For Magda, Andrés, and FedericoIn Memory of Julio H. Campo (1925–2006) Que bonita es esta vida . . .
contents KAbout the Editors and Contributors ixList of Illustrations and Maps xvPreface xviiAcknowledgments xixIntroduction xxiChronology xxxviiENTRIES A TO Z 1Bibliography 725Index 731
about the editors and contributors KSeries Editor program. He specializes in the comparativeJ. Gordon Melton is the director of the Institute for study of the cultural formations of Islam in the the Study of American Religion in Santa Bar- Middle East and South Asia, sacred space and bara, California. He holds an M.Div. from the pilgrimage, and political Islam in the contexts Garrett Theological Seminary and a Ph.D. from of modernity. His research has taken him to Northwestern University. Melton is the author Egypt, where he has lived, studied, or taught of American Religions: An Illustrated History, The for nearly six years, as well as India, Saudi Encyclopedia of American Religions, Religious Arabia, Bahrain, Turkey, Malaysia, Singapore, Leaders of America, and several comprehensive Thailand, and Israel. Professor Campo’s first works on Islamic culture, African-American book, The Other Sides of Paradise: Explorations religion, cults, and alternative religions. He has in the Religious Meanings of Domestic Space in written or edited more than three dozen books Islam, won the American Academy of Religion’s and anthologies as well as numerous papers and award for excellence, in 1991. He has edited articles for scholarly journals. He is the series or contributed articles to a number of leading editor for Religious Information Systems, which reference works, including Merriam-Webster’s supplies data and information in religious stud- Encyclopedia of World Religions, Encyclopedia of ies and related fields. Melton is a member of the the Qur’an, and the Macmillan Encyclopedia of American Academy of Religion, the Society for Islam and the Muslim World. His current projects the Scientific Study of Religion, the American include a comparative study of modern Muslim, Society of Church History, the Communal Stud- Hindu, and Christian pilgrimage. ies Association, and the Society for the Study of Metaphysical Religion. Contributors Fahad A. Alhomoudi holds a Ph.D. from McGillVolume Editor University. He is the vice dean of academicJuan E. Campo, associate professor of religious research at al-Imam Muhammad bin Saud studies at the University of California, Santa Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He Barbara, holds an M.A. and Ph.D. from the specializes in Islamic thought and Islamic law, University of Chicago’s History of Religions with a focus on its origins. He is the author of ix
K Encyclopedia of Islam Protecting the Environment and Natural Resource relations and shared religious spaces. Her cur- in Islamic Law (published in Arabic, 2004). He rent book project is called Sharing the Sacred: has presented numerous scholarly papers on Devotion and Pluralism in Muslim North India. topics such as Islamic law and the modern state: Vincent F Biondo III is assistant professor of reli- . conflict or coexistence? and a critical study of gious studies at California State University in the translations of Hadith terminology. Fresno. He received a Ph.D. from the UniversityJessica Andruss earned an M.A. in religious stud- of California, Santa Barbara. His specialization ies at the University of California, Santa Bar- is the religious traditions of the West, with a bara, and is now a Ph.D. candidate at the focus on Islam in America and Great Britain. He University of Chicago’s Divinity School. Her is author of several articles and coeditor of Reli- area of specialization is in medieval Jewish and gion in the Practice of Daily Life (forthcoming). Muslim scriptural exegesis. Stephen Cory received a Ph.D. in Islamic historyJon Armajani earned a Ph.D. in religious studies from the University of California, Santa Bar- with a focus in Islamic studies and Near East- bara. His specialty is the history of North Africa ern studies from the University of California, and Islamic Spain during the late medieval and Santa Barbara. His areas of expertise include early modern periods. He is currently an assis- modern Islam and Muslim-Christian relations. tant professor in history and religious studies He is the author of Dynamic Islam: Liberal at Cleveland State University. Muslim Perspectives in a Transnational Age and David L. Crawford is assistant professor of sociol- assistant professor in the Department of The- ogy and anthropology at Fairfield University. He ology at the College of St. Benedict/St. John’s received a Ph.D. from the University of Califor- University in Minnesota. nia, Santa Barbara. He specializes in the study ofReza Aslan is assistant professor at the University the societies of North Africa with a focus on the of California, Riverside and author of No god, Amazigh people of Morocco. He is the author but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of of Amazigh Households in the World Economy: Islam. He is also a research associate at the Labor and Inequality in a Moroccan Village and a University of Southern California’s Center on number of articles and chapters on contempo- Public Diplomacy. His commentaries on Islam rary Moroccan society and politics. and the Middle East have appeared in the Los Maria del Mar Logrono-Narbona received a Ph.D. Angeles Times, the New York Times, the Wash- in history, with a focus on modern Middle ington Post, and the Boston Globe. He has also Eastern history, from the University of Cali- appeared on a number of major network and fornia, Santa Barbara. She specializes in the cable news programs. transnational connections between Syrian andA. Nazir Atassi is assistant professor of history Lebanese diasporas in Latin America during at Louisiana Tech University. He received a the first half of the 20th century. She is cur- Ph.D. from the University of California, Santa rently visiting professor at Appalachian State Barbara. He specializes in Islamic and Middle University, North Carolina. Eastern history, with a focus on early Islamic Caleb Elfenbein is a Ph.D. candidate in religious society. studies at the University of California, SantaAnna Bigelow is assistant professor of religious Barbara. He specializes in Islamic studies, with studies at North Carolina State University. She a focus on Islam in colonial and postcolonial received a Ph.D. from the University of Califor- societies. nia, Santa Barbara, in 2004. Her research focuses Kenneth S. Habib is an assistant professor in the on South Asian Islam, especially interreligious music department of the California Polytechnic
About the Editors and Contributors xi J State University, San Luis Obispo. His Ph.D. in Service Institute of the U.S. Department of State ethnomusicology is from the University of Cal- in Washington, D.C. He holds a Ph.D. in Islamic ifornia, Santa Barbara, with specializations in studies from the University of California, Santa Middle Eastern and American popular music. Barbara. His research interests include medi- He also has taught music at Pomona College eval Islamic history, Muslim-Christian rela- and the University of California, Santa Barbara, tions, and modern Egyptian saints. taught Arabic at Santa Barbara City College, Linda G. Jones received a Ph.D. in the history and served as assistant to the director of the of religions from the University of California, Middlebury College Arabic School. Santa Barbara, with a focus on medieval IslamAysha A. Hidayatullah is a Ph.D. candidate in and Christianity in Spain and North Africa. She religious studies at the University of Califor- has edited and coauthored (with Madeleine nia, Santa Barbara. Her dissertation research Pelner Cosman) the Handbook to Life in the examines newly emerging forms of feminist Middle Ages. She is currently Juan de la Cierva theology in Islam. She has written on a number Researcher at the Spanish National Research of topics concerning gender and sexuality in Council (Department of Medieval Studies) in Islam, including the life of Mary the Copt, the Barcelona, Spain. prophet Muhammad’s Egyptian consort. Heather N. Keaney is an assistant professorJosh Hoffman is a Ph.D. student at the Univer- of history at American University in Cairo. sity of California, Santa Barbara, where he She received a Ph.D. from the University of specializes in modern Middle Eastern history. California, Santa Barbara. She specializes in His fields of expertise also include premodern debates on religiopolitical legitimacy in Islamic Middle Eastern history, global/world history, history and historiography. She has published nationalism, political Islam, international “The First Islamic Revolt in Mamluk Collec- law, and human rights. tive Memory: Ibn Bakr’s (d. 1340) PortrayalShauna Huffaker is on the history faculty at the of the Third Caliph Uthman” in Ideas, Images, University of Windsor, Canada. She holds an and Methods of Portrayal: Insights into Classical M.A. from the School of Oriental and African Arabic Literature and Islam, edited by Sebastian Studies in London and a Ph.D. from the Uni- Gunther. versity of California, Santa Barbara. Her spe- Jeffrey Kenney received a Ph.D. in religious stud- cialization is in Islamic history, with a focus on ies from the University of California, Santa Bar- social history during the Middle Ages. bara. He is a specialist in Islam and the authorAmir Hussain holds a Ph.D. from the University of Muslim Rebels: Kharijites and the Politics of of Toronto. He is associate professor in the Extremism in Egypt. He is currently a professor Department of Theological Studies at Loyola at DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana. Marymount University. He specializes in the Ruqayya Yasmine Khan received a Ph.D. from the study of Islam, with a focus on contemporary University of Pennsylvania. She is a specialist Muslim societies. He is the author of Oil and in Islamic studies. Her book Self and Secrecy Water: Two Faiths, One God. His commentaries in Early Islam is forthcoming from the Univer- and interviews on contemporary Islam have sity of South Carolina Press (Studies in Com- appeared in the Los Angeles Times, the New parative Religion). She is currently an associate York Times, the Washington Post, and the Chris- professor at Trinity University in San Antonio, tian Science Monitor. Texas.John Iskander is director of the Near East/North Nuha N. N. Khoury is associate professor of the Africa Division of Area Studies at the Foreign history of art and architecture at the University
