Rethinking System DiagramsFrom Arranging Components to Organizing Action,           Thought, and Possibilities            ...
PROBLEM OF SYSTEMS                     Photo by Sandra R., Flickr
Designing WHAT
Designing WHAT   HOW   WHY
audience                               communication        common goal          graphicsDesigning                      in...
Outline• Overview of system & system diagram• 4 kinds of system diagrams & their organizing principles• Case Study: The US...
WHAT IS A SYSTEM DIAGRAM?
What is a system?sustēma: reunion, conjunction or assembly
What is a system?“ As opposed to the analytical, summative and machine theoretical viewpoints, organismic conceptions have...
Shifting focus of a systemsystem of things       how human experiences system
Shifting focus of a system“ By definition, a system is the totality of all that is contained, has been contained, and may y...
“ We create symbols or representations that attempt to express the idea or thought that is the organizing principle.” Rich...
System diagrams are about relationship“ Diagram not only represents the related correlates, but also, and much more definit...
A system diagram as a visualization of theorganizing principle of the systemThe key to system diagrams is not simply to re...
4 KINDS OF SYSTEM DIAGRAMS                             Photo by Brenda M, Flickr
Condition that facilitates                     participation in the                     transcendent idea                 ...
Condition that facilitates                     participation in the                     transcendent idea                 ...
System as a law that holds together individual components“ Hierarchic systems have some common properties independent of t...
Social network diagram, The FMS Advanced systems group
Condition that facilitates                     participation in the                     transcendent idea                 ...
System as a rule that guides decision makingA system as "constructs of rules and procedures which aremeant to serve the de...
Flow chart, Horst Rittel “The reasoning of Designers”
Condition that facilitates                     participation in the                     transcendent idea                 ...
System as a function that supports possibilities of action“ The perceptual capacities of the organism do not lie in discre...
Cologne-Bonn airport sign system (designed by Toan Vu-hu)
Condition that facilitates                   4                     participation in the                     transcendent i...
System as a condition                   4                   that facilitates participation                   in the transc...
System as a condition that facilitates participationin the transcendent ideaThis transcendent idea can be spiritual, ethic...
System as a condition that facilitates participationin the transcendent ideaThe lunchbox method of brining tolight new rel...
Tokyo subway map (http://japan-guide.com)   Wurman’s Tokyo subway map (1984)
CASE STUDY: The United States Postal ServiceDomestic Mail Manual Transformation Project
The United States Postal Service DomesticMail Manual Transformation Project                                            DMM...
The Domestic Mail Manual
The United States Postal Service
The USPS(United States Postal Service)Domestic Mail Manual Transformation Project
information   interaction   systems
DMM productUSPS organization                 Customers people
Vision Diagram                     SYSTEMPathway Diagram                       Affordance Diagram                     DIAG...
Vision Diagram                     SYSTEMPathway Diagram                       Affordance Diagram                     DIAG...
RATE TREE DIAGRAM- DISCOUNT                                                                    Letter                     ...
!PT$37&S5SP!XT&4%(                                                  AJM;R@<=5%P!=V589:=V                                  ...
Vision Diagram                     SYSTEMPathway Diagram                       Affordance Diagram                     DIAG...
!Pathway diagram
!Previous iteration of pathway diagram
Vision Diagram                     SYSTEMPathway Diagram                       Affordance Diagram                     DIAG...
New DMM’s color-coded divider tabs
:=>"*?@"+?*!"#$#%&()"%*"+*,-.)/01%#)0*()")0,2-,)"$(0+3#40%&%*$3(-&M#5%&-/*%              +                                ...
Previous iteration of organization diagram
Vision Diagram                     SYSTEMPathway Diagram                       Affordance Diagram                     DIAG...
Shape-based framework diagram
Architectural overview diagram
CONCLUSION             Photo by bitrot, Flickr
Conclusion• Situational change in how system diagrams will be used.• Users need to understand the organizing principle of ...
Thank you. Any questions?                            Photo by Manuel.A.69, Flickr
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  1. 1. Rethinking System DiagramsFrom Arranging Components to Organizing Action, Thought, and Possibilities Soojin Jun, Miso Kim Carnegie Mellon University, USA Joonhwan Lee Neowiz corp., Korea
  2. 2. PROBLEM OF SYSTEMS Photo by Sandra R., Flickr
  3. 3. Designing WHAT
  4. 4. Designing WHAT HOW WHY
  5. 5. audience communication common goal graphicsDesigning interaction value products service principle context system
  6. 6. Outline• Overview of system & system diagram• 4 kinds of system diagrams & their organizing principles• Case Study: The USPS Domestic Mail Manual Project
  7. 7. WHAT IS A SYSTEM DIAGRAM?
