Diet, Drugs, Smoking & Alcohol in Islam


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Diet, Drugs, Smoking & Alcohol in Islam

  1. 1. l onlineFoodsDiet, Drug s, Smokin g & Alcoh ol in IslamA. Islam and DietTh e Greatest Gift - Th e Human BodyDiet plays a very importan t role in th e daily life of a believer. Th ere are man y verses inth e Noble Qur’ân wh ich draw man s atten tion towards h is self an d wh ich in vite h im tocarefully study h is body an d soul an d th e n ature of th eir mutual relation sh ip. By doin gso, on e will firstly fin d in it stron g eviden ce of th e existen ce of Allah an d th at Allah h asn ot created man kin d an d all oth er bein g s of th is world with out an y purpose asmen tion ed in th e Noble Qur’ân :“Our Lord! You have not created (all) this without purpose.”(3:191)Th e Importan ce of Health in essIt is th erefore n ecessary to en sure th at th e ph ysical body is kept h ealth y so th at th e soulan d spirit may also remain h ealth y th us in turn aidin g th e believer in th e service of bothh is spiritual an d material attain men t. Diet th erefore, plays an importan t role for th ispurpose. For th is reason Islam h as proh ibited certain foods due to th eir ill effects an dpermitted all oth er pure, g ood an d clean food products. Allah Ta’ala says in th e NobleQur’ân :“O’ Believers! Eat of the good and pure (lawful) that We have provided you withand be grateful to Allah, if you truly worship Him.”(2:172)Muslims in g en eral are advised to eat g ood an d pure th in g s an d n ot to in dulg e inimpure, bad an d h armful th in g s th us followin g th eir open en emy Sh aitaan :“O People! Eat of what is lawful and good on the Earth and do not follow thefootsteps of Shaitaan, for he is your open enemy.”(2:168)In th e verses previously men tion ed th e g en eral prin ciple with reg ard to permissiblefoods h as been stated. Th e Noble Qur’ân furth er g oes on to specify th e types of foodproh ibited in th e followin g verse:“He (Allah) has only forbidden you (from eating) dead animals, blood, the fleshof swine, and that (animal) over which the name of other than Allah has beeninvoked.”(2:173, 16:115)Th e four items th at h ave been men tion ed in th e above verse are absolutely forbidden inIslam for reason s best kn own to Allah . However, th roug h research , some of th em suchas carrion , blood an d swin e flesh h ave proved to be in jurious to h uman h ealth . Wh ilst
  2. 2. as carrion , blood an d swin e flesh h ave proved to be in jurious to h uman h ealth . Wh ilstswin e flesh is h armful to moral h ealth an d food over wh ich th e n ame of an y oth er th anAllah h as been in voked is h armful to spiritual h ealth .Oth er proh ibited items h ave also been men tion ed in differen t ch apters of th e HolyQur’ân . In Surah al-Ma’idah th e followin g h ave also been men tion ed alon g with th efour previously men tion ed. Th ere are th ose an imals wh ich h ave been killed bystran g lin g , or a violen t blow, a h eadlon g fall, bein g g ored to death an d th ose wh ichh ave been partially eaten by a wild an imal an d n ot slaug h tered before death , also th osewh ich h ave been sacrificed on th e n ame of idols.A Balan ced Diet - Prescribed in th e Qur’ânTh e Qur’ân h as n ot restricted itself in merely men tion in g th e permissible an dimpermissible foods but g oes to th e exten t of g ivin g useful tips reg ardin g a balan ceddiet, a diet wh ich con tain s most if n ot all th e useful in g redien ts required for th e g rowth ,stren g th en in g an d repairin g of th e h uman body. Th ese in g redien ts in clude an imalprotein , fat, calcium, iron , salts, etc. Th e most balan ced diets con sist of meat, fish , freshmilk, ch eese an d fruit. Both direct an d in direct referen ces h ave been made reg ardin g th eafore men tion ed.Th e referen ce reg ardin g th e importan ce of meat protein in th e h uman diet is g iven inth e followin g verse:“And the cattle, He has created them for you, in them there is warmth (clothing)and numerous benefits, and of them you eat.”(16:5)In th is verse special referen ce h as been g iven to th e importan ce of eatin g despite h avin gsaid, “…numerous benefits…”. Referen ce reg ardin g oth er types of meat h as also beeng iven such as th e meat of fowls in th e followin g verse:“And the flesh of fowls that they desire.”(56:21)Fish h as always been con sidered as a food of very h ig h protein an d is very importan t forh uman con sumption . Allah says:
  3. 3. “And from them both (fresh and salt water) you eat fresh tender meat (fish).”(35:12)Th e usefuln ess of fresh milk is stressed in th ese words:“And verily in the cattle there is a lesson for you. We give you to drink of thatwhich is in their bellies, from between excretion and blood, pure milk, palatableto the drinkers.”(16:66)Th e ben efits of fruits as g ood n ourish men t can be un derstood from th is verse:“And from the fruits of date palms and grapes, you desire strong drink and agoodly provision.”(16:67)Similarly th ere are verses wh ich cover th e wh ole ran g e of fruits, salads, an d veg etableswh ich also play an importan t role in a n utritious, balan ced diet:“It is He who sends down rain from the sky, and with it We bring forth vegetationof all kinds, and out of it We bring forth thick clustered grain. And out of the datepalm and its spate come clusters of dates hanging low and near, and gardens ofgrapes, olives and pomegranates each similar (in kind) yet different (in varietyand taste). Look at their fruits when then begin to bear, and the ripenessthereof.”(6:99)Islam, bein g a complete relig ion , also teach es an d advises th e believer as to wh at th ebest meth od of eatin g is. Th e believers are advised to be moderate in every aspect of life.Direct referen ce h as been made in th e Noble Qur’ân reg ardin g moderation in eatin g an ddrin kin g .“And eat and drink, but waste not in extravagance, certainly He (Allah) likes notthose who waste in extravagance.”(7:31)Moderation - Th e Teach in g s of th e Proph etTh e Best of Teach ers an d th e Mercy of th e Worlds is reported to h ave clarifiedth e mean in g an d limit of moderation in a tradition in wh ich h e is reported to h avesaid th at on e’s worst weakn ess is on e’s belly. If you must eat make sure you fill on eth ird of your stomach with food, on e th ird with water an d leave on e th ird for airi.e. leave it empty.In an oth er n arration , th e reason for moderation h as been clearly stated. Th eProph et is reported to h ave said:“The stomach is the tank of the body and the veins go down to it. When thestomach is healthy the veins come back in a healthy condition, but when itis in a bad condition, they return diseased.”In sh ort, believers are advised to always take care of th eir stomach s an d refrain fromfoods an d practices th at mig h t pollute th e stomach with various diseases. In order to doso th e Proph et is reported to h ave advised believers to always stop eatin g beforeth eir stomach s are completely full i.e. stop eatin g wh en th e urg e to eat more is stillpresen t.