K xii Encyclopedia of Islam of California, Santa Barbara. She specializes in bara. She specializes in the study of Pacific Rim the history of Islamic architecture and urban- religions, with a focus on the Philippines. ism, medieval Islamic iconography, and modern Kathleen M. O’Connor is assistant professor of Arab art. Her research has appeared in Muqar- religious studies at the University of South nas: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture, Florida. She specializes in Islamic studies, with the International Journal of Middle East Studies, focuses on Islam in the African American com- and the Journal of Near Eastern Studies. She also munity, Islamic medicine, and folk religion. She contributed to Autobiography in Medieval Arabic has published articles and chapters on Islamic Tradition, edited by Dwight Reynolds. healing systems and African American Islam,Max Leeming is on the religion faculty of Vassar and contributed to the Encyclopedia of the College, where she teaches Islamic studies and Quran. Her current book project is The Worlds the history of religions, with a focus on sacred of Interpretation of African American Muslims. space in the Islamic Middle East. Patrick S. O’Donnell holds an M.A. in religiousLaura Lohman received a Ph.D. from the Uni- studies from the University of California, Santa versity of Pennsylvania and specializes in the Barbara, and is an adjunct instructor in the music of the Middle East. Her research on Department of Philosophy at Santa Barbara City Egyptian singer Umm Kulthum appears in College. He has published articles, reviews, and Music and the Play of Power in the Middle East, bibliographies in the following journals: The North Africa and Central Asia (Ashgate). She Good Society, Globalization, Radical Pedagogy, is an assistant professor of music at California Theory and Science, and Philosophy East West. State University, Fullerton, where she is com- Among the encyclopedias he has contributed pleting a study of the singer’s late career and to are the Biographical Encyclopedia of Islamic reception history (Wesleyan University Press). Philosophers and the Encyclopedia of Love inGregory Mack is a Ph.D. candidate at the Institute World Religions. of Islamic Studies at McGill University. He Kate O’Halloran is a writer and editor specializing holds an M.A. from the University of Toronto. in world history. She holds an M.A. in modern His specialization is Islamic law; his research literature and languages (French and German) presently focuses on legal reforms in the Mid- from Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland and has dle East. published several books for students.Garay Menicucci is the associate director of the Sophia Pandya is an assistant professor of reli- Office of International Students and Scholars gious studies at California State University, at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Long Beach. She received a Ph.D. from the He has a Ph.D. in Middle East history from University of California, Santa Barbara. Her Georgetown University. He is a past editorial specialization is in the area of women, religion, committee member and author for the Middle and the developing world, with an emphasis on East Report and teaches an introduction to Mid- women and Islam. She has authored an article dle East studies and Arab cinema at the Univer- on women and religious education in Bahrain. sity of California, Santa Barbara. He has also Firoozeh Papan-Matin is the director of Persian organized and led several summer seminars in and Iranian studies at the University of Wash- Egypt and Jordan for California K-12 teachers ington, Seattle. She has a master’s in English and administrators, funded by Fulbright-Hays literature and a second master’s and a doctor- Group Projects grants. ate in Iranian studies from University of Cali-Tara Munson is a Ph.D. student in religious stud- fornia, Santa Barbara. Her dissertation research ies at the University of California, Santa Bar- is on 12th-century Islamic mysticism in Iran.
About the Editors and Contributors xiii J She has published articles on classical and in postcolonial media theory, Asian cinemas, modern Persian literature. She is the author of and Marxist cultural theory. He is the author The Love Poems of Shamlu and The Unveiling of of Mourning in the Nation: Indian Cinema in the Secrets Kashf al-Asrar: The Visionary Autobiog- Wake of Partition (forthcoming, 2008) and has raphy of Ruzbihan Baqli. published essays on philosophies of visualityDavid Reeves is a Ph.D. candidate in history at and Indian and Chinese popular cinemas in the University of California, Santa Barbara. He anthologies and journals such as Quarterly specializes in the history of Islam in the Soviet Review of Film and Video, Rethinking History: Union, with a focus on Azerbaijan during the Theory and Practice, and New Review of Film Stalin era. He has been awarded a Fulbright- and Television Studies. Hayes Fellowship, a University of California, Megan Adamson Sijapati is assistant professor of Santa Barbara, Department of History Regent’s religion at Gettysburg College. She received her Dissertation Fellowship, and a Social Science Ph.D. in religious studies from the University Research Council Pre-Dissertation Fellowship, of California, Santa Barbara. Her specialization among others, to conduct his research. is in the religions of South Asia, with a focus onMehnaz Sahibzada earned an M.A. in religious contemporary Islam. studies from the University of California, Mark Soileau received a Ph.D. in religious stud- Santa Barbara, and an M.A. in Middle Eastern ies, with a focus on Islam, from the University studies from the University of Texas at Austin. of California, Santa Barbara. He is currently Her areas of interest include Islam in America an assistant professor of religious studies at and Asian American literature. She teaches Albion College in Michigan. English at Moorpark High School in Southern Varun Soni is currently a doctoral candidate in the California. Department of Religious Studies at the Univer-Judy Saltzman is emeritus professor of religious sity of Cape Town, South Africa. He received studies at California Polytechnic University a J.D. from the University of California, Santa in San Luis Obispo. Her Ph.D. is from the Barbara, School of Law, an M.T.S. from Har- University of California, Santa Barbara. She vard Divinity School, and an M.A. from the specializes in the history of Asian religions, University of California, Santa Barbara. Indian philosophy, Vedanta, and modern Ger- Eric Staples received a Ph.D. in history from the man philosophy. University of California, Santa Barbara. He spe-Kerry San Chirico is a doctoral candidate in the cializes in medieval and early modern Middle Department of Religious Studies at the Univer- Eastern history, and focuses on the social history sity of California, Santa Barbara. He specializes of early modern Morocco, the maritime history in the religions of South Asia, with a focus on of the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean regions, Hindu-Christian relations. and underwater archaeology. He is currentlyLeslie Sargent is a Ph.D. candidate in history at involved in a project to build a replica of a medi- the University of California, Santa Barbara. She eval Indian Ocean vessel under the auspices of specializes in the history of the Russian Empire the governments of Oman and Singapore. and the Caucasus in the late 19th and early Nancy L. Stockdale is assistant professor of his- 20th centuries. tory at the University of Northern Texas.Bhaskar Sarkar is associate professor of film and She received her Ph.D. from the University media studies at the University of California, of California, Santa Barbara. Her specializa- Santa Barbara. His Ph.D. is from the Univer- tion is modern Middle Eastern history, with a sity of California, Los Angeles. He specializes focus on the history of Palestine, imperialism,
K xiv Encyclopedia of Islam and gender studies. She is the author of Colo- focuses on the interaction of religion and poli- nial Encounters among English and Palestinian tics in the Middle Eastern context, including Women, 1800–1948. Algeria’s civil conflict in the 1990s. Her mostJamel Velji is a Ph.D. student in religious studies recent research is on the Sayyida Zaynab shrine at the University of California, Santa Barbara. in Damascus. He specializes in Islamic studies, with a focus Z. David Zuwiyya is associate professor of Spanish on Ismaili Shiism and the comparative study of at Auburn University in Alabama. He received apocalyptic movements. a Ph.D. in Spanish medieval literature from theMichelle Zimney is a doctoral candidate in the University of California, Santa Barbara. He is Department of Religious Studies at the Univer- the author of Islamic Legends concerning Alex- sity of California, Santa Barbara. Her research ander the Great.
