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  • 1. INTE  6710  ~  Creative  Designs  for  Instructional  Materials  Project  3:  Stand-­‐Alone  Presentation  Design  Document  Kim  Prokosch  November  1 8,  2 011  1. Significant  Purpose  My  presentation  is  Evaluation  Methods  for  eLearning,  and  it  will  teach  learners  the  basic  principles  of  different  evaluation  methods  as  applied  to  eLearning  products.  My  colleague  Kenny  Hirschmann  and  I  are  redeveloping  INTE  5160  (Managing  Information  and  Learning  Technology  Programs),  and  this  is  one  of  the  topics  that  will  be  presented  in  week  six  of  the  new  version  of  the  course.  My  presentation  will  teach  the  students  in  INTE  5160  course  about  the  basic  principles  of  four  evaluation  methods:  Return  on  Investment  (ROI),  Cost  Effectiveness  Analysis  (CEA),  the  Success  Case  Method  (SCM),  and  Learning  Impact  Measurement  Framework  (LIMF).  My  presentation  will  provide  information  regarding  all  of  these  approaches,  and  will  illustrate  how  to  choose  which  method  to  adopt  for  a  given  eLearning  project.  This  will  allow  students  to  make  informed  decisions  regarding  which  approach  to  use  in  an  eLearning  program  management  setting.  My  audience  is  students  in  UC  Denver’s  Information  and  Learning  Technologies  (ILT)  program.  All  of  these  students  are  graduate  students  who  are  either  already  in  a  professional  environment  that  uses  eLearning,  or  they  are  trying  to  get  into  the  field.  They  need  to  develop  the  professional  skills  that  will  support  them  and  give  them  skills  that  will  enable  them  to  get  this  type  of  job  and  succeed  in  it.  INTE  5160  is  designed  to  teach  leadership  skills  in  this  field,  and  because  students  may  already  have  some  degree  of  leadership  experience,  it  is  crucial  that  this  course  be  designed  in  a  manner  that  is  useful  to  students  with  a  diverse  amount  of  prior  professional  experience.  The  choice  of  a  particular  evaluation  methodology  is  crucial  to  the  understanding  of  the  effectiveness  of  an  eLearning  project.  There  are  benefits  and  weaknesses  to  using  the  ROI  methodology  for  this  type  of  project,  but  because  it  is  one  of  the  most  popular  and  widely  known  evaluation  methods,  it  is  often  used  without  question.  However,  it  may  not  always  be  the  most  appropriate  way  of  evaluating  the  effectiveness  of  an  eLearning  project.  Students  in  INTE  5160  need  to  have  a  solid  understanding  of  ROI  because  it  is  used  so  widely,  but  they  also  need  to  know  that  there  are  other  evaluation  methods  that  have  been  designed  specifically  for  eLearning  environments  that  may  provide  more  useful  information.  The  other  three  methodologies  that  I  will  highlight  in  my  presentation  (CEA,  SCM,  and  LIMF)  are  all  tailor-­‐made  for  eLearning  products,  so  their  application  to  an  eLearning  project  may  yield  more  relevant  information  than  ROI.    My  presentation  will  give  students  the  information  they  need  to  justify  adopting  any  evaluation  methodology.  In  particular,  it  will  demonstrate  where  ROI  often  falls  short  in  the  evaluation  of  eLearning  projects,  and  how  to  convey  that  information  to  audiences  that  may  be  most  familiar  (and  comfortable)  with  that  methodology.  Students  in  the  ILT  program  must  be  able  to  make  wise,  well-­‐informed  decisions  in  professional  settings,  and  the  appropriate  choice  of  an  evaluation  methodology  in  an  eLearning  INTE  6710  ~  Project  3     Page     1  
  • 2. project  is  a  very  important  decision.  My  presentation  will  teach  students  the  knowledge  they  need  to  make  this  type  of  decision,  and  can  also  be  used  as  a  job  aid  on  an  as-­‐needed  basis.  My  presentation  will  be  highly  reliant  on  the  techniques  taught  by  Heath  &  Heath  (2008)  to  ensure  that  it  is  both  effective  and  useful  for  my  audience.  Heath  and  Heath’s  six  principles  of  successful  ideas  (pp.  16-­‐18)  will  be  applied  as  shown  below,  in  Table  1.  Principle   Method  of  Application  Simplicity   As  this  presentation  is  entirely  reliant  on  text  and  images,  it  is  of  the  utmost   importance  that  I  carefully  select  the  amount  of  information  that  I  include.  It  will   be  of  the  utmost  importance  that  I  break  down  each  concept  to  its  most  basic   essence,  and  the  concept  of  simplicity  will  help  me  to  specifically  address  this   need.  