Egyptian president Anwar al- salem and Palestinian nationalist. Sadat by radical Islamists.
44. K xlviii Encyclopedia of Islam1982 1996¶ Israeli invasion of Lebanon; Hizbullah founded ¶ Taliban, a guerrilla force of Islamist Afghan stu- in Lebanon. dents, seizes Kabul.¶ Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq founded with Iranian support. 2000– ¶ Second Palestinian intifada (known as “al-Aqsa1987–93 Intifada”) against Israeli occupation (ongoing).¶ First Palestinian intifada against Israeli occu- pation. 20011987 ¶ Religious militants connected with al-Qaida fly hijacked airliners into the New York World Trade¶ Hamas founded in Gaza. Center and Pentagon; U.S. and coalition forces invade Afghanistan and depose the Taliban.1988¶ Naguib Mahfouz, Egyptian author, wins the 2003 Nobel Prize for literature.¶ Salman Rushdie publishes The Satanic Verses, ¶ U.S. and coalition forces launch Gulf War II by sparking Muslim protests around the world. invading Iraq and deposing Saddam Husayn and¶ Al-Qaida founded in Afghanistan. the Baath Party. ¶ Shirin Ebadi, Iranian human rights advocate,1989 wins Nobel Peace Prize.¶ Death of Ayatollah Khomeini, Shii religious scholar and revolutionary leader; Ayatollah Ali 2005 Khamenei becomes supreme leader of Iran. ¶ Iraqi national elections bring Shii political coali-¶ Death of Fazlur Rahman, leading Islamic scholar tion (United Iraqi Alliance) to power. in the United States. ¶ Muhammad al-Baradei, director of the Interna-¶ Soviets withdraw from Afghanistan. tional Atomic Energy Agency, wins Nobel Peace Prize.1990¶ Iraqi forces at the command of President Sad- 2006 dam Husayn invade and annex Kuwait, causing ¶ Orhan Pamuk, Turkish author, wins Nobel Prize Gulf War I. in literature. ¶ Muhammad Yunus, Bangladeshi banker and1991 economist, wins Nobel Peace Prize.¶ United States leads international coalition forces ¶ Saddam Husayn executed. in a successful campaign to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait. 2007 ¶ Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in1994 Iraq changes name to Supreme Iraqi Islamic¶ Yasir Arafat, chairman of the Palestine Lib- Council. eration Organization, shares Nobel Peace Prize ¶ Benazir Ali Bhutto, Pakistan political leader, with Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres. assassinated.
45. entries a to z K
46. AJ:AFAbbasid Caliphate (750–1258) Only after they had attained power did they makeThe Abbasid Caliphate was a long-lived Sunni it clear that the revolution they had led was fordynasty that ruled the Islamicate empire for five their own family, not that of Ali, crushing thecenturies and set the standard for Muslim rulers messianic expectations of those who had awaitedwho came later. It took power in a tremendous a descendant of Ali to come to the throne. Therevolution in 750 that ended the Umayyad caliph- messianic expectations generated by the struggleate in Damascus. It was during the Abbasid era, between the Abbasids and Umayyads, as reflectedparticularly until the 10th century, that the for- in hadiths that can be dated to this period, remainmative elements of Islamicate civilization were even now an important part of Islamic apocalypticput into place. Among the achievements of this beliefs regarding portents of the Last Hour andera were a massive project of translation, thanks JUdgment day.to which Greek philosophy was made available During the heyday of the Abbasid Caliph-to the Arabs (and later to Latin Europe), the ate, the Islamicate Empire stretched from Indiaflowering of Arabic prose and poetry, the forma- and the Central Asian steppes in the east to thetion of the major schools of Islamic law, and the western coast of northern Africa. But the heart ofconsolidation of Shii and Sunni communities with the empire was always iraq, where they had theirdistinctive traditions. capital, baghdad, and what is now iran. Iraq, in The Abbasids came to power on the back of particular, was extensively irrigated and thereforea masterful propaganda campaign that targeted was a rich source of agricultural produce and thethose elements in the Islamicate empire whom resulting tax revenue. By the ninth century, majorthe Umayyads had alienated, especially those who parts of the empire were functionally indepen-harbored various degrees of loyalty to the family dent, and this gradual breakdown of central ruleof Ali: the nascent Shia. They put forward the only increased as time went on. Nonetheless, theclaim, later largely accepted, that a caliph must provincial rulers, ever anxious to legitimize theircome from the clan of Hashim, which included rules through official recognition from the caliph,Muhammad and Ali, but also Abbas, Muhammad’s largely maintained their symbolic allegiance topaternal uncle and the ancestor of the Abbasids. him. Even when these rulers were, in fact, much 1
47. K 2 Abd al-Aziz ibn Saudstronger than the caliph, few considered declar- al-Wahhab (1703–92) and established a tribal stateing themselves independent outright, in order to that ruled much of the Arabian Peninsula duringmaintain an aura of legitimacy as supporters of the 18th and 19th centuries. In a period of politicalthe traditional caliphate. The clear exceptions to fragmentation, he revived Saudi control of the pen-this were the Fatimid dynasty (909–1171) and the insula after conducting a raid from neighboringUmayyads in andalUsia. Kuwait in 1902 that resulted in the capture of the The Abbasids thus had little more than sym- town of Riyadh, the future capital of saUdi arabia.bolic power by the middle of the 10th century, He then conquered other regions of the peninsulaexcept for a limited revival of their political for- with the assistance of the Ikhwan (Brotherhood),tunes in the 12th and 13th centuries. They were a Wahhabi fighting force recruited from amongfinally crushed by the invading Mongols, who Arab tribes. In 1926, after the fall of mecca andtook Baghdad in 1258, wiping out most mem- medina, religious authorities recognized Abd al-bers of the Abbasid family and destroying their Aziz as king of the Hijaz and sultan of Najd, thelegendary capital, Baghdad. While a few of the western and central regions of Arabia, respectively.Abbasids escaped to Egypt, where a figurehead With the support of tribal allies, Ulama, and thecaliphate survived under the tutelage of the mam- British, he defeated a rebellion among the IkhwanlUk dynasty, they no longer held even the moral in 1927–30, and in 1932, he renamed his realm theaUthority that they had had when in Baghdad. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Today, the Abbasids remain important as a symbol Abd al-Aziz was a skillful statesman and leaderof the former greatness of the Islamicate civiliza- in times of peace, in addition to being a man of war.tion, and as a model for what a united Muslim He consolidated his power through consultationscommunity might again attain. with close advisers and merchants, intermarriage See also adab; arabic langUage and litera- with influential tribes and clans, and generoustUre; mahdi; shiism. disbursements of state revenues. Although he had ruthlessly suppressed the Ikhwan, he maintained John Iskander solid ties with Wahhabi ulama and gave them control of the country’s religious and educationalFurther reading: Paul M. Cobb, White Banners: Conten- affairs. They were not capable of seriously oppos-tion in Abbasid Syria, 750–880 (Albany: State University ing him as he moved to modernize the kingdom,of New York Press, 2001); Tayeb El-Hibri, Reinterpreting however. He granted Standard Oil of CaliforniaIslamic Historiography: Harun al-Rashid and the Narra- oil exploration rights in 1933, and he persuadedtive of the Abbasid Caliphate (Cambridge: Cambridge the ulama to allow for the introduction of radioUniversity Press, 1999); Hugh Kennedy, The Prophet transmissions and the telephone. Oil was first dis-and the Age of the Caliphates (Harlow: Longman, 2003); covered in 1938, and Abd al-Aziz quickly movedJ. J. Saunders, A History of Medieval Islam (New York: to use the new revenues to build family propertiesBarnes Noble, 1965). and palaces. It was not until after World War II, however, that the Saudi kingdom and the royalAbd al-Aziz ibn Saud (Ibn Saud) (1880–1953) family began to fully enjoy the profits of the oilcharismatic founder of the modern Kingdom of Saudi industry. This was when Saudi Arabia becameArabia and political patron of the conservative Wahhabi the first Arab country to form close ties with thesect of Islam United States, as signaled by Abd al-Aziz’s meet-Abd al-Aziz was the descendant of the Al Saud clan ing with President Franklin Roosevelt in 1945 onof central Arabia that had formed a strategic alli- the deck of the USS Quincy. The newly formedance with the revivalist leader mUhammad ibn abd Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO) then
48. Abd al-Qadir al-Jazairi 3 J From his base in the region of Oran, in the north- west of Algeria, Abd al-Qadir led a fierce and pro- tracted resistance. For about a decade, until 1842, he controlled much of the Algerian hinterland and had de facto recognition as ruler from both the Algerian populace and the French army, which negotiated with him. He implemented a number of reforms during this time, inspired in part by his admiration of Muhammad Ali (r. 1805–48), the founder of modern egypt, whose reforms he had witnessed at first hand during a visit to that country. But French determination to conquerKing Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud meets with President Roos- the Algerian hinterland led to a brutal policy ofevelt aboard the USS Quincy in the Suez Canal Zone, depopulation, in which the native Algerians wereFebruary 14, 1945. (Courtesy of Dr. Michael Crocker/King forced off their land and into camps, with massiveAbdul Aziz Foundation) destruction of their crops, livestock, and villages. Eventually, in 1847, Abd al-Qadir surrendered totook charge, with Saudi participation, of build- the French in order to stop the catastrophic war.ing much of the country’s infrastructure: roads, After being exiled to France, he migrated to istan-airports, communications, electrical power, and bUl and then to damascUs, where he would spendwater system. When Abd al-Aziz died, he left a the rest of his life. In Damascus, he became a largecountry that was about to embark on a rapid and landholder and influential personage, dispensingfar-reaching modernization program. Since that patronage but also teaching Quran and sUnna attime, Saudi Arabia has been ruled by his sons, in the main Umayyad mosque.alliance with the Wahhabi ulama. He is still held Abd al-Qadir wrote works in which he pro-in high esteem by his country. moted rationalist explanations of the Quran and See also aUthority; Wahhabism. Islam, and in this he was in the forefront of Arab and Muslim reformers who sought to understandFurther reading: Leslie J. McLoughlin, Ibn Saud: their religion in light of the changed situationFounder of a Kingdom (New York: St. Martin’s Press, imposed on them by modernity and the supremacy1993); Medawi Rashid, A History of Saudi Arabia (Cam- of “science.” Toward the end of his life, he beganbridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002) to propound a literalist reading of the scriptures, which, while not contradicting his earlier empha- sis on reason, marked a new direction for him. AsAbd al-Nasir, Jamal See nasir, Jamal abd al-. one of his biographers points out, however, this combination of “rational” and “literal” approaches to Islam and the Quran is typical of Salafi, or neo-Abd al-Qadir al-Jazairi (1808–1883) Sufi traditionalist, Islam. Abd al-Qadir is rememberedshaykh, leader of Algerian resistance to French now, and was honored by Europeans during hiscolonization, and hero of Algerian independence life, for his part in stopping a massacre (based onAbd al-Qadir, the son of a Sufi shaykh of the qadini local grievances) of Christians in Damascus insUFi order, was chosen by his father Muhyi al-Din 1860, protecting many himself.to lead the resistance to France’s slow-motion He is remembered by Algerians as the firstcolonization of algeria, which had begun in 1830. to mount organized resistance to the colonial