list of illustrations and maps K Illustrations Boats on the Nile River at European Muslim community Aswan 110 Center 218Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud with Bookbinder in Cairo 112 Poster of the evil eye 220 President Franklin D. Painting of a depiction of Al- Mosque of al-Hakim of the Roosevelt 3 Buraq 118 Fatimid dynasty 232Women selling produce in the Drawing of medieval Aerial view of Fez 237 market 21 Cairo 122 Friday prayer service 243A tower in the city of Seville, Aerial view of Cairo’s City of Flags of Afghanistan, Iran, Andalusia 41 the Dead 132 Iraq, and Saui Arabia 244Photograph of an arabesque in Muslim family 136 Men baking bread 247 architecture 50 Shrine of the Chishti Sufi Kasbah Garden, Chefchaouen,The Arabic alphabet 54 Order, India 140 Morocco 256The Ibn Tulun Mosque, St. Catherine’s Monastery and Tomb of Chishti saint in Delhi, Cairo 60 mosque at Sinai 143 India 301The Court of the Lions, Movie billboards in Cairo, Marketplace commerce 302 Granada 61 Egypt 145 Excerpt from the Quran,A man painting a ceramic Coffeehouse in Cairo, written in Arabic and plate 64 Egypt 155 Hindi 307A statue of Ataturk 69 Coptic Church, Cairo 167 Murals on the side of aGenealogy of Muhammad, the Umayyad Mosque, residential house 311 caliphs and Shii imams 72 Damascus 180 City of Husayniyya 318A mural showing Quran Water containers on a street in Statue of Ibn Rushd, verses 77 Cairo 194 Cordoba 337The al-Azhar Mosque 80 Turkish meal 198 Visitors at a Muslim shrine,Bazaar in Morocco 97 Female students at Hijaza India 349A Muslim wedding School, Upper Egypt 210 Man reading in his sitting ceremony 104 Modern Cairo 211 room, Iran 363 xv
K xvi Encyclopedia of IslamSüleymaniye Mosque in Chefchaouen minaret, Inside Rumi’s tomb 593 Istanbul 384 Morocco 480 Poster of Chishti saints 599Aerial view of Jerusalem 391 Mount Sinai 482 Islamic centers in U.S.Muhammad Ali Jinnah posing Traditional mosques, Cairo 485 cities 692, 693, 694, 695 with his sister 400 Taj Mahal 489 Usama bin Ladin 697The Treasury, in Petra, Hilya poster 491 Image of Wahhabi Jordan 405 Mosque of Muhammad Ali, horsemen 705Three men at Husayn Mosque, Cairo 496 Turkish and American women Karbala 423 Men seated in a music shop 505 at a picnic 711Ayatollah Ruhollah Visitors to shrine of a Chishti College women from Khomeini 434 saint, Delhi, India 723 the Muslim StudentsTomb of Mahdi, Sudan 448 Association 510Mosque of Sultan Salahuddin List of the 99 names of God, in Abdul Aziz Shah, Arabic and English 516 Maps Malaysia 451 Traditional decorations forMalcolm X 453 Global Distribution of the Navruz 525Tiles depicting Mecca 466 Muslim Population xxviii Mosque of Sultan Ahmed,Poster portraying the city of Early Expansion of Islam, 622– Istanbul 539 Medina 469 Traditional prayer 557 750 xxxSchoolboys wearing clothing Image of the Tree of Historic Cairo 121 of the Mevlevi Sufi Prophets 560 Historic Delhi 187 Order 472 Photograph of a Quran Stations of the Hajj 282Praying in a mihrab 473 manuscript page, 13th–14th Historic Jerusalem 392Image of minarets, Cairo 474 century 570 Shii Populations 625
preface KThe Encyclopedia of World Religions series has in India across southern Asia and then throughbeen designed to provide comprehensive coverage Tibet and China to Korea and Japan. Each timeof six major global religious traditions—Buddhism, it crossed a language barrier, something was lost,Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Roman Catholicism, but something seemed equally to be gained, andand Protestant Christianity. The volumes have an array of forms of Buddhism emerged. In Japanbeen constructed in an A-to-Z format to provide a alone, Buddhism exists in hundreds of differenthandy guide to the major terms, concepts, people, sect groupings. Protestantism, the newest of theevents, and organizations that have, in each case, six traditions, began with at least four different andtransformed the religion from its usually modest competing forms of the religious life and has sincebeginnings to the global force that it has become. splintered into thousands of denominations. Each of these religions began as the faith of At the beginning of the 19th century, the sixa relatively small group of closely related eth- religious traditions selected for coverage in thisnic peoples. Each has, in the modern world, series were largely confined to a relatively smallbecome a global community, and, with one nota- part of the world. Since that time, the world hasble exception, each has transcended its beginning changed dramatically, with each of the traditionsto become an international multiethnic com- moving from its geographical center to become amunity. Judaism, of course, largely defines itself global tradition. While the traditional religions ofby its common heritage and ancestry and has an many countries retain the allegiance of a majorityalternative but equally fascinating story. Surviving of the population, they do so in the presence of thelong after most similar cultures from the ancient other traditions as growing minorities. Other coun-past have turned to dust, Judaism has, within the tries—China being a prominent example—have nolast century, regathered its scattered people into a religious majority, only a number of minorities thathomeland while simultaneously watching a new must periodically interface with one another.diaspora carry Jews into most of the contempo- The religiously pluralistic world created byrary world’s countries. the global diffusion of the world’s religions has Each of the major traditions has also, in the made knowledge of religions, especially religionsmodern world, become amazingly diverse. Bud- practiced by one’s neighbors, a vital resource in thedhism, for example, spread from its original home continuing task of building a good society, a world xvii
K xviii Encyclopedia of Islamin which all may live freely and pursue visions of dominate or form an important minority voice,the highest values the cosmos provides. where it has developed a particularly distinct In creating these encyclopedias, the attempt style (often signaled by doctrinal differences), orhas been made to be comprehensive if not exhaus- where it has a unique cultural or social presence.tive. As space allows, in approximately 800 entries, While religious statistics are amazingly difficulteach author has attempted to define and explain to assemble and evaluate, some attempt has beenthe basic terms used in talking about the religion, made to estimate the effect of the tradition on themake note of definitive events, introduce the selected countries.most prominent figures, and highlight the major In some cases, particular events have had aorganizations. The coverage is designed to result determining effect on the development of thein both a handy reference tool for the religious different religious traditions. Entries on eventsscholar/specialist and an understandable work such as the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (forthat can be used fruitfully by anyone—a student, Protestantism) or the conversion of King Asokaan informed lay person, or a reader simply want- (for Buddhism) place the spotlight on the fac-ing to look up a particular person or idea. tors precipitating the event and the consequences Each volume includes several features. They flowing from it.begin with an essay that introduces the particular The various traditions have taken form astradition and provides a quick overview of its his- communities of believers have organized struc-torical development, the major events and trends tures to promote their particular way of belief andthat have pushed it toward its present state, and practice within the tradition. Each tradition has athe mega-problems that have shaped it in the con- different way of organizing and recognizing thetemporary world. distinct groups within it. Buddhism, for example, A chronology lists the major events that have has organized around national subtraditions. Thepunctuated the religion’s history from its origin to encyclopedias give coverage to the major group-the present. The chronologies differ somewhat in ings within each tradition.emphasis, given that they treat two very ancient Each tradition has developed a way of encoun-faiths that both originated in prehistoric time, sev- tering and introducing individuals to spiritualeral more recent faiths that emerged during the last reality as well as a vocabulary for it. It has alsofew millennia, and the most recent, Protestantism, developed a set of concepts and a language tothat has yet to celebrate its 500-year anniversary. discuss the spiritual world and humanity’s place The main body of each encyclopedia is consti- within it. In each volume, the largest numbertuted of the approximately 800 entries, arranged of entries explore the concepts, the beliefs thatalphabetically. These entries include some 200 flow from them, and the practices that theybiographical entries covering religious figures of have engendered. The authors have attempted tonote in the tradition, with a distinct bias to the explain these key religious concepts in a nontech-19th and 20th centuries and some emphasis on nical language and to communicate their meaningleaders from different parts of the world. Special and logic to a person otherwise unfamiliar withattention has been given to highlighting female the religion as a whole.contributions to the tradition, a factor often Finally, each volume is thoroughly cross-overlooked, as religion in all traditions has until indexed using small caps to guide the reader torecently been largely a male-dominated affair. related entries. A bibliography and comprehen- Geographical entries cover the development sive index round out each volume.of the movement in those countries and partsof the world where the tradition has come to —J. Gordon Melton
acknowledgments KIn publishing the Encyclopedia of Islam I am ful to Garay Menicucci (University of California,indebted to a great many people. Creating an Santa Barbara), Nuha N. N. Khoury (University ofencyclopedia on any topic is necessarily a group California, Santa Barbara), Kathleen M. O’Connorproject, requiring the shared knowledge, insights, (University of South Florida), Amir Hussainperspectives, skills, and experiences of many. (Loyola-Marymount University in Los Angeles),The task is made even more challenging when it Jon Armajani (College of St. Benedict/St. John’sinvolves religion, which encompasses so many dif- University in Minnesota), Firoozeh Papan-Matinferent subjects—ranging from the historical, social, (University of Washington), Mark Soileau (Albionpolitical, and cultural to the spiritual, philosophi- College), Anna Bigelow (North Carolina Statecal, and doctrinal. Moreover, the global nature of University, Megan Adamson Sijapati (GettysburgIslam and the sometimes intense differences that College), Aysha Hidayatullah (Emory Univer-have arisen among Muslims and between Muslims sity), Caleb Elfenbein (University of California,and non-Muslims during the nearly 1400 years of Santa Barbara), Linda G. Jones (Spanish Nationalits history pose additional challenges when seek- Research Council in Barcelona), Patrick O’Donnelling to realize the ideals of comprehensiveness, (Santa Barbara City College), Nancy L. Stockdalefactual accuracy, and fairness. (University of North Texas), Stephen Cory (Cleve- In order to meet the challenges facing this land State University), Shauna Huffaker (Univer-undertaking, I have made a particular effort to sity of Windsor), Heather N. Keaney (Americandraw upon the wide-ranging and deep scholarly University in Cairo), and Reza Aslan (Universitytalents of the faculty, postgraduate, and graduate of California, Riverside). These individuals wrotestudents of the University of California, Santa a number of articles for the volume, offering freshBarbara, especially those specializing in Islamic perspectives obtained from their recent researchand Middle East studies. My editorial assistants, in their respective fields of expertise.John Iskander (now at the U.S. Department of Among other colleagues at the University ofState) and Michelle Zimney, helped me launch California, Santa Barbara, who have provided sup-the project and assisted with editing early drafts port and inspiration are R. Stephen Humphreys,of many of the contributed articles. Among the the holder of the King Abd Al-Aziz ibn Saud Chairmore than 40 contributors, I am especially grate- of Islamic Studies; Mark Juergensmeyer, director xix
