ADP L7 Tables and Figures
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ADP L7 Tables and Figures



Part 7 of a series of lessons on writing an academic paper. Presented in English to graduate students at Kansai University, Osaka, Japan.

Part 7 of a series of lessons on writing an academic paper. Presented in English to graduate students at Kansai University, Osaka, Japan.



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  • Have students fill in missing data in Google spreadsheet.Make a copy of the spreadsheet first.
  • Have students insert a new table (go to next sheet)
  • Give examples or phrases to use

ADP L7 Tables and Figures ADP L7 Tables and Figures Presentation Transcript

  • Lesson 7 Academic PaperTables and Figures
    Kansai University 2011
  • Body of Academic Paper (1)
    Introductory Paragraph
    Literature Review
    Concluding Paragraph or Study Overview
    Introductory Paragraph
    Step-by-step Description of Procedure
    Explanation of How Data was Analyzed
    Concluding Paragraph
  • Body of Academic Paper (2)
    Results & Discussion
    Introductory Paragraph
    Present your data
    Information about your data
    Tables and Figures
    Explain your data
    Concluding Paragraph
  • Use a Spreadsheet
    Use Excel® or Google DocsTM
    When you have data in a spreadsheet, you can
    Sort the data
    Count the data
    Use formulas (percent %, sums or totals)
    Use functions (average, countif, lookup)
    Compile statistical information (correlation, deviation)
    Data can easily be analyzed.
    Tables and figures are easily made.
  • Demonstration
    Using multiple worksheets
    Sorting data
    Using Formulas
    Example: D6=B5+C5
    Using Functions
    Example: B36=Sum(B5:B35)
    Inserting a Figure
    See Google Document example
  • Tables: Important Points
    Is it necessary?
    No vertical lines (for columns)
    Caption at bottom
    Axes labeled
    Legend for different groups of data
    In text, tell reader what to look for
    As shown in Table X, ...
    KIS (Keep it simple)
  • Example of a Table
    Table 1.
    Communication technologies used by 35 students
  • Figures:Important Points
    Charts, graphs, drawings, or photos.
    Is it needed? Does it help the reader?
    Figure number and title (bottom):
    (X) Figure 2. Population
    (O)Figure 2. Population of Honolulu, 2002.
    Legend & labels
  • Example of a Figure
    Figure 1. Student use of communication technologies
  • What to Avoid
    Too much data in one table or figure
    Separate into parts
    Remove irrelevant data
    Too many fonts, colors. lines and shapes
    Can y♥uread this easily?
    Missing titles or legends
    Text too small and unreadable
  • Discussion of Results (1)
    In the discussion section, the results are examined, interpreted, and evaluated.
    The discussion section usually opens by clearly stating whether the hypothesis was supported by the results.
    Give the big picture first
    Example: The results of this research show that Facebook is used more than Mixi when Japanese students study abroad.
  • Discussion of Results (2)
    The broader implications of the results should be discussed.
    Example: The results suggest that students may improve their collaboration skills through educational service projects in a developing country.
    If the results did not support the hypothesis, give a reasonable explanation (NOT a list of excuses).
    I was sick and did not have any time.
    My team members did not give me all the data.
  • Discussion of Results (3)
    Problems with the methods should be discussed with the suggestions to improve the study.
    Example:A larger number of students surveyed is needed to confirm the difference shown in this study.
    Offer suggestions for future research.
    Example:Newer technologies, such as smart phone applications, may identify trends in the use of social media by high school students.
  • Homework
    Finish writing the results and discussion section for your practice paper.
    Continue with the same Google Document.
    Include one table. Label properly.
    Include one figure..
    Write a concluding paragraph
    Write an introductory paragraph (or review and revise it).
    Write reflections about what you learned and how you can applythis lesson when write your paper.
    Post reflection in FaceBook ADP Group.
  • Question and Answers
    Kansai University
    Spring 2011