Cca different typesofspeeches_0905

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Cca different typesofspeeches_0905

  1. 1. Preparing a Speech Plus the different types of speeches 2006 © Andree’s Attic Created by: Andree Swanson
  2. 2. Different Types of Speeches <ul><li>Informative </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasive </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking on a Special Occasion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Different Types of Speeches <ul><li>INFORMATIVE SPEECH: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides an audience with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new insights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new ways of thinking about a topic </li></ul></ul></ul>- Aa Inform your audience about a special trip to Paris.
  4. 4. Different Types of Speeches <ul><li>PERSUASIVE SPEECH: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The speakers intention is to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acts of others. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Different Types of Speeches <ul><li>SPEAKING ON SPECIAL OCCASION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it is one that is prepared for a specific occasion and for a purpose dictated by that occasion </li></ul></ul>- Aa
  6. 6. Informative Speech Types <ul><li>Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Events </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul>
  7. 7. Informative Speech <ul><li>“ Speak properly, and in as few words as you can, but always plainly; for the end of speech is not ostentation, but to be understood.” </li></ul><ul><li>William Penn </li></ul>
  8. 8. Speeches About Objects <ul><li>Digital Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Laptop computers </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones </li></ul><ul><li>The brain </li></ul><ul><li>Survey of weight-loss diets </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering strategies </li></ul>
  9. 9. Speeches About People <ul><li>Run-way Models </li></ul><ul><li>Flood victims </li></ul><ul><li>Saddam Hussein </li></ul><ul><li>John Elway, becomes the Denver Broncos first Pro Football Hall of Fame Inductee </li></ul>About any person or group of people that meets the informational goal.
  10. 10. Speeches About Events <ul><li>The history of Colonial Americans </li></ul><ul><li>1929 Stock Market Crash </li></ul><ul><li>March 19, 2003 President Bush announces the start of the war with Iraq </li></ul>Any current or historical event that meets the informational goal
  11. 11. Speeches About Processes <ul><li>Pruning rose bushes </li></ul><ul><li>Isolating DNA in cells </li></ul><ul><li>How laughter improves health </li></ul><ul><li>How tornadoes are formed </li></ul><ul><li>How chocolate is good for you </li></ul>About anything that is best explained in terms of how it is made, how it works, or how it is performed.
  12. 12. Speeches About Concepts <ul><li>Maslow’s Motivation Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Employee motivation theory - - Theory X and Y </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the status of endangered species </li></ul>About any abstract or complex concept that requires explanation
  13. 13. Speeches About Issues <ul><li>Racial profiling </li></ul><ul><li>Your legal rights </li></ul><ul><li>Political issues in the Middle East </li></ul>About any issue or problem, as long as the speaker focuses on enlarging the audience’s understanding and awareness rather than on advocating one position versus another.
  14. 14. Strategy for Presenting Content <ul><li>explaining what it does </li></ul><ul><li>describing what it is not </li></ul><ul><li>providing several concrete examples </li></ul><ul><li>comparing it to something with which it is synonymous </li></ul><ul><li>illustrating the root meaning of the term in question </li></ul>
  15. 15. Defining Information <ul><li>Description – listeners want enough detail to allow them to form a mental picture of the person, place event or process under consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation – You provide reasons or causes, demonstrate relationships and offer interpretation and analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration – To explain how something works or to actually demonstrate it, a model, visual aid, or actual object. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Arrange Main Points in a Pattern <ul><li>Thesis Statements </li></ul><ul><li>Main Points: I. II. III. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Organizational Patterns <ul><li>People —chronological, topical, narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Events —chronological, cause-effect, narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Processes —chronological, narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Issues —chronological, cause-effect, topical, circle </li></ul><ul><li>Objects —spatial, topical </li></ul>
  18. 18. Preview Main Points <ul><li>Define your terms </li></ul><ul><li>Include neither too much nor too little </li></ul><ul><li>Present new and interesting information </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce your message through repetition and parallelism </li></ul><ul><li>Relate the unknown to the familiar </li></ul><ul><li>Use visualization </li></ul>
  19. 19. Persuasive Speech <ul><li>“ Persuasion is often more effectual than force.” </li></ul><ul><li>Homer </li></ul>
  20. 20. Goals for a Persuasive Speech <ul><li>Is to advocate, or to ask others to accept your views. </li></ul><ul><li>to influence the attitudes, beliefs, values, and acts of others. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Achieving your Persuasive Speech Goal <ul><li>Make your message personally relevant to the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly demonstrate how any change you propose will benefit the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Expect minor rather than major changes in your listeners attitudes and behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Target issues that audience member feel strongly about. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish creditability with your audience. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Target Listener’s Needs <ul><li>Physiological needs </li></ul><ul><li>Safety needs </li></ul><ul><li>Social needs </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem needs </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualization </li></ul>Chart from http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/maslow.html Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  23. 23. Physiological Needs <ul><li>Plan for and accommodate the audience’s physiological needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are they likely to be hot, cold, hungry, or thirsty? </li></ul></ul>Basic sustenance, including food, water and air.
  24. 24. Safety Needs <ul><li>Appeal to safety benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how wearing seatbelts or voting for a bill to stop pollution will remove a threat or protect the audience members from harm. </li></ul></ul>To feel protected and secure
