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ADP L8 Conclusion and Abstract


Part 8 of a series of lessons on writing an academic paper. Presented in English to graduate students at Kansai University, Osaka, Japan.

Part 8 of a series of lessons on writing an academic paper. Presented in English to graduate students at Kansai University, Osaka, Japan.

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  • Usually when you reach the Conclusion Section, you are very tired and just want to finish the paper, but the Conclusion Section is one of the most important sections of your paper.At this point, you need an energy drink and need to give your paper all the final strength that you have. Garatte!
  • Remember your audience and include information that will help your audience understand your paper


  • 1. Lesson 8 Academic PaperConclusion Section and Abstract
    Kansai University 2011
  • 2. Parts of an Academic Paper
    Body of the Paper
    Results and Discussion
  • 3. Body of Academic Paper (1)
    Introductory Paragraph
    Literature Review
    Concluding Paragraph
    Introductory Paragraph
    Step-by-step Description of Procedure
    Explanation of How Data was Analyzed
    Concluding Paragraph
  • 4. Body of Academic Paper (2)
    Results & Discussion
    Introductory Paragraph
    Present your data
    Information about your data
    Tables and Figures
    Explain your data
    Concluding Paragraph
  • 5. Writing a Paragraph
    Every paragraph contains one idea
    Parts of a Paragraph
    Topic Sentence
    Explains what the main idea of the paragraph is about
    Supporting Sentences
    Supports the topic sentence
    Concluding Sentence
    Summarizes what the paragraph said
  • 6. Introductory and Concluding Paragraphs
    Remember to make a “sandwich” in each section
    Introductory Paragraph
    Gives an overview of the following paragraphs
    Gives main ideas only
    Makes the reader want to continue reading
    Concluding Paragraph
    Summarizes what your wrote in the section
    Repeats the main points of the previous paragraphs
    Helps the reader understand the importance of what you did in the section
  • 7. Transition Words (1)
    To show timeafter, before, currently, during, earlier, later, recently
    To show more information in addition, also, furthermore, equally important
    To show similarity in the same way, similarly, likewise
    To show an exception but, however, on the other hand
  • 8. Transition Words (2)
    To show a sequence first, second, third, next, then, lastly, finally
    To emphasizein fact, of course, in reality
    To show cause and effectas a result, consequently, therefore, thus
    To conclude in summary, in conclusion,
  • 9. Purpose of the Conclusion Section
    The Conclusion Section is difficult to write, but is one of the most important sections in your paper.
    The purpose of the Conclusion Section is to restate the important points.
    Summarize your ideas.
    Emphasize the importance of your thesis and ideas.
    Help the reader obtain or get a new view of the subject.
    Do not include new or unnecessary information.
    Suggest future implications or research.
  • 10. The Conclusion Section
    What was your thesis about and why was it important?
    Repeat your thesis statement.
    Summarize your major ideas.
    What did your research show? (Include main ideas only.)
    What new information did your research add?
    What were some shortcomings or things that did not work well?
    What questions are still not answered? (Future implications)
    Keep this section short.
  • 11. Sample Concluding Paragraph
     Although there is room for improvement in the use of Facebook for collaborative projects, Facebook was a convenient and useful tool for communication when conducting projects with students in different countries. Kansai University and University of Hawaii students could exchange ideas and information through the use of Facebook groups. Using Facebook for learning provided an authentic means for practicing foreign languages and communicating with native speakers. However, students found that use of other SNS such as Skype assisted in the learning and communication process. Further research can be done to examine ways that Facebook can be used with other SNS for collaborative projects.
  • 12. Concluding Section Activity
    In your groups, discuss the following conclusion. Find any errors or missing information. Suggest how to make this paragraph a better conclusion to a paper.
    Ask the following questions
    What is the topic sentence, which should explain the thesis of the research?
    What did the research show? (Include main ideas only.)
    What new information was added by the research?
    What were problems or what did not work well?
    What are future implications?
    What is the concluding sentence?
  • 13. Concluding Paragraph (1)
    Ten students were interview after traveling abroad to study in Hawaii. They studied in Hawaii for one semester.Seven students used Facebook to talk to their friends in Hawaii. 3 students used Skype. The students who used Facebook continued to communicate with their friends in Hawaii 2months after they returned to Japan. And the students who used Skype did not contact their Hawaii friends two months later. Because of the time is different in Hawaii and Japan. This research showed that Facebook helped students keep in touch with friends in Hawaii. All students were happy to go to Hawaii to study for one semester. But it was expensive. There is many ways to improve this research.In the future, I will study abroad to collect more data. My research hypothesis was SNS helped students keep in touch with friends that they made when studying abroad.
  • 14. Concluding Paragraph (2)
    Social Networking Services (SNS) is useful in facilitating communication between people in different countries. In this study, 10 Kansai University students were interviewed about their use of SNS after returning to Japan from Hawaii. Students who used Facebook continued to communicate with their friends in Hawaii after they returned to Japan. However, students who used Skype did not contact their friends in Hawaii because of the time difference between the two countries. This research was limited by the small number of students surveyed. Further research can be done by interviewing a larger number of students and examining other types of SNS that students may use while studying abroad. However, the results suggest that SNS can help students stay in touch with friends after they return to Japan
  • 15. Purpose of the Abstract
    Give a short, powerful paragraph about your research paper.
    Gives the highlights of your report.
    Should be understandable without reading the paper.
    Remember your audience.
    Include important details.
    Allows the reader to decide if your paper is worth reading.
  • 16. Contents of the Abstract (1)
    What was the purpose of your research?
    What was your thesis?
    What problem did your research address or look into?
    What background will the reader need to understand the importance of your research?
    Who were the participants?
    What tools or applications did you use?
    What are policies that relate to your topic?
    Japan’s Ministry of Education (MEXT) directives
    New NGO policies
  • 17. Contents of the Abstract (2)
    What research methods did you use?
    Briefly explain your method.
    Where did you do your research?
    How did you gather data?
    How did you analyze data?
    What were the main results of your research?
    What is your conclusion and recommendations?
  • 18. Sample Abstract
    Abstract: Facebook can provide an important means of communication during collaborative projects. This paper will discuss the use of Facebook for language learning and intercultural exchange in a collaborative project between classes in Japan and Hawaii. Although there is much literature in the field of online intercultural exchange and collaboration using the Internet, the use of Facebook in such intercultural exchange is still new with little literature on this subject. This paper outlines the learning design of the classes involved in the collaborative project and suggests in-class activities that facilitate the use of Facebook in collaboration. This paper will report quantitative and qualitative data obtained from student participants and discuss the challenges, such as language and cultural barriers that inhibited collaboration. The advantage of using other SNS in conjunction with Facebook will be discussed as well as future directions to improve use of Facebook for collaborative projects.
  • 19. Abstract Homework
    Check paragraphs in your paper for topic sentences and concluding sentences.
    Write an introductory and concluding paragraph for each section.
    If you are ready, write a conclusion for your paper.
    Write an abstract for your paper.
    Bring copies of your abstract to the next class. Share your abstract with your group members for a peer review.
    Write your reflection in Facebook.
  • 20. Today’s Class Conclusion
    Writing an academic paper is not easy, but an important part of university life.
    Academic papers provide new research and information to improve areas or solve problems.
    Writing a paper requires dedication, effort, perseverance and hard work.
    Remember that your research and results can make the world a better place.
  • 21. Question and Answers
    Kansai University
    Spring 2011