  4. 4. B. Islam and Dr ug sTh e youn g Muslims of today are facin g an ever-in creasin g n umber of dilemmas. On e ofth ese is drug s. Wh at does Islam h ave to say about it? How sh ould Muslims reg ard drug s?To un derstan d th is we h ave to see wh at th e Qur’aan an d Ah aadith say reg ardin gin toxican ts i.e. n arcotics.Allah Ta’ala states in th e Holy Qur’aan : -O You who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones and(divination by) arrows are an abomination of Satan’s handiwork. Avoid (suchabominations) that you may prosper. (5:90)Allah Ta’ala h as described in toxican ts amon g st oth er th in g s as bein g appallin g ,despicable an d h ateful acts of Satan an d h e h as comman ded us to abstain from th em,Allah th ereafter states in th e n ext verse: -Satan’s plan is to sow hatred and enmity amongst you with intoxicants andgambling, and to hamper you from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer.Will you not give up? (5:91)Th is Aayah tells us h ow it is a detestable act of Satan , because in toxican ts apart fromsowin g th e seeds of en mity also stop you from th e sole purpose of h avin g been sen t toth e world, n amely th e remembran ce of Allah .Bear in min d th at wh en th e term in toxican t is used it also en compasses n arcotics,because th ey to amon g oth er th in g s result in th e loss of self-con trol.Th ere are also man y Ah aadith stated by th e Holy Proph et in reg ards toin toxican ts.1) Jabir reported th at th e Holy Proph et said, "Wh osoever drin ks win e, wh ip h im.If h e repeats it for th e fourth time, kill h im." He (Jabir) says, A man was laterbroug h t to th e Proph et wh o h ad drun k win e for th e fourth time. He beat h im, butdid n ot kill h im. (Tirmidh i, Abu Dawood)Th e followin g Hadith clearly states th at th e Holy Proph et proh ibited in toxican ts.2) Ibn Umar reported th at th e Messen g er of Allah said, "Every in toxican t iskh amr (win e) an d every in toxican t is h araam (un lawful). Wh osoever drin ks win ein th is world an d dies wh ilst con sumed in it an d does n ot repen t will n ot drin k itin th e n ext world. (Muslim)3) Jabir n arrates th at a man came from Yemen an d asked th e Proph et about awin e made from corn called ‘Mizr’, wh ich th ey dran k, in th eir lan d. Th eProph et asked, "Is it in toxicatin g ?" He replied, "Yes" Th e Proph et said, "Everyin toxican t is un lawful. Verily th ere is coven an t upon Allah for on e wh o drin ksin toxicatin g drin ks, th at h e will make h im drin k from ‘Teen atul Kh abal,’ th eyasked, "O messen g er of Allah , wh at is Teen atul Kh abal?" He said, "Th e sweat ofth e in mates of h ell or th e pus (of impurities) of th e in mates of h ell." (Muslim)4) Abdullah ibn Umar reports th at th e Proph et said, "Wh osoever drin ks win e,Allah will n ot accept h is prayer for 40 days. If h e seeks repen tan ce Allah willforg ive h im. An d if h e repeats it Allah will n ot accept h is prayer for 40 days. If h eseeks repen tan ce Allah will forg ive h im. An d if h e repeats it ag ain Allah will n otaccept h is prayer for 40 days. If h e seeks repen tan ce Allah will forg ive h im. If h erepeats it for th e fourth time Allah will n ot accept h is prayer for 40 days. If h eseeks repen tan ce Allah will n ot accept it an d h e will be made to drin k from th eriver of impurities (of th e in mates of h ell).
