Pgcc passives

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Pgcc passives

  1. 1. Using Passive Voice
  2. 2. Forming the Passive 1 <ul><li>In an active sentence, the subject of the verb “does” the action of the verb, and the direct object “receives” the action. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bob Marley wrote Africa Unite. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Forming the Passive 2 <ul><li>The direct object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. That is, the “receiver” of the action becomes the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Africa Unite was written by Bob Marley. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note that the subject of the active sentence appears in an adverbial phrase in the passive sentence. This is called the “by-phrase”. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The “by-phrase” is not required and should be used only if it provides important information. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Forming the Passive 3 <ul><li>Only verbs which have a direct object can be made passive. </li></ul><ul><li>Intransitive verbs cannot be made passive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The accident happened last night. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X The accident was happened last night. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Forming the Passive 4 <ul><li>The verb of the passive sentence is some form of be + past participle </li></ul><ul><li>All tenses which occur in active sentences also occur in passive sentences. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Practice Sentences <ul><li>Write two practice sentences using either simple present or simple past tense. </li></ul><ul><li>Write one sentence using active voice and one sentence using passive voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Write about a favorite musician or an author and one of their books or songs. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Using the Passive <ul><li>Use the passive to emphasize the direct object of the sentence, as when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “doer” of the action is unknown. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rice has been cultivated for thousands of years. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “doer” of the action is not important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The experiment was conducted in the laboratory. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “doer” of the action is hidden. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mistakes were made. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Passive sentences occur often in technical writing, research writing, and journalism. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Using the Passive <ul><li>Use active voice if the “doer” of the action is important. </li></ul><ul><li>American readers consider too many passives in a text dull and uninteresting. Use passive sentences sparingly. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Problems with passives <ul><li>Using passive when active is more appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>Using too many passive sentences in a text. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Problems with Passives <ul><li>Trying to make an intransitive verb passive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X The incident was occurred at 6:05 yesterday morning. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Problems with Passives <ul><li>Forming the passive incorrectly. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X Corn is feed to livestock in the U.S. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Problems with Passives <ul><li>Using an incorrect preposition with a stative passive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X Alexander is devoted with his work. </li></ul></ul>

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