Unexpectedness   The  topic  of  evaluation  methodologies  is  admittedly  less  exciting  than  some,  and   that  means  that  I  need  to  design  my  presentation  in  a  way  that  will  inspire   students  to  really  pay  attention  to  it.  Unexpectedness  is  one  of  the  ways  that  I  can   add  an  element  of  interest  to  my  presentation,  and  I  will  use  this  concept  in  both   my  text  and  the  accompanying  visual  elements.  Concreteness   My  presentation  is  about  a  topic  that  is  inherently  concrete.  There  is  a  necessary   element  of  choice  in  terms  of  which  methodology  to  apply  in  any  given  situation,   but  I  will  give  students  the  information  and  tools  that  will  allow  them  to  make   these  choices  in  a  logical  and  defensible  manner.  Credibility   There  are  many  credible  sources  of  information  on  the  topic  of  evaluation   methods,  and  I  will  refer  to  them  throughout  my  presentation.  There  will  be   additional  resources  available  in  the  course  shell  with  more  information  on  the   specific  evaluation  methods  included  in  my  presentation.  Emotions   Emotions  are  perhaps  the  hardest  of  Heath  &  Heath’s  six  principles  of  successful   ideas  to  integrate  into  my  presentation.  The  topic  is  fairly  removed  from  the   emotional  sphere,  but  I  see  potential  to  address  this  principle  by  emphasizing  the   way  that  this  type  of  decision  can  affect  the  human  resources  involved  in  an   eLearning  project.  Stories   I  plan  on  framing  each  of  the  evaluation  methods  in  a  story  that  will  demonstrate   how  each  method  can  be  applied  in  an  eLearning  project.  These  stories  will  also   afford  me  the  opportunity  to  add  a  slight  emotional  element  to  my  presentation.  Table  1.  Heath  and  Heaths  six  principles  of  successful  ideas  and  their  application  in  my  presentation.  My  presentation  will  inspire  students  to  think  about  the  evaluation  of  eLearning  projects  in  a  more  creative  manner  than  is  often  used.  This  will  give  them  a  competitive  edge  in  the  field  of  eLearning,  as  they  will  be  able  to  utilize  a  wider  array  of  tools  than  many  others.  All  too  often,  tasks  like  evaluation  are  thought  of  in  very  conventional  terms,  but  that  is  simply  not  sufficient  in  this  growing  field.  INTE  6710  ~  Project  3     Page     2  
  • 3. 2.  A  Picture  of  the  Future  If  my  presentation  succeeds  in  its  significant  purpose,  students  in  the  ILT  program  will  look  at  the  evaluation  stage  in  an  eLearning  project  in  more  flexible  and  creative  ways.  Instead  of  applying  an  evaluation  methodology  like  ROI  simply  because  it’s  widely  used,  they  will  successfully  evaluate  and  apply  an  evaluation  methodology  that  closely  mirrors  a  project  and  its  goals.  Students  will  understand  the  four  types  of  evaluation  that  I  present,  and  will  be  able  to  not  only  choose  which  method  to  apply  but  also  be  able  to  defend  that  decision  to  a  project’s  stakeholders.    These  goals  will  be  reached  as  learners  complete  the  specific  learning  objectives,  found  below,  in  Table  2.      Learning  Objective   Method(s)  of  Assessment   Criteria  for  Success  1. Students  will   Students  will  participate  in  a   Success  of  this  objective  will  be  understand  the  four   discussion  forum  in  the  course’s   measured  by  whether  or  not  the  evaluation  methods   weekly  activities.  They  will  be   evaluation  method  adequately  presented.   given  descriptions  of  several   matches  the  project  scenario  they   fictional  eLearning  projects  and   have  chosen.   will  be  asked  which  evaluation   method  they  would  choose.  2. Students  will   In  the  same  discussion  forum,   To  succeed  in  this  objective,  students  appropriately  and   students  will  describe  why  they   must  adequately  justify  their  choice.  convincingly  justify  the   have  chosen  a  particular   Feedback  and  guidance  will  be  use  of  one  evaluation   evaluation  method.   provided  to  students  who  do  not  method  instead  of   accomplish  both  of  these  criteria.    others.  Table  2.  The  learning  objectives  of  my  presentation.  While  my  presentation  is  mainly  focused  on  the  four  evaluation  methods,  it  will  also  teach  students  how  to  justify  their  decision  to  a  project’s  stakeholders.  This  type  of  soft  skill  is  crucial  to  success  in  the  workplace,  and  will  be  immensely  useful  in  any  professional  setting.  Without  acceptance  by  stakeholders,  projects  are  more  likely  to  fail,  and  appropriate  evaluation  methods  are  crucial  to  the  success  of  any  eLearning  project.  