other books in the same seriesA Concise Encyclopedia of Judaism, Dan Cohn-Sherbok, ISBN 1–85168–176–0A Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Klaus K. Klostermaier, ISBN 1–85168–175–2A Concise Encyclopedia of Christianity, Geoffrey Parrinder, ISBN 1–85168–174–4A Concise Encyclopedia of Buddhism, John Powers, ISBN 1–85168–233–3A Concise Encyclopedia of ´´ the Baha’ı Faith, Peter Smith, ISBN 1–85168–184–1other books on islam published by oneworldApproaches to Islam in Religious Studies, Richard C. Martin, ISBN 1–85168–268–6Averroes: His Life, Works and Inﬂuence, Majid Fakhry, ISBN 1–85168–269–4 ´´The Faith and Practice of Al-Ghazalı, William Montgomery Watt, ISBN 1–85168–062–4Faith and Reason in Islam: Averroes’ Exposition of Religious Arguments, translated by Ibrahim Najjar, ISBN 1–85168–263–5Islam and the West, Norman Daniel, ISBN 1–85168–129–9Islam: A Short History, William Montgomery Watt, ISBN 1–85168–205–8Islam: A Short Introduction, Abdulkader Tayob, ISBN 1–85168–192–2Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Mysticism: A Short Introduction, Majid Fakhry, ISBN 1–85168–252–XThe Legacy of Arab-Islam in Africa: A Quest for Inter-religious Dialogue, John Alembillah Azumah, ISBN 1–85168–273–2The Mantle of the Prophet, Roy Mottahedeh, ISBN 1–85168–234–1Muhammad: A Short Biography, Martin Forward, ISBN 1–85168–131–0Muslim Women Mystics: The Life and Work of Rabi ca and other Women Mystics in Islam, Margaret Smith, ISBN 1–85168–250–3On Being a Muslim: Finding a Religious Path in the World Today, Farid Esack, ISBN 1–85168–146–9The Qur’an and its Exegesis, Helmut Gatje, ISBN 1–85168–118–3 ¨Revival and Reform in Islam, Fazlur Rahman, ISBN 1–85168–204–XSpeaking in God’s Name: Islamic Law, Authority and Women, Khaled Abou El-Fadl, ISBN 1–85168–262–7What Muslims Believe, John Bowker, ISBN 1–85168–169–8
A CONCISE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ISLAM Oneworld Publications (Sales and Editorial) 185 Banbury Road Oxford OX2 7AR England www.oneworld-publications.com # Gordon D. Newby 2002 Reprinted 2004 All rights reserved. Copyright under Berne Convention A CIP record for this title is available from the British Library ISBN 1–85168–295–3 Cover design by Design Deluxe Typeset by LaserScript, Mitcham, UKPrinted and bound in India by Thomson Press Ltd NL08
ContentsPreface and acknowledgments viTransliteration and pronunciation ixIntroduction 1A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam 13God’s Ninety-Nine Names 219Chronology 221Bibliography 228Thematic Index 233
Preface and acknowledgmentsW riting about Islam in a single volume is a daunting task, but it is one that I happily took on because of my longstanding desire tohelp more people in the English-speaking world understand andappreciate this religion. Islam is not only a world religion, claimingabout a ﬁfth of the world’s population, it is also a system of culture andpolitics. Muslims are found in most countries of the world, speakingmost of the world’s languages. There is no central authority that canspeak for all Muslims, and there is no single way to be a Muslim. It is,like the other great religions of the world, diverse, dynamic, and difﬁcultto deﬁne in only a few words, terms, and entries. This Concise Encyclopedia of Islam is meant to represent Islam’sdiversity and offer the reader a short deﬁnition of major terms andintroduce major ﬁgures. In writing this Encyclopedia, I have chosen to usethe distinction that was made by the late M.G.S. Hodgson in his Ventureof Islam, between those subjects that are “Islamic” and those that are, inhis word, “Islamicate.” By “Islamic,” he meant those subjects that have todo with the religion, and by “Islamicate,” he meant those subjects that areproducts of the culture that Muslims, and Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians,Hindus, and others living under Islam, have produced. We speak of“Islamic science,” meaning the scientiﬁc advances during the time of theWestern Middle Ages, but those scientiﬁc advances were a product of theinteraction of Jews and Christians as well as Muslims living in Islamiccountries. The religion of Islam contributed to the development of thatand other branches of learning, because Muslim rulers chose to sponsorlearning as part of their vision of themselves as Muslims. I have chosen toleave the political and cultural material to others. This volume containsterms that are related to Islam as a religious system. As I mentioned, Islam is a diverse and dynamic religion. No Muslimwill accept everything that I have presented in this volume as Islamic. In
vii Preface and acknowledgmentsattempting to represent Islam’s diversity, I have tried to include materialthat tells the story of the major groups within Islam. This means that theviews of the Shıcı as well as the Sunnı are included. My choice to do this ˆˆ ˆis, in part, a corrective. Works of this kind have often been heavilyweighted toward the Sunnı perspective. The reasons for this are ˆcomplicated, but it had much to do with the history of how the Westcame to learn about Islam and the desire of Western Orientalist writersto essentialize Islam and not acknowledge the nuances and differencesthat they did in Western Christianity. Recognizing complexity insomeone else or in another religious system is an important step towardunderstanding that religion as well as one’s own. This single volume is not intended to be the end and the answer toquestions about Islam, but, rather, a beginning. At the end of thevolume, the reader will ﬁnd a bibliography listing additional English-language reference works, monographs, and introductory texts. Istrongly urge readers to seek out as many of those texts as possible.Many of the references should be available in local libraries. There isalso a wealth of information about Islam on the Internet. Many basicIslamic texts are available in English translation on line. I have listed afew of the gateway URLs that should serve as a start into the rapidlygrowing world of the Islamic Internet. One caution, however, is that theInternet is rapidly changing, with many varied opinions expressed in thesites. Remember that the many different opinions reﬂect the greatdiversity within the religion called Islam. There is also a time-line ofmajor dates and events in Islamic history to assist the reader in placingthe information in the Encyclopedia in historical perspective. The terms in the Encyclopedia are transliterated from theirappropriate Islamic languages. The diacritic marks on the termsrepresent the consonants and vowels in the original language. This ismeant to be an aid to the student of those languages in locating the termin an appropriate language dictionary or encyclopedia. Without thediacritics, it is difﬁcult, particularly for the beginner in the language, todistinguish what appear to be homonyms. For the reader who doesn’tknow the Islamic languages, the pronunciation guide that follows thispreface will assist in a reasonable approximation of the sound of theterms to be able to talk with those who do know how to pronouncethem. The information for this volume has been drawn from many differentsources. In the bibliography, I have left out the many specialtymonographs and other works for lack of space. Additionally, I have
A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam viiibeen aided by many individuals who have patiently read my drafts andoffered helpful suggestions. I would like to thank my colleagues atEmory University in particular. Profs. Mahmoud Al-Batal, KristenBrustad, Shalom Goldman, Frank Lewis, Richard Martin, LauriePatton, Devin Stewart, and Vernon Robbins have each strengthenedmy efforts. The best parts of this volume are to their credit, and thedeﬁciencies are mine. I would also like to thank the editors of OneworldPublications for the opportunity to write this volume. It has provided mea wonderfully concentrated time to review the Islamic religious sceneand the years of study I have devoted to Islam, and the opportunity hasbeen personally enriching. Finally, I wish to express my thanks to mywife, Wendy. Her support, encouragement, and forbearance have keptme well and happily throughout this project.The publisher and author would like to thank the following organiza-tions and individuals for providing the pictures reproduced in thisvolume. Pages 46, 47, 48, 54, 61, 66, 76, 134, 138, 141, 154, 189, 208# Peter Sanders Photography Ltd. Pages 19, 32, 104, 127, 188, 201# D.P. Brookshaw. Pages 72, 99, 101, 144, 171, 178, 210 # Aga KhanTrust for Culture. Page 170 from the collection of Prince and PrincessSadruddin Aga Khan. Map, page xii, by Jillian Luff, Mapgraﬁx. Coverphotograph (far right) of children, Jakarta, Istiqlal Mosque – ReligiousEducation; Mock Hajj # Mark Henley/Impact. Cover photograph(center) interior of the prayer hall, Islamic Cultural Center, New York# Omar Khalidi.
