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Part 6 of a series of lessons on writing an academic paper. Presented in English to graduate students at Kansai University, Osaka, Japan.

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1. 1. Lesson 6 Academic PaperResults Section<br />Kansai University Spring 2011<br />
2. 2. Body of Academic Paper (1)<br />Introduction<br />Introductory Paragraph<br />Literature Review<br />Concluding Paragraph or Study Overview<br />Methods<br />Introductory Paragraph<br />Participants<br />Step-by-step Description of Procedure<br />Explanation of How Data was Analyzed<br />Concluding Paragraph<br />
3. 3. Body of Academic Paper (2)<br />Results & Discussion<br />Introductory Paragraph<br />Present your data<br />Information about your data <br />Tables and Figures<br />Explain your data<br />Concluding Paragraph<br />Conclusion<br />
4. 4. Purpose of Results Section<br />The purpose of the Results Section is to report the results of your data analysis.<br />Describe how you analyzed the results related to your study.<br />Briefly mention any problems or missing data.<br />Avoid talking about whether your results were positive or negative. Save that for the Conclusion or Discussion Section.<br />
5. 5. Introductory Paragraph<br />Restate your hypothesis or the purpose of your research<br />Present the main findings of your data<br />Describe how you analyzed your data<br />Briefly state the results of your research<br />Write your introductory paragraph after you organized and explained your data.<br />
6. 6. Your Results (1)<br />Tell us the answer immediately.<br />Describe what you found in your data.<br />Start with BIG picture, then give detail.<br />Explain method of data analysis.<br />Ex: How raw data was coded into useful data.<br />Explain special conditions related to obtaining your data.<br />Explain shortcomings or data that is missing.<br />
7. 7. Your Results (2)<br />Provide tables and figures to easily view your data.<br />Tables and figures should be understandable without reading your explanation.<br />Avoid putting too much data in one table.<br />If there is a lot of data, separate them into parts.<br />Write a summary of the results of your table or figures.<br />Discuss only your major findings (2-5).<br />
8. 8. Example of a Table<br />Table 1. Communication technologies used by 35 students<br />
9. 9. Example of a Figure<br />Figure 1. Student use of communication technologies <br />
10. 10. Publishing a Table<br />Table 1. Communication technologies used by 35 students<br />
11. 11. Publishing a Figure<br />Figure 1. Student use of communication technologies <br />
12. 12. Concluding Paragraph<br />Summarize your research results.<br />Include main ideas of your results.<br />State key findings for your data.<br />State any shortcomings of your research.<br />Offer ideas for future research.<br />Keep this section short (1-2 paragraphs).<br />
13. 13. Conclusion<br />This is an important section because it shows what you learned from your research.<br />It should convince the reader that your hypothesis is correct.<br />Make some recommendations based on the results.<br />Suggest ways for improving the results.<br />Offer ideas for future research.<br />