While  an  evaluation  method  like  ROI  is  very  widely  accepted,  that  is  not  necessarily  the  case  with  the  other  methods  presented.  As  a  result,  it  is  of  the  utmost  importance  that  students  can  convince  a  project’s  stakeholders  that  they  may  need  to  expand  their  thinking  to  an  evaluation  method  that  is  newer  and  less  widespread.  The  students  in  the  ILT  program  must  be  able  to  provide  this  type  of  reassurance  to  stakeholders  so  that  they  can  gain,  and  retain,  a  competitive  edge  in  this  field.  3. Clear  Design  Values  As  my  presentation  is  going  to  be  used  as  part  of  the  UC  Denver  ILT  program,  it’s  essential  that  it  helps  students  to  achieve  its  learning  objectives.  It  must  be  as  instructionally  effective  as  the  rest  of  the  INTE  6710  ~  Project  3     Page     3  
  • 4. materials  found  in  the  program,  and  I  have  no  doubt  that  students  will  examine  both  its  design  and  its  effectiveness  from  the  perspectives  they  have  learned  elsewhere  in  the  program.  It  is  crucial  that  my  presentation  is  designed  to  meet  the  high  standards  established  for  the  program  and  to  meet  the  expectations  of  students  taking  the  course.  As  I  designed  my  presentation,  I  was  highly  reliant  on  the  design  values  taught  throughout  this  course.  Below  are  eight  of  the  most  crucial  design  decisions  I  made  as  I  created  my  presentation.   1. Portraits   Dan  Roam’s  definition  of  a  portrait  is  miles  away  from  what  may  immediately  come  to  mind.   Roam  (2008)  defines  portraits  as  “renderings,  profiles,  plans,  elevations,  diagrams:  There  are   lots  of  kinds  of  portraits,  but  all  show  the  same  things  -­‐  the  recognizable  qualities  that   differentiate  objects”  (p.  153).  According  to  this  definition,  my  presentation  is  full  of  portraits,   and  it  doesn’t  contain  a  single  image  of  a  human  being.  I  found  that  while  I  was  designing  all  of   the  charts  and  diagrams,  I  often  thought  of  them  as  portraits,  and  this  made  me  approach  their   design  differently.  I  thought  of  them  as  opportunities  to  convey  both  information  and  a  pleasant   visual  experience,  which  is  how  I  view  portraits  of  people,  pets,  etc.  when  I  use  them  as  design   elements.  This  dual  perspective  helped  me  to  ensure  that  the  design  of  my  charts  and  diagrams   is  pleasant  and  effective.   While  I  approached  the  design  of  my  charts  and  diagrams  as  opportunities  to  create  portraits,  I   also  did  so  with  the  lessons  I  learned  from  Medina  (2008).  Medina  describes  the  different   components  of  visual  design  that  grab  our  attention,  and  specifically  identifies  that  “We  pay  lots   of  attention  to  color.  We  pay  lots  of  attention  to  orientation.  We  pay  lots  of  attention  to  size”   (p.  237).  Keeping  this  information  in  mind,  I  selected  a  palette  of  five  colors  (plus  black  and   white)  that  are  the  only  colors  featured  in  my  presentation.  I  paid  attention  to  the  orientation  of   my  slides  and  the  charts  and  diagrams  to  make  sure  that  there  is  always  a  clear  path  for  the  eye   to  follow.  I  made  sure  that  elements  were  sized  appropriately  for  ease  of  reading,  and  also  for   aesthetic  value.     2. Stories   My  presentation  isn’t  about  a  heart  wrenching  tale,  or  an  adventure  in  far  away  lands,  but  it   nonetheless  tells  a  story.  I  found  that  thinking  of  the  content  in  terms  of  a  story,  I  was  able  to   create  a  flow  throughout  the  slides  that  I  would  not  otherwise  have  achieved.  Reynolds  (2009)   does  an  excellent  job  of  introducing  how  to  weave  stories  into  presentations,  and  the  following   statement  resonated  through  me  as  I  created  my  presentation:  “When  we  hear  a  story  that  is   amplified  by  compelling  photography,  the  issues  becomes  less  of  an  abstraction.  The  issue   becomes  more  concrete  and  emotional”  (p.  97).  I  don’t  expect  students  to  feel  an  emotional   connection  as  a  direct  response  to  learning  about  eLearning  evaluation  methods,  but  through   my  presentation,  they  learn  how  these  topics  apply  to  projects  they’re  involved  in.  This  is  a  very   strong  connection,  and  my  presentation  helps  them  to  form  and  refine  it.   This  concept  is  clearly  in  harmony  with  Heath  &  Heath’s  (2008)  understanding  of  how  stories   engage  learners.  Heath  &  Heath  state  that  “stories  illustrate  casual  relationships  that  people  INTE  6710  ~  Project  3     Page     4  