Transliteration and pronunciationM any of the terms in this Concise Encyclopedia are transliterated from their original scripts in the Islamic languages of Arabic,Persian, Turkish, or Urdu. The system listed below will assist those whowish to identify the correct term in the original language. Thepronunciation guide will assist in approximating the sound of thewords. The system of transliteration is that used in many scholarlypublications on Islam. The order of the list is the order of the Arabicalphabet.ConsonantsArabic letter Symbol Approximate pronunciation c glottal stop b English b t English t th English th as in thin j English j h guttural or pharyngeal h ˙ kh German ch d English d dh English th as in this r rolled or trilled r z English z s unvoiced s as in sit, this sh English sh s velar or emphatic s ˙ d velar or emphatic d ˙ t velar or emphatic t ˙ z velar or emphatic voiced th as in this ˙ c pharyngeal scrape; often pronounced like glottal stop
A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam xArabic letter Symbol Approximate pronunciation gh voiced kh f English f q uvular or guttural k l English l as in list m English m n English n h English h w English w y English y as in yesVowels a short a as in bat, sat i short i as in sit u short u as in full a ˆ long a as in father but held longer ı ˆ long i as in machine but held longer u ˆ long u as in rule but held longer aw diphthong as in English cow ay diphthong as in aisleThe ﬁnal feminine singular ending in Arabic, -at, is transliterated as -ahunless the word is in a compound with a following Arabic word, when itis transliterated as -at. The deﬁnite article al- is normally not capitalized,even at the beginning of a sentence and its consonant, l, assimilates tothe letters t, th, d, dh, r, z, s, sh, s, d, t, z, n, as in the example ash-Shams ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙(Arabic: the sun). This system of transliterating the deﬁnite articlereplicates the pronunciation rather than the system of writing to help thereader communicate the term orally. Terms transliterated from Persian, Turkish, and Urdu generallyfollow the Arabic pattern, although the pronunciation might not be fullyrepresented. For a full discussion of various systems of transliterationand the beneﬁts of each system, see M.G.S. Hodgson, The Venture ofIslam, vol. 1, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974, pp. 8–16.
Distribution of Islam in the world todayPercentage of Muslimsby country 81 – 100% 51 – 80% 11 – 50% 1 – 10% less than 1%
Introduction Seek Knowledge as far as China (hadıth of the Prophet) ˆ ˙GeographyI slam is a world religion, by which we usually mean that it is found in most major places and among most peoples throughout the world.Like other world religions, Islam has its own particular geography.When we speak of the geography of a world religion like Islam, we oftenmean two things. First, we mean, where do we ﬁnd the religion’sfollowers? Where did the religion start, and how has it spread? These arehistorical and physical questions. Second, we mean, how is the worlddivided on the spiritual map of the religion’s believers? What land issacred and what is not? These are questions of sacred geography. Sincethe physical and sacred realms interact, we need to ask both sets ofquestions. Islam, like Judaism and Christianity, began in the Middle East.Today, it ranks behind only Buddhism and Christianity as the mostpopulous religion in the world, with one-ﬁfth of all humanity professingthe faith. A common impression is that Islam is an Arab religion, but lessthan twenty percent of all Muslims are Arabs. The largest Muslimcountry in the world is Indonesia, and there are more Muslims in SouthAsia (India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh) than there are in the Arab MiddleEast. There are Muslims throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, and theAmericas. It is often thought to be a religion of nomads, but well overhalf of all Muslims live in cities. It is a religion that continues to attractmore members. In North America, Islam is the fastest-growing religion,with more members than either Judaism or the Episcopalians. The ˆ ˆclassical division between the dar al-islam, the “abode of Islam,” and the
A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam 2rest of the world is no longer a useful geographic distinction. WhileIslam’s spiritual borders remain, Muslims live side by side with Jews,Christians, Buddhists, Hindus, and others throughout the world.Muslims live in most countries, whether there is an Islamic governmentor not. Since Islam’s earliest expansion out of Arabia, it has been a religionof many ethnic, racial, and linguistic groups. The majority of Muslimsin the world speak a native language other than Arabic, but the Arabiclanguage and some aspects of Arab culture bind Muslims together. Thespiritual center of Islamic sacred geography is Mecca, with the Ka¤bahand other shrines holy to all the world’s Muslims. Ibrahım (Abraham) ˆ ˆand Adam allegedly prayed there to Allah (God). Muhammad ˆ ˙reestablished God’s worship there, so many Muslims face Mecca ﬁvetimes a day in prayer and, if they can, journey to this center of the earthonce in their lives for hajj (pilgrimage). The sacred scripture of Islam, ˙the Quran, is written in Arabic, and is recited daily in Arabic by ˆMuslims in prayer. Arabia looms large in the spiritual imaginations ofMuslims around the world. Another important center of the Islamic sacred world is al-Quds(Jerusalem). Muslims believe that Muhammad made his isra (night ˆ ˙journey) from Mecca to Jerusalem and went from there to heaven. InIslamic cosmology, just as in Judaism and Christianity, Jerusalem is theplace closest to heaven. Jerusalem is regarded by many Muslims as oneof the three cities to which one can make pilgrimage, the others beingMecca and Madınah. Islamic worship was established at the qubbat as- ˆ ˙sakhrah, the Dome of the Rock, as soon as Muslims entered the city in˙the seventh century, and Muslims have included the city as a place ofvisitation and as a place to live ever since. Mosques feature in Islam’s sacred landscape, and wherever Muslimslive, they build places of worship that are pointed toward the sacredcenter of Mecca. Schools, fountains, hospitals, and other public worksare also products of the Islamic impulse to improve this world throughpious constructions, and in these the sacred and profane realms areblended. Tombs of saints, walıs, are also found throughout the world ˆwhere Muslims live. Some are small and plain; others are elaborate anddecorated with the ﬁnest examples of Islamic art, but all mark outimportant points on the Islamic sacred map of the world. An important feature of the world of Islam is that in the daily lives of ˆMuslims, sacred space is portable. A Muslim should perform salat, pray, ˙ﬁve times during the day, and it can be anywhere. Classrooms, ofﬁces,
3 Introduction ˆand factories, as well as mosques, are places for salat. Indeed, anyplace ˙that can be made ritually pure, often by a prayer carpet, can serve as a ˆlocation for salat. With the potential for nearly a billion Muslims ˙around the world to face Mecca in prayer each day, there is a web ofsacred Muslim space that encompasses the earth.Islam and Other ReligionsIslam is the youngest of the three monotheistic world religions, withMuhammad coming after the prophets of Judaism and Christianity. For ˙Muslims, Islam is the completion and perfection of a process ofrevelation that started with Adam, the ﬁrst human, and ends withMuhammad, the “Seal of the Prophets.” History is divided into two ˙periods: the time of God’s active revelation through His prophets, andthe time from the revelation of the Quran to the time when the world ˆwill be judged, the yawm ad-dın (Day of Judgment). Judaism and ˆChristianity have a special place in Islam. Jews and Christians are ˆ“People of Scripture,” ahl al-kitab, and have a special legal standing inIslamic law, or sharı¤ ah. Other religions, such as the Sabaeans and ˆsometimes Hindus, have been included in this category, and in varioushistorical periods they have been partners in shaping and developingIslamic civilization. Islam is a proselytizing religion. Muslims arecommanded to bring God’s message to all the peoples of the earth and tomake the world a better, more moral place. Muslim missionaries arefound throughout the world working on the twin goals of convertingothers to Islam and promoting Islamic values.Muslim ScriptureAccording to the sırah, the biography of Muhammad, God sent the ﬁrst ˆ ˙revelation to His Prophet when Muhammad was forty years of age. ˙From then until his death in 632 c.e., some twenty-two years later, theQura as the revelation is called, came to the Prophet in bits and pieces ˆn,through the intermediary of the angel Jibrıl (Gabriel). Today, it exists as ˆa book with 114 surahs, chapters, a little shorter in length than the ˆChristian New Testament. The chapters and verses, a ˆyahs, are not inthe order of revelation, and to many outside Islam, the juxtapositionseems to be disjointed and difﬁcult to understand at ﬁrst reading. TheQura differs from Jewish and Christian scripture in that it is not a ˆnnarrative history, a series of letters, or a biography of Muhammad. It ˙contains admonitions, rules, promises, references to past revelations,