  5. 5. (Tirmidh i, Nasai, Ibn Majah an d Daarami from Ibn Amr)5) Jabir n arrated th at th e Messen g er of Allah said; "Wh atever in toxicates in ag reater quan tity is also un lawful in its smaller quan tity." (Tirmidh i, Abu Dawoodan d Ibn Majah )6) Umme Salmah n arrates th at th e Messen g er of Allah proh ibited everyin toxican t an d Mufattir (an yth in g wh ich excites an d irritates th e min d, body an dh eart). (Abu Dawood)7) Abdullah Ibn Amr t reports from th e Proph et, wh o said, "On e wh o isdisobedien t to paren ts, g ambles, h arsh after ch arity an d a is a h abitual drun kardsh all n ot en ter paradise." (Daarami)8) Abu Umaamah reported th at th e Messen g er of Allah said, "Verily Almig h tyAllah sen t me as a mercy for all th e worlds; an d my Almig h ty an d Glorious Lordordered me to abolish drums, musical in strumen ts, idols, th e cross an d th e affairsof th e days of Ig n oran ce. My Almig h ty an d Glorious Lord h as sworn , "By myh on our, n o servan t amon g my servan ts sh all drin k a mouth ful of win e but I willmake h im drin k like it from th e scorch in g water (of h ell); an d n on e abstain s fromit out of fear of me but I will g ive h im drin k from th e Holy foun tain ." (Ah mad)9) Ibn Umar n arrates th at th e Messen g er of Allah said, "Th ere are th ree forwh om Allah h as forbidden paradise, a h abitual drun kard, on e disobedien t toparen ts, an d a careless h usban d wh o establish es impurity in h is family." (Ah madan d Nasai)10) Abu Musa Al-Ash aree n arrates th at th e Messen g er of Allah said, "Th ere areth ree wh o will n ot en ter paradise, a h abitual drun kard, on e wh o cuts of blood tiesan d on e wh o believes in sorcery. (Ah mad)11) Ibn Abbas reported th at th e Messen g er of Allah said’ "If a h abitual drun karddies, h e will meet Allah like th e on e wh o worsh ips idols." (Ah mad, Ibn majah fromAbu Hurrairah )12) Abu Musa reported th at h e used to say, "I do n ot differen tiate wh eth er I drin kwin e or worsh ip th ese idols besides Allah . (Nasai )From th e above Ah aadith , we can clearly see th e Proph et an d th e Islamic viewreg ardin g in toxican ts. In an oth er Hadith th e Proph et h as described in toxican tsas: -1. Th e key to all evils.2. Th e h ead of all errors an d lapses.3. Th e most terrible of major sin s.4. Th e moth er of all atrocities.5. Th e moth er of all evils.Wh y are drug s, in toxican ts so abh orren t, awful, foul an d vile in Islam? Let us lookat wh at th e sch olars h ave said reg ardin g th e effects of drug s from a worldly an drelig ious poin t:Ibn Hajar Al-Makki rah matullah i alaih e n arrates from some sch olars th at th eyare 120 worldly an d relig ious detrimen ts in con sumin g h ash ish (Can n abis).Not 10, n ot 20, but 120 h armful th in g s occur by th e con sumption of drug s.
  6. 6. Th e g reat Ibn -e-Seen a says th at larg e amoun ts of it dries up semen (Th e fluid th atcarries sperm th us ren derin g h im in capable of passion in sexual in tercourse).Ibn -ul-Bitaar says: A g roup of people used it (drug s) an d th ey became men tally deran g ed(in san e).Imaam Zarakh sh ee n arrates in h is book upon th e proh ibition of Hash ish (Cocain e)from Zakariyah Razee, a famous doctor, th at con sumin g h ash ish causes h eadach es,desiccates semen , brin g s about con fusion , Neurosis, dries up all body fluids wh ich couldcause sudden death . Also it defects th e min d, in duces h ectic fever, tuberculosis an doedema (dropsy).Ibn -e-Taymiyyah (a ren own ed sch olar) says: All th e faults, blemish es, bad th in g s inkh amr (win e) are presen t in h ash ish an d more. Because th e majority of faults in kh amreffect relig ion , but h ash ish effects to a g reat exten t both relig ion an d body.Th ereafter Sh eikh Taymiyyah describes its faults: - 1) From a relig ious poin t of view it is as in toxicatin g as win e, it destroys th e min d, causes forg etfuln ess, causes to reveal secrets, destroys sh ame, in cubates dissimation , quells self respects, obliterates in tellig en ce, preven ts salaah an d in stig ates towards Haraam, forbidden th in g s. 2) From a ph ysical aspect it deteriorates th e min d, cuts off th e mean s for offsprin g , brin g s about leprosy, sickn ess, feverish sh ivers, bad breath , loss of eyebrows an d teeth , warmin g of blood, tuberculosis, damag es in testin es, destroys body org an s, pun ctures th e liver, burn s th e stomach an d weaken s eyesig h t amon g st oth er th in g s.Th e poin t all botan ists h ave un an imously ag reed upon is th at h ash ish (can n abis) is anin toxican t, on e of th ese botan ists is Ibn -e-Baitaar.Ibn -e-Baitaar states th at it is in toxican t.All th e sch olars in cludin g Abu Ish aaq Sh eeraazee rah matullah i alaih e an d Allah maNawawee h ave stressed th at it is in toxicatin g . Allah ma Zarakh sh ee furth er writes th atwe h ave n ot seen an yon e differ in opin ion reg ardin g th is.Ibn -e-Taymiyyah says th at th e fact is th at it is an in toxican t like Win e. An d Allah maKeerafe says th at accordin g to my research h ash ish is th e cause of corruption an d evil.Sh ariah an d ration al th in kin g both poin t towards th e proh ibition of drug s.As Imaam Zaraksh ee h as men tion ed in h is book: -All verses (of th e Qur’aan ) an d Ah aadith wh ich testify th at in toxican ts are h araam alsoin clude h ash ish (i.e. drug s)Th e verses an d Ah aadith reg ardin g th is h ave already been stated.An oth er verse, wh ich proves drug s to be proh ibited, is: Th ey as you con cern in g kh amr(in toxican t) an d g amblin g . Say " In th em th ere is g reat sin an d some g ain for man kin d,but sin is g reater th en th e g ain .Th is verse, apart from in formin g us of h ow g rave a sin it is to con sume in toxican ts, isalso impartin g a prin ciple: Everyth in g in wh ich th e evil an d h arm outweig h s th e g ain isn ot allowed. Th erefore, if we con sider drug s, th ey deflect th e sen sory perception s aswell as producin g h allucin ation s an d illusion s. Th ey cause body lassitude, n eurosis,declin e in h ealth , moral in sen sitivity etc. etc. th e list is en dless. Furth ermore, th ere aren o ben efits wh atsoever of takin g drug s for recreation al purposes. Th e perception (from