  • 5. hadnt  recognized  before”  (p.  206)  and  that  “stories  focus  people  on  potential  solutions.  Telling   stories  with  visible  goals  and  barriers  shifts  the  audience  into  a  problem-­‐solving  mode”  (p.  234).   The  stories  I  wove  into  my  presentation  are  miles  from  glamorous  or  exciting,  but  what  they  do   afford  learners  is  the  ability  to  identify  with  the  presentation  and  understand  the  impact  that   the  knowledge  will  have  on  their  ability  to  effectively  manage  eLearning  projects.   3. How  Much   As  I  began  the  composition  of  the  visual  elements  of  my  presentation,  I  realized  that  a  great  deal   of  the  evaluation  methods  could  be  represented  by  one  or  more  of  the  forms  discussed  by   Roam  in  Chapter  10,  “How  Many  are  Buying?”  In  particular,  I  used  the  concept  of  “always  show   the  fewest  possible  pictures  to  make  our  point”  (p.  165).  There  is  a  great  deal  of  information   shown  in  my  presentation,  and  I  intentionally  kept  the  visual  elements  as  clean  and  succinct  as   possible.  I  was  also  thinking  of  this  concept  when  I  decided  to  use  as  many  similar  forms  as   possible  to  illustrate  different  concepts.  Figure  1  illustrates  how  I  used  these  concepts  to  my   advantage  through  my  presentation.       Figure  1.  Three  different  illustrations,  clearly  tied  together  by  the  reuse  of  common  elements.   I  also  found  myself  asking  the  question  of  how  much  in  reference  to  one  of  the  first  concepts   introduced  by  Reynolds:  “remember  that  self-­‐restraint  -­‐  the  kind  exercised  in  hara  hachi  bu   [eating  until  80  percent  full]  -­‐  is  difficult  but  often  leads  to  greater  clarity.  Resist  the  urge  to  pile   on  more  ‘just  in  case’”  (p.  17).  The  concepts  that  are  in  my  presentation  are  complex  by  their   nature,  but  to  successfully  engage  learners,  I  found  it  necessary  to  demonstrate  a  great  deal  of   restraint  in  the  design  of  my  presentation.  That  was  another  factor  in  my  choice  to  use  similar   visual  elements  in  different  contexts:  learners  only  need  to  take  the  time  to  understand  the   concept  of  the  visual  element  once,  so  they  can  focus  on  the  information  each  individual   element  contains.  INTE  6710  ~  Project  3     Page     5  
  • 6. 4. Simplicity   My  presentation  instructs  learners  on  evaluation  topics  that  are  complicated  and  nuanced  by   necessity.  I  found  that  I  needed  to  carefully  balance  the  depth  of  information  presented  because   of  the  format  of  my  presentation:  with  no  narration,  the  entire  presentation  has  to  be  engaging   and  instructional,  and  its  objectives  need  to  be  achievable.  I  found  Reynolds’  advice  on  how  to   effectively  present  with  type  to  be  very  helpful  as  I  considered  how  to  convey  these  concepts  in   this  format.  In  particular,  I  found  and  referred  to  Reynolds’  checklist  of  four  items  to  examine   “to  reduce  clutter  and  simplify”  (p.  38)  extremely  helpful.  The  items  are:   i. The  design  of  the  typeface,  looking  specifically  for  clean  lines  and  “letterforms  [that  are]   easy  to  read  at  the  current  size”  (p.  38)   ii. Elements  that  compete  with  the  text,  reducing  its  legibility   iii. The  amount  of  text  per  slide   iv. An  appropriate  amount  of  type  colors,  as  “type  displayed  in  too  many  colors  can  also   add  a  feeling  of  clutter  and  visual  noise”  (p.  38)   The  advice  outlined  by  Heath  &  Heath  was  also  enormously  helpful  in  my  consideration  of   simplicity  in  the  design  of  my  presentation.  Heath  &  Heath  state  that  “’finding  the  core’  means   stripping  an  idea  down  to  its  most  critical  essence.  To  get  to  the  core,  weve  got  to  weed  out  the   superfluous  and  tangential  elements”  (p.  28)  and  that  “the  hard  part  is  weeding  out  ideas  that   may  be  really  important  but  just  arent  the  most  important  idea”  (p.  28).  These  ideas  were  at   the  front  of  my  mind  as  I  wrote  all  of  the  text  for  my  presentation:  I  found  myself  constantly   asking  if  an  element  was  the  most  important  idea,  or  if  it  could  be  excluded.  Through  this   process,  I  achieved  a  degree  of  balance  that  I  would  not  have  been  otherwise  able  to  reach.   5. Communication   As  soon  as  I  started  the  research  for  my  presentation,  I  realized  that  I  had  a  great  deal  to   include,  and  a  medium  that  required  clear,  coherent  communication.  I  found  Reynolds’  advice   that  “creating  change  and  contrasts  is  fundamental  to  good  storytelling,  and  this  goes  for  visual   storytelling  as  well”  (p.  181)  to  be  very  appropriate  for  this  project.  