K xx Encyclopedia of Islamof the Orfalea Center for Global and International sions, travel experiences, and the conversations weStudies; Scott Marcus, associate professor of eth- shared in Egypt, which enriched my understand-nomusicology; Kathleen Moore, associate profes- ing of the K-12 curriculum and the challenges oursor of law and society; Nancy Gallagher, professor teachers face in instructing young people aboutof history; and Professors Dwight Reynolds, W. unfamiliar religions, civilizations, and languages. IClark Roof, Catherine Albanese, and Richard am especially obliged to Karen Arter, Frank Stew-Hecht in religious studies. My approach to this art, and Paul and Ruth Ficken for their encourage-project was also guided by the humanism and ment and interest in this publication.spirit of public service exemplified by our late I am also grateful for the hospitality andcolleague Walter Capps and his wife, Lois. Over warmth extended to me by several cultural, inter-the years, Richard C. Martin, Fredrick M. Denny, faith, and religious organizations, including theRichard Eaton, Azim Nanji, Barbara Metcalf, Wil- Turkish-American Pacifica Institute of Los Ange-liam Shepherd, Steve Wasserstrom, Bruce B. Law- les and Orange Counties, the Interfaith Initiativerence, Gordon Newby, Jane D. McAuliffe, Zayn of Santa Barbara County, the University ReligiousKassam, Tazim Kassam, and scholars and teachers Center in Isla Vista, and the community of St.at other colleges and universities, too many to Mark’s Parish Catholic Church in Isla Vista.mention by name, have also provided invaluable At Facts On File, I owe a great debt to Claudiainspiration, directly or indirectly. Schaab and J. Gordon Melton for valuable advice My deep gratitude also goes to Kendall Busse, and infinite patience in bringing the publicationPh.D. student in religious studies, who provided to completion. Gordon graciously shared pho-skilled editorial support and helpful feedback tographs of mosques taken during his travelsalong the way, and to several undergraduate around the world.research assistants: Maria Reifel Saltzberg, Has- Publishing this book would not have beensan R. Elhaj, and Hassan Naveed. Their work was possible without the support of a wide circle offunded by the Freshman Seminar Program at the family and friends extending from the UnitedUniversity of California, Santa Barbara. Through States to Colombia (the land of my birth), Egypt,the years, my undergraduate students have con- and India. These include Shafik and Gilane, Galalsistently affirmed my belief that education is an and Negwa, Amr and Janet, Mahmoud and Suhair,ongoing process with mutual benefits that extend Said and Soraya, Mehran and Nahid, Zaveeni,well beyond the classroom. and Viji and Sujata. Above all, I am indebted to Funding provided by Fulbright-Hayes Group my wife, Magda, to whom this book is dedicated,Projects grants presented me with opportuni- for her unwavering love and encouragement inties to accompany two groups of California K-12 good times and bad, and to our sons Andrés andteachers and administrators to Egypt in 2003 and Federico as they begin to follow their own paths2004. I benefited greatly from our workshop ses- in the world.
introduction KAmong the world’s religions, few have attained the architectural styles to the New World, beginninghistorical, cultural, and civilizational stature and in the 16th century, which would later be adapteddiversity that Islam has. Since the seventh cen- by European and American architects for ourtury, when it first emerged in the western region modern homes, hotels, cinemas, concert halls,of the Arabian Peninsula known as the Hijaz, it shopping centers, and amusement parks. Many ofhas been continuously adapted and carried forth our homes are now decorated with beautiful rugsby its adherents, who call themselves Muslims, to and carpets that bear intricate arabesque designsnew lands and peoples in the wider Middle East, from Iran, Turkey, Pakistan, or Kashmir. CoffeeAfrica, Asia, Europe, and, more recently, to the and sugar, the favored beverages of many Ameri-Americas, Australia, and New Zealand. Indeed, cans and Europeans, are both Arabic in origin andthe new religio-historical syntheses brought about were cultivated and enjoyed in Muslim lands wellby the back-and-forth interactions of Muslims and before they reached the West.non-Muslims, and of the many different cultures Despite the record of some 14 centuries ofto which they belong, have had significant influ- such achievements, knowledge about Islam andence for centuries, not only upon the religious Muslims has been very limited, especially in theexperience of a large part of humankind, but also Americas. The modern study of Islam was mostlyupon the development of philosophy, the arts and relegated to a few elite universities until thesciences, and even the very languages we speak 1980s, and it was hardly mentioned in social stud-and the foods we eat. European scholars eagerly ies textbooks used by secondary school studentssought to acquire the wisdom achieved by Mus- and teachers. What Americans knew of Muslimslims in the fields of philosophy, mathematics, was largely confined to those who had lived orastronomy, and medicine during the Middle Ages. traveled in Muslim countries, met Muslim immi-The different Islamicate architectural styles devel- grants, or heard about famous African-Americanoped in a wide variety of locales, ranging from Muslims like Malcolm X, the boxer MuhammadSpain to sub-Saharan Africa, India, Central Asia, Ali, or Karim Abdul Jabbar. What the averageand Southeast Asia, were adapted by non-Muslims person thought or imagined about the Near orin many parts of the world. Spanish settlers and Middle East was based on the Arabian Nightsimmigrants brought “Moorish” (Spanish-Islamic) stories and motion picture images. The situation xxi
K xxii Encyclopedia of Islambegan to change in the 1980s as a result of the consequence of the persistence of this knowledgeIslamic revolution in Iran of 1978–79, the Leba- “gap” is that some have exploited it to spread inac-nese civil war and the 1983 bombing of the United curate, prejudiced views about Islam and MuslimsStates Marine barracks in Beirut, and the assas- by citing anecdotal evidence or weaving togethersination of Egyptian president Anwar al-Sadat, an scattered bits of factual information, heresay, andAmerican ally, by a radical jihadist group in 1981. even falsehoods. At times this is done to serveEven these developments, which were widely some greater ideological objective, but at greatreported in the news media, did not have a long- cost to the public’s ability to make wise judgmentsterm impact on public awareness or knowledge of their own, based on accurate information andabout Islam and Muslims, although they inspired scholarly expertise. The Encyclopedia of Islam isa number of Hollywood movies based on stereo- part of a much wider effort undertaken by manytypes. One important exception, however, was the scholars and area studies experts to meet theinclusion of lessons about Islam and the Middle demand for accurate information about Islam, par-East in secondary school curricula that involved ticularly with regard to its place in the contempo-consultations with experts and representatives of rary world. This undertaking is based on a growinglocal Muslim organizations. body of research involving the contributions of This situation changed dramatically as a result people who not only have knowledge and fluencyof the terrorist attacks conducted by al-Qaida in the relevant languages but have spent extendedagainst the New York World Trade Center and periods of time in the Middle East and other partsthe Pentagon in Washington, D.C., on Septem- of the world where Muslims live, work, and striveber 11, 2001. Islam, especially Islamic terrorism, to achieve what we might call “the good life.” Thepermeated the media—most notably the 24-hour reader is encouraged to explore the variety of top-cable news channels and talk radio. Politicians, ics covered by this reference work and follow upscholars, policy experts, and religious leaders gave with more specialized readings listed at the endmany interviews and talks about Islam, the Mid- of each entry and in the bibliography provided indle East, and religious violence. American colleges the back of the book. Before proceeding, however,and universities hired dozens of new lecturers and it will be worthwhile to consider some questionsprofessors specializing in Islamic studies and the anyone interested in exploring the subject of Islamlanguages and histories of the Middle East. The ought to be asking.number of Middle East National Resource Centersbased at leading American research universitieswas increased with the help of additional funding What Is Islam?by the U.S. Department of Education, which was This is a question that Muslims have beencommitted to enhancing public understanding answering for centuries when it is raised inabout the contemporary Middle East and other their homes, schools, and in the circles of giftedregions where large Muslim populations live. scholars, powerful rulers, and wealthy merchantsIncreased resources were also provided for teach- and businessmen. It is also a question posed bying Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu, Pashto, and many non-Muslims—never more than now, inother critical languages. the first decade of the 21st century. The answers Today there still exists, despite these significant given by Muslims, like those proposed by non-steps forward, a widespread hunger in the United Muslims, have varied greatly, depending on theirStates and many other countries for even the most education, social status, background, and thebasic knowledge about Muslims—their religion, wider historical and cultural contexts in whichhistories, cultures, and politics. One unfortunate they live.