  7. 7. Sh aitan ) th at Class B drug s such as can n abis (dope, draw) is all rig h t is utterly wron g .Th is verse clearly sh ows th at alth oug h it seems like th ey may con tain a few ben efits,overall its evil is far g reater.It is n arrated th at in Sah ih Muslim: Every in toxican t is kh amr (win e) an d all Kh amr ish araam.Imam Ibn -e-Taymiyyah states: It sh ould be en oug h h arm for a person just to kn ow th at itpreven ts you from th e remembran ce of Allah an d salaah .In sh ort, everyth in g , wh ich obstructs a person from Zikr-ullah an d salaah , is h araamlike win e.Allah Ta’ala states in th e Holy Qur’aan : And Allah has forbidden on to you the ‘khabaith’ i.e. repulsive, wicked and evilthings.Wh at could be more evil th en th e th in g wh ich impairs th e faculties of th oug h t an dperception in th e min d?Dailamah Al-Humairee states: I asked th e Holy Proph et , ‘O Messen g er of Allah( ), Verily we are in a cold lan d, an d we h ave to work h ard th erein , an d we preparewin e from th is wh eat wh ich g ives as stren g th in our works an d in th e ch ill of ourcities.’ He asked, ‘Does it in toxicate?’ ‘yes’ h e replied. He said, ‘Give it up.’ I said,‘Verily th e people can n ot g ive it up.’ He said, ‘If th ey do n ot g ive it up, fig h t withth em.’ (Abu Dawood)Th is Hadith explain s to us th e prin ciple cause of wh at is h araam. Ch iefly, if it in toxicatesit is h araam. Th e very same reason an d cause is to be foun d in drug s.Some mig h t say th at all drug s do n ot in toxicate, th at drug s like h eroin an d h ash ish areon ly depressan ts wh ich slacken s an d weaken s th e min d. Th e an swer to th is is in th efollowin g Hadith :It h as been n arrated by Umme-Salmah , sh e states: Th e Proph et proh ibited everyin toxican t an d muftir (every substan ce wh ich slacken s th e min e).Imam Zaraksh ee n otes in h is kitab: Th e sch olars h ave stated th at muftir iseveryth in g th at causes slackn ess.He th en states: Th e Hadith (wh ich h as been men tion ed above) particularly proves th eproh ibition of h ash ish because if it is n ot reg arded as an in toxican t if defin itely comesun der th e defin ition of ‘muftir’ (substan ce wh ich causes drowsin ess an d th e weaken in gof th e min d etc.).Movin g on , th e un an imity of th e ummah on th e proh ibition of n arcotics is also n arratedfrom man y sch olars. Imaam Zaraksh ee states:Th e con sen sus of th e Ummah is n arrated from several sch olars in th e proh ibition ofh ash ish ; sch olars in clude Qiraafi an d ibn -e-Taymiyyah .An d if th at was n ot en oug h , Ibn -e-Taymiyyah h as furth er said: Wh osoever reg ards itlawful h as become kafir (Irrelig ious; ‘God forbid’).Th e sch olars of all four madh ab’s un an imously ag ree th at con sumin g an yth in gin toxicatin g is h araam, certain plan ts h ave also been in cluded as Imam Rafee’ clearlysays th at, ‘Th e sch olars h ave in cluded in toxicatin g plan ts etc. with in th e proh ibition .’So far th e proh ibition of drug s h as been proven by mean s of th e Qur’aan , Sun n ah an d
  8. 8. Ijmah (con sen sus of th e ulama). Its can furth er be proved by ‘Qiyaas’ (deduction byan alog y) i.e. log ical reason in g . Wh en a person is in toxicated (or ‘ston ed’ in streetlan g uag e) h e does n ot kn ow wh at h e is doin g . He could easily kill someon e or forn icateetc. In th e same man n er, to feed h is h abit, h e will most probably h ave to steal. Th ese are,with out a sh adow of a doubt, un lawful. An d th ere is a g en eral rule th at wh atever leads tosometh in g h araam (un lawful) is in itself h araam. Th us drug s h ave been proven ash araam by all four sources of jurispruden ce (Qur’aan , Sun n ah , Ijmah an d Qiyaas).Wh at is th e leg al pun ish men t for con sumin g drug s?Imam Mawardee h as stressed th at by con sumin g plan ts, wh ich cause over-excitemen t(in toxication ) ‘h add’ (leg al pun ish men t i.e. 80 lash es) will become n ecessary.Imam Qiraafi states th at all th e ulama of th is period h ave ag reed th at its con sumption ish araam. However, th ere is a differen ce of opin ion as to wh at (pun ish men t) becomesin cumben t by drug s; eith er h add because it in toxicates or tazir (repriman d) because itcorrupts th e min d.In addition , in h is book Az-Zakh eera h e states h add or tazir will be imposed.Accordin g to th ree promin en t Imaams (Imam Sh afee’, Imam Malik an d Imam Ah mad)con sumin g an yth in g in toxicatin g h owever small th e amoun t will brin g th e leg alpun ish men t of 80 lash es to th e person .However, in th e Han afi madh ab in Fatawa ‘Al-Kh ulasa lil-Han afiyyah ’ it is stated:If an in toxicatin g amoun t h as been taken th en accordin g to Imam Muh ammad h add willbe n ecessary an d accordin g to Imam Abu Han ifah an d Imam Abu Yusuf h e will berepriman ded severely, but th e h add will n ot be imposed.Tazir (repriman d) is such a pun ish men t th at h olds n o specific amoun t an d it is for th eJudg e to decide.Bear in min d th at accordin g to some sch olars, in certain cases, tazir could prove to bemore severe th an th e h add itself e.g . Wh en th e person persisten tly commits th e crime.C. Islam and SmokingSin ce th e first discovery of tobacco was made in America in th e fifteen th cen tury, th eaepidemic of smokin g h as spread con tin uously aroun