  8. 8. What is a system?sustēma: reunion, conjunction or assembly
  9. 9. What is a system?“ As opposed to the analytical, summative and machine theoretical viewpoints, organismic conceptions have evolved in all branches of modern biology which assert the necessity of investigating not only parts but also relations of organization resulting from a dynamic interaction and manifesting themselves by the difference in behavior of parts in isolation and in the whole organism.” Ludwig von Bertalanffy, “An Outline of General System Theory” (1950, p134)
  10. 10. Shifting focus of a systemsystem of things how human experiences system
  11. 11. Shifting focus of a system“ By definition, a system is the totality of all that is contained, has been contained, and may yet be contained within it. We can never see or experience this totality. We can only experience our personal pathway through a system.” Richard Buchanan, “Design Research and the New Learning” (2001, p12)
  12. 12. “ We create symbols or representations that attempt to express the idea or thought that is the organizing principle.” Richard Buchanan, “Design Research and the New Learning” (2001, p12)
  13. 13. System diagrams are about relationship“ Diagram not only represents the related correlates, but also, and much more definitely represents the relations between them, as so many objects of the Icon.” Charles S. Peirce, “Prolegomena for an Apology to Pragmatism” (1906, 4:316)
  14. 14. A system diagram as a visualization of theorganizing principle of the systemThe key to system diagrams is not simply to represent arelationship among things, but to understand the relationshipof how the system is organized.
  15. 15. 4 KINDS OF SYSTEM DIAGRAMS Photo by Brenda M, Flickr
  16. 16. Condition that facilitates participation in the transcendent idea symbolRule that guides SYSTEM as Function that supportsdecision making relationship possibilities of action issue affordance Law that holds together individual components hierarchy
  17. 17. Condition that facilitates participation in the transcendent idea symbolRule that guides SYSTEM as Function that supportsdecision making relationship possibilities of action issue affordance Law that holds together 1 individual components hierarchy
  18. 18. System as a law that holds together individual components“ Hierarchic systems have some common properties independent of their specific content. Hierarchy is one of the central schemes that the architect of complexity uses.” Herbert A. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial (1969, p184)
  19. 19. Social network diagram, The FMS Advanced systems group
  20. 20. Condition that facilitates participation in the transcendent idea symbolRule that guides SYSTEM as Function that supports2decision making relationship possibilities of action issue affordance Law that holds together individual components hierarchy
  21. 21. System as a rule that guides decision makingA system as "constructs of rules and procedures which aremeant to serve the desired end."Focus on the agency that operates the systemIssues as places where different positions are assumed;decisions should be made.Werner Kunz & Horst Rittel, “How to Know What Is Known” (1984), “Issues as Elementsof Information Systems” (1970)
  22. 22. Flow chart, Horst Rittel “The reasoning of Designers”
  23. 23. Condition that facilitates participation in the transcendent idea symbolRule that guides SYSTEM as Function that supports 3decision making relationship possibilities of action issue affordance Law that holds together individual components hierarchy
  24. 24. System as a function that supports possibilities of action“ The perceptual capacities of the organism do not lie in discrete anatomical parts of the body but lie in systems with nested functions.” Affordance as a relationship between a living animal and its environment and their ever-changing interaction. James J. Gibson, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (1979, p205, p127)
  25. 25. Cologne-Bonn airport sign system (designed by Toan Vu-hu)
  26. 26. Condition that facilitates 4 participation in the transcendent idea symbolRule that guides SYSTEM as Function that supportsdecision making relationship possibilities of action issue affordance Law that holds together individual components hierarchy
  27. 27. System as a condition 4 that facilitates participation in the transcendent ideaSystem as a rule System as a functionthat guides SYSTEM as that supportsdecision making Relationship possibilities of action System as a law that holds together individual components