49. K 4 Abd al-Qadir al-JilaniFrench, who would stay in that country until now has branches in the Middle East, Africa,they were forced out by a widespread revolution South Asia, and Indonesia.in 1962. His position as patriot and early nation- See also hanbali legal school.alist, but also as an Islamic leader, make him ahero around whom most Algerians can safely Further reading: Khaliq Ahmad Nizami, “The Qadiri-unite, and it is largely in Algeria that his memory yyah Order.” In Islamic Spirituality, 2 vols., edited byremains important today. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, 2: 6–25 (New York: Crossroad, See also christianity and islam; colonialism; 1991); J. Spencer Trimingham, The Sufi Orders of Islamottoman dynasty; salaFism. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998). John Iskander Abd al-Rahman, Umar (1938– ) a blindFurther reading: David Commins, Islamic Reform: Poli- radical Islamic leader who was implicated in thetics and Social Change in Late Ottoman Syria (New York: assassination of Egyptian president Anwar SadatOxford University Press, 1990); Raphael Danziger, Abd (d. 1981) and the 1993 New York World Tradeal-Qadir and the Algerians: Resistance to the French and Center bombingInternal Consolidation (New York: Homes Meier, Umar Abd al-Rahman was born in al-Gamalaya,1977). egypt, in 1938, and lost his sight very early in life. After learning Braille as a young child, he excelledAbd al-Qadir al-Jilani (1077–1166) Sufi at his studies. By age 11, Abd al-Rahman hadsaint and founder of the Qadiri Sufi Order memorized the qUran. Having been trained in aAbd al-Qadir was from the Caspian region of Per- series of traditional Islamic learning academies,sia and went as a teenager to baghdad to study including al-azhar University, he received hisHanbali law and theology; he was also attracted doctorate in 1972. He is best known for his workto the teachings of Sufi masters there. After as a preacher and as an Islamist organizer andretreating to the Iraqi desert for several years activist. In this capacity, throughout the 1970sas an ascetic, he returned to Baghdad, where he and 1980s, Abd al-Rahman ran afoul of Egyptianbecame a scholar and a popular preacher who authorities, most notoriously for allegedly issuingattracted a wide circle of followers, including the FatWa (religious edict) leading to EgyptianJews and Christians whom he had converted to president Anwar Sadat’s assassination in 1981.Islam. The center of his activities was a madrasa, Abd al-Rahman has been linked to two Egyp-where he taught religious studies and was con- tian Islamist organizations, Jihad and the Jamaasulted as a mUFti. In his sermons, he admonished Islamiyya. As a result of his involvement withhis listeners to care for the poor and needy, and these organizations and his criticism of the Egyp-he sought to harmonize Islam’s legal require- tian state, Abd al-Rahman was imprisoned a num-ments with its spiritual message. When he died ber of times, including after Jamal Abd al-Nasir’sin 1166, he was buried in his Baghdad madrasa, death in 1970 and after Sadat’s assassination.which became a popular mosque-shrine that Through his involvement with Islamist networks,drew pilgrims from the Middle East and India. he became active in anti-Soviet resistance inHis followers circulated many stories about his aFghanistan in the early 1980s, raising moneymiraculous powers so that within a century after and recruiting through his preaching and organi-his death he was regarded as one of the leading zational activities. Abd al-Rahman is said to haveSufi saints in the Muslim world. He is considered established links with the Central Intelligenceto be the founder of the qadiri sUFi order, which Agency (CIA), who offered funding and military
50. Abduh, Muhammad 5 Jand logistical support to those fighting the Soviets ally minded Muslims who wanted to hold on toin Afghanistan. the ideal of united Muslim polity, even though Making his way to the United States after the the caliphate had long before ceased to be anSoviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1988, Abd effective political institution in Muslim coun-al-Rahman continued preaching jihad against tries. They were even more offended that he wasnon-Muslim powers. Following the Gulf War of contesting the role of religious law in public life1991, he, like some other veterans of anti-Soviet and traditional doctrines about Muhammad’s roleresistance in Afghanistan, turned his attention to as a prophet-ruler. They accused Abd al-Raziqthe United States. In 1996, he was found guilty of of undermining Islam with European ideas, fororchestrating the 1993 attacks on the World Trade which he paid a high price: A council of al-AzharCenter from his mosqUe in New Jersey. He is serv- religious scholars condemned his book, strippeding life in prison for this crime. him of his degree, and dismissed him from judi- See also Jihad movements. cial office. He continued to write but stayed out of public affairs for the rest of his life. Caleb Elfenbein See also abdUh, mUhammad; government, islamic; secUlarism.Further reading: Gilles Kepel, Jihad: The Trail of Politi-cal Islam (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Further reading: Hamid Enayat, Modern Islamic Politi-2002); Omar Abd al-Rahman, “Umar Abdul Rahman: cal Thought (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982);A Self-Portrait.” Afkar Inquiry (3 November 1986): Albert Hourani, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age,56–57. 1798–1939 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983).Abd al-Raziq, Ali (1888–1966) liberalEgyptian jurist and political reformerA reform-minded judge in Egypt’s sharia courts, Abd al-Wahhab, Muhammad ibn SeeAli Abd al-Raziq was the author of a controversial ibn abd al-Wahhab, mUhammad.book that advocated the separation of Islam frompolitics. He came from a prominent landholdingfamily in the district of Minya in Upper egypt that Abduh, Muhammad (1849–1905) modernfavored the creation of a constitutional monarchy Islamic modernist thinkerand other liberal secular reforms. After studying Muhammad Abduh was an Egyptian religiousat al-azhar and Oxford University, he began his scholar, jurist, and leader of a major social reformcareer as a judge in the Egyptian court system. In movement in the Muslim world who advocatedhis book Islam and the Principles of Government, a modernist reinterpretation of islam. Known aspublished in 1925, he argued that mUhammad’s the “father of Islamic modernism,” he was born inmission was a moral and spiritual one only, and 1849 to a modest family in the Egyptian delta. Histhat neither the qUran nor the hadith had ever early education involved traditional qUran mem-authorized the establishment of a caliphate, or orization, although Abduh’s natural inclinationsIslamic state. Abd al-Raziq developed his thesis tended toward sUFism. In 1877, he concludedafter the new republican government in tUrkey his studies in religion, logic, and philosophy athad formally abolished the caliphate in 1924, a al-azhar University and began teaching there astime when there were strong secular and national- a religious scholar. Simultaneously, he becameist currents in the Middle East. Nevertheless, his interested in politics, publishing articles on politi-book outraged religious authorities and tradition- cal and social reform and joining the Egyptian
51. K 6 ablutionnationalist movement against British occupation for women’s emancipation as integral to nationalof the country. This culminated in Abduh’s partici- development and a healthy Muslim society, and hepation in the unsuccessful 1882 Urabi Revolt and became an inspiration to feminists in the region.his exile by the Egyptian khedive (ruler). hasan al-banna (d. 1949) would take the spirit of A major influence in Abduh’s life was Jamal Abduh’s activist Islamic ideology and apply it inal-din al-aFghani, who had come to cairo in the founding of the mUslim brotherhood. Abduh1871. They worked closely together there and died in 1905 near Alexandria, Egypt.later in Paris, where in 1884 they organized a See also edUcation; egypt; reneWal and reFormsecret society and published al-Urwa al-Wuthqa movements; salaFism; secUlarism.(the strongest link), a newspaper promoting resis-tance to European expansionism through Mus- Michelle Zimneylims’ solidarity with one another and throughthe revival and reform of Islam. Both Abduh and Further reading: Hamid Enayat, Modern Islamic Politi-al-Afghani saw stagnation and weakness in Islami- cal Thought (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982);cate societies as rooted in the imitation (taqlid) Albert Hourani, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age,of old traditions and called for the use of rational 1798–1939 (London: Oxford University Press, 1970);interpretation (iJtihad) to incorporate modern Malcolm H. Kerr, Islamic Reform: The Political and Legalideas into Islam. Abduh in particular saw many Theories of Muhammad Abduh and Rashid Rida (Berke-parallels between concepts in Islam and ideas ley: University of California Press, 1966).associated with the European Enlightenment anddrew on these for inspiration. He rejected, how-ever, a wholesale appropriation of western secular ablutionvalues, choosing instead the middle path of an Ablution involves the ritual cleansing of theenlightened Islam that valued the human intellect body with pure water in preparation for perfor-and modern sciences but revered the divine as the mance of other acts of worship. Although theresource of human morality. He presented his ideas are minor differences of opinion among Islamicon theology in a series of lectures given in Beirut legal schools, Islamic law generally stipulates twothat were later published as Risalat al-tawhid (The kinds of ablution. One, called ghusl, requires anTheology of Unity, 1942–1943). expression of intention, followed by a cleansing In 1888, Abduh returned to Cairo, focus- of the entire body. It must be performed aftering his energies on educational and institutional sexual activity, menstruation, and childbirth; itreform. After becoming the head (mUFti) of the is also performed on the body of a dead personnation’s sharia court system in 1899, he worked to prepare it for funerary prayer and burial. Theto liberalize interpretations of religious law. In this second kind of ablution, wudu, involves a partialfield, he was especially concerned with the status cleansing starting with an expression of intention,of women and advocated changes in family law followed by washing of the face, hands up to theand equal opportunities in education, but he was elbows, head, and feet. It may also involve wash-often countered by strong conservative forces. ing the ears and nostrils and rinsing the mouth. Muhammad Abduh’s ideas were carried on This method is believed to purify the body afterby his associates long after his death. mUhammad urination and defecation, touching the genitals,rashid rida, a Syrian, published the reformist sleep, and other activities. Ablution may be per-journal Al-Manar (the beacon), which they had formed at home or at the mosqUe, which hasstarted together, until his death in 1935. Qasim special facilities for this purpose. The numerousAmin (d. 1908) developed further the arguments communal bathhouses that characterized medi-
52. abortion 7 Jeval Islamicate cities also helped to meet this make a distinction between the first 120 days,need. In the absence of water, Islamic law allows when abortion is allowed for a valid reason (forfor the performance of “dry ablution” with sand example, to save the life of the mother or a nurs-or a similar substance. Only the hands and face ing child), and the remainder of the pregnancy,are cleansed if this is the case. Failure to perform when it is believed that the fetus has receivedthe proper ablution prohibits a person from per- its soul and gains legal status as a person. Abor-forming prayer, entering a mosque, touching the tion thereafter is generally prohibited, unless theqUran, or visiting the kaaba in mecca. mother’s health is threatened, since her welfare See also FUnerary ritUals. has precedence over that of the fetus. This is espe- cially true for those who follow the recommenda-Further reading: Laleh Bakhtiyar, Encyclopedia of tions of the hanaFi legal school. On the otherIslamic Law: A Compendium of the Major Schools (Chi- hand, most jurists of the maliki legal schoolcago: ABC International Group, 1996), 20–61; Marion believe that ensoulment occurs at the moment ofHolmes Katz, Body of Text: The Emergence of the Sunni conception, and they tend to forbid abortion atLaw of Ritual Purity (Albany: State University of New any point, which puts this school’s position closerYork Press, 2002); Arthur Jeffrey, Reader on Islam (The to that of the Roman Catholic Church. The otherHague: Mouton Company, 1962), 464–470. schools hold intermediate positions. The penalty prescribed for an illegal abortion varies according to the particular circumstances involved. Accord-abortion ing to the sharia, it should be limited to a fineAbortion is a human intervention to end a preg- that is paid to the father or heirs of the fetus.nancy prior to birth. Although people living According to Islamic theology, there may also bein many different societies throughout history punishment in the aFterliFe.have practiced it, abortion has caused consider- There are no accurate statistics concerningable reflection and debate about its ethical, legal, actual abortion rates among Muslims. Most Mus-religious, social, economic, as well as medical lim countries, which often have high birth rates,implications. Decisions about abortion involve fall among the group of developing nations, whereinterrelationships between the woman and her an estimated 78 percent of the world’s abortionsfetus, the woman and her mate or husband, and are performed. The Muslim countries with thethe wider society—including religious, legal, and most liberal abortion laws for women are iran,medical authorities. At the center of the debate Tunisia, and tUrkey. In accordance with the sharia,are life and death questions that no individual or it is allowed in special circumstances in most othersociety takes lightly. Muslim countries, especially when the health of Muslim religious and legal experts have been the mother or a nursing child is involved.involved in discussions about abortion since the See also adam and eve; birth control and11th century, and they have expressed different Family planning; children; soUl and spirit.points of view on the subject. They often turnto teachings found in the qUran and hadith that Further reading: Jonathan E. Brockopp, ed., Islamicemphasize the sacredness of human life, such as Ethics of Life: Abortion, War, and Euthanasia (Columbia:those that deal with man’s creation with a soul University of South Carolina Press, 2003); especially(ruh) from God (Q 15:29, 32:9), the development the chapters by Marion Holmes Katz, Donna Leeof the fetus (Q 23:12-14), and condemnations of Bowen, and Vardit Rispler-Chaim; Basim F Musallam, .murder and the killing of one’s own offspring (Q Sex and Society in Islam (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni-17:33, 6:151, 81:8-9). Most schools of Islamic law versity Press, 1983).