d th e world. As early as th eSeven teen th Cen tury, th e European coun tries realised th e dan g ers of smokin g an dh asten ed to ordain Laws in En g lan d an d various oth er coun tries to proh ibitin gsmokin g . Th e Western coun tries, even today, con tin ue th eir attempts in combatin gsmokin g . Th ey employ mean s of media, pass leg islation an d apply multiple meth ods todiscourag e people from smokin g .Smokin g h as, to an exten t, become th e rule an d abstain in g from it th e exception . Often ,people look down with aston ish men t an d con tempt at a person wh o wh en a cig arette isoffered to h im, declin es explain in g th at h e does n ot smoke. Offerin g cig arettes to g uestsh as become a matter of h ospitality!Furth ermore, th ose wh o preten d to represen t th e Deen are amon g th e worst addicts.Wh en th ey are reproach ed or repriman ded of th eir vice, th ey respon d by providin g weakexcuses to justify it. Th ey slyly remark th at th ere is n o clear text proh ibitin g smokin g .Wh ereby th ey con clude th at smokin g is n ot proh ibited, but is on ly makruh (disliked). Inth is man n er th ey provide a poor excuse for th e ig n oran t an d establish a bad example foroth ers.Th us, it h as become n ecessary to write an article wh ich provides eviden ce reg ardin g th erulin g of smokin g in Islam. We h ope th at th is will ben efit our Muslim broth ers an d
  9. 9. sisters; an d we ask Allah Ta’ala to accept it from us as a sin cere deed for His pleasure.Smokin g refers to th e act of lig h tin g tobacco or materials of similar effect, wh ich is th ensucked on with th e lips to extract smoke. Th is smoke is in h aled in to th e ch est an d th enexh aled from th e n ose an d mouth . "Smokin g ", is n ow used to refer to th e action ofproducin g th is smoke in En g lish , Arabic, an d oth er lan g uag es.Th ere are man y reason s, an y on e of wh ich are sufficien t, to rule smokin g as proh ibited.Most importan tly, it is h armful to th e Deen , h ealth , en viron men t, family, broth erh oodan d social relation s, property, etc.Smokin g damag es a person ’s act of worsh ip, an d reduces th eir rewards. For in stan ce, itruin s th e salaah , wh ich is a pillar of Deen . Th e Proph et said: ‘Wh oever eats g arlicor on ion , let h im avoid us an d our masjid, an d stay in h is h ome. Th e an g els aresurely h urt by th in g s th at h urt th e h uman bein g s.’ (Al-Bukh ari an d Muslim)Th ose people, with clean an d pure n ature, h ave n o doubt th at th e smell eman atin g fromth e mouth of a smoker is worse an d more foul th an th at from th e mouth of on e wh o ateg arlic or on ion . Th erefore, a smoker h as two option s, eith er to h arm th e prayin g peoplean d th e an g els with h is foul smell, or abstain from th e prayer with jama’ah .Smokin g also ruin s fastin g . Fastin g becomes very h ard on th e smoker. As soon as th eday is over, h e h asten s to break h is fast on an evil cig arette in stead of sweet dates orpure water. Even if h e fasts th roug h out th e mon th of Ramadh aan h e will be reluctan t tofast on oth er days. Th us h e loses th e g reat reward of th ose wh o fast even on e day inAllah ’s path .Th e h arm th at smokin g does to th e h uman body is un den iable. Th e medical eviden ce forth is is well establish ed an d overwh elmin g . Because of th is, th e law in th e Un itedKin g dom an d man y oth er coun tries requires in cludin g a g overn men t h ealth warn in g onth e packet an d on an y advertisemen t.Smokin g con tain s poison ous materials, such as n icotin e, tar, carbon mon oxide, arsen ic,ben zopyren e, etc., wh ich th e smoker in h ales in small proportion s. Th eir h armaccumulates in time, resultin g in a g radual damag e of th e h uman org an s an d tissues.Th e h azards of smokin g to h ealth are h ard to coun t. Can cer, tuberculosis, h eart attacks,asth ma, coug h in g , premature birth , in fertility, in fection s in th e dig estive system, h ig hblood pressure, n ervousn ess, mouth an d teeth diseases, etc., are amon g th e man y h ealthh azards th at h ave been stron g ly lin ked to smokin g .Th ese diseases may n ot all appear at on ce, but a smoker run s th e risk of sufferin g fromsome of th em, an d h is sufferin g in creases as h e g rows older. Furth ermore, statisticsh ave establish ed th at smokers, on th e averag e, reduce th eir ag e by ten years.Th is in itself is sufficien t to proh ibit smokin g . Islam proh ibits an y action th at causesh arm to on eself or to oth er people. Allah Ta’ala says :‘Do n ot kill yourselves, Allah is in deed merciful to you.’(An -Nisa’ 4-29)‘Do n ot cast yourselves, with your own h an ds, in to destruction .’(Al-Baqarah 2:195)An d th e Messen g er says: ‘No h arm may be in flicted on on eself or oth ers.’(Ah mad an d Ibn Maajah from Ibn Abbaas an d Ubaadah )
  10. 10. ‘Th e feet of a h uman bein g will n ot depart, on th e day of Judg emen t, from h is stan din gbefore h is Lord, un til h e is question ed about five th in g s: h is lifetime - h ow did h e pass it,h is youth - h ow did h e used it, h is wealth - wh ere did h e earn it an d h ow did h e spen d it,an d h ow did h e follow wh at h e kn ew.’ (At-Tirmith i an d oth ers from Ibn Mas‘ud an d Abu Barzah )‘Wh oever con sumes poison , killin g h imself with it, th en h e will h e con sumin g h ispoison in th e h ellfire, an d h e will abide in it perman en tly an d etern ally.’ (Al-Bukh ari an d Muslim from Jaabir)Smokin g is also h armful to th e h uman min d an d its power to reason . An obviousdemon stration of th is is th at on e wh o is addicted to it passes th roug h periods of severecravin g , makin g it h ard for h im to th in k, con cen trate, solve a problem, or do an yimportan t matter, un til h e smokes.His dig estive system is also affected, causin g h im frequen t n ervousn ess an d tremblin g ofth e h an ds. He passes th roug h periods of excitability an d h e becomes an in somn iac.Th erefore, in stead of bein g th e slave of Allah , a smoker becomes a slave to h is cig arette.Th e faculty of reason , clear an d un obstructed, is on e of Allah ’s g reat boun ties on people.Allah Ta’ala h as praised it in n umerous places of th e Qura’an ; an d He called on peopleto use it to see th e truth an d obey Him in a better way. Allah wan ts of th e believer to bestron g an d capable of con trollin g th e reig n s of h is desires. He h as stated:‘Allah wan ts to let you in to His mercy, wh ereas th ose wh o follow th e desires wan t you todrift far away (from th e rig h t path ).’(An -Nisa 4:27)A smoker also emits h is poison in th e faces of h is compan ion s, wife, ch ildren , an d th een viron men t. It is a well-establish ed fact th at passive smokin g is almost as dan g erousas first-h an d. Th us, wh eth er th ey like it or n ot, a smoker’s associates are forced toin h ale th e smoke an d be in flicted with th is poison as well.In addition to th e poison n ormally carried in th e smoke, if a smoker h as a con tag iousdisease, such as tuberculosis or in fluen za, h is exh aled smoke an d coug h in g will alsocarry th e disease to th ose aroun d h im.Furth ermore, a smoker reg ularly irritates people by th e foul smell an d poison ous n atureof h is smokin g . If th ey suffer from asth ma or allerg ies, th ey are forced to move awayfrom h is vicin ity. Th e Proph etsallallahu alaihe wasallam said: An yon e wh o believes inAllah an d th e Last Day sh ould n ot h urt h is n eig h bour.(Al-Bukh ari)Th us, smokin g con stitutes a defin ite h arm to oth er people; th is is proh ibited, as wasin dicated in th e Hadith cited earlier.Also, a smoker is certain ly a bad compan ion to sit with , as is depicted in th e followin gHadith :Verily, th e example of a g ood compan ion an d a bad on e is like th at of a perfumemerch an t an d a blacksmith : As for th e perfume merch an t, h e would eith er g ran t you(some perfume), or you would buy (some perfume) from h im, or (in th e least) you wouldg et a g ood smell from h im. An d as for th e blower of th e bellows (iron smith ), you wouldeith er g et a foul odour from h im, or h e would burn your cloth es. (Al-Bukh ari an d Muslim)
  11. 11. A smoker wastes h is wealth on th at wh ich h arms an d h as n o ben efit; h e will be askedabout h is wealth an d h ow h e spen t it, as h as been cited in th e Hadith earlier. His wealthbelon g s to Allah , so h ow would h e dare to waste it in disobedien ce to Him Allah Ta’alastates(wh at mean s):‘An d do n ot en trust to th e impruden t on es th e possession s th at Allah h as placed in yourch arg e.’(An -Nisa 4:5)‘An d do n ot waste (your resources) extravag an tly. In deed th e squan derers are th ebreth ren of th e devils.’ (Al-lsra’ 17:26-27)An d th e Proph et sallallahu alaihe wasallam said: Allah h ates for you th ree th in g s:g ossipin g , beg g in g , an d wastin g mon ey.(Al-Bukh ari an d Muslim)Furth ermore, th ere are n umerous cases of carpets, furn iture, an d even complete h ousesan d establish men ts burn in g down due to th is disastrous vice.Smokin g is a form of moral decaden ce. It is spread mostly amon g th e low-class,immoral people. It reflects blin d imitation of th e Kuffar an d n on -pious Muslims. It ismostly con sumed in bars, discos, casin os, an d oth er places of sin . A smoker may beg orsteal if h e does n ot h ave th e mon ey to buy cig arettes. He is ill man n ered with h is frien dsan d family, especially wh en h e misses takin g h is n ecessary "dose" at th e usual time.Smokin g in volves th e con sumption of an evil substan ce (kh abeeth ). It h as a foul smell,foul taste an d is h armful to th e body. Th is is sufficien t to proh ibit it, because AllahTa’ala states (wh at mean s):‘(Th e Proph et ) wh o will en join upon th em th e doin g of wh at is rig h t, forbid th emth e doin g of wh at is wron g , make lawful to th em th e g ood th in g s of life, proh ibitfor th em th e evil th in g s, an d lift from th em th eir burden s an d th e sh ackles th atwere (previously) upon th em.’(Al-A’raf 7:157)A smoker in h ales smoke th at does n ot g ive h im an y n ourish men t. Th is is similar to th eaction of th e people of th e Hell fire wh o eat h armful th orn y plan ts:‘No food will be th ere for th em but a poison ous th orn y plan t, wh ich will n eith er n ourishth em n or still th eir h un g er.’(Al-Gh aash iyah 88:6-7)A smoker, wh eth er h e likes it or n ot, makes an example of h imself for h is ch ildren an doth ers to follow. He leads th em to commit th is evil. Action s sometimes h ave a stron g ereffect th an words. Th us, even if h e advises th em or forbids th em from smokin g , h ispartakin g of it provides th em with a stron g excuse to do it.Th e problem is worse wh en th e smoker is of kn own piety or kn owledg e. In such case, h ish arm becomes more emph asised, because more people take h im as g uide an d examplean d are th us lead astray by h im. Th is multiplies h is sin s an d in creases h is burden .Th e majority of g ood people avoid smokin g an d stay away from smokers. Th erefore, asmoker would be forced to stay away from th em - at least wh ile h e smokes. He putsh imself in selective exile, creatin g a spiritual distan ce an d h ostility between h im an d th eg ood people, an d a closen ess to th e evil people. Th e effects of th is become moreapparen t an d acute with time. Note th at th is applies equally to an y sin th at a person