Introduction xxiii J Rather than beginning with a single, defini- mad and his followers, known as his Companions,tive response as to what Islam is, a more fruitful said and did. The hadith, which number in theapproach is to begin with the proposition that tens of thousands, were systematically collectedIslam is to a large extent what Muslims have made by Muslims during the early centuries of Islam.of it based on their different religious sensibilities, One of them, known as the Hadith of Gabriel,cultural identities, social statuses, and historical provides another, more complex understanding ofcircumstances. Many of the faithful start with Islam. According to this story, the angel Gabriel,the Quran, the Islamic holy book, which they appearing as a man dressed in a pure white gown,believe to be a collection of revelations from God approached Muhammad while he was among his(called Allah in Arabic) as delivered in the Arabic friends and interrogated him about his religion.language via the angel Gabriel to Muhammad When Gabriel asked Muhammad about Islam, he(ca. 570–632) over a 23-year period while he was replied, “Islam is that you witness that there is noliving in the western Arabian towns of Mecca god but God and that Muhammad is God’s mes-and Medina (formerly known as Yathrib). It is senger; that you perform prayer; give alms; fastabout the length of the Christian New Testament, [the month of] Ramadan; and perform the hajjconsisting of 114 chapters and more than 6,200 to the house [of God in Mecca] if you are able toverses. About Islam, the Quran itself declares, do so.” In this statement, Islam is defined in terms of Upholding equity, God, his angels and those its Five Pillars, thus underscoring the importance with knowledge have witnessed that there is of performing sacred actions, or worship, in this no god but he, the mighty and wise. Indeed, religion. Even the first pillar, known as the sha- religion [din] in God’s eyes is Islam [literally hada (witnessing) is regarded as a sacred action, “submission”]. Those who received the book because it involves pronouncing the two founda- disagreed among themselves out of jealousy tional tenets of Islam: belief both in one god and only after knowledge had come to them. in Muhammad as a prophet of God. Recitation Whoever disbelieves in God’s sacred verses, of the shahada in Arabic occurs throughout a (let him know that) God is swift in reckon- Muslim’s lifetime. Muslims repeat it during their ing. (Q 3:18–19). five daily prayers, and even at the moment of death, when it should be the last words spoken This passage links Islam, the religion, to by a dying person, or spoken by someone elsebelief in one God, in opposition to disbelief on his or her behalf. Islamic tradition regards the(kufr), which will incur God’s anger. It also states other four of Islam’s pillars—prayer, almsgiving,that the revelation of God’s book brings with it fasting, and hajj—as forms of worship required ofboth knowledge and disagreement among human all Muslims in order to attain salvation. The finebeings. The Muslims, therefore, in contrast to points of Muslim worship were elaborated as partdisbelievers, are those who believe in God’s revela- of the Muslim legal tradition, known as sharia,tions (the sacred verses) and submit to God’s will. by qualified religious authorities known as theThe Arabic word muslim literally means “one who ulama (sing. alim, “one who has knowledge”).submits.” The Quran promises Muslims rewards The Hadith of Gabriel next takes up theboth in this world and in the hereafter for their subject of belief, as Gabriel, acknowledging thatbelief and good deeds. Muhammad has correctly defined Islam, contin- In addition to the Quran, Muslims also look ues his questioning by asking Muhammad aboutto the hadith—sacred narratives, usually short in iman (faith, believing). According to the story,length, that contain accounts about what Muham- Muhammad replies that iman involves belief in
K xxiv Encyclopedia of Islamone God, his angels, his books, his messengers, from the West and the religions of Judaism andand the Last Day (Judgment Day), as well as pre- Christianity. They thought of it as a religion thatdetermination. Again, Gabriel affirms the correct- had been tainted by political despotism and irra-ness of the reply. The Quran mentions iman much tionality. Others classed it racially, as a “Semitic”more than Islam, and even though the two words religion, in contrast to the religions of the Indo-differ slightly in their root meanings (security Europeans, which included Christianity. Ratherfor the first, safety for the second), many Mus- than calling it Islam, a term used by Muslimslim commentators have regarded them as being themselves, many scholars in the 19th and 20thnearly synonymous. It likewise uses a related centuries decided to call it Mohammedanism,term, mumin, more that it uses the word muslim. incorrectly assuming that Muhammad’s status inThe aspects of faith Muhammad mentions in his Islam was analogous to that of Jesus Christ inreply to Gabriel were subsequently elaborated Christianity or the Buddha in Buddhism. Despiteand debated for centuries by Muslim theologians, these missteps, and others, some religious studiesknown as the mutakallims, or those who practice scholars concluded that it was more accurate tokalam (literally “speech,” but more precisely classify Islam together with Judaism and Chris-translated as “dialectical theology”). tianity as a Western religion, or as monotheistic By addressing both Islam and iman, the Hadith one, which recognizes a key belief in Islam (beliefof Gabriel teaches that religious practice and in one God), as well as its historical relationshipbelief are interrelated aspects of Islamic religion— with the other two religions. Scholars have evenone cannot be accomplished without the other. grouped it with Christianity and Buddhism as aBut the Hadith of Gabriel is not content with only “world” religion that has extended its reach glob-mentioning these aspects of religion. It introduces ally through missionary work and conversion.a third—ihsan. When asked about what this is, Today many scholars are studying Islam as anMuhammad declares that it calls upon the faith- Abrahamic religion, in relationship with Judaismful to be mindful of God’s watchfulness and do and Christianity. This designation is based on thewhat is good and beautiful (hasan). Ihsan adds a figure of Abraham (Ibrahim), about whom manyspiritual or aesthetic aspect to religion, one that is stories are told in the Bible’s book of Genesis andimplicitly connected with its other aspects—prac- in the Quran. These sacred stories, or myths,tice and believing. as they are called in religious studies scholar- During the Middle Ages, Christian church ship, also talk about Abraham’s descendants,leaders viewed Islam for the most part as idolatry, whom Jews, Christians, and Muslims regard asor a false religion inspired by Satan. Such preju- the spiritual ancestors of their communities.diced views can still be encountered in Christian While Muslims link their religion to Ishmaelcircles, unfortunately, although most Christian (Ismail), Abraham’s oldest son through Hagarleaders today are more likely to want to improve (from Egypt), Jews and Christians relate theirrelations with Muslims through inter-religious religion to Isaac (Ishaq), Abraham’s son throughdialogue and cooperation. Modern scholars spe- Sarah. In addition to sharing a sacred genealogycializing in the history and comparison of reli- that connects all three religions with Abraham,gions have thought about Islam from a different there are other important “family resemblances”set of perspectives. In Europe, in the 18th and that they share. These include 1) monotheistic19th centuries, when religion began to be studied beliefs; 2) beliefs in prophets and supramundanein terms of the humanities and social sciences beings such as angels and saints; 3) possessionrather than theology, some scholars sought to of holy books, revealed through prophets, thatexoticize it as an Eastern religion that stood apart serve as the basis for doctrine, worship, ethics,
Introduction xxv Jand community identity; 4) a linear view of his- lowers in 622. Muslims have come to see this eventtory from creation to Judgment Day, overlapped as being so momentous that they use it to mark theby cyclical celebrations of weekly and seasonal year one on their lunar calendar. The community inholy days; 4) claims to possession of a holy land Medina became exemplary for succeeding genera-connected with stories about the origins of each tions of Muslims, especially with regard to mattersof the religions and the performance of pilgrim- of piety, worship, and law. The embodiment of theages (religious journeys); and 5) belief in human umma as a territorial entity ruled by Muslims andmortality, followed by resurrection, judgment, and following the sharia, or sacred law, was expressed byreward or punishment in the afterlife. the concept of the dar al-Islam, or “house of Islam.” Identifying the family resemblances shared by This territorial understanding was superseded bythe three Abrahamic religions does not mean that modern nation-states created in Muslim lands dur-they are therefore identical, nor that they have ing the 19th and 20th centuries.remained unchanged in history. Rather, it draws In addition to viewing themselves as a commu-our attention to their relative degrees of similarity nity united in their belief in God and his prophet,and difference and begs further inquiry concern- Muslims also identify themselves with differenting how to account for resemblances and degrees strands of Islamic tradition. The main ones areof difference, as well as the changes these religions Sunnism, Shiism, and Sufism. Sunni Muslims arehave undergone through time as a result of the the majority and today make up about 85 percentmutual interactions. Seen in this light, Islam can of the total Muslim population (estimated to bebe understood relationally, rather than isolated 1.4 million in mid-2007, according to the Ency-from other religious traditions and communi- clopaedia Britannica). Their name comes from anties. Muslims themselves understand their reli- Arabic phrase meaning “the