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# ADP L7 Tables and Figures

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Part 7 of a series of lessons on writing an academic paper. Presented in English to graduate students at Kansai University, Osaka, Japan.

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• Have students insert a new table (go to next sheet)
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• ### ADP L7 Tables and Figures

1. 1. Lesson 7 Academic PaperTables and Figures<br />Kansai University 2011<br />
2. 2. Body of Academic Paper (1)<br />Introduction<br />Introductory Paragraph<br />Literature Review<br />Concluding Paragraph or Study Overview<br />Methods<br />Introductory Paragraph<br />Participants<br />Step-by-step Description of Procedure<br />Explanation of How Data was Analyzed<br />Concluding Paragraph<br />
3. 3. Body of Academic Paper (2)<br />Results & Discussion<br />Introductory Paragraph<br />Present your data<br />Information about your data <br />Tables and Figures<br />Explain your data<br />Concluding Paragraph<br />Conclusion<br />
4. 4. Use a Spreadsheet<br />Use Excel® or Google DocsTM<br />When you have data in a spreadsheet, you can<br />Sort the data<br />Count the data<br />Use formulas (percent %, sums or totals)<br />Use functions (average, countif, lookup)<br />Compile statistical information (correlation, deviation)<br />Data can easily be analyzed.<br />Tables and figures are easily made.<br />
5. 5. Demonstration<br />Using multiple worksheets<br />Sorting data<br />Using Formulas<br />Example: D6=B5+C5<br />Using Functions <br />Example: B36=Sum(B5:B35)<br />Inserting a Figure<br />See Google Document example<br />Example: http://tinyurl.com/lesson7worksheet<br />
6. 6. Tables: Important Points <br />Is it necessary?<br />No vertical lines (for columns)<br />Caption at bottom<br />Axes labeled<br />Legend for different groups of data<br />In text, tell reader what to look for<br />As shown in Table X, ...<br />KIS (Keep it simple)<br />
7. 7. Example of a Table<br />Table 1. <br />Communication technologies used by 35 students<br />
8. 8. Figures:Important Points<br />Charts, graphs, drawings, or photos.<br />Is it needed? Does it help the reader?<br />Figure number and title (bottom):<br />(X) Figure 2. Population<br />(O)Figure 2. Population of Honolulu, 2002.<br />Legend & labels<br />KIS<br />
9. 9. Example of a Figure<br />Figure 1. Student use of communication technologies <br />
10. 10. What to Avoid <br />Too much data in one table or figure<br />Separate into parts<br />Remove irrelevant data<br />Too many fonts, colors. lines and shapes<br />Can y♥uread this easily? <br />Missing titles or legends<br />Text too small and unreadable<br />
11. 11. Discussion of Results (1)<br />In the discussion section, the results are examined, interpreted, and evaluated. <br />The discussion section usually opens by clearly stating whether the hypothesis was supported by the results.<br />Give the big picture first<br />Example: The results of this research show that Facebook is used more than Mixi when Japanese students study abroad.<br />
12. 12. Discussion of Results (2)<br />The broader implications of the results should be discussed.<br />Example: The results suggest that students may improve their collaboration skills through educational service projects in a developing country.<br />If the results did not support the hypothesis, give a reasonable explanation (NOT a list of excuses). <br />I was sick and did not have any time.<br />My team members did not give me all the data.<br />
13. 13. Discussion of Results (3)<br />Problems with the methods should be discussed with the suggestions to improve the study.<br />Example:A larger number of students surveyed is needed to confirm the difference shown in this study. <br />Offer suggestions for future research.<br />Example:Newer technologies, such as smart phone applications, may identify trends in the use of social media by high school students.<br />
14. 14. Homework<br />Finish writing the results and discussion section for your practice paper.<br />Continue with the same Google Document.<br />Include one table. Label properly.<br />Include one figure..<br />Write a concluding paragraph<br />Write an introductory paragraph (or review and revise it).<br />Write reflections about what you learned and how you can applythis lesson when write your paper.<br />Post reflection in FaceBook ADP Group.<br />
15. 15. Question and Answers<br />Kansai University<br />Spring 2011<br />