A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam 4prayers, and warnings about the coming yawm ad-dın. For those who ˆknow Arabic, for whom the Quran is part of their daily prayers, who ˆlive surrounded by the sights and sounds of its words, the revelation hasa rich texture of meanings interwoven with Muslim life and history. Therevelation is the foundation of Islam’s aesthetic and daily life, and is partof the everyday speech of Muslims in many languages around the world.Points are made and wisdom is expressed by reference to passages fromthe Quran. For many Muslims, the ideal is to memorize the Qura ˆ ˆn,thus internalizing the Word of God. An axiom among Muslims is that the Quran cannot be translated ˆinto another language and remain the Qura nor can it be imitated. A ˆn,large part of it is written in saj¤ (rhymed prose), and it is rich withrhetorical devices, like alliteration and paronomasia, which cannot bereplicated in other languages and carry the same meaning and tone. Alltranslations are commentaries (tafsır). There is a rich, living tradition of ˆcommenting on the Quran, and reading just a few of them shows the ˆreader the multiple levels of meaning contained even in a single Quranicˆverse. The Quran in Arabic is the carrier of Islamic culture. ˆ In addition to the Quran, the life of the Prophet Muhammad is ˆ ˙regarded by some Muslims as almost sacred, and by many more as animportant source of how to live. The sunnah of the Prophet,Muhammad’s life as exemplar, is a model that Muslims try to follow. ˙His life and actions guided the formation of some aspects of sharı¤ ah ˆand Islamic practices of personal piety. Muslims may, for example, eathoney or cleanse their teeth, because the Prophet did so. They will go onhajj, performing the rite in a way similar to the way he did it in his˙Farewell Pilgrimage at the end of his life. And they will strive to governtheir communities in imitation of the society that Muhammad and his ˙ ˆCompanions (sahabah) founded at Madınah. The Quran and the ˆ ˆ ˙ ˙sunnah together form the basis for a complete Muslim life.Pillars of IslamEarly in the history of Islam, scholars and Quranic commentators ˆdistilled ﬁve basic activities and beliefs that are fundamental to all ˆMuslims. These are known as the arkan al-isla ˆm, the Pillars of Islam.Each of these ﬁve actions requires an internal spiritual commitment andan external sign of the intent (niyyah) as well as the faithful completionof the action, showing Islam’s medial position between the extremes oforthodoxy and orthopraxy. Fundamental to this list is the balance
5 Introductionbetween faith and action. A Muslim starts with the belief in one God,called Alla in Arabic. God is the source of all there is in the universe, ˆhand so all activity, spiritual and physical, is in relationship to God.Muslims are asked to be thankful to God, praise Him, and obey Hiscommands. Additionally, since all humans and other creatures are partof God’s creation, each Muslim has an obligation to help take care ofthat creation. To be a Muslim is to have an individual responsibility toGod and a social responsibility to Muslims and other human beings inthe world. ˆ The ﬁrst on the list is the declaration of faith, the shahadah, whichalso means witnessing. The declaration that there is no deity exceptAllah, and that Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah is part of each of the ˆ ˆ ˙ﬁve daily prayers and is heard from minarets in the call to prayer. ˆPronouncing the shahadah with the intent to convert and in front ofwitnesses is sufﬁcient to make one a Muslim in the eyes of most Islamiccommunities. When one has become a Muslim, one is obligated to perform ﬁve ˆritual prayers (salat) a day: the dawn prayer, the noon prayer, the ˙afternoon prayer, the sunset prayer, and the night prayer. These prayersare in addition to any individual supplications, du¤ a , that the believer ˆmay wish to make at any time. ˆ The third duty is to give charity, zakat. Social welfare is one of thehallmarks of Islam, and Muslims are obligated to take care of those lessfortunate than themselves. In some Muslim countries, the collection anddistribution of alms is a function of the state. Once each year, many Muslims perform a fast, sawm, each day for ˙the month of Ramada during the daylight hours only. It is a total ˆn, ˙abstinence fast, and, when it is broken, Muslims are enjoined to eat thegood things that God has given. Muslims should not fast if their healthwill be injured, if they are pregnant, or if they are traveling. Islamencourages Muslims to care for their bodies as well as their souls. Once during a Muslim’s lifetime, if physically and ﬁnancially able,the hajj should be performed. This ritual brings Muslims from all over ˙the world together in Mecca for rites around the Ka¤bah, and binds allMuslims, whether on hajj or not, in celebration of acts performed by ˙Muhammad and Ibrahım before him. ˆ ˆ ˙ Over time, some groups have added to or modiﬁed this list, with ˆd ˆjiha as the most common addition. Jihad means “striving” or “makingan effort,” and each of the actions listed above requires such personal ˆeffort. In cases when jihad is applied to political and military situations,
A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam 6usually called “holy war,” it is a community obligation and not anindividual one, and it is limited by complex rules and regulations, just as“holy war” is limited in Judaism and Christianity.HistoryJust as with the geography of Islam, the history of Islam may be viewedfrom several vantage points. In traditional world history, Islam beginswith the revelation to Muhammad in 610 c.e., when he was forty years ˙of age. The ofﬁcial Muslim era begins in 622 c.e. with the hijrah, theestablishment of the community in the Arabian city of Madınah. This is ˆthe beginning of the Muslim calendar, and all preceding is counted as the ˆperiod of the jahiliyyah, the age of “ignorance.” Another way to talkabout the beginning of Islam is to chart it from God’s ﬁrst revelation tohumankind, to the prophet Adam. From this perspective, Islam is theoldest of all the religions of the world. When Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570 c.e., Arabia was on the ˙edge of the great Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cultures, but it wasin the center of a competition between the Roman and Persian empires.This brought soldiers into Arabia who were also missionaries forJudaism and several varieties of Christianity. As a result, most Arabs hada sophisticated knowledge of the two monotheistic religions available tothem. Some had converted to either Judaism or Christianity. They alsohad their own elaborate variety of polytheism and worshiped hundredsof deities, often in the form of stone idols that they carried with them orthat were placed in Arabia’s central shrine, the Ka¤bah in Mecca. Muhammad was born into the Hashimites, a poor clan of Mecca’s ˆ ˙dominant tribe, the Quraysh. He was orphaned early, with his fatherdying before he was born, and his mother afterwards. From humblebeginnings, he soon distinguished himself as an honest, trustworthybusinessman engaged in the town’s trade, international commerce.When he married a wealthy widow, Khadıjah, for whom he had worked ˆas a trade agent, he had enough resources to be able to take time tocontemplate his rise in fortune. We are told that he went every year intothe mountains above Mecca for a spiritual retreat, gave charity to thepoor, and practiced devotional exercises. During one of these retreats,when Muhammad was forty years of age, during the month of ˙Ramadan, the angel Jibrıl visited him and brought him the ﬁrst ﬁve ˆ ˆ ˙verses of the ninety-sixth chapter of the Quran as the ﬁrst of a series of ˆrevelations from Allah.ˆ
7 Introduction For the next two years, Muhammad kept his mission within his ˙family, receiving support from Khadıjah. He continued to receive ˆrevelations, and he came to understand that they were part of God’sScripture and that he had been selected by God as a prophet. When hemade his mission public, calling on his fellow Meccans to turn towardAllah, only a few joined him. Many others felt threatened by his ˆmessage of reforming the ills of society and were hostile to his attackson polytheism. Mecca was an important polytheistic religious center,and the city’s religious practices were tightly connected to its economy.In the ten years that comprised the ﬁrst part of his mission, manystaunch followers joined him, but the leaders in Mecca plotted to killhim. In 622 c.e., Muhammad sent a band of his followers from Mecca to ˙the town of Madınah, where they were welcomed by some of the ˆprominent members of the tribes of the Aws and the Khazraj, the tribes ˆthat were to be known as the ansar (allies). Muhammad, accompanied ˙ ˙by his Companion Abu Bakr, made their way to Madınah, pursued by ˆ ˆhostile Meccans. When they arrived, Muhammad negotiated a treaty ˙with all the inhabitants of the city, both Jews and polytheistic Arabs,that put him in the center of resolving all disputes. This so-called“Constitution of Madınah” gave Muslims and Jews alike a formal ˆmembership in the nascent Muslim community, and would serve as a ˆmodel for future relations between Muslims and the ahl al-kitab. In thenext few years, most of the basic elements of Islam were establishedpublicly. Prayer was instituted, fasting was regulated, and the basic rulesfor individual and communal behavior were set forth, both in theongoing revelations of the Quran and in the words and deeds of the ˆProphet. From the very beginning of the hijrah, the polytheistic Meccans triedto stop Muhammad and his new religion. They pursued Muhammad ˙ ˙and Abu Bakr as they left Mecca. They sent military expeditions against ˆthe community in Madınah, and they tried to build a political and ˆmilitary coalition of the tribes in the Hijaz against the Muslims. The ˆ ˙Muslims fought back, winning a ﬁrst victory at the battle of Badr, adraw at the battle of Uhud, and another series of victories that ˙culminated in a negotiated defeat of the Meccan coalition and thetriumphal entrance of the Muslims into Mecca for a cleansing of theKa¤bah of the polytheistic images and the establishment of Muslimworship. When Muhammad died in 10/632, most of the tribes in Arabia ˙are reported to have submitted to Islam.