people of the sunnagion relationally, although in many respects their and the community of believers” (ahl al-sunnaunderstandings differ from those of non-Muslim wa’l-jamaa). Their Quran commentaries, hadithstudents of religion, as defined within modern collections, legal schools (the Hanafi, Maliki,humanities and social science frameworks. Shafii, and Hanbali schools), and theological tra- ditions are the ones most widely circulated and respected. It is from their ranks that most Muslim Who Are the Muslims? rulers and dynasties have arisen. Leading coun-Discussing what Islam is entails additional discus- tries with Sunni majorities include Indonesia,sion about who the Muslims are. As is the case with Pakistan, Bangladesh, Egypt, Turkey, Morocco,Islam, there are different ways in which this ques- and Nigeria.tion can be answered too. One way to answer this The most prominent alternative, or sectarian,question is to note that from a basic Islamic point of form of Islam is that of the Shia, who today con-view, a Muslim is a person who submits to a single, stitute up to 15 percent of all Muslims, betweenalmighty, and merciful God, as delineated in the 156 and 195 million. Known as the faction of AliQuran and sunna (precedent based on the hadith). (shiat Ali), Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-lawCollectively, Muslims understand themselves ide- (d. 661), they are found in many parts of theally to be members of a single community of believ- world, but they constitute majorities in the mod-ers, known as the umma. The original basis for the ern countries of Iran (89 percent of its popula-universal Muslim community was the community tion), Iraq (60 percent), Bahrain (70 percent), andfounded by Muhammad in Medina after his emigra- Azerbaijan (85 percent). Shii Muslims maintaintion, or Hijra, from Mecca (about 260 miles south that the most legitimate authorities in all mattersof Medina) with a small group of mostly Arab fol- are the Imams—select members of Muhammad’s
K xxvi Encyclopedia of Islamfamily, beginning with Ali ibn Abi Talib (d. 661). the first centuries of Islamic history, most SufisSince the seventh century the Shia have vied with became organized into groups or orders known asthe Sunnis about who is best suited to govern “paths” (sing. tariqa) after the 11th century. Eachthe community. In opposition to the Shia, Sunnis tariqa consists of spiritual masters (known asfavored the caliphs—leaders chosen initially by shaykhs and pirs) who attract disciples and initi-consensus of community leaders on the basis of ate them into the mystical teachings and rituals oftheir experience and public reputation. In general the group. Sufis turn to the Quran and sunna forthe Shia believe that 1) their Imams have been inspiration and guidance, and trace the lineages ofdivinely appointed and inspired; 2) they are free their doctrines and practices to Muhammad andfrom sin and error; and 3) they are uniquely quali- the first generation of his followers. Most Sufisfied to provide religious guidance and insight. regard the sharia as a foundational aspect of theirAccording to the Shia, the world itself could not spiritual outlook, and their ranks are filled withexist without an Imam also being present in it. followers from across the spectrum of the MuslimThe largest branch of the Shia, known as the community—including Sunnis and Shiis, rulers,Twelve-Imam Shia, or Imamis, believe that all merchants, scholars, peasants, and ordinary labor-but one of their 12 Imams suffered martyrdom ers as well. There are many different Sufi ordersin defense of their faith and that the 12th will with branches around the world, although therereturn after a period of concealment (ghayba) that are no precise statistics for them. They are oftenbegan in 872 as a messiah (savior) to inaugurate credited with having contributed to the spread ofa reign of universal justice prior to Judgment Day. Islam, especially through the shrines containingThe teachings of the Imams constitute the core of the remains and relics of Sufi saints. These holyShii hadith, and their tombs in Iraq and Iran have places have become the focal points for manybecome sacred centers where pilgrims assemble to forms of popular devotionalism and pilgrimage.obtain their blessings and intercession. Sufism has also produced a rich body of Islamic The Ismailis constitute another division of the literature, including mystical poetry, hagiography,Shia, differing from the Twelvers with regard to and devotional manuals.whom they count among their Imams (beginning In more recent times, other self-identifiedwith their namesake Ismail, the elder son of Jaafar groupings of Muslims have appeared, sometimesal-Sadiq [d. 765]), and the deference they give to labeled as radical Islamist and jihadist move-the authority of the living Imam, rather than to ments. Also known as Islamic fundamentalists,those of the past. Even though they are only about a designation that is declining in use because of10 percent of the estimated Shii population over- its imprecision, these groups are small in termsall, they have played a significant role in shaping of actual numbers with respect to the total Mus-the course of Islamic history and intellectual life. lim population. They have surpassed, however, Sufism (tasawwuf) is a general designation other Muslim groups in terms of the amount ofused for the mystical expressions of Islam, wherein attention given to them by governments, inter-experiential knowledge of God and attainment of national organizations, and the global media.unity in or with him are primary goals. The term This is because of their involvement in activitiesis based on the Arabic word suf, or wool, which aimed at fighting perceived enemies of Islam atwas worn by Christian and Muslim ascetics in home and abroad, which can take a heavy toll inthe Middle East. Sufis also explain it in relation terms of civilian casualties and economic damage.to the Arabic word safa, which denotes the idea The central goal of many of jihadist groups is toof purity. Although the historical roots of Sufism establish governments that will enforce Islamicgo back to individual ascetics who lived during law, uphold public morality, and free Muslims
Introduction xxvii Jfrom the control of non-Muslim governments especially those who are more secular in outlook.and influence. In justifying their violent actions, Muslims belong to more than 60 different ethnicthey often make use of the traditional Islamic groups consisting of a million or more members.concept of jihad, which is based on an Arabic In addition, there are also 55 nation-states thatword meaning “to struggle or make an effort” have Muslim-majority populations. As minoritieson behalf of one’s religion and community. Many in countries like the United States, Britain, India,Muslims criticize the way they interpret this con- and Australia, many think of themselves in termscept, which was elaborated in the Islamic legal of the nationality of the country in which theytradition before the modern era. Some jihadist hold citizenship, or the one from which they haveorganizations, despite their violent tactics, win emigrated.popular support by providing needed social ser- The first generations of Muslims were pre-vices that legitimate governmental agencies fail dominantly Arab, and today Arabs still constituteto provide. This is the case, for example, with the the single largest Muslim ethnic group. (It shouldPalestinian Hamas organization and Hizbullah be noted, however, that not all Arabs are Muslims.in Lebanon. Most of these groups act indepen- There are also Arab Christians and Jews.) By thedently, with logistical and economic assistance 11th century, large numbers of Berbers, Persians,from foreign sources. Al-Qaida, the organiza- and Turks had converted to Islam; together withtion founded by Usama bin Ladin (b. 1957) and Arabs, they composed much of classical IslamicAyman al-Zawahiri (b. 1951), began in 1984 as a civilization in the Middle East and North Africa.service office for Arabs fighting against the Soviet Today only about one in four Muslims is an Arab,army in Afghanistan. After the Soviet withdrawal and when all the Middle Eastern ethnic groups toin 1989 and the fall of the Communist-led gov- which Muslims belong are added, they amount toernment, al-Qaida turned its attention to fight- less than half of the total of the world’s Muslims.ing the United States and its allies, especially Other major ethnic groups include the Javanese ofIsrael. To accomplish its objectives, it created a Indonesia, the Bengalis of India and Bangladesh,loosely organized global network of cells, which and the Punjabis of Pakistan and India. More-were involved in planning and executing attacks over, the nation-states with the largest Muslimagainst U.S. embassies in Africa, the USS Cole, populations are located east of the Middle East, inand the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. mainland. Years Indonesia (207 million), Pakistan (160 million),later, however, al-Qaida has still not been able India (between 138 million and 160 million),to win widespread support among Muslims, and and Bangladesh (132.5 million).1 Large Muslimit remains at odds with other Islamist groups in populations also live in the countries of sub-Saha-terms of both ideology and tactics. ran Africa (Nigeria, for example has about 67.5 The estimated number of Muslims in the million Muslims) and Central Asia (Afghanistanworld today is second only to the number of has about 31.5 million Muslims; Uzbekistan 24.5Christians (about 2.2 million) and larger than million).other religiously defined communities, including Muslims can therefore present themselves asHindus and Buddhists. Muslims represent more members of a united community of the faithful,than 20 percent of the world’s population (one as members of particular Islamic subgroups (Sun-out of every five people on Earth). Like members nis, Shiis, Sufis, etc.), or as members of differentof these other religious communities, they alsothink of themselves in terms of ethnicity andnationality. Indeed, many may put their ethnic 1 These figures are based on 2007–08 estimates in the CIAand national identity ahead of their religious one, World Fact Book.