Without  a  great  deal  of   contrast,  I  found  that  the  elements  in  my  slides  lost  focus  and  were  harder  to  follow:  the   communication  was  all  but  lost.  By  designing  my  presentation  to  feature  a  great  deal  of   contrast,  and  with  elements  that  change  as  the  presentation  progresses,  I  found  the   communication  to  be  far  more  effective.   As  I  created  and  refined  my  visual  design,  I  used  information  presented  by  Medina  to  ensure   that  what  I  created  utilized  the  senses  in  an  effective  manner.  Everything  that’s  presented  in  my   handout  falls  into  the  category  of  declarative  memory,  according  to  Medina’s  definition.  Medina   describes  declarative  memories  as  “those  that  can  be  experienced  in  our  conscious  awareness,   such  as  ‘this  shirt  is  green’;  ‘Jupiter  is  a  planet;’  or  even  a  list  of  words”  (p.  101).  My  presentation   addresses  the  steps  involved  in  declarative  memory  (encoding,  storage,  retrieval,  and  forgetting)   by  presenting  concepts  in  multiple  manners  and  in  varied  depth.  The  concepts  are  reinforced  for  INTE  6710  ~  Project  3     Page     6  
  • 7. the  purposes  of  storage  and  retrieval  through  these  varied  presentation  methods.  My   presentation  also  addresses  the  difficulty  involved  with  the  stage  of  forgetting  by  including   periodic  slides  that  allow  learners  to  stop  and  review  what  they  just  learned,  and  summaries  to   conclude  the  presentation.     6. Concreteness   The  content  of  my  presentation  is  inherently  concrete  in  nature,  but  that  doesn’t  mean  that  it   sticks  in  memory  by  itself.  As  Medina  states,  “deliberately  re-­‐expose  yourself  to  the  information   more  elaborately,  and  in  fixed,  spaced  intervals,  if  you  want  the  retrieval  to  be  the  most  vivid  it   can  be.  Learning  occurs  best  when  new  information  is  incorporated  gradually  into  the  memory   store  rather  than  when  it  is  jammed  in  all  at  once”  (p.  133).  To  satisfy  this  characteristic,  I   presented  each  evaluation  method  individually,  presented  a  summary  of  each  after  a  fixed   interval,  and  then  in  a  slightly  different  format  closer  to  the  end  of  the  presentation.     Heath  &  Heath  approach  the  concept  of  concreteness  in  a  slightly  different  manner  than   Medina,  but  the  message  is  the  same:  be  concrete  if  you  want  people  to  learn  the  subject.  As   Heath  &  Heath  state,  “abstraction  makes  it  harder  to  understand  an  idea  and  to  remember  it.  It   also  makes  it  harder  to  coordinate  our  activities  with  others,  who  may  interpret  the  abstraction   in  very  different  ways.  Concreteness  helps  us  avoid  these  problems”  (p.  100).  I  kept  this   principle  in  mind  as  I  wrote  the  text  for  my  presentation:  all  of  the  information  is  very  concrete   in  how  it’s  presented,  and  the  end  result  is  that  the  presentation  is  instructionally  effective.   7. Appropriateness   Appropriateness  can  take  many  different  forms,  and  it  does  manifest  itself  variously  in  my   presentation.  Roam  describes  the  necessity  of  creating  multiple-­‐variable  plots  to  represent   problems  that  are  posed  in  ‘why’  questions.  I  used  his  principle  of  “a  well-­‐thought-­‐through  and   clearly  drawn  multiple-­‐variable  plot  is  the  most  powerful  and  insightful  we  can  create”  (p.  224)   as  I  created  the  visual  representation  of  how  Kirkpatrick’s  four  levels  of  evaluation  correspond   to  the  amount  of  time  and  resources  invested  in  an  evaluation.  I  had  not  thought  of  this  type  of   representation  until  I  received  formative  evaluation  feedback,  and  I  went  back  to  Roam  for   advice.  I  believe  that  this  is  a  particularly  effective  representation  of  what  would  have  otherwise   required  a  lot  of  text  to  explain,  and  I  think  it’s  an  excellent  example  of  appropriateness  in  this   context.   I  found  myself  often  reflecting  on  the  appropriate  flow  of  my  presentation,  and  Heath  &  Heath   proved  to  be  excellent  guides  on  this  particular  topic.  They  aptly  state  that  “people  are  tempted   to  tell  you  everything,  with  perfect  accuracy,  right  up  front,  when  they  should  be  giving  you  just   enough  info  to  be  useful,  then  a  little  more,  then  a  little  more”  (p.  57),  and  I  initially  found   myself  falling  into  the  trap  of  trying  to  cram  all  related  information  into  the  first  slide  on  a   particular  part  of  my  presentation.  It  was  only  by  breaking  down  the  information  into  smaller,   useful  bits,  that  I  found  the  pacing  of  my  presentation  to  be  appropriate  for  my  learners.   8. Necessity  INTE  6710  ~  Project  3     Page     7  