53. K 8 Abou El Fadl, KhaledAbou El Fadl, Khaled (1963– ) leading of view, and placement of quranic command-scholar of Islamic law, religious reformer, and human ments in their appropriate historical context.rights advocate living in the United States Abou El Fadl boldly maintains that this methodKhaled Abou El Fadl was born in Kuwait in 1963 has been a norm in classical Islamic thought butand was raised in both Kuwait and egypt. In his has been violated by religious fanatics, who baseyouth, he was attracted to the strict, literalist ten- their views on blind imitation and superficial,dency in contemporary islam, but as he matured erroneous interpretations of God’s will. In doinghe came to understand his religion in a less literal this, Abou El Fadl is claiming a place for himselfway. He credits his parents for helping him to do squarely within the reformist tradition in modernthis. He went to the United States to attend college Islam. “A careful and reflective synthesis,” hein 1982 and obtained a bachelor’s degree at Yale writes, “must be worked out between modernityUniversity in 1986, then a law degree from the and tradition” (And God Knows the Soldiers, p.University of Pennsylvania (1989), and a doctor- 115). Through his writings and his public serviceate in Islamic studies from Princeton University on behalf of hUman rights, he is impacting both(1999). He has taught on the faculty of law at the American civil society and Muslim immigrantUniversity of California, Los Angeles, since 1998 communities. What remains to be seen is whetherand lectures frequently to audiences in the United he and other progressively minded Muslims willStates and abroad. be able to have a profound affect abroad in Mus- Abou El Fadl is an outspoken critic of terror- lim-majority countries.ism and the puritanical Wahhabi understanding See also reneWal and reForm movements;of Islam that is promoted by an influential party salaFism; secUlarism; United states; Wahhabism.of Muslim religious authorities in saUdi arabiaand other countries, including the United States Further reading: Khaled M. Abou El Fadl, And Godand Europe. His views became known to a wider Knows the Soldiers: The Authoritative and Authoritarianpublic in the United States after the September in Islamic Discourses (Lanham, Md.: University Press of11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center and America, 2001); Khaled M. Abou El Fadl, Conferencethe Pentagon through newspaper editorials, pub- of the Books: The Search for Beauty in Islam (Lanham,lications, and speeches. He condemns religious Md.: University Press of America, 2001); Omid Safi, ed.,fanaticism and supports religious and cultural Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralismpluralism, democratic values, and Women’s rights. (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2003).His Muslim opponents accuse him of being atool of the West, serving the interests of Islam’senemies. What makes Abou El Fadl’s ideas so Abraham (Arabic: Ibrahim) one of the leadingpowerful, however, is that he supports many of Muslim prophets, believed to be the ancestral founderhis opinions with an encyclopedic knowledge of of Judaism, Christianity, and Islamthe qUran and the sharia, enhanced further by his One of the most important figures in Islamictraining in the secular Western legal tradition. His sacred history is Abraham, who is considered aCalifornia home contains thousands of volumes patriarchal figure, a close “friend” of God, and,and manuscripts, including many classics on above all, a prophet and founder of the kaaba inIslamic subjects, which inspired the essays in his mecca. Western scholars disagree about whenConference of the Books: The Search for Beauty in the historic Abraham may have lived—someIslam. For him, the search for the truth, or God’s say as early as 2000 b.c.e., others say up to alaw, is an ongoing endeavor, one that involves rea- thousand years later (ca. 1000 b.c.e.). Muslimsoned argument, the weighing of different points understandings of Abraham drew significantly
54. Abu Bakr 9 Jfrom stories found in the book of Genesis in the See also JUdaism and islam; prophets andBible and related accounts that were circulating prophecy.among Jews and Christians in the Middle Eastduring the seventh century c.e. These accounts Further reading: Reuven Firestone, Journeys in Holywere then adapted to the Arab Muslim environ- Lands: The Evolution of the Abraham-Ishmael Legendsment, as first shown in the qUran. The fact that (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990);Muslims as well as Jews and Christians look to Gordon Darnell Newby, The Making of the Last Prophet:Abraham as an ancestral figure for their respec- A Reconstruction of the Earliest Biography of Muhammadtive religions has led some people to call all three (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1989).religions Abrahamic and their followers “childrenof Abraham.” Abraham is mentioned in the Quran more Abu Bakr (573–634) first of four Sunni “rightlythan any other prophet except for moses. As in the guided” caliphs to rule the early Muslim communityBible, he is portrayed as an opponent of idolatry after Muhammad’s death in 632(Q 6:74–84), a person who converses with God Abu Bakr, the close companion and father-in-lawand the angels (Q 11:69–76), the father of Ish- of mUhammad, was elected the first caliph of themael (Arabic: Ismail, Q 2:133) and Isaac (Arabic: Muslim community when Muhammad died inIshaq, Q 37:112), a founder of sacred places (Q 632. Sunni Muslims regard him as one of the2:125–127), and a pious man who was prepared four “rightly guided” caliphs, along with Umarto sacrifice his son at God’s command (Q 37:99– ibn al-khattab (r. 634–644), Uthman ibn aFFan111). Islamic traditions emphasize his role as the (r. 644–655), and ali ibn abi talib (r. 656–661).builder of the ancient Kaaba and his connection A native of mecca, Abu Bakr was a member ofwith many of the haJJ rituals. His wife, Hagar, and a branch of the qUraysh tribe and made a livingtheir son Ishmael are associated with the well of as a merchant. He is remembered as the first ofzamzam in the Sacred Mosque and the ritual “run- Muhammad’s associates (excluding family mem-ning” between the hills of Safa and Marwa. One bers) to convert to Islam, and he helped protectof the most important memorials in the Sacred Muhammad when he departed on the hiJra toMosque’s courtyard is the Station of Abraham, medina in 622. His nickname was al-Siddiq (thewhere it is believed he stood while building the truthful) because he was the first to confirmKaaba. Muslims commemorate the attempted sac- the reality of Muhammad’s night JoUrney andrifice of his son every year during the id al-adha ascent. Abu Bakr was Muhammad’s main adviser,(Feast of the Sacrifice), which closes the hajj sea- and he joined him in all his subsequent battles.son. The Quran does not say which of Abraham’s His daughter aisha married Muhammad andtwo sons he intended to sacrifice, but the consen- became his most important wife. When Muham-sus reached among Muslims is that it was Ishmael. mad died, Abu Bakr was the candidate favored byIn Judaism, it is believed to have been his other the powerful Quraysh and other emigrants fromson, Isaac. Abraham is thought to have been bur- Mecca to become the Prophet’s successor (caliph),ied in the West Bank town of Hebron, which is against Ali, who was favored by the ansar ofcalled al-Khalil in Arabic in memory of Abraham’s Medina. Ali and his supporters, however, pledgedreputation as “the friend” of God (see Q 4:125). allegiance to Abu Bakr without conflict. In whatHis tomb there is a place of worship for both Jews were called the “wars of apostasy,” Abu Bakr wasand Muslims, but it has become a flashpoint for soon forced to suppress rebellions by tribes inconfrontations between members of these com- outlying regions of the Arabian Peninsula that hadmunities in modern times. refused to pay alms (zakat), or had turned away
55. K 10 Abu Hanifafrom Islam to follow rival prophets. After success- United States, Japan, and the Netherlands, wherefully prosecuting these wars, he authorized the he has been a professor of Arabic and Islamicsending of Muslim and arab tribal armies into studies at Leiden University since 1995.Syria and Iraq, thus inaugurating the first Muslim The main reason Abu Zayd left Egypt in 1995conquests outside the Arabian Peninsula. The first was that his secular theories about how to inter-collection of the Quran in written form was also pret sacred Islamic texts upset influential Musliminitiated at his order. conservatives who then caused such a public See also aUthority; caliphate; fitna. uproar in the media that he felt his life was in dan- ger. His fears were justified, because Farag Foda, aFurther reading: Hugh Kennedy, The Prophet and the leading critic of political Islam in Egypt, had beenAge of the Caliphates (London: Longman, 1985); Wil- assassinated in 1992 because of his views, andferd Madelung, The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of Egyptian Nobel Prize laureate Naguib Mahfouzthe Early Caliphate (Cambridge: Cambridge University had barely escaped a fatal stabbing in 1994. AbuPress, 1997). Zayd’s trouble began in 1992, when he submitted his publications to a tenure review committee at Cairo University. Despite very positive evalua-Abu Hanifa See hanaFi legal school. tions, the committee recommended that he not be granted tenure, which sparked a national debate over academic freedom and defending Islam andAbu Zayd, Nasr Hamid (1943– ) Egypt from the threat of secular values. An influ-influential Egyptian intellectual who was forced ential member of the tenure committee, who alsoto leave his native Egypt because of his secularist preached at a major mosque in Old Cairo, accusedapproach to interpreting the Quran and other Abu Zayd of “intellectual terrorism” and said thatIslamic texts his works were a “Marxist-secularist attempt toNasr Hamid Abu Zayd was born in a small village destroy Egypt’s society” (Najjar, 179). Aside fromnear Tanta, a city in egypt’s Nile Delta. His father minor technical flaws, what really upset Abuwas a grocer, and his mother was the daughter of Zayd’s critics was his liberal secularist approacha professional qUran reciter. He graduated from to reading Islamic literature. He argued that in thetechnical school in 1960 and worked as an electri- modern period Muslim extremists and authoritar-cian in a government ministry. In 1968, he moved ians promoted misguided understandings aboutto Cairo and enrolled at Cairo University, where Islam as eternal truths that cannot be disputed. Hehe obtained a B.A. degree in Arabic language and concluded that such notions were self-serving andliteratUre four years later. He earned a masters did not stand up to the light of rational analysis.degree and a doctorate (1980) in Islamic studies A small group of closed-minded zealots, therefore,from the same institution. Abu Zayd’s master’s were preventing foundational Islamic texts suchthesis was on the Mutazili interpretation of the as the Quran and hadith from being debated andQuran, and his doctoral dissertation was about the understood in terms of context, historical change,famous Sufi mUhyi al-din ibn al-arabi (d. 1240) and universal values. In an unprecedented action,and his mystical interpretations of the Quran. His Abu Zayd’s opponents took his case to court andfirst academic appointment was to the Depart- were able to convince the Cairo Appeals Court,ment of Arabic Studies at Cairo University. His backed by the Egyptian Supreme Court, to rulepublished works deal with the modern interpreta- that he was an apostate (a Muslim who had aban-tions of the Quran, Islamic law, Ibn al-Arabi, and doned his religion), and because of this he couldwomen’s rights. He has studied and taught in the no longer remain married to his wife, Ibtihal.
56. adab 11 JFaced with death threats, forced separation from of good conduct that are applicable to all believ-his wife, and the lack of support from Egyptian ers. The Quran and the sunna of Muhammad con-civil authorities, he and his wife left the country tain these rules, which involve ordinary activitiesto live in exile. such as eating, dress, grooming, speaking, visita- See also mUtazili school; secUlarism. tion, and hospitality. Muslim theologians and phi- losophers saw adab as an etiquette or disciplineFurther reading: Fauzi M. Najjar, “Islamic Fundamen- that could help purify the individual’s God-given,talism and the Intellectuals: The Case of Nasr Hamid rational soul by strengthening inner virtues andAbu Zayd.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 27 controlling or even eliminating wrongful behav-(2000): 177–200; Nasr Abu Zaid and Esther R. Nelson, ior such as lying and cheating. Moreover, theyVoice of an Exile: Reflections on Islam (Westport, Conn.: thought adab could curb worldly passions, forPraeger, 2004). example, sexual desire, greed, anger, jealousy, gluttony, and stinginess. One of the leading medi- eval theologians, al-Ghazali (d. 1111), linked adabadab to the Five pillars of Islam (which involve anAdab is an Arabic word for refined behavior and etiquette for human behavior toward God), Sufigood manners that are to be practiced daily. It is practices, and the attainment of eternal bliss inalso used for areas of knowledge that are today paradise.called the humanities, especially literature written Adab is also used as a name for a large andin eloquent prose. Both as a code of moral instruc- diverse body of literary works that both conveystions and as a body of knowledge expressed information and demonstrates the creative elo-through literature, adab has been significantly quence of the written word in order to transmitshaped by the qUran and the sUnna of mUham- cultural values and entertain readers. It includesmad, but it has also absorbed local codes of behav- books of history, geography, travel, biography,ior and non-Islamic traditions of learning based in poetry, and interesting information about peopleurban social settings. The traditional masters of and natural phenomena. In the early centuries ofadab were Muslim religious scholars, mystics, and Islam, much of this literature was written in Ara-educated elites who served the rulers of Islamicate bic and drew upon the styles of expression foundlands from Spain and North Africa to Southeast in the Quran and hadith. But ancient Greek andAsia, especially between the eighth century and Persian learning also inspired and was at homethe 20th. wherever Islamicate civilization flourished. One Although mastery of the skills necessary for of the most important contributors to this body ofunderstanding and producing eloquently written writings was al-Jahiz (d. 869), who may have com-literature was available only to a select minority, posed as many as 200 books and essays on a widetraining in manners and morals was a life-long range of topics, including animal lore, singingprocess that all members of society were expected girls, misers, politics, philosophy, and religion.to engage in, beginning with childhood education See also arabic langUage and literatUre;and continuing with individual self-discipline edUcation; ghazali, abU hamid al-; morality andin adulthood. In premodern Islamicate societ- ethics; sUFism.ies, there were written codes of adab for specificgroups, such as the Ulama, rulers, nobles, bureau- Further reading: Roger Allen, The Arabic Literary Heri-crats and secretaries, judges, Sufis, tradesmen and tage: The Development of Its Genres and Criticism (Cam-artisans, and even musicians. From the general bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998); Barbarareligious perspective of Islam, there are also rules Daily Metcalf, ed., Moral Conduct and Authority: The