Introduction xxix Jethnic and national bodies. They may even take found that the historical factors involved werepride in tracing their origins to particular regions much more varied and complex than the “con-(like the Hijaz in Arabia), cities and towns, and quest by the sword” thesis would suggest.families and tribes. Education, profession, gender, Early Islamic historical sources and evidenceand social status also contribute to the formation drawn from the Quran and the hadith indicate thatof Muslim identity. The form of Islam by which several different religious currents existed in Ara-Muslims live and in which they believe, therefore, bia in the seventh century. These included nativeis something that is shaped by any combination Arabian religions, different Jewish and Christianof these factors. Muslim understandings of them- doctrines, and Zoroastrianism—the dualistic reli-selves and their religion have also been shaped gion of ancient Persia. Muhammad ibn Abd Allahby their ongoing encounters with non-Muslims, (ca. 570–632), the historical founder of Islam,peaceful and otherwise, through the centuries. was born in Mecca, a regional shrine town in the Hijaz. After receiving what Muslim sources report were his first revelations at the age of 40 while on The Expansion of Islam Mount Hira outside of Mecca, he drew from theseIslam has long been a global religion, but this religious currents and launched a religious move-was not the way it began. It first appeared dur- ment that called for Meccans to worship one Goding the seventh century in the Hijaz, a remote instead of many, perform acts of charity for themountainous area along the western edge of the weak and the poor, and believe that there wouldArabian Peninsula, far from the centers of urban be a final judgment when God would resurrect thecivilization. The dominant powers in the Middle dead and hold each person accountable for his orEastern and eastern Mediterranean regions at the her righteous and wrongful acts. The blessed weretime were the Byzantines, heirs to the Roman promised a place in paradise, the heavenly garden,Empire, and the Persians. These two empires and the damned would suffer the tortures of hell,had been fighting continually with each other for the realm of fire. Muhammad attracted a smallcontrol of trade routes, land, and people. Within following of converts from among his relatives,less than 100 years after Islam’s appearance, Arab friends, former slaves, and even some non-Arabs.Muslim warriors had swept out of Arabia into the Other Meccans, particularly influential membersMiddle East and North Africa, bringing about the of the Quraysh clan, became hostile toward him.downfall of Byzantium and Persia and inaugurat- This opposition resulted in the Hijra (emigra-ing a succession of Islamic states that would rule tion) of Muhammad and his followers to Medinaa large part of the known world until the collapse in 622. The community soon grew larger, thanksof the Ottoman dynasty after World War I. At its to the conversion of Medinan clans to Islam.height in the 10th century, Muslim rule extended They are remembered as the Ansar (helpers).eastward from Spain (known as Andalusia) and The earliest expansion of the Muslim community,Morocco to the eastern frontiers of Persia and therefore, occurred peacefully and involved theAfghanistan. On the basis of the success of the emigration of the first Muslims from their oldMuslim conquests, it has become a commonplace home to new ones. Emigration and resettlementto assert that Islam is a violent religion that was subsequently became important factors in thespread by the sword. Like all stereotypes, it is spread of Islam. During this time, the commu-based on some truth, mixed with distortion and nity also had to defend itself from attacks by theerroneous conclusions drawn from incomplete Quraysh. After engaging in a successful series ofevidence. Scholars specializing in the early his- campaigns against his opponents, Muhammadtory of Islam and its transregional expansion have finally achieved the peaceful surrender of Mecca
Introduction xxxi Jin 630. By the time of his death in 632, many of forces, including Shiis and the mawali, fromthe Arabian tribes had established alliances with Iraq and eastern Iran. A surviving member ofhim and converted to Islam, setting the stage of the Umayyads was able to escape to Spain, how-the subsequent conquest of Syria, Iran, Egypt, and ever, where he established the western branchNorth Africa. of the Umayyads in Cordoba, inaugurating an The rapid defeat of Byzantine and Persian era of extraordinary cultural florescence thatarmies, weakened by years of internal dissension was due in large part to the fruitful interactionsand warfare, brought the Arab armies unimagined of Muslims, Jews, and Christians. The defeatnew wealth and power. Led by the caliphs, suc- of the Umayyads in Syria brought the Abbasidscessors to the prophet Muhammad, the fledgling to power. They were a party claiming descentIslamic state at first kept its capital in Medina, from al-Abbas, Muhammad’s paternal uncle.but it later shifted northward to Damascus, Syria, The Abbasid Caliphate, which lasted until it waswhich remained the seat of the Umayyad Caliph- brought down by the Mongol invasion in theate from 661 to 750. Conquest of territories 13th century, moved the capital from Damascusbeyond the Arabian Peninsula did not immedi- to Baghdad, a new garrison city that they hadately result in mass conversions to Islam, how- founded on the banks of the Tigris River. It soonever. Rather, the evidence indicates that Islam became the leading center of commerce, the arts,remained a minority religion in these regions for and Islamic learning of its time. The Arab rul-several centuries after the initial waves of con- ing elite realized that they had to share powerquest. Local populations who accepted Muslim with Muslims who came from non-Arab origins,rule were given the choice of either converting as more of their subjects converted to Islam,or paying special taxes in exchange for accepting intermarried with them, obtained positions inthe status of “protected” non-Muslim subjects government, and became masters of the Arabicknown as ahl al-dhimma, or simply dhimmis. The language—the lingua franca of the empire—andArab Muslim minority formed an aristocracy that Islamic learning. It was during the Abbasid eralived in its own cantonments near the communal that Sunni and Shii doctrines and institutionsmosque and the ruler’s palace. The offspring of were systematized, Greek and Persian texts wereArab Muslim fathers and non-Arab, non-Mus- translated and discussed, and sciences such aslim mothers were raised as Muslims but held a astronomy, geography mathematics, optics, andsecond-class status among their coreligionists. medicine flourished.There were also non-Arab converts called the Each of these developments contributed tomawali (clients), many of whom had been cap- the spread of Islam beyond the Middle East totured as prisoners of war during the conquests, Africa, the Indian Ocean basin, Central Asia,then granted their freedom upon conversion. The and Southeast Asia during the ensuing seven ormajority of Muslim subjects, however, remained eight centuries. Transregional trade south of theChristians, Jews, and Zororastrians. As dhimmis, Sahara, along the Silk Roads to Asia, and acrossthey were secure in their property, communal life, the Indian Ocean as far as Java resulted in theand worship as long as they paid taxes, remained establishment of Muslim trading communitiesloyal to Muslim authorities, and did not either linked to local cultures through intermarriage astry to proselytize to the Muslims or attack their well as commerce.religion. India is an excellent example of the differ- Weakened by dynastic conflicts, tribal rival- ent ways by which Islam became established inries, and local uprisings, the Umayyad Caliph- a new land. Peaceful Muslim trading coloniesate was exterminated in 750 by a coalition of linked to Arabia and Iraq developed along the
K xxxii Encyclopedia of Islamsouthern coast around the eighth and ninth the spread of Islam along trade routes and evencenturies. Ismailis from Persia introduced Islam to the remotest areas. Pilgrimage should also beinto northern India around the 10th and 11th recognized as a factor, especially the annual hajjcenturies by winning Hindu converts through to Mecca, which gathered scholars, mystics, mer-their missionary activities. They were followed chants, and ordinary believers from many coun-by Turkish and Afghan warriors who invaded to tries together in one place. After performing thepillage and conquer but ended up establishing required hajj rituals, pilgrims often took up resi-the Delhi Sultanate, which ruled much of the dence in Mecca to study and meet with scholarsnorth and the Deccan Plateau between the 13th and mystics, but eventually they returned homeand 16th centuries. Contrary to the “conquest with stories about the Islamic holy land and newby the sword” thesis, large numbers of Hin- insights about Islam to convey to their familiesdus did not convert to Islam. Rather, scholarly and neighbors.research indicates that there was an inverse rela- These factors continue to be in effect today,tionship between where the centers of Muslim although in modern forms. They have beenpolitical power were and where the most con- involved in Islam’s spread into western Europe,versions occurred, which was on the political the Americas, Australia, and New Zealand. Manyperiphery. The indigenous peoples of Bengal in mosques and Islamic centers have opened inthe northeast, for example, did not convert until these countries since the 1960s, and the Muslimthe 16th century, when rulers of the Mughal presence is being increasingly felt in schools,dynasty encouraged the introduction of wet rice the workplace, and the public sphere. Likewise,agriculture in new land made available when global forces