  • 8. As  I  created  my  presentation,  I  was  particularly  mindful  of  the  amount  of  information  I   presented.  There  are  many  types  of  evaluation  methods  for  eLearning,  and  they  tend  to  be  very   complex,  and  I  felt  it  was  necessary  to  introduce  the  topic  in  a  manner  that  was  approachable   and  not  overwhelming.  There  is  a  great  deal  of  information  conveyed  in  my  presentation,  but  I   did  restrict  it  to  the  bare  minimum  of  what  people  who  aren’t  familiar  with  these  particular   evaluation  methods  would  need  to  know.  As  Roam  describes,  in  a  graphic  novel,  it’s  necessary   that  “each  panel  furthers  the  ‘plot’…remove  one  and  the  meaning  is  altered”  (p.  13).  I  believe   that  Roam’s  advice  can  be  extended  to  the  world  of  presentations,  and  keeping  that  in  mind,  I   carefully  crafted  each  of  my  slides  to  make  sure  that  each  slide  did  further  my  narrative.   Reynolds’  principle  of  clarifying  intention  was  particularly  helpful  to  me  as  I  considered  the   necessity  of  the  information  I  presented.  As  Reynolds  states,  the  “ease-­‐of-­‐use  or  ease-­‐of-­‐ understanding  is  not  by  accident.  It’s  a  result  of  your  careful  choices  about  what  to  include  and   what  to  exclude”  (p.  20).  I  used  this  concept  to  restrict  what  I  included,  keeping  a  close  eye  on   the  types  of  information  shown  and  always  asking  myself  if  it  was  truly  necessary  or  if  it  was   inconsequential  to  my  learning  objectives.  All  of  the  resources  presented  during  the  course  were  very  influential  in  the  design  of  my  presentation.  As  a  result,  I  believe  that  my  presentation  is  more  focused,  effective,  and  visually  appealing  than  it  would’ve  been  in  lieu  of  this  degree  of  knowledge.  4. Formative  Evaluation  Response  To  determine  the  instructional  effectiveness  of  my  handout,  I  asked  the  five  questions  shown  in  Table  3.  Table  3  also  outlines  my  rationale  for  these  questions.  Question   Rationale  1. How  do  you  like  the   Slides  are  an  overwhelmingly  visual  medium,  and  since  there  is  no  visual  design  of  my   narration  accompanying  this  presentation,  it’s  essential  that  my  visual  presentation?  Is  there   designs  are  very  pleasant  to  follow,  and  appealing  to  look  at.  All  of  the  anything  you  love?   principles  of  good  design  need  to  be  working  harmoniously  in  order  for  Anything  that  bugs  you?   my  presentation  to  be  engaging.  2. What  do  you  think  of   There’s  no  denying  that  the  topic  of  my  presentation  is  wordy  to  the  pacing  of  my   explain.  Because  of  this,  it’s  particularly  important  that  I  present  presentation?  Should  I   information  in  a  manner  that’s  comfortable  for  learners  to  follow.  I  also  break  the  information  into   don’t  want  learners  to  get  tired  of  viewing  my  presentation,  and  too  smaller  bits,  or  put  pieces   many  words  on  a  slide  can  prove  tiring.  But,  it’s  also  possible  to  spread  of  it  together  in  different   concepts  out  over  too  many  slides;  there’s  a  very  definite  balance  point  ways?   inherent  in  presentations  of  this  type,  and  I  need  to  make  sure  I  achieve   that  balance.  3. How  do  you  like  the   I  want  to  communicate  an  appropriate  level  of  information  using  charts  charts  and  diagrams  in  my   and  diagrams.  It’s  crucial  that  these  elements  convey  information  in  an  INTE  6710  ~  Project  3     Page     8  
  • 9. presentation?  Do  you  find   effective  and  pleasant  manner.  them  informative?  4. What  do  you  think  of   I  intentionally  used  a  conversational  tone  throughout  my  presentation.  the  language  Ive  used   I  need  to  make  sure  that  this  approach  doesn’t  undermine  the  throughout  the   credibility  of  my  presentation,  and  that  it’s  appropriate  for  this  type  of  presentation?  Is  it  easy  to   material.  follow?  Does  it  feel  appropriate,  given  the  topic?  5. Did  you  learn  anything   Ultimately,  my  presentation  must  succeed  as  an  instructional  content  from  my  presentation?  If   item  in  a  graduate  course.  It’s  the  most  important  characteristic  of  my  you  were  already  familiar   presentation,  and  I  need  to  know  that  I’ve  achieved  this  goal.  with  the  content,  do  you  feel  like  it  would  be  useful  for  someone  who  isnt  familiar  with  the  material?  