A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam 8 With the death of Muhammad, we are presented with two different ˙ways of relating Islamic history. Since Muhammad was the last of the ˙line of God’s prophets, the issue of who was to lead the Muslimcommunity arose. There were those who had expected that the worldwould end before Muhammad’s death and were surprised that it had ˙not. There were those who expected that the community would be ledby someone chosen from among those that had the “best” genealogy.Shı¤ı Muslims contend that Muhammad appointed his cousin and son- ˆˆ ˙in-law, ¤Alı b. Abı Talib, as his successor at Ghadır Khumm and that ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˙¤Alı was to be both a spiritual and political leader of the community. ˆFrom ¤Alı and Muhammad’s daughter, Fatimah, a line of Imams carried ˆ ˆ ˆ ˙ ˙on the leadership of the Shı¤ı community as members of the ahl al-bayt, ˆˆthe household of the Prophet, giving them absolute legitimacy in Shı¤ı ˆˆeyes. The Sunnı view of succession differs from the Shı¤ı view. From this ˆ ˆˆperspective, Muhammad was the last of the prophets and had no ˙successor to his spiritual mission. As for the political leadership of thecommunity, they chose Muhammad’s closest advisor and companion, ˙his father-in-law, Abu Bakr, as the caliph. According to this view, the ˆArab Muslims swore allegiance to Abu Bakr in much the same way that ˆleaders were chosen among some bedouin tribes in the pre-Islamicperiod. Abu Bakr ruled for two years, meeting the challenges of those ˆtribes in Arabia that left the Muslim community with the death ofMuhammad. The military organization that the ﬁrst caliph constructed ˙carried Islam outside Arabia, following the explicit intentions ofMuhammad himself. Abu Bakr, in part following the model of the ˆ ˙Prophet, appointed no successor, and another close companion andfather-in-law of Muhammad was chosen, ¤Umar b. al-Khattab, who ˆ ˙ ˙˙ruled from 13/634 to 24/644. He called himself Amır al-Mu minın, the ˆ ˆCommander of the Faithful. He built a rudimentary state bureaucracyand expanded Islam into Syria–Palestine and Egypt. At the death of ¤Umar, a council chose ¤Uthman from the Umayyad ˆclan, the leading clan of the Quraysh, and he is credited with tending tothe religious side of the caliphate. He commissioned a panel to collect allthe different versions of the Quran and to make an ofﬁcial recension. ˆThis was meant to replace all other collections, including one made by¤Alı b. Abı Talib. He then distributed that recension to all the ˆ ˆ ˆ ˙metropolitan centers with the instructions to eliminate other extantversions. While he was not successful in making only one version –Sunnı Islam allows seven canonical readings of the Quran – his effort ˆ ˆ
9 Introductionwent a long way in making a standard text and strengthened the claimsof the caliphs to a role in governing the religious life of the community.He is also noted for appointing many of his family members to positionsof leadership, which produced great resentment in some quarters. As aresult, he was assassinated in 36/656. The head of the Umayyads, Mu¤awiyah, claimed the right of revenge ˆfor the murder of his relative, and he accused ¤Alı b. Abı Talib, who had ˆ ˆ ˆ ˙just been sworn in as the new caliph, of complicity in the assassination.Mu¤awiyah challenged ¤Alı’s right to rule, and the conﬂict that ensued ˆ ˆspread out of Arabia into Syria and Mesopotamia. ¤Alı took his armies ˆinto southern Iraq, capturing the cities of Basrah and Kufah, defeating ˆ ˙opposition armies at the Battle of the Camel in 36/656. That left onlySyria outside his control, and he launched a campaign againstMu¤awiyah’s forces. At a crucial point in their ﬁght, Mu¤awiyah’s ˆ ˆforces proposed a negotiation and ¤Alı accepted. From the start, they ˆconducted the negotiations on different terms and with differingexpectations, and the parleys failed to lead to a satisfactory end. Someof ¤Alı’s forces, frustrated with the lack of satisfactory outcome and ˆdisillusioned with his leadership, seceded and began to attack both ¤Alı’s ˆtroops, who would become known as Shı¤ı, and Mu¤awiyah’s forces, the ˆˆ ˆUmayyads. They became known as the Kharijites, and were eventually ˆhunted down by both sides and reduced in number, but not beforeseverely weakening the Shı¤ı cause. When ¤Alı was assassinated by a ˆˆ ˆKharijite in 41/661, he was succeeded by his son, Hasan, who abdicated, ˆ ˙and Mu¤awiyah became the sole caliph and the ﬁrst of the Umayyad ˆdynasty. In the retrospect of this early conﬂict over succession, the Sunnıs, ˆwho became the majority and claimed orthodoxy, called the ﬁrst fourcaliphs – Abu Bakr, ¤Umar, ¤Uthman, and ¤Alı – the “Rightly Guided ˆ ˆ ˆCaliphs” in an attempt to diffuse the Shı¤ı and Kharijite claims to ˆˆ ˆlegitimacy. Shı¤ı Islam evolved from a political movement into a strong ˆˆtheological stance about the nature of Islam itself and continued to resistbeing absorbed into the Sunnı sphere, even when the two communities ˆlived side by side. Shı¤is developed a system of laws and religious ˆpractices that are, with minor differences, parallel to the Sunnı rites and ˆpractices. In some periods, both Shı¤is and Sunnıs shared the same ˆ ˆinstitutions of higher learning for religious instruction. Even with theirdifferences, most Muslims come together in rites like the hajj. ˙ As the different versions of Islamic practice spread ﬁrst throughoutthe Mediterranean world and then beyond, to South Asia, to Africa, and