57. K 12 Adam and EvePlace of Adab in South Asian Islam (Berkeley: University believe humans have inherited from Adam andof California Press, 1984). Eve. Rather, Islamic tradition holds that God for- gave Adam, allowing him to repent and providing him guidance toward salvation (Q 2:37–38).Adam and Eve ancestral parents of all human After the Fall, according to Islamic tradition,beings according to Islamic belief Adam landed on Mount Nawdh in India (or SriMuslim understandings of Adam and Eve, the Lanka), where he initiated the first crafts; Evefirst human beings, are based on the qUran, the landed in Jidda, Arabia. Some say that the city ofhadith, and other religious texts. Muslims also Jidda, which means “grandmother,” was actuallyregard Adam as the first of a series of prophets named in memory of Eve. Adam and his wife werethat ends with mUhammad. Biblical and later Jew- reunited when the angel gabriel brought Adam toish and Christian stories about Adam and Eve mecca for the first time to perform the haJJ. As inwere already familiar to arab peoples at the time the Bible, Eve gave birth to Cain and Abel, and CainIslam began in the seventh century, and these later murdered his brother out of jealousy becausestories continued to develop in their new Arabic- God accepted Abel’s sacrifice and not his ownIslamic setting thereafter. (Q 5:27–32). Legendary accounts say that Adam According to the Quran, God created Adam and Eve gave birth to 20 sets of girl-boy twins,from clay (Q 7:12) and gave him life by filling from which all the world’s peoples are descended.him with his spirit (ruh, Q 15:29). God appointed According to Shii tradition, Adam and Eve werehim to be his deputy (caliph) on Earth, to which given a premonition of the martyrdom of theirthe angels objected because of their fear that he descendant hUsayn ibn ali (d. 680), the prophetwould cause trouble and bloodshed (Q 2:30). God Muhammad’s grandson, and they were the first tohad Adam prove his superiority to them by teach- express grief on his behalf. Sufis and others, on theing him the names of everything (Q 2:30–32). other hand, have looked to when, prior to theirThe angels finally bowed down to Adam, except existence, the children of Adam were brought forthsatan, whom God expelled from heaven for his from his loins to testify to God as their lord (see Qdisobedience (Q 2:34, 7:11–18). The Quran does 7:171). This was intended to show that worship ofnot mention Eve (Hawwa) by name, but it does one true God was inherent in human nature.talk about Adam’s “wife” (Q 20:117). She was See also allah; angel; prophets and prophesy;created from Adam (Muslim commentators say soUl and sUpport.from his rib), and they lived blissfully together inparadise, where they were allowed to eat whatever Further reading: M. J. Kister, “Adam: A Study of Somethey wished except from the tree of immortality Legends in Tafsir and Hadith Literature.” Israel Oriental(Q 7:189, 2:35, 20:120). Muslim commentators Studies (1993): 113–174; Gordon Darnell Newby, Thespeculate that this may have been a fig tree, a grape Making of the Last Prophet: A Reconstruction of the Earli-vine, or even wheat. Both Adam and Eve violated est Biography of Muhammad (Columbia: University ofGod’s taboo after being misled by Satan (not a ser- South Carolina Press, 1989).pent), thus committing the first sin. For punish-ment, they were expelled from paradise and sentdown to Earth, where they and their descendants adat See customary law.were to live, die, and be resurrected (Q 7:20–25,20:121–123, 2:36). Despite this punishment, Mus- adhan (Arabic; also azan)lims do not hold to a doctrine of original sin, Adhan, the Islamic call to prayer, is recited inwhich many Christian denominations in the West Arabic before each of the five daily prayers from
58. adultery 13 Ja mosqUe. According to traditional accounts, it coming noisily from several mosques in the samewas first performed by bilal, one of Muhammad’s neighborhood, each chanted in a different style. Incompanions, after the hiJra to Medina in 622 c.e. cities where Muslims are a minority, it may haveThe man who performs the call to prayer is called to be performed quietly or inside the mosque. Thea muadhdhin (mUezzin), and he should stand fac- call to prayer is also performed on radio and tele-ing the qibla (toward mecca) when he does so. vision in Muslim countries, and it can sometimesMuslims are expected to perform their prayers be heard on radio stations in the United States.when they hear the adhan. Although the call to The adhan may also be chanted softly into the earprayer may sound melodic, many Muslims object of a newborn child, welcoming her or him intoto it being called musical because of its religious the wider Muslim community.meaning. See also mUsic; shahada; sUnnism. For Sunni Muslims, the following phrases arechanted (with minor variations in the number of Further reading: Hammudah Abd al-Ati, Islam in Focusrepetitions): (Beltsville, Md.: Amana Publications, 1998); Scott L. Marcus, Music in Egypt: Experiencing Music, Express- 1. Allahu akbar (repeated four times) “God ing Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007); is great”; Likayat A. Takim, “From Bida to Sunna: The Wilaya of 2. Ashhadu an la ilaha illa Allah (repeated Ali in the Shii Adhan.” Journal of the American Oriental twice) “I witness that there is no god but Society 120 (2000): 166–177. God”; 3. Ashhadu anna Muhammadan rasul Allah (repeated twice) “I witness that Muham- adultery mad is the prophet of God”; Sexual intercourse with someone other than one’s 4. Hayya ala s-salah (repeated twice) “Come marriage partner is called zina (adultery) in to prayer”; Arabic. In the sharia zina encompasses not only 5. Hayya ala l-falah (repeated twice) “Come adultery but any sexual act among two people to safety and prosperity”; who are not married to each other. Pre-Islamic 6. Allahu akbar (repeated twice) “God is Arabian society may have considered zina as one great”; of several acceptable forms of marriage, but Islam 7. La ilaha illa Allah “There is no god but brought an end to these multiple forms. For men, God.” the only exception to zina concerns sexual inter-The adhan for the morning prayer adds the follow- course with the female slaves under their owner-ing after part 5: as-salatu khayrun min an-nawm ship, which is allowable (although not common(repeated twice) “Prayer is better than sleep.” practice today). For tWelve-imam shiism, the call to prayer can Adultery is a grave offense in Islam, as itdiffer slightly with the addition of ashhadu anna undermines the basic foundation of Muslim soci-Aliyan waliyu Allah (“I witness that ali is the etal organization—the legal contract of marriagefriend of God”) after part 3, and hayya ala khayr by which two partners are bound to each otheral-amal (“Come to the best of actions,” repeated exclusively by clearly delimited rights and obliga-twice) after part 5. tions. Among these rights and duties is exclusive Traditionally, the muezzin chanted the adhan sexual access to one’s spouse, so as to prevent pro-from the mosque minaret, but today he can do miscuity and social disorder. The qUran includesit from the mosque floor using loudspeakers. It numerous references on the subject, most notablyis not unusual in Muslim cities to hear the adhan Q 24:2, which pronounces the fixed hadd punish-
59. K 14 Afghani, Jamal al-Din al-ment of 100 lashes for adulterers. Some hadith a pan-Islamic movement to strengthen Muslims’accounts go on to specify that this punishment is resistance to the expansion of European, specifi-reserved for unmarried adulterers, while married cally British, power around the world. Among hisadulterers are to be stoned to death. The Quran many prominent disciples were mUhammad abdUh(Q 4:15) insists that four eye witnesses must (d. 1905), with whom he published a newspaperconfirm the act of adultery in order to execute (al-Urwa al-Wuthqa, strongest link) in 1884, andpunishment, since unsubstantiated accusations Saad Zaghloul (d. 1927), who later led Egypt’sof adultery are an almost equally grave matter. independence movement. His major work was aThe Quran (Q 24:4) states that anyone who insti- treatise on the role of reason in understandinggates a charge of adultery without the required divine revelation titled al-Radd ala al-Dahiriyyinevidence of four witnesses is punishable by 80 (Reply to the materialists). Many consider him thelashes. Because of these stringent requirements of father of Muslim nationalism.proof, punishment for adultery is rarely executed, Al-Afghani’s early education in Iran was inalthough Muslim authorities have tried to enforce theology and Islamic philosophy, particularly thatit in some modern Muslim countries. of abU ali al-hUssein ibn sina (Latin: Avicenna, d. See also crime and pUnishment; divorce; slav- 1037)). As a youth, he studied modern sciencesery; Women. and mathematics in India, where he witnessed firsthand the detrimental political and social Aysha A. Hidayatullah effects of British imperialism. This contributed to his view that Muslims needed to band togetherFurther reading: Leila Ahmed, Women and Gender in to defend themselves. Muslim solidarity and aIslam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate (New Haven, revitalized Islam, one that integrated the best ofConn.: Yale University Press, 1992); Abdelwahab Bouh- technology and science with traditional Islamicdiba, Sexuality in Islam. Translated by Alan Sheridan values, were essential if Muslims were to regain(London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1985); Noel J. control of their lands. He enthusiastically pro-Couslon, “Regulation of Sexual Behavior under Tradi- moted a role for rational interpretation (ijtihad) intional Islamic Law.” In Society and the Sexes in Medieval understanding Islam, a position he debated withIslam, edited by Afaf Lufti al-Sayyid-Marsot (Malibu, European intellectuals, such as Ernest Renan (d.Calif.: Undena, 1979). 1892), and Muslim clerics alike. Al-Afghani’s career took him to many coun- tries and into the service of many Muslim gov-Afghani, Jamal al-Din al- (1838–1897) ernments, including the Ottoman sultan Abdleading advocate for Islamic revivalism and Muslim al-Hamid (r. 1806–1909) and Persia’s Shah Nasirsolidarity against European imperialism in the al-Din (r. 1848–96). However, this did not keep19th century him from directing his criticisms at his patrons,Some uncertainty surrounds the origins of Muslim whom he saw as extensions or at least facilita-writer, philosopher, and political activist Jamal tors of European influence in the Middle East.al-Din al-Afghani, whose name indicates he was He advocated constitutionalism as a way to checkfrom aFghanistan but whose real homeland most autocratic power, criticized the tanzimat reformsscholars identify as Persia, or modern-day iran. in Turkey, and initiated the popular agitation thatBorn into a Shii family of sayyids (descendants of led to the Tobacco Protests of 1891–92 againstmUhammad), al-Afghani spent his life traveling and British concessions in Persia. In 1896, Nasirteaching in india, the Middle East, and Europe. al-Din was assassinated by one of al-Afghani’sHis main objective was to inspire and organize followers, leaving the latter to live out his days
60. Afghanistan 15 Jin Istanbul under the distrustful surveillance of belong to the Indo-European and Turkic languagethe sultan. Al-Afghani’s influence was seminal families. Its major cities are Kabul (the capital),to the development of Muslim nationalism and Qandahar, and Herat, but most of the populationIslamic modernism and to the lives of men such as still lives in the countryside.Muhammad Abduh, mUhammad rashid rida (d. Because of its location, the Afghanistan region1935), mUhammad iqbal (d. 1938), and mUham- has been a crossroads for peoples, merchandise,mad ali Jinnah (d. 1948), who would carry the and empires for centuries. The Arab MuslimIslamic reform movement forward in the 20th armies that arrived in the seventh century werecentury. following the routes used previously by Persian See also constitUtional revolUtion; pan- and Greek invaders, but none of these empires,islamism; reneWal and reForm movements; or the nearly 20 empires and dynasties that camesalaFism. later, found Afghanistan easy to conquer and control. The Afghan peoples, though internally Michelle Zimney divided, tend to unite in fierce opposition to out- siders. Islamic rule was not secure there until theFurther reading: Albert Hourani, Arabic Thought in the late 10th century, when it became the seat of theLiberal Age, 1798–1939 (London: Oxford University Ghaznavid dynasty (977–1163), which also gov-Press, 1970); Nikki R Keddie, An Islamic Response to erned eastern Iran and launched a series of raidsImperialism: Political and Religious Writings of Sayyid into northern india. Afghanistan then succumbedJamal al-Din “al-Afghani” (Berkeley: University of Cali- to invasions by Turks and Mongols during thefornia Press, 1983). 13th and 14th centuries. The country’s strategic location continued to make it a focal point of conflict between Muslim rulers in Iran and IndiaAfghanistan from the 15th to 18th centuries and a target forAfghanistan is a mountainous landlocked coun- the imperial ambitions of Russia and Great Brit-try with an area of 647,500 sq. km. (comparable ain in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Despitein size to the state of Texas) and an estimated its turbulent history, medieval Afghanistan sawpopulation of 32.7 million in 2008. It is situated moments of significant religious and culturalon the frontier between the Middle East, Central achievement, reflected in its role in the exten-Asia, and South Asia, with iran on its western sion of Islamicate architectural forms to Indiaborder and pakistan on its eastern and southern and sponsorship of Firdowsi’s Persian epic, theborders. A large majority of its people are Sunni Shahnama (ca. 980), and the scientific writingsMuslim (80 percent), but there are also Shii Mus- of abU rayhan al-birUni (973–1048). In additionlims (19 percent) and followers of other religions to being the base from which Muslims invaded(1 percent). Religious life consists of a mixture of northern India, Afghanistan was the birthplacefolk religion, sUFism, and formal Islamic doctrine of several important Sufi masters, including ibra-and practice. Ethnic and tribal loyalties are often him ibn adham (d. 778) and Jalal al-din rUmistronger than religious and national ones. The (1207–73), and it witnessed the emergence of twomajor ethnic groups are Pashtun (42 percent, also of the most important Sufi orders: the chishti sUFicalled Afghans), Tajik (27 percent), Hazara (9 order and the naqshbandi sUFi order.percent), and Uzbek (9 percent). Pushtu and Dari Afghanistan became a modern independent(the Afghani Persian dialect) are Afghanistan’s country in 1919 and evolved into a constitu-official languages, but there are more than 30 lan- tional monarchy under the influence of the Sovietguages and dialects spoken there, most of which Union. After fighting off an armed Soviet invasion
61. K 16 Afghan mujahidinin 1979–89, the country was torn by a lengthy and abU al-ala maWdUdi (d. 1979) were becom-civil war. Both of these conflicts contributed to ing a strong presence in neighboring Pakistan.the growth of heavily armed guerrilla militias and Afghan Islamist parties at the time began adoptingforced 6 million Afghans to become reFUgees in the call for Jihad, which was central to Qutb’s andneighboring countries. The civil war ended with Maududi’s programs. It was only with the Sovietthe establishment of the extremist Islamic govern- invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, however, thatment of the taliban in 1996. That government these calls were seriously heeded.was infamous for its brutal treatment of women, Afghan resistance to the Soviet occupation com-persecution of religious minorities, and destruc- prised many different elements, including national-tion of the famed colossal images of the Buddha ist parties, pro-China communists, and Islamists. Itin Bamian (2001). The Taliban were removed by was the latter group, however, that dominated theforce in late 2001, when the United States led fight to expel the Soviets. Based in Afghan refugeean international invasion and occupation of the camps in Peshewar, Pakistan, Islamist resistancecountry as a consequence of the war on terror it groups, called the mujahidin, quickly began receiv-launched in the aftermath of the September 11, ing money and arms from saUdi arabia and the2001 attacks by the al-qaida organization, which United states. The dominant force among thewas headquartered in Afghanistan. A constitution- Afghan resistance was the Hezb-e-Islami (Islamically based transitional government with its capital Party), led by gUlbUddin hekmatyar (b. 1947?),in Kabul has since been created, but the new one of the earliest and most conservative Afghaniregime, known as the Transitional Islamic State Islamist activists. Early disunity among as many asof Afghanistan (TISA), faces enormous challenges seven different Afghan mujahidin groups slowedto its legitimacy from powerful regional warlords, the progress of the fight against the Soviets, butopium drug traffickers, and Muslim guerrilla with foreign assistance, they were able to operateforces. effectively on the battlefield. During this time, the See also aFghan mUJahidin; constitUtionalism; Afghan mujahidin were treated favorably in thepersian langUage and literatUre. Western media as “freedom fighters.” The Afghan guerrillas were not alone in theirFurther reading: Larry P Goodson, Afghanistan’s End- . fight against the Soviet occupation. Islamists fromless War: State Failure, Regional Politics, and the Rise of the entire Muslim world traveled to Afghanistanthe Taliban (Seattle: University of Washington Press, under the banner of Islam and Jihad. Among these2001); Ahmed Rasheed, Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil, and Islamists were Usama bin ladin (Saudi Arabia),Fundamentalism in Central Asia (New Haven, Conn.: Ayman Zawahiri (egypt), Umar abd al-rahmanYale University Press, 2001). (Egypt), Abdullah Azzam (Palestine), and legions of young men from countries around the Mus- lim world. The resulting hybrid, transnationalAfghan mujahidin network of Islamists advocated an active jihadThe Afghan mujahidin (warriors) are bands of against foreign powers and a reconstruction ofMuslim guerrillas who fought against the Soviet Afghanistan according to an extremely conserva-occupation of aFghanistan in 1979–89 and then tive interpretation of Islam. Together, the Afghanturned against each other in a bloody civil war and Arab mujahidin forced the Soviet withdrawalthat resulted in the creation of the taliban regime in 1989. Hekmatiyar’s Hezb-e-Islami and Burhan-in 1996. Informal Islamist parties began appearing uddin Rabbani’s Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Soci-in Afghanistan in the mid-1960s, at a time when ety, based in northern Afghanistan) emerged asthe radical ideologies of sayyid qUtb (d. 1966) the strongest mujahidin groups after the Soviet