Table  3.  My  formative  evaluation  questions  and  my  rationale  for  them.  I  received  very  helpful  feedback  on  the  draft  of  my  presentation.  I  did  make  a  number  of  changes  between  the  rough  and  final  drafts  of  my  presentation.  The  feedback  is  listed  below,  in  Table  4.  Question   Response  (Summaries;  items  revised  in  red)  1. How  do  you  like  the   Evaluator  1:    visual  design  of  my   • I  love  the  handwriting  typestyle.  I  also  love  the  washout  treatments  presentation?  Is  there   to  some  of  that  text  and  occurrences  of  a  couple  of  the  diagrams.  And  I  anything  you  love?   love  the  “elearning”  typestyle  and  logo  treatment  of  that  word  (Slide  1).    Anything  that  bugs  you?   • I  also  love  the  direction  of  the  color  palette—especially  in  the  cycle   diagram.   • I  wonder  how  the  visual  design  might  work  using  the  cream/ivory   for  the  full  background  of  the  slides,  as  I  think  the  red  text  works  better   against  the  cream.     Evaluator  2:   • I  liked  the  simple  formatting  style  that  you  selected  for  your   presentation…I  thought  the  font  color,  rusty  red,  contrasted  well  with   the  yellow  band  on  each  of  your  slides.  Your  presentation  seemed  text   heavy  meaning  that  it  contained  complicated  concepts  and   definitions…I  am  not  sure  how  you  would  reduce  the  text  without  INTE  6710  ~  Project  3     Page     9  
  • 10. losing  the  instructional  message.  2. What  do  you  think  of   Evaluator  1:    the  pacing  of  my   • The  presentation’s  pacing  felt  right  as  I  went  through  it.  This  draft  presentation?  Should  I   includes  47  slides,  so  there’s  certainly  room  to  break  up  a  few  of  the  break  the  information  into   slides  as  they’re  currently  formatted.  So  I  think  it  might  makes  sense  to  smaller  bits,  or  put  pieces   break  up  the  most  text-­‐heavy  slides,  at  least  in  cases  where  reducing  of  it  together  in  different   word  count  isn’t  possible  or  appropriate.    ways?     Evaluator  2:     • I  had  to  advance  through  the  PowerPoint  presentation  myself.   • I  wondered  how  you  would  treat  some  slides  differently  than  others   in  regards  to  pacing.  For  example  do  you  plan  on  increasing  the  time  on   certain  text  rich  slides  (Slide  #2)  versus  non-­‐text  rich  slides  (Slide  #3)?   Does  PowerPoint  give  you  the  capability  of  focusing  more  time  on  one   slide  versus  another?  Do  you  plan  on  using  transitional  effects?  3. How  do  you  like  the   Evaluator  1:    charts  and  diagrams  in  my   • I  think  the  diagrams  in  this  draft  are  in  the  right  direction…With  presentation?  Do  you  find   respect  to  the  ADDIE  and  IPECC  diagrams,  those  might  be  more  them  informative?   effective  with  more  contrast  between  their  styles—so  they’re   individually  more  distinctive—such  as  by  substituting  rectangles  for   circles  in  the  components.   • I  did  study  the  CEA  diagram  a  bit  to  "get  it."  Perhaps  it  might  be   more  effective  with  the  Goal  quadrant  emphasized,  either  by  increasing   the  size  of  the  label  or  using  color  to  direct  the  eyes…  For  the  Success   Case  Method,  I  wonder  if  the  “converging  radial”  diagram  makes  sense.     Evaluator  2:   • I  liked  the  diagram  of  slides  number  3,  4,  and  5…I  liked  the  pyramid   diagram  on  slides  10,11  and  12  but  found  the  text  on  the  left  side  of  the   distracting  from  the  diagram…Sometimes  my  allegiance  was  divided  to   either  read  the  text  or  look  at  the  chart.  I  liked  the  usage  of  the  visual  of   charts  and  diagrams  but  thought  they  sometime  competed  with  the   text  on  the  slide.  For  example  on  slide  number  2  my  initial  reaction  was   what  should  I  didn’t  know  what  to  read  first  or  rather  to  focus  my  eye.  INTE  6710  ~  Project  3     Page  10    
  • 11. 4. What  do  you  think  of   Evaluator  1:    the  language  Ive  used   • As  I  went  through  the  presentation,  I  followed  the  language  fairly  throughout  the   easily  and  it  seems  appropriate  for  the  subject  matter.  I  think  you’re  a  presentation?  Is  it  easy  to   skilled  writer  and  appreciate  your  writing  style.    follow?  Does  it  feel  appropriate,  given  the   • A  challenge  for  me  in  reading  the  text  is  the  shadow  effect,  which  topic?   makes  my  vision  feel  blurry.   • Something  worthy  of  attention  is  proximity  of  text  boxes  with   corresponding  images/diagrams,  within  each  slide.     Evaluator  2:     • I  wondered  who  your  ideal  viewer  is  for  this  presentation?  