  12. 12. commits eith er larg e or small.A smoker despises h imself, because h e feels th at a little cig arette is con trollin g h im.Realisin g h is weakn ess due to h is desire, th is creates in h im a feelin g of defeat in th eface of h ardsh ips.Sin ce smokin g became kn own to Muslims, all of th e g reat sch olars wh o h ave th ecapability of Ijtih ad (derivin g verdicts in n ew situation s) ag ree to its proh ibition . Th us,th ere is n o value for baseless opin ion s, con flictin g with th is, provided by self-proclaimed lesser sch olars.In discussin g th e subject of th e proh ibition of smokin g , th ere are some importan twarn in g s th at n eed to be men tion ed:1. As in dicated before, th e proh ibition of smokin g is n ot restricted to cig arettes, butapplies as well to oth er objects th at h ave similar effects such as cig ars, pipes, water-pipes, ch ewin g tobacco or sn iffin g tobacco, etc.2. Th e reason s men tion ed above for proh ibitin g smokin g apply as well, an d morestron g ly, to various types of drug s such as h ash ish marijuan a an d ecstasy. Th esematerials h ave addition al problems such as causin g drun ken n ess, death , madn ess, etc.3. Th e proh ibition of smokin g is n ot restricted to con sumin g it, but applies as well toofferin g it to people, sittin g with th ose wh o are smokin g , or sellin g it. All of th isin volves h elpin g people commit sin s, wh ich is proh ibited, as Allah Ta’ala states (wh atmean s):‘Help on e an oth er in rig h teousn ess an d piety, an d do n ot h elp on e an oth er in sin n in gan d tran sg ression . An d fear an d revere Allah ; verily, Allah is severe in pun ish men t.(Al-Maidah 5:2)Also, Allah ’s Messen g er said: In deed wh en Allah proh ibits someth in g , h e proh ibitseatin g its price.(Ah mad an d Abu Dawud: Ibn Abbas; auth en ticated by al-Albaan i)On ly few of th ose addicted to smokin g are able to stop it. Th e reason s for th is are man y,amon g wh ich are th e followin g :(a). Th e addictive n ature of th e poison ous substan ces con tain ed in it.(b). Th e smokers are n ot totally con vin ced of its proh ibition .(c). Th ey do n ot h ave a stron g determin ation to refrain from it.Th e followin g are some sug g estion s to h elp a person stop smokin g :1. Rely on Allah sin cerely, with full determin ation n ot to return to smokin g , incomplian ce with Allah ’s comman d:‘Wh en you decide on a certain course of action , place your trust in Allah .’(Al-lmran 3:159)2. Stop immediately in stead of claimin g it is best to do it g radually. Th e g radualapproach is th e way of on e wh o does n ot trust h is determin ation an d th e will power th atAllah h as g ran ted h im. Let th e example be taken from th e Sah abah wh o, as soon asAllah ’s comman d reach ed th em reg ardin g alcoh ol:‘Will you n ot th en desist?’ (Al-Maa’idah 5:91) th ey immediately poured out all th e
  13. 13. ‘Will you n ot th en desist?’ (Al-Maa’idah 5:91) th ey immediately poured out all th ealcoh ol th at th ey h ad an d said, "We desist our Lord, we desist!" Th ey did th is despite th efact th at alcoh ol h as a g reater addictive power over th ose wh o drin k it.3. Avoid th e bad compan y of smokers an d smokin g en viron men ts th at are full with th esmell of smoke.4. Ch an g e th e food diet by abstain in g from foods an d drin ks th at would en tice th ecravin g to smoke such as spices, meat, tea, an d coffee; an d eat a lot of veg etables an dfruits.5. Use medically tested an d establish ed procedures to h elp stop smokin g , as directed byph ysician s, such as n icotin e patch es, n icotin e g um, etc.6. Expel th e secret wh ispers of Satan wh o con tin uously dictates to th e h uman bein g th ath e is weak an d in capable of refrain in g from sin n in g , as Allah Ta’ala states (wh atmean s):‘It is but Satan wh o in stils (in to you) fear of h is allies; so do n ot fear th em, but fear Me ifyou are (truly) believers.’‘Fig h t th en ag ain st th e allies of Satan ; in deed, Satan ’s g uile is weak.’D. Islam and AlcoholT HE QURAN AND ALCOHOLIt is stated in th e Qur’ân : “They ask you regarding wine and gambling. Say, in bothof them is major sin, and there is some benefit for men, but the sin of them is fargreater than benefit ”(Surah Baqarah )T HE PROPHET AND ALCOHOLDurin g th e early days of Islam, con sumption of liquor, just like oth er ills an d evils ofsociety, was also prevelen t.Wh en Rasulullah mig rated from Makkah to Madin ah h e foun d th at th e Madin iteswere also in dulg in g in drin kin g . Th e masses were so attracted by th e superficialan d deceptive ben efits offered by drin kin g th at th eir min ds became oblivious ofth e h armful effects an d th e evils lurkin g with in th ese addiction s.Our Proph et was th e fin est model wh o set th e best example of h is sublimech aracteristic, so much th at wh atever was yet to be declared Haram, His h abit an dn ature made h im detest it from th e very outset. Besides Rasulullah oth erSah âbâh s also refrain ed from con sumin g alcoh olic beverag es even wh en th esewere Halaal.On Reach in g Madin ah some of Sah âbâh realised th e evil in liquor. So, HazratUmar Farooq ., Maaz Ibn Jabal .an d some of th e oth er Sah âbâh approach edRasulullah an d question ed h im reg ardin g alcoh ol an d g amblin g , wh ich th eyth oug h t were ruin in g n ot on ly man ’s in tellig en t but also h is wealth .In respon se to th is query, th e above verse was revealed an d it con stituted th e firstof a series of revelation s leadin g to th e fin al an d con clusive verse, wh ichproh ibited an d declared Haram both g amblin g an d liquor.Alth oug h th e above verse dose n ot proh ibit alcoh ol outrig h t, but it n ever th e lesspresen ts a ‘Mash warah ’ (advice) for abstain in g from th e usag e of alcoh ol. Th is iswh y some of th e Sah âbâh , after h earin g th is verse immediately stoppedcon sumin g alcoh ol an d accepted th is mash warah .