A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam 10to Southeast Asia, they brought a new model for living grounded both inthe Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad. Based on sharı¤ ah, the ˆ ˆ ˙religion provided behavioral models for every aspect of life from how toeat and sleep to how to pray. It brought a worldwide network of trade incommodities and ideas that made the Islamic life attractive wherever itwent. Even in the earliest period, when Muslims were conquering theancient empires, Islam’s success at conversion was through attractionrather than coercion. By the end of the century after Muhammad’s ˙death, Islam had spread from southern France in the West to the bordersof India in the East. When Islam was a half a millennium old, it wasestablished in China and Southeast Asia, and now Islam is the fastest-growing religion in North America.Divisions and UnitiesIslam, like the other major religions of the word, is divided bygeography, language, ethnicity, and beliefs. Within Sunnı Islam, ˆMuslims in different areas will often belong to different schools,madhhabs, of Islamic law. Rules of inheritance, codes of conduct, andmanner of dress will vary slightly from one school to another, but thedifferences will be less than the differences between denominations inProtestant Christianity. Ethnicity and language are markers of differenceamong Muslims, but divisions are outweighed by the unities as onelooks across the Muslim world. The annual pilgrimage, the hajj, often ˙acts as a force to unify Muslims from around the world, as each pilgrimcomes to Mecca dressed in identical pieces of white cloth. All Muslimsshare the Pillars of Islam, read the same Qura and pray in the same ˆn,language, Arabic, even if they are otherwise unfamiliar with thatlanguage. Divisions like the Sunnı–Shı¤ı split, and the sectarian splits ˆ ˆˆwithin each of those major divisions, are made more pronounced whenpolitics and territorial claims are involved, but over the long history ofthe religion have not produced great chasms of difference.Mysticism and SpiritualityA major strain of spiritual expression in Islam is mysticism, often calledSuﬁsm from the habit of early mystics of wearing woolen robes. As with ˆ˙mystical traditions in other world religions, Suﬁsm tends to cross all ˆ ˙geographic and doctrinal borders, so that one can be a Sunnı or a Shı¤ı ˆ ˆˆand still be a Sufı. In keeping with other aspects of the religion, Islamic ˆ ˆ ˙mysticism is both personal and communal. Early mystics like al-Hasan ˙
11 Introductional-Basrı and al-Hallaj are examples of men whose individual mystic lives ˆ ˆ ˙ ˙had great impact on the history of this spiritual quest. Al-Hasan al-Basrı ˆ ˙ ˙is an example of someone who was both a respected transmitter ofhadıth and a mystic, while al-Hallaj was someone whose mystic journey ˆ ˆ˙ ˙carried him beyond the bounds of the community in the eyes of somewho misunderstood his esoteric teachings, and earned him a heretic’sdeath. The most common form of Islamic mystic expression is through theSufı orders, tarıqahs, which were prominent from the middle of the ˆ ˆ ˆ˙ ˙fourth/tenth century until modern times. Muslims were often deeplyinvolved in the aspects of the religion dominated by sharı¤ ah, and still ˆmembers of a Sufı order. These orders were often centered on shrine- ˆ ˆ ˙mosques that contained the tombs of the founders of the order, orspecial places of mystic worship, called dhikr. They were the communitycenter, and the shaykh or pır, served the same function as the ¤ alim, and ˆ ˆwas often the same person; he led the community in worship andregulated the daily lives of the individuals under his care. In theOttoman Empire, the lives of the majority of the non-elite Muslims weregoverned in part through the tarıqahs rather than solely through the ˆ ˙sharı¤ ah courts. Nevertheless, in the history of Islamic mysticism, the ˆmystic impulse has come in large part from the Quran and the hadıth ˆ ˆ ˙and has remained grounded in the precepts found there, even whiletaking ﬂights of the mystic journeys. Linked to all forms of mysticism and spirituality in Islam are thepractices of asceticism, the use of spiritual guides or masters, and anaversion to contamination. Asceticism, even though condemned as“monkhood” in early hadıths, surfaces regularly as part of spiritual ˆ ˙exercises along the mystic path. Even though Islam has beencharacterized as a religion of individual responsibility, Muslims oftenchoose a wise master as a guide along the mystic and spiritual path. Sucha person, often but not necessarily the head of a tarıqah, would lead the ˆ ˙initiate into the exercises, rules, and mores of the mystic community. ˆThis might also include an introduction to the esoteric, batin, mysteries ˙of Islam. An additional mode of expressing spirituality, both within themystic tradition and without it is the avoidance of contamination. Thiscan be both spiritual and physical, but physical purity is a concernwithin Islam. Maintaining cleanliness in person, food, and mind is arecurring theme in Islamic discussions of daily life as well as in mysticalcircles.
A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam 12 In recent times, particularly in the West, Suﬁsm has become a ˆ ˙popular part of “New-Age” religion. Often this form of Islamicmysticism is divorced from a complete Islamic life and retains only theoutward trappings of the mystic tradition. In such cases, some regardthis form of mysticism as non-Islamic.Islam and the Modern WorldMost Muslims in countries with large Islamic populations are living insocieties that were former colonies of Western nations. In thesecountries, the politics of resistance and liberation became mixed witha religious ideology of Islam. As in many other cases of religiousopposition to modernism, this form of Islam has been termed“fundamentalist.” This is the most visible form of Islam in the Westernmedia today. It is characterized as violent, retrograde, and repressive.This is, however, a mischaracterization of Islam and Muslims in themodern world. Throughout the history of Islam, Muslims have lived in and dealtwith their “modern” world. In the second/ninth century, when theIslamic Empire embraced large numbers of Hellenized peoples, Muslimclerics and theologians debated the role of Greek science in a religioussociety. In the thirteenth/eighteenth century, the debate, sparked byNapoleon’s invasion of the Middle East, included the rights ofindividuals. In the late thirteenth/nineteenth and early fourteenth/twentieth centuries, Muslim intellectuals were occupied by the conceptsof modernity and the coexistence of science and religion. A survey of the Internet or a visit to any country where Muslims livewill show that there are Muslims who live fully in the technological age.They use computers, automobiles, cell-phones, and television, just aspeople do elsewhere. But Muslims are also a large part of the developingworld, living as farmers and pastoralists. Their religious practices oftenseem more old-fashioned or traditional, and there are those whoromanticize that version of Islam as more authentic. The person on thecell-phone may be a traditionalist, and the shepherd may be avant-gardein his religious thinking. And, as is the case with other religious groups,any Muslim may have a greater or lesser engagement with the traditionand its practices at various times during life.