Is  it   graduate  students  in  the  e-­‐learning  or  is  it  the  general  public…I  had  to   read  a  couple  slides  a  few  times  to  increase  my  comprehension  of  the   different  types  of  evaluation  methods  but  found  the  content  relevant   to  my  personal  needs.  5. Did  you  learn  anything   Evaluator  1:    from  my  presentation?  If   • I  learned  a  lot  from  the  presentation!you  were  already  familiar    with  the  content,  do  you  feel  like  it  would  be  useful   Evaluator  2:  for  someone  who  isnt   • I  did  learn  that  LIMF  is  specifically  designed  for  e-­‐learning.  I  wasn’t  familiar  with  the  material?   familiar  with  the  majority  of  evaluation  methods  presented  and  found   myself  having  to  repeat  a  few  slides  to  increase  my  comprehension.  Table  4.  Summary  of  formative  evaluation  responses.  During  the  revision  process,  I  addressed  many  of  the  items  that  the  formative  evaluation  responses  indicated  could  be  improved.  I  modified  the  text  on  all  of  my  slides  to  make  it  clearer:  I  reduced  the  amount  of  drop  shadow  applied  to  my  slide  titles,  and  I  removed  it  completely  from  the  rest  of  my  text.  I  also  changed  the  font  that  I  used  in  my  visual  components  so  that  it  matches  the  font  on  my  title  slide.  I  adjusted  the  proximity  of  text  and  visuals  to  make  sure  that  their  connection  is  clear  and  purposeful.  I  also  reviewed  and  rewrote  some  of  my  text  to  make  sure  it  was  as  concise  as  possible  while  retaining  the  conversational  tone  that  I  found  learners  responded  to  positively.  I  also  redesigned  many  of  my  visual  elements  based  upon  the  feedback  I  received.  Initially,  I  did  not  see  any  value  in  differentiating  ADDIE  and  IPECC,  but  after  consideration,  I  ultimately  did  see  an  advantage  in  using  a  different  shape  in  the  steps  of  IPECC.  I  found  that  this  change  was  enough  to  create  a  point  of  differentiation,  but  was  also  small  enough  that  the  two  processes  are  still  clearly  related  to  each  other.  I  also  added  small  notations  to  many  of  the  visual  elements.  I  found  that  this  addition  helped  the  eye  to  transition  between  text  and  images,  and  also  helped  to  introduce  the  images  in  a  contextual  manner.  I  INTE  6710  ~  Project  3     Page  11    
  • 12. followed  much  of  the  advice  set  forth  by  the  first  evaluator  in  regards  to  my  visual  elements,  and  found  it  to  contribute  to  extremely  valuable  changes.  While  my  rough  draft  did  not  include  any  transitions  between  slides,  or  timing  for  a  slide  show  itself,  my  final  draft  includes  both.  I  used  different  timespans  for  slides,  based  upon  how  much  information  they  contain.  The  end  result  is  a  slideshow  that  is  paced  appropriately,  but  that  still  allows  learners  to  control  its  pacing  if  they  prefer.  There  were  other  pieces  of  feedback  that  I  chose  not  to  address  in  the  revision  of  my  handout.  One  of  those  items  was  the  background  color  of  the  main  part  of  my  slides.  I  experimented  with  the  addition  of  color  to  this  part  of  the  slides,  and  it  simply  didn’t  allow  me  to  retain  an  acceptable  amount  of  contrast  between  elements.  I  did  create  a  sort  of  compromise  by  adding  background  color  to  some  of  my  visual  elements:  I  created  a  box  behind  some  of  these  elements,  and  found  that  the  color,  and  the  boundaries  established  by  virtue  of  the  shape  itself,  made  the  images  far  easier  to  understand.  I  believe  that  this  is  a  very  appropriate  way  of  addressing  this  feedback,  and  I  am  confident  in  that  decision.  From  the  feedback  I  received  from  my  in-­‐class  peers,  I  believe  that  my  presentation  is  very  instructionally  effective.  I  think  there  is  good  amount  of  information  contained  in  my  presentation,  and  the  end  result  is  a  very  enjoyable  learning  opportunity  for  students  in  the  course.  Bibliography  Heath,  C.,  &  Heath,  D.  (2008).  Made  to  Stick:  Why  Some  Ideas  Die  and  Others  Survive.  New  York:  Random  House.  Medina,  John  (2008).  Brain  Rules:  12  principles  for  surviving  and  thriving  at  work,  home,  and  school  (book  and  dvd).  Pear  Press.    Reynolds,  Garr  (2009).  Presentation  Zen  Design:  Simple  Design  Principles  and  Techniques  to  Enhance  Your  Presentations.  Berkeley,  CA:  New  Riders.  Roam,  D.  (2008).  The  back  of  the  napkin:  solving  problems  and  selling  ideas  with  pictures.  New  York:  Penguin.    INTE  6710  ~  Project  3     Page  12