are changing the ways Muslimsthe Ganges River shifted its course eastward. think about themselves and their religion—forThe agents of this development were Sufis and better or worse. This includes the colonization ofMuslim scholars, who built mosques and shrines many Muslim lands by European powers duringthat became magnets for the native people, and the 19th and 20th centuries. The rapid pace witheducational centers for the dissemination of which such changes have occurred, comparedIslamic knowledge and lore. As the historian with earlier times, has been assisted significantlyRichard Eaton has observed, rather than conver- by the widespread availability of motorized trans-sion by the sword, Bengalis were converted by portation and the emergence of the new print andthe plow.2 electronic media, which have closed the distances In summary, conquest was but one among that once posed limitations on the movement ofmany factors that contributed to the expansion of people, commercial goods, and, above all, ideasIslam. Emigration, trade, intermarriage, political and religious beliefs.patronage, the systematization of Islamic tradi-tion, urbanism, and the quest for knowledge mustalso be recognized. Sufis, too, played a role in Scope of this Encyclopedia The purpose of any encyclopedia is to be compre- hensive, balanced, and up-to-date. It should also2 Richard Eaton, “Approaches to the Study of Conversion to provide readers with new information, familiarizeIslam in India.” In Approaches to Islam in Religious Studies, them with foreign concepts and terms, and directedited by Richard C. Martin, 108–123 (New York: One World them to additional publications on the subjectsPress, 1987); ———, “Who Are the Bengal Muslims? Conver-sion and Islamization in Bengal.” In Understanding the Bengal presented in it. It is a challenge to meet all of theseMuslims: Interpretative Essays, edited by Rafiuddin Ahmed, objectives in any single undertaking, particularly25–51 (Oxford and Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001). one such as this, which is limited to one volume
Introduction xxxiii Jabout Islam, one of the world’s most important Formatreligions. To meet this challenge, the Encyclopediaof Islam emphasizes the following subject areas in Articles are listed alphabetically. Cross-referencesthe entries it contains: have been provided within and at the end of each entry in small capitals to assist the reader to 1. Islam as the religion of Muslims. This explore the variety of relationships the entry has includes entries on aspects of Islamic his- with others. It is also intended to help the reader tory, practice, belief, and learning, as well become more familiar with the many foreign terms as the major traditions—Sunnism, Shiism, encountered in the study of Islam. In some cases and Sufism. Topics concerning local Islamic an entry and related cross-references are based religious practices, in addition to expres- on native terms (for example, Allah, fiqh, and sions of sacred space and time, are also sharia); in other cases they are given in English represented. (for example, abortion, dietary laws, and women). 2. Islam as an Abrahamic religion. This area In the entry for Allah, for example, the reader is includes entries that take up the interrela- invited to consult articles such as those on the tionships and intersections that Islam has Quran, shahada, prayer, theology, and Muham- had with Judaism and Christianity. Entries mad. The entry for abortion refers the reader to also deal with Islam’s encounters with non- articles on topics such as death, afterlife, different Abrahamic religions, particularly Hinduism schools of Islamic law, children, and birth control and Buddhism. and family planning. 3. Islamicate civilizations and cultures, includ- Each entry is also accompanied by a bibliogra- ing articles pertaining to urban life, lan- phy for readers wishing to pursue a topic in more guages, social and economic life, and the depth. Publications listed in the bibliography are arts and sciences. exclusively in English, owing to the intended read- 4. Islam in the contemporary world. This ership of the encyclopedia, but readers are advised includes entries on most countries with that a significant amount of excellent scholarship Muslim-majority populations, reform and is available in other languages, especially French, revival moments, Islamism, regional con- German, Russian, and, to a lesser extent, Spanish flicts (especially the Arab-Israeli conflicts and Italian. These and more specialized publica- and the Gulf wars), and issues pertaining tions can be found in the books and articles men- to civil society (for example, secularism, tioned in the individual entry bibliographies and in human rights, democracy, and constitu- the references listed in the bibliography provided tionalism). Attention has also been given at the back of the book. Works in the primary to Muslim minority communities and languages of Islam, such as Arabic, Persian, and organizations in the Americas, Europe, Turkish, can also be found in these publications, Australia, New Zealand, and, to a lesser but Islamic texts in translation have been included extent, Asia. in entry bibliographies, where appropriate. The In order to enhance the encyclopedia’s appeal reader is also encouraged to consult the publica-for use by students and teachers in secondary tions listed under the heading “General Referencesschools, a number of entries dealing with edu- and Atlases” in the back of the book. Some entrycational subjects have been included, as well bibliographies include articles published in Saudias articles on animals (camel, cat, dog, horse), Aramco World, a magazine available on the Inter-children, comic strips and comic books, and the net and in print that covers cultural and historicalcinema. topics relating to the Middle East and Islam. Its
K xxxiv Encyclopedia of Islamformat is similar to that of National Geographic, and non-Islamic, that have flourished in contextsand it is especially well-suited for students and the where Muslims have held political power or con-general public. It also provides updated listings for stituted a majority of the population, especiallymuseum exhibits and new publications. prior to the 19th century. This kind of literature can include secular poetry, philosophy, and scien- tific writings, as well as the writings of Jews, Chris- A Note on Terminology, tians, and others in Arabic, Persian, and other Transliteration, and Translation languages. Likewise, Islamic architecture refers to those parts of the built environment connectedBecause this Encyclopedia of Islam has been written with Islamic religious practices, such as mosqueswith secondary school students and the general and madrasas (religious schools), whereas Islami-public in mind, I have gone to some lengths to min- cate architecture includes palaces, fortifications,imize reliance upon academic technical vocabulary caravanserais, bazaars, dwelling places, and baths.and words from foreign languages. When techni- Less frequently, I use Islamdom instead of phrasescal terms have been used, it has been to enhance such as the Islamic world to refer to social domainsclarity and understanding. An important exception where Muslims prevail collectively, especiallyhas been my adoption of two terms now widely prior to the 19th century. It is analogous to theused by scholars in the fields of Islamic studies term Christiandom, which denotes social domainsand Middle East studies first proposed by Marshall where Christianity prevails.G. S. Hodgson in his monumental three-volume Following modern standard Arabic pronun-work, The Venture of Islam. These are Islamicate ciation, which is increasingly being acceptedand Islamdom. Occasionally the words Islam and for English transliterations of Arabic words, IIslamic are misleadingly or incorrectly applied to use Quran instead of Koran, Muslim instead ofphenomena that fall outside the boundaries of the Moslem, madrasa instead of madrassa, and Hijrareligion itself, resulting in the confusion of social instead of Hegira. I have extended this principleand cultural phenomena with religious ones. While to Arabic names: for example, Muhammad insteadwe know that the real-life boundaries between the of Mohammed, Hasan instead of Hassan, Husaynreligious and the nonreligious are always shifting instead of Hossein or Hussein, Umar instead ofand being negotiated, it is still helpful to recognize Omar, Usama instead of Osama. Conventionalthat these boundaries nevertheless exist. Using English spellings for Mecca and Medina haveIslam and Islamic too loosely, moreover, obscures been retained for this publication. Instead of Shi-the interrelationships that have developed histori- ite, I use Shii (pronounced Shi-i), parallel to thecally between Muslims, Jews, Christians, Hindus, conventional use of Sunni (instead of Sunnite).and others in contexts where Islam was the domi- Shii is used as an adjective (for example, Shiinant religion but not the only one. Islam, Shii law) and as a noun for an individual Therefore, I have adopted Hodgson’s term member of the minority Shii branch of Islam (forIslamicate in order to describe those aspects of example, “He is a Shii”). The plural in this regard“Islamic” society, history, and culture that cannot is Shiis (pronounced Shi-is). I use the term Shiabe attributed exclusively to the religion Islam. For (pronounced Shi-a), which is based on the Arabicexample, Islamic literature refers to writing tradi- word for “party” or “faction,” to refer to Shii Mus-tions that involve the various religious beliefs, lims as a group or collectivity—the Shia. Shiismdoctrines, practices, laws, and traditions of Islam. is used to refer to the body of beliefs, rituals, doc-Islamicate literature, on the other hand, encom- trines, and traditions that define the Shii branchpasses the variety of writing traditions, Islamic of Islam (see the entry for this term).