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Figure 2.8 (a) A ball bouncing down a flight of stairs provides an analogy for energy levels of electrons. Third shell (highest energy level in this model) Second shell (higher Energy energy level) absorbed First shell (lowest energy level) Energy lost Atomic nucleus (b)
Figure 2.10 First shell Neon, with two filled Shells (10 electrons) Second shell (a) Electron distribution diagram First shell Second shell x y z 1s orbital 2s orbital Three 2p orbitals (b) Separate electron orbitals 1s, 2s, and 2p orbitals (c) Superimposed electron orbitals
Figure 2.12 Name and Electron Lewis Dot Space- Molecular Distribution Structure and Filling Formula Diagram Structural Model Formula (a) Hydrogen (H2) (b) Oxygen (O2) (c) Water (H2O) (d) Methane (CH4)
Figure 2.17 z Four hybrid orbitals s orbital Three p orbitals x y Tetrahedron (a) Hybridization of orbitals Space-Filling Ball-and-Stick Hybrid-Orbital Model Model Model (with ball-and-stick model superimposed) Unbonded Electron pair Water (H2O) Methane (CH4) (b) Molecular-shape models