  14. 14. ST ORIES REGARDING ALCOHOLOn th e oth er h an d some of th e oth er Sah âbâh s resumed th at th is verse did n otdeclare alcoh ol Haram, so th ey declared th at it overtakes full precaution an d law,th at a mediate con sumption of alcoh ol would n ot be h armful.However, sh ortly an in ciden t occurred wh ich broug h t about a sudden ch an g e inth e situation . On e day, Hazrat Abdur-Rah man Ibn Auf h ad in vited some of h iscompan ion s, an d as was th e custom of th e Arabs th ey h ad con sumed alcoh ol afterth eir n eeds.Th ereafter, wh ile still in a state of in toxication , th e Mag h rib Salâh was performed.Th e Imâm wh o was also drun k made an error in h is recitation of Surah Kafiroon .Upon th is, th e secon d step was taken to preven t th e con sumption of alcoh ol, byth e revelation of th e followin g verse: “O Believers’ do not approach Salâhwhile intoxicated.”(Surah Nisaa)Th is verse n ow declared alcoh ol Haraam in clear-cut terms but th e con sumption was forth e duration of Salâh times, an d at oth er periods it was still permissible. With th issecon d warn in g man y more of th e Sah âbâh s refrain ed completely from drin kin gAlcoh ol, reason in g th at wh at g ood can th ere be in someth in g th at deprives on efrom Salâh .Th ere were oth ers h owever, wh o dran k liquor durin g th e in terven in g periods of salâhun til th e followin g in ciden t took place: Uth maan Ibn Maalik in vited a fewSah âbâh s for a meal. After th e meal, as was customary liquor was served.Th ereafter, th ey became in volved in an oth er Arab custom, recitin g poetrypraisin g on eself, family an d clan an d simultan eously teasin g an d belittlin goth ers wh o didn ’t belon g to th at g roup.Durin g th is g ath erin g , Hazrat Saad Ibn Abi Waqqas recited a few lin es of poetryin wh ich h e criticized an d belittled th e An sars of Madin ah . Hearin g th is, anAn sari youth became en rag ed an d th rew a bon e at h im, wh ich in flicted a severewoun d on th e h ead of Saad Ibn Waqqas .He th en complain ed ag ain st th e youn g ster to Rasulullah , after wh ich h e madedua’a to Allah :“O Allah! Grant us a clear cut for regarding alcohol.”In respon se to th is th e 3rd an d 4th verses con cern in g th e complete proh ibition ofalcoh ol, were revealed as part of Surah Ma’idah :"O you who believe! Intoxicants, gambling, idolatry and arrows (for seeking helpon decision) one an abomination of order that you may be successful.Shaytan seeks only to cast amongst you enmity and hatred by means of strongdrink and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and fromhis worship, will you then not refrain? ” (Surah Ma’idah 90)Allah in h is wisdom, firstly disclosed th e evils in alcoh ol, th en proh ibited it at Salâhtimes an d fin ally declared it absolutely HARAAM.ALCOHOL T HE MOT HER OF ALL SINSJust as th ere lies g reat wisdom in th e g radual revelation of laws proh ibitin g alcoh ol,th ere is also wisdom in th e strait en forcemen t of severe pun ish men t for drin kin galcoh ol. Th erefore, th e Proph et referred to alcoh ol as th e moth er of sin s because
  15. 15. after con sumin g it, man can in dulg e in oth er major sin s.On ce a pious man met a woman , wh o in vited h im towards committin g a sin(adultery). Th e man flatly refused. After h er con stan t in sistin g , sh e still failed.Th ereafter, sh e g ave h im a ch oice of option s, 1. Committin g adultery with h er or 2. Tomurder h er n ewly born ch ild, wh om h ad sh e beg ot from h er previous h usban d. Or 3. Tocon sume some alcoh ol wh ich sh e possessed. If h e were n ot willin g to comply th en sh ewould scream an d falsely in form th e in h abitan ts of th at place th at h e h ad raped h er.Th e man upon pon derin g decided to con sume th e alcoh ol, takin g it to be least h armfulof th e th ree sin s. Upon th e con sumption of alcoh ol, h e became in toxicated, an d th encon sequen tly, h e killed th e ch ild an d also committed adultery with th e woman .In on e Hadith , Rasulullah h as said th at Imâm an d alcoh ol can n ot g ath er (are n otcompatible) with a person(Nasai)T HE BENEFIT S AND HARMS OF ALCOHOLPeople g en erally are quite well acquain ted with wh at ben efits are attributed to alcoh ol,for in stan ce en joymen t of temporary h appin ess, stren g th in crease of a sh ort time,colour becomes clearer, in itially (as to some medical claim).Compared to th e few limited ben efits of alcoh ol its risks an d h arms are so varied th at,perh aps so man y disadvan tag es may n ot be presen t in an y oth er th in g .1. Th roug h alcoh ol, th e stomach g radually loses its ability to fun ction properly.2. Causes loss of appetite.3. It spoils on es facial features (Appearan ce)4. Makes on e ag e quicker.5. Weaken s an d reduces th e ability to th in k an d speak properly.6. Causes h eart failure7. Th e prog en y of alcoh ol are weaker.8. Creates fig h ts an d en mity between people9. Leads towards g rave sin s, often adultery an d murder are th e direct results ofdrin kin g .10. Th ousan ds of poun ds are wasted in th is vicePREVENT ING ALCOHOLDr M Robertson states, “If h alf th e pubs an d bottle stores were closed, I g uaran tee th ath alf th e h ospitals an d jails will remain closed.”Th ose wh o h ave stopped repen ted sin cerely h ave n ot failed to arrive to th e con clusionth at alcoh ol is th e moth er of all evils, a deadly poison from wh ich on e must abstain .May Almig h ty Allah save th e Ummah , especially th e youth from th is sin an d everyth in g ,wh ich calls upon His wrath . Ameen .Today, th ere h ave been 23 visitors (55 h its) on th is pag e!