How To #3: How to tell if your horse needs his teeth done

1,027 views
743 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,027
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
16
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • How To #3: How to tell if your horse needs his teeth done

    1. 1. Dr. Kelleyerin Clabaugh Columbia Equine Hospital
    2. 2.  Teeth erupt. They do NOT grow. Horses are born with 18 deciduous (baby) teeth • shed when adult teeth erupt beyond the gum line Teeth erupt approximately 2-3 mm a year Horse “floats” his own teeth by chewing Feral horse: • teeth are worn down by constant grazing of coarse material (silicates) • life expectancy of 12 years due to rate of tooth wear Domesticated horse: • is fed less frequent, softer meals • Teeth last longer so horse lives longer (>30 years), but… • develop sharp points from irregular bite alignment
    3. 3. dentalmaturity ~ 5 years36-44 teeth Incisors Prehension & cutting 12 2 ½ to 4 ½Canines Defense & fighting 4* 4 to 6 yearsWolf teeth Obsolete 4* 4 to 7 monthsPremolars Grind food 12 2 ½ to 3 ½ yearsMolars Grind food 12 1 to 3 years
    4. 4. Cup = cementum with enamel ringPulp cavity = dental star - appears at 9 years
    5. 5. Human tooth Human teeth are shiny and white as they are covered in enamel but horse teeth are covered in cement Cement is stronger but porous - stains easily  Chlorophyll in fresh grass discolours the cementum.
    6. 6.  Abnormal chewing action Head shaking or holding head to one side Quidding/dropping feed Weight loss Bit evasion & resistance (head tossing) Bridling problems or head shy Unbalanced or one sided when ridden Facial swellings Odorous breath Unilateral (one sided) nasal discharge Long fibers, oats or corn in manure Impaction colic
    7. 7.  Over or under bite Shear/slant mouth Fracture Too long • Preventing occlusion of PMs and Ms Retained caps
    8. 8.  “Wolf teeth” Retained caps Points - Shear mouth Hooks Wave mouth Tooth Fracture Loose/missing teeth • Diastema formation • Step formation
    9. 9.  Not canines! Maxillary arcade only 0 – 2 (rarely 3) • May be “blind” Bit creates pressure of gums/cheeks against sharp WT Remove prior to bridling • if sharp or loose • or separated from the second premolar
    10. 10.  Young horse should lose caps between 2.5 and 4.5 years If caps persists, can interfere with mastication by effectively elongating that tooth A loose but persistent cap can be painful Removed easily during routine dental
    11. 11.  Shear mouth Maxillary arcade • Buccal points Mandibular arcade • Lingual points Results in oral ulcers
    12. 12.  Abnormal chewing motion results in “dominant teeth” that are not worn down as rapidly as their opposing teeth. “Dominant” teeth need to be reduced to allow normal circular motion
    13. 13.  Loss of tooth allows opposing tooth to continue to grow without wear Restricts normal circular mastication Can puncture opposite gumline and cause pain and peridontal disease
    14. 14.  TMJ arthritis Tooth root abscess Sinus infection Neoplasia (cancer)
    15. 15.  Horse has difficulty chewing because of pain in the joint Diagnosed with X-ray and/or ultrasound Can manage with NSAIDS or joint injections Many older horses need to be fed small frequent meals due to arthritic pain
    16. 16.  Tooth fracture or loss • Feed material get impacted within or between teeth • Gingivitis and infection of peridontal ligament and bone • Results in loosening of teeth and pain Treat with extraction of tooth • If reserve crown is long (young horse)…  tooth must be retro-pulse extracted  Open sinus and expel tooth from within the sinus into the mouth • If crown is short (older horse)…  may extract the tooth orally
    17. 17.  Typically occur in younger horses when the reserve crown is still within the sinus Can occur in older horses if tooth is fractured or infection is severe enough to penetrate into sinus Clinical signs: • Unilateral nasal discharge • Reduced air flow • Facial swelling • Draining tract communicating with sinus
    18. 18.  Annual Start prior to bridling To be thorough, use sedation with a full speculum
    19. 19.  Dentistry • Gentle  Power equipment allows a complete thorough dental to be performed in a shorter period of time  Jaw is held open for a shorter period of time  No laceration of mucosa or tongue • Thorough  Maintenance dentistry and simple extractions  Board certified Equine Dentist for complicated extractions and oral surgery • Price includes first sedation • Reduced price if performed/examined annually

    ×