62. African Americans, Islam among 17 Jdefeat, but they ended up fighting against each assumed the name Noble Drew Ali and foundedother as well as other groups for control of the the Moorish Science Temple of America. Thiscountry. From bases in Pakistan and central and organization can best be seen as an attempt tosouthern Afghanistan, the Taliban took advantage adapt Muslim themes to the struggle of Africanof this chaotic situation to make their own play Americans for a place of dignity and equality infor power in 1994–96. Mujahidin continues to be American life. From his personal research, hea term used by various armed factions that are concluded that American blacks were descendantscontending for power and influence in the coun- of the Moors and that their true homeland wastry since the United States overthrew the Taliban morocco. He suggested that in the founding ofregime in December 2001. the United States, the nationality, freedom, and See also Jihad movements; mujahid; qaida, al-. religion of African Americans had been taken from them. Not having access to an English translation Caleb Elfenbein of the qUran, he adapted a Spiritualist text, the Aquarian Gospel of Jesus Christ, by Levi Dowling,Further reading: M. Hassan Kakar, Afghanistan: The and issued it as the movement’s Quran.Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979–1982 The Moorish Science Temple spread among(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995); Gilles African Americans through the 1930s but declinedKepel, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam (Cambridge, in the decades after World War II. The thrust itMass.: Harvard University Press, 2002); Ahmed Rashid, began, however, was picked up by a second orga-Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia (New nization, the nation oF islam, dated to 1930, andHaven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2002). the activity of a mysterious man known as Wallace Fard Muhammad. He continued Noble Drew Ali’s emphasis on African Americans having an AfricanAfrica See algeria; east africa; egypt; libya; origin and developed an elaborate myth of themorocco; sudan; tunisia; west africa. primal origin of black people. Leadership of the movement was soon assumed by Elijah Muham- mad (1897–1975), who steered it through someAfrican Americans, Islam among controversial years to great success in the 1960s,The first African American Muslims were slaves coinciding with the heyday of the Civil Rightscaptured in West Africa in the 1700s and brought movement.to the American colonies. The few accounts of As the Moorish Science Temple and the Nationthem from the early decades of the United States of Islam were spreading, the ahmadiyya movementindicate that the Muslims formed somewhat of in Islam sent representatives from India to beginan elite in the slave community, that many proselytizing. Their greatest success proved to bewere literate, and that they became known for among black Americans, who for a generationtheir resistance to the conditions in which they formed the largest community of African-Ameri-found themselves. They also resisted attempts by can Muslims. Also competing for the attention ofChristians to convert. There remains, however, blacks attracted to Islam was a movement formedlittle evidence to connect Islam within the slave by Shaykh Daoud, who came from Bermuda incommunity with a new Islamic movement that the 1920s.developed among African Americans in the urban The shape of the African-American Muslimnorth in the 20th century. community began a dramatic transformation in A new phase for Islam among American blacks the 1970s. Following the change in U.S. immi-began in 1913, when Timothy Drew (1886–1929) gration regulations in 1965, a number of Indo-
63. K 18 African languages and literaturePakistani Muslims moved to the United States, of Islam (the largest led by Farrakhan), and othermany members of the Ahmadiyya movement, who smaller sectarian groups.served to reassert its identity as an international See also slavery; sUnnism.Muslim fellowship (while at the same time deal- J. Gordon Meltoning with its rejection by other Pakistani Muslimsas a heretical movement). Further reading: Steven Barboza, American Jihad: Islam The death of Elijah Muhammad led to fights after Malcolm X (New York: Image/Doubleday, 1994);over succession. While his son assumed leader- Martha F Lee, The Nation of Islam, an American Mil- .ship over the largest segment of the membership, lenarian Movement. Studies in Religion and Societya variety of smaller schismatic groups appeared. (Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 1988); RichardTheir claim to being the true successor to Elijah Brent Turner, Islam in the African-American ExperienceMuhammad was strengthened when Warith Deen (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997).Muhammad (b. 1933) began to move the Nationof Islam toward Sunni Islam. That move hadbegun with one of the nation’s most prominentleaders, malcolm X (1925–65), who had gone on African languages and literaturethe haJJ and discovered how different the nation’s The variety of Islamic experiences in Africa candoctrines were. His advocacy of a move to ortho- be seen in the diversity of languages and literaturedoxy was among several factors that led to his through which Islam has expressed itself. Theassassination. In leading the Nation of Islam to most influential literary language has been Arabic.orthodoxy, W. D. Muhammad changed the name Culturally dominant in North Africa, Arabic hasof the nation several times and in the process lost often been the language of religious instruction,his most capable lieutenant, loUis Farrakhan (b. devotional practices, and pious writings in sub-1933), who moved to reconstitute the Nation of Saharan Africa as well. Arab geographers such asIslam as it was in the early 1970s. The movement al-Bakri (d. 1094) and explorers such as ibn bat-led by W. D. Muhammad eventually disbanded tUta (d. 1368) wrote the oldest existing descrip-as it completely aligned with the larger orthodox tions of sub-Saharan Africa in Arabic. A couple ofcommunity. centuries after Ibn Battuta’s travels in West Africa, By the end of the 20th century, approximately the earliest sub-Saharan chronicles were written30 percent of all the mosques in the United States in Arabic. During the 15th and 16th centuries, thewere serving a predominantly African-American Ulama of Timbuktu produced original scholarlyconstituency. The number of mosques indicated works in Arabic and copied great Islamic textsthe inroads made into the black community, long from North Africa and the Fertile Crescent in thedominated by Baptist, Methodist, and Pente- same language. Religious scholars would continuecostal Christian churches. It has gained an even to use Arabic as the language of instruction intogreater level of acceptance from the conversion the 19th century.of some outstanding American athletes, such as In the realm of oral tradition, Muslims weremUhammad ali (b. 1942) and Karem Abdul-Jab- more prone to compose and transmit works in thebar (b. 1947), who adopted Muslim names as indigenous languages. Storytellers passed downtheir careers soared. There are an estimated 4 to epic tales in the vernacular for hundreds of years.6 million African-American Muslims in America. The best known of these is the West African epic,Most attend mainstream Islamic mosques, though Sundiata, which dates from the 13th century. Ina significant minority adheres to the Ahmadiyya East Africa, the tradition of Swahili-languagemovement, the several schisms from the Nation poetry developed in both oral and written forms.
64. afterlife 19 JA tradition of oral poetry also arose in Somalia, Further reading: Albert Gérard, African Language Lit-through which poets discussed themes ranging eratures (Washington, D.C.: Three Continents, 1981);from moral lessons to failed romance. The Somali Kenneth W. Harrow, “Islamic Literature in Africa.”“praise-singing” tradition provided an avenue In The History of Islam in Africa, edited by Nehemiathrough which women could participate, singing Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels (Athens: Ohio Uni-songs of praise dedicated to female saints. Other versity Press, 2000); Kenneth W. Harrow, ed., Faces ofpraise songs venerated holy men in languages Islam in African Literature (Portsmouth, N.H.: Heine-such as Oromo and Amharic. Epic stories, praise mann, 1991); John William Johnson, Thomas A. Hale,songs, and poetry all combine Islamic and Afri- and Stephen Belcher, Oral Epics from Africa (Blooming-can cultural themes and contain examples of the ton: Indiana University Press, 1997).different elements that create a uniquely AfricanIslamic style. A larger number of works have been composed afterlife (Arabic: al-akhira)in the indigenous languages of African Islam dur- Afterlife beliefs are concerned with the questioning the modern era. Many languages were first of what happens to a person after physical death.written down during the 19th century, often in This is one of the enduring subjects of Islamicthe Arabic script. The 19th-century Jihad states belief and religious thought, which first devel-of West Africa produced a considerable amount oped in the seventh century under the influenceof literature, much of it in the Fulfide and Hausa of native Arabian religion, Judaism, Christianity,tongues, and 19th-century poetry frequently and other Middle Eastern religions. On the basiscombined religious imagery with anticolonialist of the qUran, hadith, and the teachings of reli-themes, as seen in the writings of the great Somali gious scholars, most Muslims believe that Godpoet Mahammad Abdullah Hasan (d. 1921). Some determines when each person will be born andoral works took longer to find written expression. die and that on JUdgment day he will resurrectFor instance, Somali epic poems were first written everyone in the body and judge each according todown only in the 1970s. that person’s beliefs and actions. He will reward During the 20th century, African literature good people with eternal life in paradise, whereexpanded in variety and scope, as the short they will enjoy heavenly comforts and happiness.story and the novel gained in popularity. Some Evil people will be sent to the Fire, where theyof this literature was written in the languages will endure horrible tortures and punishments.of the colonizers (English and French) but nev- Eventually, many of the people of the Fire will beertheless expressed anticolonial messages. One allowed to join the blessed in paradise.popular theme highlighted the tensions in Afri- During the later Middle Ages, people specu-can societies between secUlarism, mysticism, and lated more about what happens in the time between death and resurrection. Popular beliefsscripturalism. Allegorical tales contrasted expres- about spirits of the dead combined with Muslimsions of pure Islam (often as practiced by simple theological ideas, which resulted in the develop-characters) with the hypocrisy of stern religious ment of doctrines about an intermediate stagefigures. Other literature expressed mystical, secu- in the afterlife known as the barzakh, where thelarist, socialist, and a variety of other perspectives dead experience a preliminary judgment at thewithin the African Muslim community. hands of the angels Munkar and Nakir and a See also alphabet; arabic langUage and lit- preview of their rewards and punishments. TheeratUre; east aFrica; West aFrica. souls of martyrs who died in battle were believed Stephen Cory to go directly to paradise during this time. Many
65. K 20 Aga KhanMuslims also believed that the dead remained munity in 1866, at a time when India was a Britishconscious in the tomb and that their spirits could colony. However, it was Muhammad Shah, Agamove about in the world. This was especially Khan III, who really brought the Ismaili commu-true for the saints—holy men and women who nity into the modern era during his 72-year reign.could help people who sought their assistance. Starting in the early 1900s, he reorganized IsmailiPeople claimed to communicate with them in communities in South Asia, the Middle East, andtheir dreams, and many traveled to their tombs East Africa. He encouraged them to publicly dis-as pilgrims to win their blessings. Such beliefs tinguish themselves from other Muslims in termsare still widely held by Muslims today, although of their beliefs and practices, instead of trying toproponents of conservative and reformist under- conceal them, which had been their custom instandings of Islam argue that they have no basis in order to avoid persecution. Using income fromthe Quran and the teachings of mUhammad. donations given by his followers and from world- See also cemetery; FUnerary rites; interces- wide business enterprises, he promoted religioussion; martyrdom; saint; soUl and spirit. tolerance and funded public health and social wel- fare projects for non-Muslims as well as Muslims,Further reading: Juan Eduardo Campo, “Between the including education for women. Aga Khan III alsoPrescribed and the Performed: Muslim Ways of Death.” supported the Indian independence movementIn Death and Religion in Contemporary Societies, edited and promoted the cause of world peace, serving asby Kathleen Garces-Foley (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, the president of the League of Nations in 1937. He2004); Jane I. Smith and Yvonne Haddad, The Islamic spent his last years in Geneva, Switzerland, andUnderstanding of Death and Resurrection (Albany: State was buried in Aswan, egypt.University of New York Press, 1981). Prince Karim al-Husayni, Aga Khan IV, has continued his grandfather’s legacy of progressive reform and philanthropy. Unlike his predecessors,Aga Khan (Agha Khan, Aqa Khan) he received a Western education and obtained aSince the early 19th century, Aga Khan has been degree from Harvard University in Islamic historythe honorific title used by the official leader (imam) in 1959. Since becoming the Aga Khan at the ageof the Nizari Ismaili branch of Shii Islam. The of 20 in 1957, he has directed a vast economictitle, which means “lord and master,” is hereditary, network that, together with the Aga Khan Foun-and its holders claim to be direct descendants of dation (1967), has financed health, education,the prophet Muhammad’s family through ali ibn and rural development projects in South Asia,abi talib (d. 661) and Fatima (d. 633) and their Central Asia, and East Africa, as well as the found-son hUsayn ibn ali ibn abi talib (d. 680). The liv- ing of the Institute for Ismaili Studies in Londoning Aga Khan is considered by his followers to be (1977) and Aga Khan University in Karachi, paki-pure and sinless, and he is their supreme religious stan (1985). The Aga Khan Program for IslamicaUthority. There can be only one Aga Khan at a Architecture (based at Harvard University and thetime; the present one is Prince Karim al-Husayni, Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and theAga Khan IV (b. 1936). His predecessors were Aga Khan Award for Architecture have contrib-Hasan Ali Shah (d. 1881), Ali Shah (d. 1885), and uted significantly to the study and preservationSir Sultan Muhammad Shah (d. 1957). of the Islamicate architectural heritage around the In 1846, Hasan Ali Shah broke with tradition world as well to the development of new designand transferred his residence from iran to Bombay, concepts based on Islamicate patterns.india. Here he received the recognition of British See also architectUre; ahl al-bayt; east aFrica;authorities as the legal head of the Ismaili com- ismaili shiism; zaydi shiism.