AAaron of all the early groups. Modern attemptsSee Harun. ˆ ˆ to revive the caliphate have often looked to reviving the legitimacy of the ¤Abba-ˆ sid dynasty. (See also Khilafat Move- ˆ¤aba ah ˆ ment.)An outer wrap or cloak, sometimesstriped. ¤abd (Arabic: servant, slave) This is used frequently in compound¤Abba sids ˆ names, where the second element is a name or epithet of God, such as ¤AbdThe Sunnı dynasty that ruled from 133/ ˆ Allah (also written as ¤Abdullah), Ser- ˆ ˆ750 to 657/1258, succeeding the vant of God, ¤Abd ar-Rahman, Servant ˆUmayyad dynasty. The hereditary ˙ of the Merciful, etc. Muslims considercaliphs of this dynasty claimed legiti- being a “slave” of God to be a highmacy through descent from al-¤Abbas, ˆ honor and the highest form of piety.the uncle of Muhammad, making them ˙ While Islamic religious texts do notpart of the family of the Prophet (ahl condemn slavery, it is not fully con-al-bayt). The city of Baghdad was ˆ doned as an institution either. A slavebuilt as their capital. Under their rule, who is a Muslim should be manumitted,and often as a direct result of their even if he converts while a slave, and thepatronage, the earliest major works of hadıth contains numerous statements ˆIslamic law (sharı ¤ah), Quran com- ˆ ˆ ˙ that recommend freeing slaves or ame-mentary, (tafsır), and history (ta rıkh) ˆ ˆ liorating their lives through good treat-were written. Under the patronage of ment.¤Abbasid rulers and their courts, all of ˆthe intellectual and artistic ﬁelds ofIslamic civilization developed and ﬂour- ˆs Abdalıished. Because most histories of early See Durranıs. ˆ ˆIslam were written under their controland for their aggrandizement, negative ¤Abd Alla h b. al-¤Abba s ˆ ˆviews of the Umayyads and the Shı¤ı ˆˆ See Ibn ¤Abbas. ˆwere often a part of their polemicalpicture of early Islam. Such views haveoften been incorporated into Western ¤Abd al-¤Azı Sha h (1746–1824) ˆz, ˆscholarship about Islam to the detriment A prominent Indian Sufı religious refor- ˆ ˆof a more balanced view of the character ˆ ˙ mer and Sunnı polemicist against Shı¤ıˆˆ
Abdel Rahman, Omar 14beliefs and practices, his Tuhfah-i isnaˆ interpretations of Quranic words and ˆ¤ashariyyah should be singled ˙out among verses.his writings for lasting impact, inﬂuen-cing religious discussions in Pakistan. ¤Abd ar-Ra ziq, ¤Alı (1888–1966) ˆ ˆ ˆ Egyptian intellectual whose al-Islam wa-Abdel Rahman, Omar (born usul al-hukm (Islam and the bases of ˆ1938) political ˙authority), published in 1925,Egyptian fundamentalist and spiritual argued against the notion that Islam is aleader of al-Jama¤at al-Islamiyyah, he ˆ ˆ political as well as spiritual system andwas convicted of heading the plot to is still the subject of debate today.bomb the World Trade Center in NewYork City in 1993, and is serving a life ¤Abduh, Muh ammad (1849–sentence in a maximum security prison. 1905) ˙ Egyptian theologian, reformer, and¤Abd al-Mut t alib b. H a shim ˆ architect of Islamic modernism, his aim ˙˙ ˙The Prophet Muhammad’s grandfather, was to restore Islam to its original ˙who became his guardian after the death condition through the elimination ofof his father, ¤Abdullah. He is featured ˆ taqlıd (adherence to tradition). He ˆprominently in the pre-Islamic history of considered revelation and reason to bethe Ka¤bah and the well of Zamzam, compatible and thought that soundthe water of which was his right to reasoning would lead to a belief indistribute to pilgrims bound for Mecca. God. For him, science and religion wereIn the Year of the Elephant, the year of compatible, and he asserted that onethe Prophet’s birth, he is said to have could ﬁnd the basis for nuclear physicsbeen involved in repelling the attack of in the Quran. His most popular work, ˆthe forces of the Ethiopian general The Theology of Unity, has inﬂuencedAbraha, who attacked Mecca. many subsequent modernists, such as Rashıd Rida. ˆ ˆ ˙¤Abd al-Qa dir b. ¤Alı b. Yu suf ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆal-Fa sı (1007/1598–1091/1680) ¤Abdulla h b. ¤Abd al-Mut t alib ˆ (died c. 570) ˙˙He was the chief member of the Sufı ˆ ˆestablishment in Morocco in the ˙ ele- Father of the Prophet Muhammad byventh/seventeenth century. He is primar- ˙ Aminah bt. Wahb, he was of the ˆily noted as the progenitor of a line of Ha shimite clan, and died before ˆreligious scholars and aristocrats in the Muhammad’s birth. According to thecity of Fas. ˆ ˆ ˙ sırah, he possessed the light (nur), ˆ ˆ which he implanted in Aminah, from ˆ¤Abd al-Rah ma n, ¤A ishah ˆ which came the Prophet.(born 1913) ˙Prominent Egyptian author who wrote Abdurrahman Wahid (bornunder the name Bint al-Shati¤. Her al- ˆ 1940)Tafsır al-bayanı lil-Qur an al-Karım ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Known as Gus Dur, he is a prominentargues for including the study of Indonesian modernist, reformist, andQuran in literary studies. Her writings ˆ theologian, leader of the Nahdatulabout women and Arabic literature can Ulama, an association of traditionalistbe regarded as religiously conservative. religious leaders. He became the pre-She has argued against historical inﬂu- sident of Indonesia in 1420/1999 in theence on the Quran and against multiple ˆ aftermath of scandals that had rocked
15 ˆ Abu Bakrthe country, but became caught up in abor tionscandals of his own, and, as this is being Abortion, when understood as the inten-written, is about to be impeached by the tional expulsion of the fetus to terminatelegislature. a pregnancy prior to full gestation, is regarded by most Muslim jurists asABIM contrary to Islamic law (sharı ¤ah) and, ˆAngkatan Belia Islam Malaysia, a therefore, blameworthy. Following theMalaysian Islamic youth movement principles of the sanctity of human life,founded by Anwar Ibrahim. The orga- abortion may not be used to terminatenization has widespread inﬂuence in an unwanted or unplanned pregnancy.Malaysian society. Some schools of law, such as the Hanafı ˆ school (madhhab), allow therapeutic ˙ abortion prior to the 120th day of theablution pregnancy, the day of Ensoulment, butRitual cleansing to remove impurities, only for valid concerns for the health ofablutions are of two sorts, major, ghusl, the mother. After ensoulment, the fetusand minor, wudu. Ghusl, the complete ˆ is regarded as having legal rights thatwashing of the˙ body, is required after can compete with the rights of thesexual intercourse, masturbation and mother.involuntary sexual emissions before aworshiper can perform a valid prayer, Abraharecite verses from the Quran or touch a ˆcopy of it. In order for the ghusl to be An Abyssinian general who ruled Yemenvalid, the worshiper must recite the and, according to legend, tried todeclaration of intent (niyyah). Wudu , ˆ capture Mecca in the year of Muham-the washing of the head, face, hands ˙ ˙ mad’s birth. His use of a war elephant andforearms to the elbows, and the washing and his defeat are referred to in Q. 105,of the feet three times, is required before known as the “chapter of the elephant.”prayer. Wudu is normally performed ˆ (See also fıl.) ˆwith ritually pure water, but, undersome circumstances, sand or dust may abrogation (Arabic naskh)be used accompanying the washing The doctrine, based on Q. 2:106; 13:39;gestures. This is known as tayammum. 16:101; 17:86; 87:6–7, that GodSunnı and Shı¤ı differ about some ˆ ˆˆ rescinded some previous revelation toaspects of this practice, Shı¤ı insisting ˆˆ the Prophet. Later jurists applied thethat the feet be washed, while some doctrine to argue that the Quran ˆSunnı allow the shoes to be rubbed if the ˆ superseded Jewish and Christian scrip-feet have been placed in clean shoes at ture. Jurists also used the doctrine tothe place of wudu . Mosques generally ˆ ˙ harmonize apparent contradictions inprovide facilities for wudu , and the ˆ ˙ the Quranic text. (See also Nasikh wa ˆ ˆtraditional bathhouse, the hammam, ˆ ˙was a place for ghusl. As a result of this ˆ Mansukh.)religious requirement, when Muslimsexpanded into what had been the ˆ Abu Bakr (573–13/634)ancient Roman world, they incorpo- Close Companion of Muh ammad,rated Roman waterworks and improved ˆ father of Muhammad’s wife ˙¤Aishah,on them. In the Middle Ages, Islamic ˙ and ﬁrst caliph of Islam, he accompa-cities were among the cleanest in the nied Muhammad on the hijrah. Whenworld, and Muslims were leaders in this ˙ he assumed the caliphate, the nature ofbranch of civil engineering. the ofﬁce had not been deﬁned, and Abuˆ