  25. 25. Social Needs <ul><li>Appeal to social benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if you want teenagers to quit smoking, stress that if they quit they will appear more physically fit and attractive to their peers. </li></ul></ul>To find acceptance; to have lasting, meaningful relationships .
  26. 26. Self-esteem Needs <ul><li>Appeal to emotional benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When proposing a change in attitudes or behavior, stress that the proposed changed will make listeners feel better about themselves. </li></ul></ul>To feel good about ourselves; self-worth
  27. 27. Self-actualization Needs <ul><li>Appeal to your listener’s need to fulfill their potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress how adopting your position will help them be all that they can be. </li></ul></ul>To achieve goals; to reach our highest potential
  28. 28. Avoid Fallacies in Reasoning <ul><li>Begging the question </li></ul><ul><li>Band-wagoning </li></ul><ul><li>Ad hominem argument </li></ul><ul><li>Red herring </li></ul>
  29. 29. Begging the question <ul><li>If you ‘beg a question’, you assume acceptance of a parameter that may not apply. </li></ul><ul><li>Here is an example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You can trust me.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How do I know that?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Because I’m honest.” </li></ul></ul>Source: http://www.roomours.co.uk/ryder3.htm
  30. 30. Band-wagoning <ul><li>The appeal may be to follow the crowd. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Overwhelming support for looser controls on the legalization of marijuana.“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;The public have indicated that.“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;All respondents.&quot; implies that everyone is doing it, those that are not, are outsiders and should do the same. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Let’s jump on the band-wagon.” </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Ad hominem argument <ul><li>Also known as attacking the person argument. </li></ul><ul><li>This is an argument or assertion that addresses the person presenting the argument or assertion rather than the argument itself. </li></ul>Source: http://users.rcn.com/rostmd/winace/pics/#ad_hom
  32. 32. Red herring <ul><li>This is where an irrelevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;We admit that the bill is not popular. But we also urge you to note that there are so many bond issues on this ballot that the whole thing is getting ridiculous.&quot; </li></ul>
  33. 33. Persuasive Strategies and Audience Type <ul><li>Stress areas of agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Address opposing views </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t expect major change in attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the refutation pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Wait until the end before asking audience to act, if at all. </li></ul>Hostile audience or those that strongly disagree Strategies:
  34. 34. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Need </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Visualization </li></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul>The five-step process that begins with arousing listeners’ attention and ends with calling for action.
  35. 35. <ul><li>Step 1: Attention - Addresses listeners’ core concerns, making the speech highly relevant to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Need – The need step isolates and describes the issue to be addressed </li></ul>Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
  36. 36. <ul><li>Step 3: Satisfaction – Identifies the solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Visualization – Provides the audience with vision of anticipation outcomes associated with the solution. </li></ul>Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
  37. 37. <ul><li>Step 5: Action – When the speaker asks audience members to act according to their acceptance of the message. </li></ul>Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
  38. 38. Special Occasion Speech <ul><li>“ Don’t reserve your best behavior for special occasions….” </li></ul><ul><li>Lillian Eichler Watson </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Entertain </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrate </li></ul><ul><li>Commemorate </li></ul><ul><li>Inspire </li></ul><ul><li>Set social agendas </li></ul>Special Occasion Speech One that is prepared for a specific occasion and for a purpose dictated by that occasion. They can be informative or persuasive.
  40. 40. Speeches of Introduction <ul><li>Describe the speaker’s background and qualifications. </li></ul><ul><li>Briefly preview the speaker’s topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the audience to welcome the speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>Be brief. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Speeches of Acceptance <ul><li>Prepare in advance </li></ul><ul><li>Express what the award means to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Express gratitude </li></ul>
  42. 42. Speeches of Presentation <ul><li>Convey the meaning of the award </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why the recipient is receiving the award </li></ul><ul><li>Plan the physical presentation </li></ul>
  43. 43. Roasts and Toasts <ul><li>Prepare </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight remarkable traits of the person being honored </li></ul><ul><li>Be positive </li></ul><ul><li>Be brief </li></ul>
  44. 44. Eulogy <ul><li>Balance delivery and emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to the family of the deceased </li></ul><ul><li>Be positive but realistic. Emphasize the deceased’s positive qualities while avoiding excessive praise. </li></ul>
  45. 45. After-dinner Speeches <ul><li>Recognize the occasion. Connect the speech with the occasion. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep remarks sufficiently low-key to accompany the digestion of a meal </li></ul>
  46. 46. Speeches of Inspiration <ul><li>Appeal to audience member’s emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Use real-life stories </li></ul><ul><li>By dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Make your goal clear </li></ul><ul><li>Close with a dramatic ending. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Some additional sources <ul><li>Allyn & Bacon Public Speaking Website </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://wps.ablongman.com/ab_public_speaking_2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed as a companion to a textbook, this website contains five modules on assessing, analyzing, researching, organizing, and delivering a speech.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>History Channel: Great Speeches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.historychannel.com/speeches/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hear speeches by Hank Aaron, Irving Berlin, Charles Lindbergh, Charles de Gaulle, and other notable individuals. </li></ul></ul>

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