66. agriculture 21 JFurther reading: Farhad Daftary, A Short History of the ancient Mesopotamia (Iraq) and egypt by 3100Ismailis (Princeton, N.J.: Marcus Wiener Publishers, b.c.e.,and it shaped significantly the pre-Islamic1998); Willi Frischauer, The Aga Khans (London: The religious beliefs and practices of these civilizations.Bodley Head, 1970); Renata Holod and Darl Rastorfer, Contrary to the stereotype of nomads travelingeds., Architecture and Community: Building in the Islamic across vast deserts, during the era of medievalWorld Today (New York: 1983). Islamicate civilization (seventh century to 17th century c.e.), settled agriculture was the real basis of the economy and remains so to this day inagriculture many countries where Muslims are a majority ofAgriculture is farming—cultivating the land to the population. Moreover, cotton and many foodsproduce crops and raising and caring for livestock. consumed today, such as rice, citrus fruits, sugar,Archaeologists have found the earliest known evi- and coFFee, were introduced to Europe and thedence for the domestication of plants and animals, Americas via Islamicate lands in the Middle East,which occurred before 8000 b.c.e., in mountainous where they had been transplanted from Asia andareas of iran, iraq, tUrkey, and palestine. Farm- Africa during the Middle Ages.ing, assisted by irrigation technology, contributed The importance of agriculture in Islamicateto the rise of the first cities in the river valleys of societies is reflected in Islamic religion and reli-Vegetable market, Marrakesh, Morocco (Federico R. Campo)
67. K 22 agriculturegious law. The qUran mentions that God is the wheat used in the making of semolina and pasta.source of water for plants that yield foods such as Botanical gardens where plants could be studieddates, grapes, olives, and pomegranates (Q 6:99), probably assisted the introduction of these cropsand that he has provided humans with animals from Asia into new climates in the Mediterraneanwhose fur supplies material for making houses region. A significant body of medieval Arabic lit-and furnishings (Q 16:80–83). Also, according to erature on agricultural science was created in con-the Quran, the paradise that awaits believers in the nection with these developments. The increasedaFterliFe is described as a meadow or lush garden productivity of the land helped sustain populationwith fruit-laden trees and rivers flowing with growth, which contributed to the rise of largewater, milk, honey, and wine (Q 47:15). Of all the medieval cities in the Middle East and Spain, suchplants mentioned in the Quran, the date palm, as baghdad, cairo, and cordoba.which is emblematic of settled life, is the one that Today, as a result of European colonization inreceives the most attention. It is considered a sign the 19th and 20th centuries and the introductionof God’s generosity toward humans and is said to of modern technologies, agriculture in Muslimhave provided mary with shelter and nourishment lands has undergone a second revolution. Newwhile she was giving birth to JesUs (Q 19:23–25). crops (for example, tomatoes, potatoes, corn, andIn the decoration of mosques, illuminated book tobacco) and hybrids are being grown, large damsmanuscripts, and Oriental carpets, Muslims have and irrigation systems are being built, and farmingoften used botanic and floral themes inspired is becoming more mechanized, although muchnot by wild plants and flowers but by cultivated human labor is still involved. The traditional agri-ones. The animals Muslims sacrifice on religious cultural economy has become very commercial-holidays and other ritual occasions are invariably ized and is affected by global markets more thandomesticated livestock: sheep, goats, cattle, and in the past. It is estimated that agriculture consti-camels. Until recently, the amount of income a per- tutes a significant part of the economy in about 34son was required to pay in fulfillment of the zakat Muslim countries and that just under 50 percent(almsgiving) duty in Islam was usually assessed of the world’s Muslim population is involved inin terms of the size of the harvest and number of agricultural production, although the trend hasheads of livestock owned. Also, according to the been for people to migrate from rural areas to thesharia, non-Muslim subjects were obliged to pay cities. As a reflection of how important agriculturea special tax on their agricultural lands and crops, is, many Muslim countries now have agriculturala requirement that later was extended to Muslim colleges and government ministries that overseesubjects, too. This was an important source of agriculture and irrigation. Agriculture in manywealth for Islamic empires. of these countries is nevertheless facing many By about 1200, Arab farmers had accomplished challenges. Although the Green Revolution inwhat scholars have called a medieval agricultural the 1960s helped prevent widespread famine asrevolution that changed the food cultures of the a result of rapid population growth, a numberMiddle East and later of Europe and the Americas. of countries in the Middle East and Africa haveBy introducing Eastern irrigation technologies, found that urbanization, pollution, soil saliniza-they enhanced the productivity of the land and tion, government inefficiency and corruption,brought new areas under cultivation in Iraq, Syria, regional conflicts, and the forces of nature haveEgypt, North Africa, Spain, and Sicily. At the same made it difficult to be agriculturally self-sufficient,time, they brought new crops from Asia, such making them dependent on imports and aid fromas citrus fruits, sugarcane, watermelon, bananas, international agencies and foreign governments.rice, spinach, eggplants, and perhaps the hard See also arabesqUe; art; Food and drink.
68. Ahmadiyya 23 JFurther reading: Richard C. Foltz, Frederick M. Denny, Ali al-Rida (the eighth imam; Mashhad, Iran),and Azizan Baharudding, eds., Islam and Ecology (Cam- and of women saints such as Zaynab bint Alibridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003); Andrew (Damascus, Syria, and Cairo, Egypt). Sufi tariqasWatson, Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic include members of the holy family, especiallyWorld (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983); Ali, in their lists of spiritual teachers. Rulers of aWorld Resources Institute, World Resources (Oxford, number of Muslim empires and states have alsoU.K.: Elsevier Science, 2000–01). claimed descent from ahl al-bayt, including the Fatmid dynasty in Egypt (909–1171), the alaWid dynasty of Morocco (1631–present), the hash-ahl al-bayt (Arabic: people of the house) emite dynasty of Iraq (1921–1958) and of JordanThe ahl al-bayt in Islam is a holy family consisting (1923–present), and many of the clerics holdingprimarily of five members: the prophet mUhammad power in Iran since the revolution of 1978–79.(d. 632), ali ibn abi talib (Muhammad’s cousin See also aga khan; alaWi; imam; shiism; ziyara.and son-in-law, d. 661), Fatima (Muhammad’sdaughter, d. 633), and the two sons of Ali and Further reading: Mahmoud Ayoub, Redemptive Suffer-Fatima, Hasan (d. 669) and hUsayn (d. 680). It ing in Islam: A Study of the Devotional Aspects of Ashuracan also include all descendants of Muhammad’s in Twelver Shiism (The Hague: Mouton Publishers,clan, the Banu Hashim, and even all Muslims. 1978); Valerie Hoffman-Ladd, “Devotion to the Prophet Muhammad’s family is highly respected by and His Family in Egyptian Sufism.” International Jour-all Muslims, but it is the Shia, followers of the nal of Middle East Studies 24 (1992): 615–637.minority branch of Islam, who hold them in high-est esteem. They regard the family of Muhammadas pure, sinless, and divinely inspired exem- ahl al-kitab See people of the book.plars of the best worldly and spiritual qualities.Miraculous powers are assigned to members ofthis family, and it is believed that they will help Ahmadiyyatheir devotees enter paradise on JUdgement day. The Ahmadiyya is a controversial Islamic mis-The Shia also believe that Muhammad’s family sionary revival movement founded by mirzaproduces, with God’s guidance, the most quali- ghUlam ahmad (ca. 1835–1908) in British indiafied leaders of the Muslim community, called during the 19th century. This movement beganimams. tWelve-imam shiism venerates 12 such in the town of Qadian in northern India inleaders, all but one of whom suffered martyrdom 1889, and it has spread to other parts of theat the hands of wayward members of the Mus- world, including Africa, Southeast Asia, Greatlim community. Like Christians who believe in Britain, and North America, through the mis-JesUs as a redeemer, they believe that the suffer- sionary activities of its adherents. Its members,ing and death of these heroic figures, especially who tend to be economically prosperous, wereof Husayn, the third imam, redeem the sins of divided into two separate groups in 1914: thethe faithful and that the 12th imam, known as Qadianis (also called the Ahmadiyya MuslimmUhammad al-mahdi, will arise in the future to Community) and the Lahoris (also called thecombat the forces of evil and inaugurate a golden Ahmadiyya Association for the Propagation ofage at the end of time. Islam). Both groups recruit new members by The tombs of ahl al-bayt are popular Muslim conducting organized missionary programs andpilgrimage sites, including those of Ali (Najaf, active publication activities. The total size of theIraq), Husayn (Karbala, Iraq, and Cairo, Egypt), Ahmadiyya community in 2001 was estimated to
69. K 24 Ahmad Khan, (Sir) Sayyidbe more than 10 million members worldwide, but be non-Muslims in 1974, followed by an officialthis figure is disputed. Followers claim that their government ban on group activities in 1984. Thenumbers are growing. name Ahmadiyya has also been used by several Ahmadiyya members believe that Ghulam Sufi groups, especially that of the Egyptian saintAhmad was a religious renewer sent by God ahmad al-badaWi (ca. 1200–76).because the religion of Islam was thought to have See also christianity and islam; hindUismgone into decline during the 19th century. Like and islam; prophets and prophecy; reneWal andother Muslims, they consider the qUran to be reForm movements.their holy book and have promoted its translationinto many languages. They also practice the Five Further reading: Yohanan Friedmann, Prophecy Con-pillars of Islam. However, what has made the tinuous: Aspects of Ahmadi Religious Thought and Itsmovement especially controversial are assertions Medieval Background (Berkeley: University of Californiamade by Ghulam Ahamad and his followers that Press, 1989); Muhammad Zafrullah Khan, Ahmadiyyat:other Muslims are unbelievers (kafirs) and that The Renaissance of Islam (London: Tabshir Publications,Ghulam Ahmad is a prophet, a promised redeemer 1978).(mahdi), a Christlike messiah, and an incarnationof the Hindu god Krishna. Some Christians andHindus, along with many Muslims, have objected Ahmad Khan, (Sir) Sayyid (1817–1898)to these beliefs, and the movement was attacked Indian Muslim religious reformer, political figure, andand persecuted by other Islamic groups and con- educatorservative religious authorities in India and later Sayyid Ahmad Khan was among the first to callin pakistan. As a consequence, the Ahmadiyya for the reform of Islam in order to make it moreexperienced internal division into the Qadiani and compatible with modern Western thinking, theLahori branches in 1914. results of which gave Muslims more of a voice The larger Qadiani branch of the Ahmadiyya in public life under British rule. When the Brit-believes that it represents the only true Islam. It ish put down the Muslim-Hindu uprising againstemphasizes belief in the prophethood of Ghulam them in 1857 and abolished the mUghal dynasty,Ahmad and the aUthority of his successors, who Ahmad Khan felt that the only way for Muslims tocarry the title of caliph. After the 1947 partition recover their influential role in india was to mod-and independence of India and Pakistan, it moved ernize their religion and cooperate with Britishits headquarters to Rabwa, Pakistan. The fourth authorities. While many credit him with inspiringcaliph, Mirza Tahir Ahmad (d. 2003), moved the the Muslim nationalist movement that led to theAhmadiyya headquarters to London in the 1980s creation of pakistan in 1947, others see him morebecause of heightened opposition faced in Paki- as a modernizer and educator who valued the ideastan. The present caliph is his son Mirza Masroor of Hindu and Muslim cooperation with the BritishAhmad (b. 1950), the great grandson of Ghulam in governing India.Ahmad. The Lahori branch is more moderate in Ahmad Khan was born to a family claimingits outlook, affirming Ghulam Ahmad’s role as a to be descendants of Muhammad, but of Persianrenewer, but it no longer regards him as a prophet. heritage, in delhi, India. He received a limitedIt also identifies with the wider Muslim commu- formal education in Urdu and Persian in prepara-nity more readily than does the Qadiani branch. tion for government service as other members ofPublic riots and opposition by Sunni Muslim his family had done for generations. After holdinggroups led to an amendment to the Pakistani a string of appointments as a minor judge in aconstitution that declared Ahmadiyya members to number of north Indian towns during his 20s, he