Abu Daud, Sulayman ˆ ˆˆ ˆ 16Bakr decided to follow the “example” of him. He claimed to have been inﬂuencedMuhammad. One of his ﬁrst acts was to by at-Tabarı and az-Zamakhsharı. ˆ ˆ ˙ ˙ ˙send Muslim forces north into Byzantineterritory, thus starting the expansion of ˆ Abu H anı ˆfah (81/700–150/767)Islam out of Arabia. Attacks by Arab ˙ Founder of the Hanafı school of Sunnı ˆ ˆtribes, challenging the new caliph and ˙ law, which is characterized by the use ofﬂedgling Muslim state, forced him to ray (individual legal opinion). Little ischange the job from part-time adminis- known about his life. He lived in Kufah ˆtrator to full-time general and leader of as a cloth merchant, and collected aa growing community. In the two years great number of traditions, which hethat he ruled, he set a pattern of strong, passed on to his students. He never heldpious governance. any ofﬁcial post or worked as a judge, (qadı ). ˆ ˆAbu Da u d, Sulayma n b. al- ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˙Ash¤ath (202/817–275/889) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ, Abu H a tim ar-Ra zı Ah mad b.One of the six highly ranked compilers ˙ˆ H amda n (died c. 322/934) ˙of hadıth in the Sunnı tradition. He ˙ ˙ ˆ ˆ An early Isma¤ılı da¤ı, who operated in ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆwrote most of his major works in the the region of Rayy (Tehran) and Day-city of Basrah, but is said to have lam. His best-known work is a diction- ˙traveled widely to collect the materials ary of theological terms. ˆfor his major work, the Kitab as-sunan.He is credited with being the ﬁrst to give ˆ ˆ Abu al-Hudhayl al-¤Alla f (c.detailed notes about his estimation of 131/749–235/849)the soundness or weakness of traditions,providing a basis for later hadıth criti- ˆ Mu¤tazilite theologian who helped ˙cism. While he does not rank as high as develop kalam. His theology served to ˆal-Bukharı and Muslim, his collection ˆ ˆ counter the foreign inﬂuences of hiscontains a number of citations not time, such as dualism, Greek philoso-contained in the works of those two. phy, and the anthropomorphists within the Muslim traditionalists. (See also Mu¤tazilah.) ˆ ˆ ˆAbu Dharr al-Ghifa rı (born 32/652) ˆ Abu Hurayrah (600–58/678)An early Companion of Muhammad ˙who advocated, during the reign of the A close Companion of the Prophet fromcaliph ¤Uthman, that more wealth be ˆ the battle of Khaybar (7/629), he wasgiven to the poor. Some accounts of his reputed to have a phenomenal memory,life say that he was the ﬁfth person to transmitting over 3,000 Prophetic tradi-believe in Muhammad. He is held as a tions. He is known as Abu Hurayrah ˆ ˙model of proper Islamic social justice by because when he worked as a goatherdsome modern Islamic socialists. (See also he kept a small kitten to play with. ˆsahabah.) Biographies attribute a number of uncer-˙ ˙ tain names to him, including ¤Abd Allah ˆ and ¤Abd ar-Rahman, names he took ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆAbu al-Futu h ar-Ra zı (died c. ˙ when he converted to Islam. He was525/1131) ˙ suspected by his contemporaries ofThe author of one of the earliest Shı¤ı ˆˆ fabrication, and modern scholarshipcommentaries on the Quran. He wrote ˆ assumes that some of the traditions werein Persian because Arabic was little ascribed to him at a later time, butunderstood by the majority around Western scholarship has probably been
17 ˆ ¤Adtoo harsh in attributing to him the Meccans. According to tradition he diedfabrication of those hadıths that are ˆ three years before the hijrah, uncon- ˙not genuine. (See also sahabah.) ˆ verted to Islam. Later Muslims have ˙ ˙ speculated about his fate, since he diedAbu Lahab, ¤Abd al-¤Uzza b. ˆ ˆ before the establishment of Islam but¤Abd al-Mut t alib had aided Muhammad and the Muslims ˙˙ ˙ so importantly.An uncle and violent opponent ofMuhammad, mentioned in Q. 111 as ˙condemned to Hell along with his wife Abu ¤Ubaydah (died 18/639) ˆfor their opposition. One of ten believers promised Paradise by Muhammad, he was a distinguished ˆAbu al-Layth as-Samarqandı ˆ, warrior˙ for Islam and was active in theNas r b. Muh ammad b. formation of the early Islamic state. ˙ ˙ ˆ ˆm (died c. 393/1002)Ibra hıA Hanafı theologian and jurist, his ˆ Abyssinia ˙works have become popular throughout Known in Arabic as Habash, Abyssinia,the Islamic world, particularly in South- now called Ethiopia, ˙ played an impor-east Asia. He wrote a tafsır, and several ˆ tant part in the early development ofother works, including a theological Islam. It was to there that Muhammadtract in question-and-answer form, titled sent the ﬁrst hijrah, a small ˙band of¤ Aqıdah, which has been printed in ˆ Muslims who were, according to tradi-Malaysia and Indonesia with interlinear tion, well received in the court of thetranslations. Christian ruler, who is said to have remarked on the similarity between ˆ ˆAbu al-Qa sim Christianity and Islam. In the pre- Islamic period, there were active tradeOne of the nicknames of the Prophet. relations between Abyssinia and(See also Muhammad.) ˙ Mecca, and it was from there that Abraha came. Islam penetrated only ˆ ˆAbu Sufya n (563–31/651) slowly into the interior of Ethiopia, butThe aristocratic general of the Mecca- the development of an active slave-tradebased opposition to Muhammad at the helped promote conversion to Islam ˙battles of Badr and Uhud. At the battle along the coast. In modern times,of Khandaq (the battle ˙ of the Trench) although Muslims comprise a largehe withdrew his troops, realizing the minority of the population, the countryfutility of the cause. He later accompa- is so thoroughly identiﬁed as Christiannied Muhammad on one of his cam- that Islam has little inﬂuence on the ˙paigns. He became one of Muhammad’s social and political fabric of the country. ˙fathers-in-law when the Prophet marriedone of his daughters, Umm Habıbah. ˆ ˆ ¤A d ˙ The people of the prophet Hud men- ˆAbu Ta lib ¤Abd Mana f b. ¤Abd ˆ ˆ ˆ tioned frequently in the Quran (Q.ˆ ˙al-Mut t alib ˙˙ 7:65ff., 11:50ff., 26:123ff., et passim.)Uncle of Muhammad and father of Their failure to heed Hud’s warnings ˆ ˆ ˙¤Alı. He provided support for Muham- resulted in their destruction. The people ˙mad after the death of his grandfather, ˆ of ¤A d, along with the people of¤Abd al-Mut t alib, and protected Thamud are mentioned in the Quran ˆ ˆ ˙˙Muhammad from attack by the pagan in the ranks of those destroyed by God ˙