70. Aisha bint Abi Bakr ibn Abi Quhafa 25 Jbegan to publish books on Delhi and Mughal his- and he won support for his views from other lead-tory, revealing that despite his inadequate school- ing Muslims and Hindus. In appreciation for hising, he had a gift for self-guided learning that efforts, the British awarded him a knighthood inallowed him to see things in new ways. When the 1888. The Indian nationalist currents prevailed,1857 uprising occurred, Ahmad Khan remained however, despite Ahmad Khan’s dream of coop-true to British authorities and subsequently took erative governance of India by British and Indiansome pains to demonstrate to them that most elites. The last years of his life were spent inMuslims had not supported the rebellion. As part Aligarh, continuing his efforts at reform and writ-of this effort, he even published a commentary on ing a modernist commentary on the Quran.the Bible in 1862 to promote better understanding See also all-india mUslim leagUe; hindUismbetween Muslims and Christians. Nonetheless, and islam; reneWal and reForm movements.he also felt that Indians should “honestly, openlyand respectfully speak out their grievances” to the Further reading: Rajmohan Gandhi, Eight Lives: ABritish (Gandhi 26). Study of the Hindu-Muslim Encounter (Albany: State The real turning point in his career came in University of New York Press, 1986); Hafeez Malik, Sir1869, when he journeyed with his two sons to Sayyid Ahmad Khan and Muslim Modernization in IndiaEngland, where one of them was to be enrolled at and Pakistan (New York: Columbia University Press,Cambridge University with a government scholar- 1980).ship. Ahmad Khan stayed in England for about ayear, became familiar with its system of higheredUcation, and wrote a number of essays on the Aisha bint Abi Bakr ibn Abi Quhafa (ca.life of Muhammad. When he returned to India, 614–ca. 678) one of Muhammad’s favorite wiveshe began to publish his ideas for reforming Islam and a leading member of the early Muslim communityin a new journal, Tahdhib-i akhlaq (Refinement Aisha (Aysha) was born in mecca to abU bakrof morals). There he criticized areas of fiqh (tra- (d. 634), the close friend of mUhammad and firstditional religious law) that dealt with polygamy, caliph of Islam. Aisha was betrothed to Muham-interest, dress, and dietary rUles, arguing that mad in the year 623 in medina, when she wasmany of the traditional rules conflicted with the nine years old. Aisha was the only virgin whometernal message of the qUran, which was in com- Muhammad married, and she never bore any chil-plete conformity with reason, or natural law. He dren. She is often remembered as Muhammad’salso called for more use of independent judgment closest and most beloved wife, as the person(ijtihad), especially in relation to modern life. Fur- having the most intimate understanding of thethermore, Ahmad Khan implemented what he had Prophet’s practices. As a result, Aisha is creditedlearned about British education with the founding by Sunnis as the transmitter of more than 2,000in 1875 of the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental Col- hadith accounts. After Muhammad’s death, shelege in the town of aligarh, where Muslims and was consulted as an authority on his habits andHindus were to gain a modern education in the recommendations.arts, science, and law. He also remained involved In 627, Aisha was accused by some Medinanin Indian politics, opposing the creation of the Muslims of committing adUltery. During a jour-Indian National Congress in 1885 because he ney with Muhammad and his caravan, she hadthought that Indians had not yet reached the point become separated from the group while searchingat which they could really govern themselves. for a lost necklace. A young man found her andHe believed a status quo arrangement between accompanied her back to Medina safely. RumorsIndian elites and the British was more realistic, began to circulate, accusing her of engaging in
71. K 26 Ajmerillicit relations with the man. In response to this Prophet of India (nabi ul-Hind). Muin al-Din, alsoslander, the qUran defends Aisha’s innocence in known as Gharib Nawaz (the helper of the poor),Q 24:11–20. is undoubtedly the most important and popular of Muhammad died when Aisha was 18 years India’s many Sufi saints. The Sufi order derivingold; he is reported to have died in her arms in from him is known as the Chishtiyya, the largesther chambers. After the death of the third caliph, in South Asia, with branches in Southeast Asia,Uthman ibn aFFan in 655, she opposed ali ibn abi Africa, Europe, and the Americas. The Chishtiyyatalib’s succession to the caliphate, fighting against are known for their advocacy of poverty, avoid-him in the Battle of the Camel, Islam’s first civil ance of political power, and meditative practiceswar, in 656. For this challenge to Ali, she is often involving the audition of mUsic (samaa) andregarded by Shii Muslims with disdain. Although devotional songs known as qawwali. Pilgrimage toAli was victorious, Aisha’s efforts reflect her defiant Ajmer is claimed by some to be a substitute for theand outspoken character as well as the active role haJJ if one is unable to afford the expense of travelshe played in political matters. After her military to mecca. All of the Mughal emperors supporteddefeat, Aisha returned to medina, spending the the tomb, sponsoring buildings and two giantremainder of her life transmitting her accounts vessels for the preparation of charitable food offer-about the Prophet. She died there in 678 at age 66 ings to the saint. The tomb of Muin al-Din Chishtiand was buried in the al-Baqi cemetery. remains one of the most important pilgrimage See also sUnnism; Women. sites in India, drawing Sikhs, Christians, and Hin- dus as well as Muslims from all over the region, Aysha A. Hidayatullah the country, and the world. Since 1955, the shrine has had the distinction of being the only majorFurther reading: Leila Ahmed, Women and Gender in religious site in India with its own act of parlia-Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate (New Haven, ment specifying its management system. TheConn.: Yale University Press, 1992); Denise A. Spell- Dargah Khwaja Saheb Act stipulates an adminis-berg, Politics, Gender, and the Islamic Past: The Legacy trator (nizam) along with an 11-member oversightof Aisha bint Abi Bakr (New York: Columbia University board. These officials work with varying degreesPress, 1994). of amity with the traditional managers (khudam), descendants of the Khwaja’s close followers who perform the ritual care of the tomb itself and theAjmer council that oversees the qawwali. Ajmer is alsoAjmer is a major Muslim pilgrimage center located home to a famous mosque said to have been built by Shams al-Din Iltutmish (r. 1211–36) from thein central Rajasthan in the northwest of india. It ruins of a temple known as the Two and a Halfhas been an urban settlement since at least the Day Mosque, or Dhai Din ki Masjid. There are11th century and is located in a region of con- several forts in the area, one predating the Muslimsiderable religious significance to Hindus, Jains, conquest and several built afterward. Among theand Muslims. After Muslim armies of the Ghurid later mosques is one built by the Mughal emperordynasty (1149–1206) conquered the Hindu Chau- akbar (r. 1556–1605), who is said to have twicehan dynasty in 1193, Ajmer alternated between performed the pilgrimage to Ajmer on foot fromMuslim and Hindu rulers until British annexation his capital at Fatehpur Sikri near Agra.in 1818. See also delhi sUltanate; chishti sUFi order; Ajmer is most famous for being home to the mUghal dynasty; sUFism; ziyara.shrine (dargah) of Khawaja Muin al-Din (or Mui-nuddin) Chishti (1135–1229), often called the Anna Bigelow
72. Akhbari School 27 JFurther reading: P. M. Currie, The Shrine and Cult of 1571. Although Akbar himself was illiterate andMuin Al-Din Chishti of Ajmer (Delhi: Oxford University possibly dyslexic, he funded the translation ofPress, 1989); Carl W. Ernst and Bruce B. Lawrence, Hindu religious texts and held dialogues betweenSufi Martyrs of Love (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, representatives of different religions in the House2002). of Worship, a special pavilion in the Fatehpur Sikri palace. Portrayed by his supporters as a sun king and perfect man whose divine light broughtAkbar (1542–1605) the most famous emperor peace to the universe, Akbar even attempted toof India’s Mughal dynasty, known for liberal religious found a new religion for his court known as theattitudes Religion of God (Din-i Ilahi). Conservative SunniAbu al-Fath Jalal al-Din Muhammad Akbar was ulama opposed Akbar’s pluralistic views and inno-the third and most famous ruler of the mUghal vations, but their reaction did not gain a footholddynasty in india. The son of Humayun (d. 1556) in the palace until after his death. He was buriedand his Persian wife Hamida Banu, Akbar was in a magnificent tomb near Agra in 1605.born at Umarkot in Sind, northwest India (now See also chishti sUFi order; hindUism andpart of pakistan). He came to power as a teen- islam; sirhindi, ahmad.ager in 1556 and ruled as emperor (padshah)until his death in 1605. During his reign, Akbar Further reading: K. A. Nizami, Akbar and Religionguided the expansion of the Mughal Empire from (New Delhi: Idarah-i-Adabiyat-i-Delli, 1989); John F.its bases in delhi and Lahore to Rajasthan and Richards, The Mughal Empire (Cambridge: CambridgeAfghanistan in the west, the Himalaya Mountains University Press, 1993).in the north, Orissa and Bengal in the east, andthe northern Deccan Plateau in the south. Akbar’sempire dominated India’s Indus and Ganges plain. Akhbari SchoolIts centralized government grew wealthy from The Akhbari School was an influential branch ofplunder, tribute, and new tax revenues from agri- Shii jurisprudence (fiqh) from the 17th century tocultural expansion, as well as a significant influx the 19th century in iran, iraq, parts of the Ara-of silver from the New World as a result of trade bian Peninsula, and india. Its name comes fromwith European countries. the Arabic word akhbar, which means “reports” or A flexible attitude toward religion became an “traditions,” especially traditions about the say-important part of Akbar’s strategy of governance ings and actions of any of the 12 Shii Imams (holyas he sought to both consolidate his power among men descended from the house of the prophetfellow Muslims plus win the support of his Hindu mUhammad). The Akhbaris, under the leader-subjects. He sponsored the haJJ to mecca and ship of Mulla Muhammad Amin al-Astarabadi (d.patronized Sunni and Shii Ulama. He included 1623), advocated that the sharia must be based onmembers of the Hindu aristocracy in his govern- the authentic traditions of these infallible Imamsment, cancelled taxes imposed on Hindu pilgrims and the qUran. The traditions are found in fourand landholders, and observed Hindu festivals. books, which were assembled in the 10th andHis harem included Christian and Hindu as well 11th centuries. If there is no reliable or explicitas Muslim wives. Akbar performed pilgrimages tradition from the imams on a legal matter, thenon foot to the shrine of Muin al-Din Chishti (d. a ruling about that matter is not valid. The Akh-1236) in aJmer and built a white marble tomb for baris rejected the UsUli school of jurists, whoanother Sufi saint, Salim al-Chishti, in Fatehpur placed emphasis on independent legal reasoningSikri, the new capital he constructed near Agra in (ijtihad); they did not require explicit reports from
73. K 28 Alawithe Imams to make a ruling. The Akhbaris were named Alawi because of their leaders’ presumedtherefore legal literalists who feared ijtihad would blood descent from Ali, such as the Alawiyyacorrupt the authentic Islamic tradition. Although order of Hadramawt (in the southern region of thethe Usulis triumphed over them in the 19th cen- Arabian Peninsula) and the Alawiyya branch oftury, they still have a respected place in the wider the Darqawi order in algeria, which was formedShii community of scholars. by Ahmad al-Alawi (d. 1934) in the early 20th See also ahl al-bayt; imam; shiism; tWelve imam century.shiism. The two largest religious groups carrying the name Alawi are hereditary groups whose devotionFurther reading: Robert Gleave, Inevitable Doubt: Two to Ali is so intense that their belief systems areTheories of Shii Jurisprudence (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2000); considered heretical by orthodox Sunnis, and theyMojan Momen, An Introduction to Shii Islam (New have both been persecuted by them. The ArabHaven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985). Alawis (historically known as Nusayris) of syria, lebanon, and southern tUrkey and the Turkish and Kurdish Alevis (Turkish rendering of Alawi;Alawi historically known as Kizilbash) of Turkey haveTechnically meaning “pertaining to Ali” in Arabic, each preserved esoteric beliefs and secret practicesAlawi is a name for individuals or groups with a for centuries by living secluded in remote areas inspecial attachment to ali ibn abi talib (d. 662). their respective countries. Both see Ali as divine;The importance of Ali, the cousin and son-in-law rather than regarding him as a historical figure,of the prophet mUhammad, in Islamic history has they believe in a cosmic Ali who embodies a mani-led to use of this term for a variety of organiza- festation of God.tions and groups of people, which are known col- Alevis in Turkey conduct ceremonies in whichlectively as Alawiyya. Descendants of Ali through mystical songs are sung and a spiritual dance iseither of his sons Hasan (d. 669) and Husayn (d. performed. Numbering several million, they have680)—and thus descendants of Muhammad (d. in recent years become more open about their632) through his daughter Fatima (d. 633)—are beliefs and practices and are presently attempt-often called Alawi, in addition to being known as ing to negotiate a distinctive identity vis-à-vis thesharifs or sayyids. Supporters of Ali in the political nationalist state and Sunni majority. The Arabstruggle over the caliphate in early Islamic history Alawis limit transmission of their secret beliefs toare sometimes also referred to as Alawi, though those who have been formally initiated into theirthey are more commonly called Shii. Also, claim- community. Though they constitute a minoritying descent from Ali and Fatima has been used to in Syria, certain members of the sect have estab- lished themselves in important military positionslegitimate a form of local ruling dynasties, some there and have even managed to assume politicalof which have carried the name Alawi, the prime control over the country through the Syrian baathexample being the alaWid dynasty, which has party.ruled morocco since the 17th century. See also ahl al-bayt; ghulat; hUsayn ibn ali; Because Ali is considered by most Sufis to shariF; shiism; sUFism; tafsir; tariqa.represent the esoteric interpretation of the Quran,many Sufi orders trace their spiritual lineages Mark Soileauback to him and are known as Alawi orders, asopposed to Bakri orders such as the naqshbandi- Further reading: Krisztina Kehl-Bodrogi, Barbara Kell-yya sUFi order, which trace their lineages to abU ner-Heinkele, and Anke Otter-Beaujean, eds., Syncretis-bakr (d. 634), the first caliph. Other orders were tic Religious Communities in the Near East (New York:
74. alchemy 29 JE.J. Brill, 1997); Matti Moosa, Extremist Shiites: The authority as “Commander of the Faithful.” ThisGhulat Sects (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, undercut the rise of radical Islamic challenges to1988); Tord Olsson, Elisabeth Ozdalga, and Catharina their leadership. The current king, Muhammad VI,Raudvere, Alevi Identity: Cultural, Religious and Social seeks to bring much-needed reforms to MoroccanPerspectives (Istanbul: Swedish Research Institute in society while retaining ultimate political power.Istanbul, 1998); J. Spencer Trimingham, The Sufi Orders Having ruled Morocco for some 335 years, thein Islam (Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon Press, 1971). Alawid dynasty shows no signs of relinquishing power any time soon. See also ahl al-bayt; colonialism.Alawid dynasty (1668–present)The current ruling dynasty of morocco, the Stephen CoryAlawis are one of the few precolonial monarchies Further reading: John P Halstead, Rebirth of a Nation: .to successfully transition into the era of inde- The Origins and Rise of Moroccan Nationalism (Cam-pendent nation-states. The dynasty first arose in bridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1967); Abdallahsoutheastern Morocco and established its author-ity throughout the country during the 1660s, Laroui, The History of the Maghrib: An Interpretive Essayunder the leadership of Mulay Rashid (d. 1672). (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1977).Throughout the next 240 years, Alawid sultansruling from Fez or Meknes were usually able tocontrol the main urban centers and allied tribes alchemy (Arabic: al-kimiya)(bilad al-makhzen), but they did not receive more Alchemy is a combination of chemistry and magi-than cursory allegiance from the rural hinterlands cal knowledge that originated with the Greeks,(bilad al-siba). developed in Islamicate lands, and was transmit- The situation changed with the establish- ted from there to medieval Europe. The outwardment of the French protectorate over Morocco in purpose of alchemy was to transform base metals1912. The French pursued a policy of divide and such as lead into precious ones such as silver andrule while trying to maintain the illusion of local gold. Alchemists engaged in a range of relatedgovernance through a compliant Alawid sUltan efforts, such as trying to create life and search-(now called “king”). However, King Muhammad ing for a medicine to prolong it—an elixir ofV used this approach against them when he rallied immortality. Their ideas recognized the ancientnationalist support around his passive resistance Greek division of the natural world into four ele-to French authority. In 1956, the French adminis- ments (earth, fire, water, and air) plus four quali-tration recognized Moroccan independence under ties (hot, cold, moist, and dry). They believedthe leadership of its traditional monarchy. in astrology, too, which meant that alchemists In many ways, the centralizing influence of thought there was a correspondence between thethe French allowed the Alawis to consolidate their heavenly world and the earthly world. All mat-control to a degree that was not possible prior to ter and spirit, though outwardly different, werethe protectorate. Although the new nation estab- really one in essence. Alchemy seeks to play uponlished institutions for participatory government, this supposed inner unity to change or transformsuch as elections and a national assembly, aUthor- an imperfect or lesser phenomenon into a moreity remained firmly in the hands of the monarchy. perfect, purified one. Not only might lead beAlawid kings (such as Hasan II, r. 1961–99) used transformed into gold, but the human soul itselftheir status as sharifs (descendants of the prophet could be purified of worldly stain. In attemptingmUhammad) to highlight their religiopolitical this, alchemy merges with metaphysics. Muslim
75. K 30 alcoholalchemists accepted that God was the first creator ahjar (Book of Stones) (Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwerof the cosmos, but they believed humans could Academic, 1994); Donald R. Hill, “The Literature ofalso become creators if they could only unlock Arabic Alchemy.” In Religion, Learning and Science in thethe secrets of the universe’s elements and qualities Abbasid Period, edited by M. J. L. Young, J. D. Latham,and learn how to transform them through their and R. B. Sergeant, 328–341 (Cambridge: Cambridgelaboratory experimentation. University Press, 1990). Although there is a substantial body of medi-eval Arabic texts on alchemy, the subject is inneed of more study before a definitive history alcohol See dietary laws; food and drink.can be written. It appears to have become animportant topic in Islamicate lands during theninth and 10th centuries, but some Muslim reli- Alevi See alawi.gious authorities refuted its doctrines becausethey deviated from what they believed to be trueIslam. Early Arabic alchemical literature consisted Alexander the Great (356–323 b.c.e.)of translations of Greek texts, especially those youthful conqueror of the ancient world and heroicassociated with Hermes Trismegistos, a mystical figure in Islamic traditionfigure who was identified with the ancient Egyp- Alexander (Arabic: Iskandar), the youthful king oftian god of writing and wisdom, Thoth. Indeed, Macedonia, is considered the greatest conqueroregypt was thought to be the ancient homeland of classical Greek and Roman times (fourth cen-of the alchemical tradition. To give it a more tury b.c.e. to fourth century c.e.). He is the heroicIslamic stamp, authors constructed a genealogy of subject of the Alexander Romance, a cycle of sto-sources that included a curious variety of figures ries that contributed to the high esteem in whichsuch as ali ibn abi talib (Muhammad’s cousin, d. he is held in Islamic tradition.661), Maria the Copt (one of Muhammad’s con- One should distinguish the legendary contentcubines), Khalid ibn Yazid (an Umayyad prince, of the Alexander Romance from the historicald. 683), JaaFar al-sadiq (the sixth Shii imam, d. figure Alexander the Great. The fabulous deeds765), and a number of Sufis. The grand master of the renowned world conqueror are celebratedof the Islamic alchemical tradition was Jabir ibn in medieval literature of the East and the West.Hayyan (d. 815), a shadowy historical figure There exist romances on Alexander in medievalwith Sufi and Shii affinities who was said to have English, Spanish, French, and German as wellbeen a friend and disciple of Jaafar al-Sadiq in as in Ethiopic, Syriac, Armenian, Persian, andBaghdad. He was credited with authoring a huge Arabic. The first known reference to Alexanderbody of alchemical literature, some of which in Arabic literature is in the qUran (Q 18:83–98),was translated into Latin and transmitted from where he is called Dhu al-Qarnayn, the “Two-andalUsia to Europe, where it helped inspire the Horned One.” The presence of this brief allusionRenaissance tradition of alchemy. Indeed, modern in the sacred book of Islam transforms the Greekscholars have concluded that Arab alchemy, with pagan Alexander into a Muslim holy man, andits experimental undertakings and theoretical Muslim commentators debated over whether heoutlook, played a key role in the development of was a prophet. As the Islamic empire spread outmodern chemistry. from Mecca and Medina into the ancient lands of Mesopotamia (iraq) and westward to Spain,Further reading: S. Nomanul Haq, Names, Natures, and quranic exegetes and storytellers of the eighthThings: The Alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan and His Kitab al- through 10th centuries from Baghdad to North
76. Algeria 31 JAfrica sought to elucidate the identity of the Alexander legend were a favorite among MuslimTwo-Horned One by collecting tales from diverse peoples for many centuries.sources, including Arabic geographical compendi- See also arabic langUage and literatUre;ums, local oral literature, the Bible, and the Torah prophets and prophecy.and attributing them to Dhu al-Qarnayn. Z. David Zuwiyya By the turn of the first millennium c.e., theromance of Alexander in Arabic had a core cen- Further reading: Wheeler M. Thackston, trans., Tales oftered on the Greek legendary material from a the Prophets (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1978); Albertwork of the second or third century c.e. known Mugrdich Wolohojian, trans., The Romance of Alexanderas the Pseudo-Callisthenes, wherein the young the Great by Pseudo-Callisthenes (New York: Columbiaking and student of Aristotle defeats the Persian University Press, 1969); Z. David Zuwiyya, Islamic Leg-army and goes on to take India, China, and lands ends of Alexander the Great (Binghamton, N.Y.: Globalin between, including the land of the Amazon Publications, 2001).women, before dying at the age of 32 withoutmaking it back home. This material is usuallyplaced in the mouth of the prophet mUham-mad, who characterized Dhu al-Qarnayn as one Algeria (Official name: People’s of the faithful whom the Lord had entrusted Democratic Republic of Algeria)with the mission of delivering God’s message to One of the largest countries in Africa and the Arabthe remote corners of the earth in preparation world, Algeria (Arabic: al-Jazair) is located on thefor the coming of Islam. Interwoven later into Mediterranean coast bordered by tUnisia and libyathis narrative in the Tales of the Prophets litera- to the east, by morocco to the west, and to theture were episodes of an apparent Arab-Islamic south across the Sahara desert by Western Sahara,elaboration: the construction of a great barrier Mali, Mauritania, and Niger. It is approximatelyto keep the barbarian tribes of Gog and Magog 2.4 million square kilometers, or the equivalentfrom harassing the people of the civilized world of the continental United States west of the Rockyuntil JUdgement day, the voyage to the end of the Mountains. Its population of approximately 33Earth to witness the sun set in a pool of boiling million (2008) is of mixed berber and arab eth-mud, and Dhu al-Qarnayn’s expedition into the nicity (except a 1 percent European minority)Land of Darkness in search of the Fountain of and largely Sunni Muslim. Religious minoritiesLife accompanied by his companion khadir (the include Christians and Jews (1 percent). AlthoughGreen-One). God veils from Dhu al-Qarnayn the official language of Algeria is Arabic, Frenchthe spring of rejuvenating waters because he and various Berber (Amazigh) languages are alsohas become too ambitious in seeking to reveal widely spoken. Asserting a distinct Berber lan-the secrets of God’s creation. For example, he guage and ethnicity is an important issue forenters forbidden lands inhabited by angels and many communities centered in the Kabyle region.knocks on the doors of paradise itself. The theme Geographically, while the northern regions areof the hero’s arrogance is delicately balanced mountainous and provide fertile agricultural land,with his piety as seen in his frequent prayer for more than 80 percent of the country lies in thethe strength to complete his mission to call the Sahara, where rich hydrocarbon and mineralpeople of the earth to humble themselves before resources are found. The major cities are the capi-their creator. Relating numerous encounters tal, Algiers, Constantine, Tlemcen, and Oran.with sea serpents, beasts, angels, and enchanted As early as the fifth century b.c.e., Algeria’scastles, the medieval Islamic versions of the indigenous people, Berbers, had established com-
77. K 32 Aligarhplex economies and within two centuries formed ians are believed to have been killed. By 2005,two major kingdoms. The region was then ruled the major violence had subsided, and moderateby Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, and ultimately Islamist groups were brought into the govern-Arabs, who in the seventh century c.e. invaded ment. Many core issues such as the role of religionfrom the east, initiating a long slow process of in Algerian society, government corruption, andArabization and Islamization of the native popula- the desire of Kabylie Berbers for more autonomytion. Political rule of the area for Arabs remained remain unresolved.elusive, however, alternating between Berber king- See also almohad dynasty; ottoman dynasty;doms and Arab dynasties until the 16th century, politics and islam; sUFism.when Ottomans extended their power south from Michelle ZimneyistanbUl and took control of Algeria. Throughoutthis period, North Africa provided a vital corridor Further reading: Robert Malley, The Call from Alge-for economic and cultural exchanges between the ria: Third Worldism, Revolution, and the Turn to IslamMiddle East, Islamicate Spain, and sub-Saharan (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996); HughAfrica. Also notable in this period was the devel- Roberts, The Battlefield: Algeria 1988–2002, Studies inopment of prominent Sufi (marabout) brother- a Broken Polity (New York: Verso, 2003); John Ruedy,hoods (including the Qadiriyya, Tijaniyya, and Modern Algeria: The Origins and Development of a NationRahmaniyya) that were organized around char- (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992).ismatic spiritual leaders and were renowned forfostering spiritual and political communities thattranscended powerful tribal affiliations. From 1830 to 1962, France occupied and Aligarhadmini