adab 18for disobeying Him, as exemplars of bad forbidden by the sharı¤ ah is permissible. ˆbehavior. (See also ¤urf.)adab (Arabic: knowledge, politeness, ad h aˆand education) ˙˙ See ¤Id al-Adha. ˆ ˆThis term parallels the Arabic word ˙˙¤ilm, meaning “knowledge of the non- ˆ adha nreligious sciences.” Knowledge of thetwo combine to form a complete Mus- The call or announcement to prayerlim. preceding each of the ﬁve canonical prayers. In a mosque, it is made by a muezzin (Arabic mu adhdhin ), butAdam each Muslim can also pronounce theThe ﬁrst human created by God, and call. Sunnı and Shı¤ı practices vary ˆ ˆˆknown as Abu Bashar, the Father of ˆ slightly in their wording, and the tunesHumans, he was created out of clay and vary slightly from place to place in theallowed to dry, after which God Islamic world. The ﬁrst person to bebreathed into him His spirit. He is said appointed by Muhammad to call thein the Quran to be God’s viceroy, and ˆ ˙ Muslims to prayer was Bilal, whose ˆto have been taught all the names of stentorian voice could be heard through-things in the universe, which set him out Madınah. The Sunnı call consists of ˆ ˆabove the angels. All the angels pro- seven elements:strated themselves before Adam except ˆ ˆ 1. Allahu akbar: Allah is most great. ˆthe rebellious Iblıs. The ﬁgure of Adam ˆ 2. Ashhadu an la ilaha illa-llah: I testify ˆ ˆ ˆis prominent in many extra-Quranic ˆ that there is no deity but Allah. ˆlegends and stories. According to one 3. Ashhadu anna Muhammadan rasu- ˆof these, he built the foundations of the ˙ ˆ lullah: I testify that Muhammad isKa¤bah and performed the ﬁrst worship ˙ the prophet of God.there. In another story, an eagle and a 4. Hayya ¤ ala s-salat: Come to prayer. ˆ ˆﬁsh discussed their sighting of the ﬁrst ˙ ˙ ˙ ˆ 5. Hayya ¤ ala l-falah: Come to salvation.human and remarked that, because of his ˙ ˙ ˆ hu akbar: Allah is most great. 6. Alla ˆupright walk and his hands, they would ˆ ˆ ˆ 7. La ilaha illa-llah: There is no deitynot be left alone in the depths of the sea but Allah. ˆor the heights of the air. He is held to bethe ﬁrst prophet. (See also nabı.) ˆ These elements are repeated a varying number of times in each call, dependingadat or adat law on the region and the school of Islamic law. In many mosques, electronicCustomary law in Southeast Asian recordings on timers have replaced theIslamic communities regarded as harmo- human call. Shı¤ıs will add Ashhadu ˆˆnious with Islamic law and holding a anna ¤ Aliyyan walıyyu-llah (I testify ˆˆ ˆstatus close to natural law. Adat law, or that ¤Alı is protected by God), between ˆits equivalent, has developed alongside 3 and 4 above, and Hayya ¤ ala khayri-l- ˆsharı ¤ah and complementary to it to ˆ ¤ amal (Come to the ˙best deed) betweenprovide regulation of those areas that 5 and 6 above.sharı¤ah does not cover. There has been ˆmuch discussion among legal scholarsabout the role and legitimacy of adat adoptionlaw, but most allow its function on the Adoption has no standing in sharı ¤ah in ˆprinciple that what is not expressly spite of Muhammad’s adoption of Zayd ˙
19 ˆ ˆ Agha Khanb. Harithah. The adopted child retains ˆ languages are Pashtu and Persian ˙both the biological family name and (Darı), and a minority of the population ˆ ˆinheritance status. Muslims have speaks Uzbek, Turkmen, Balochi, andresorted to using such devices as the Pashi. Bilingualism is common. Itswaqf to provide inheritance out- diverse inhabitants are predominantlyside the sharı¤ ah’s strictures. ˆ Sunnı, with about ﬁfteen percent Shı¤ı. ˆ ˆˆ Having achieved independence from the Soviet occupation in 1409/1989, until ˆ ˆ, ˆ ˆnal-Afgha nı Jama l al-Dı recently it was under the rule of the(1839–97) Taliban, an Islamist group whose aim is ˆ ˆIslamic modernist, pan-Islamist, and ˙ to rule Afghanistan according to theiranti-imperialist, who inﬂuenced strict interpretation of the sharı ¤ah. ˆMuhammad ¤Abduh and Rashıd Rida ˆ ˆ The estimated population in 2000 was ˙ ˙among others. His diverse ideas have 24.8 million.become popular with many differentmodernist groups. Afsharids The dynasty that ruled Iran from 1736Afghanistan to 1796 and was named after itsSituated in Central Asia, and historically founder, Nadir Shah Afshar. ˆ ˆ ˆpart of Persia, or Greater Iran, thisMuslim country has been a buffer in afterlifethe post-World War II period between The Quran is ﬁlled with passages that ˆPakistan, Iran, and a number of former indicate that all souls will have anSoviet Islamic republics. The ofﬁcial afterlife, either in Heaven or in Hell, depending on each person’s faith and actions in this life, and that every soul will be judged at the Day of Judgment (yawm ad-dın). Muslims differ about ˆ whether torment or reward starts imme- diately or is deferred until the Day of Judgment and whether believers will actually behold the face of God in Paradise. (See also jahannam; al- Jannah; Munkar wa-Nakır) ˆ ˆ ˆ Agha Kha n Title of the Imam of the Nizarı Isma¤ılı ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ leader since the nineteenth century. The ˆ current Imam, Prince Karim al-Husayni, Agha Khan IV, is held to be the forty- ˆ ˆ ˆ ninth hereditary Imam directly des- cended from ¤Alı and Muhammad’s ˆ ˙ daughter, Fatimah. In addition to his ˆ ˙ role as a spiritual and intellectual leader of the community, the current Agha ˆ Khan has founded the Agha Khan ˆ ˆ ˆ Shrine complex of Ali, Mazar-i Sharif, Foundation, a recognized leader in Afghanistan. international development.
¤ahd 20¤ahd (Arabic: command, covenant) and that it was for the family that theThis term is used in the Quran to mean, ˆ world was created.among other things, God’s covenantwith humans and the commands in that ahl al-dhimmahcovenant. It also means a religious See dhimmı. ˆpledge or vow, such as to fast undercertain circumstances. By extension, it ahl al-h adı ˆth (Arabic: supportershas also come to mean a political or civil ˙ of tradition)agreement or contract, which is oftenpledged with religious reference or The term generally refers to those in thesanctions. second Islamic century who advocated the centrality of hadı th from the ˆ ˙ Prophet in the formation of the Islamicahl al-ahwa (Arabic: people of ˆ state. While there was considerableinclination) debate about how to apply the hadıth, ˆ ˙ and which were valid, the traditionistsDerived from a term in the Quran ˆmeaning “predilection,” it is applied in also came to mean those who, in sub-the Sunnı tradition to people who ˆ sequent centuries, stood in opposition todeviate from the accepted general norm making speculative theology, kalam, ˆof beliefs and practices, without, how- central to religious understanding.ever, becoming heretics or apostates. ahl-i h adı ˆth (Persian/Urdu fromahl al-bayt (Arabic: people of the Arabic: ˙people of tradition)house) Those members of a sect of Muslims in India and Pakistan who claim to followThis term occurs twice in the Quran ˆ only the traditions of the Prophet. They(Q. 11:73, 33:33). In Q. 11:73 it refers reject the necessity to follow any schoolto the “house” or family of the prophet (madhhab) of Islamic law or any otherIbrahım, while in Q. 33:33 it has a ˆ ˆ form of taqlıd. They attempt to identify ˆmore general sense. In its pre-Islamic and eliminate any innovative practiceusage, the term was applied to the ruling (bid¤ah) from any source. As a result,family of a clan or tribe, and thus it their opponents call them Wahhabı, ˆ ˆimplies a certain nobility and right to after the movement in Arabia, but theyrule. In post-Quranic usage, particu- ˆ deny this, since they hold that even thelarly among the Shı¤ı, it has come to ˆˆ Wahhabı are practitioners of taqlıd, ˆ ˆ ˆmean the people or family of the house- since they accept the legal pronounce-hold of the Prophet, in particular ments of Ahmad b. Hanbal. The move-Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, ˙ ˙ ment, which originated in the nineteenth¤Alı˙ b. Abı Talib, his wife, the Prophet’s ˆ ˆ ˆ ˙ century, has an active training network,daughter, Fatimah, their sons Hasan ˆ with its own schools and publications,b. ¤Alı and Husayn b. ¤Alı and ˙ their ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙ ˆ the most prominent of which is Ahl al-descendants (Imams), revered especially hadıth, a weekly publication. ˆby the Ithna ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı. One of ˆ ˆˆ ˙the main differences between Shı¤ı and ˆˆSunnı beliefs is the strong reverence ˆ ahl al-h all wa-al-¤aqd (Arabic:held among the Shı¤ıs for the family of ˆˆ people of˙inﬂuence)the Prophet. In popular belief, this is The person or persons qualiﬁed to electsometimes raised to a cosmological a caliph (khalıfah) in Islamic political ˆlevel, with the belief that the family of theory. The number varies from onethe Prophet holds the world together, person, usually a caliph designating a