  28. 28. System as a condition that facilitates participationin the transcendent ideaThis transcendent idea can be spiritual, ethical, aesthetic, orcultural; it serves as a vision that motivates humans toparticipate because “an ideal of beauty, truth, or justice” offersthem meaning and values.Richard Buchanan, “Children of the Moving Present” (2001, p82)
  29. 29. System as a condition that facilitates participationin the transcendent ideaThe lunchbox method of brining tolight new relationships throughsuch combinations employed bythe Japanese in everything, fromflower arranging and foodpreparation to company structure.Kenji Ekuan, The Aesthetics of the JapaneseLunchbox (1998)
  30. 30. Tokyo subway map (http://japan-guide.com) Wurman’s Tokyo subway map (1984)
  31. 31. CASE STUDY: The United States Postal ServiceDomestic Mail Manual Transformation Project
  32. 32. The United States Postal Service DomesticMail Manual Transformation Project DMM 100 DMM 200 DMM 57 DMM 300
  33. 33. The Domestic Mail Manual
  34. 34. The United States Postal Service
  35. 35. The USPS(United States Postal Service)Domestic Mail Manual Transformation Project
  36. 36. information interaction systems
  37. 37. DMM productUSPS organization Customers people
  38. 38. Vision Diagram SYSTEMPathway Diagram Affordance Diagram DIAGRAM Structure Diagram
  39. 39. Vision Diagram SYSTEMPathway Diagram Affordance Diagram DIAGRAM Structure Diagram
  40. 40. RATE TREE DIAGRAM- DISCOUNT Letter FlatShape Each unique rate (excluding weight) is represented by a path. The grey boxes are the final end points where Letter size Postcard size Letter size and Postcard size the rates live. First Class Standard First Class Standard Bount Printed Matter Media Mail Library MailClass Regular Nonprofit Regular NonprofitMachine Nonautomation Automation (Nonautomation) Automation Nonautomation Automation (Nonautomation) AutomationCompatability Presorted ? Carrier Route Presorted Enhanced Carrier Route ? Enhanced Carrier Route Presorted ? Presorted Enhanced Carrier Route ? Presorted Carrier Route 5-Digit Basic 5-Digit BasicSortationLevel 3-Digit 5-Digit AADC Mixed Basic 3/5 High Saturation Basic Mixed 3-Digit 5-Digit AADC Automation 3-Digit 5-Digit ADC Mixed Basic 3/5 High Saturation Basic Basic 3/5 AADC Density AADC Basic ADC Density DBMC DSCF DDU Zone DBMC Zone DDU DSCFDestination DBMC DSCF DDU Local, 1 & 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1&2 3 4 5 Rate structure analysis diagram
  41. 41. !PT$37&S5SP!XT&4%( AJM;R@<=5%P!=V589:=V AJM;R@<=589:;<=59J@ MHK<C5I9B<=V59J@ 98<= STT W J9KAB98AHJ9;5AMHJ= :HHU MF9I8<C= 6<<= !"#$%&( 4#N3O#%3P4 /./ /.) //+ //* //, //- /)+ /)* /), /)- FABFQ;<K<;5%P! MHK<C5I9B<= /++ /+* /+, /+- /,+ /,* /,, /,- /-+ /-* D9JL /.. //. /). /+. %P! /-, /-- /0+ /0* /0, /0- /1+ /1* /1, /1- /,. /-. /0. /1. =<M8AHJ5%P!= )./ ).) )++ )+* )+, )+- )*+ )** )*, )*- ).. )+. )*. +.. =I<MA9;;Y589BB<@5AJGHCD98AHJ 9R8H %P! +./ +.) +++ ++* ++, ++- +*+ +** +*, +*- ++. +*. +-. +0. 89:= +1. *.. *+. **. +-+ +-* +-, +-- +0+ +0* +0, +0- +1+ +1* /.. ).. +.. *.. *,. *-. *0. *1. +1, +1- *./ *.) *++ *+* *+, *+- **+ *** ,.. -.. 0.. ,.. -.. 0.. **, **- *,+ *,* *,, *,- *-+ *-* *-, *-- *0+ *0* *0, *0- *1+ *1* *1, *1- ,./ ,.) ,.* ,.0 ,.1 ,.2 -.+ -.0 -.1 -.2 0.+ 0., 0.0 0.1 0.2 @A=8CA:R8<@59MCH==59;;5I9B<=5KA95D9=8<C5I9B<= I;9M<@59=5J<<@<@5AJ5MF9I8<C5GA;<= 34(&%5637&( <EFA:A8= I9B<5<;<D<J8= 89:;<= 89:;<= GHH8<C > ? &$( &$( &$( &$( &$( &$( &$( J9KL5AMHJ= &$( &$( &$( &$( &$( &$( &$( @A9BC9D= &$( &$( &$( &$( &$( &$( &$( &$( I;9M<@59=5J<<@<@5AJ598<=5W56<<=5<G<C<JM<Architectural analysis diagram Framemaker file structure diagram
  42. 42. Vision Diagram SYSTEMPathway Diagram Affordance Diagram DIAGRAM Structure Diagram
  43. 43. !Pathway diagram
  44. 44. !Previous iteration of pathway diagram
  45. 45. Vision Diagram SYSTEMPathway Diagram Affordance Diagram DIAGRAM Structure Diagram
  46. 46. New DMM’s color-coded divider tabs
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rganization diagram
  48. 48. Previous iteration of organization diagram
  49. 49. Vision Diagram SYSTEMPathway Diagram Affordance Diagram DIAGRAM Structure Diagram
  50. 50. Shape-based framework diagram
  51. 51. Architectural overview diagram
  52. 52. CONCLUSION Photo by bitrot, Flickr
  53. 53. Conclusion• Situational change in how system diagrams will be used.• Users need to understand the organizing principle of complex information systems in order to take action.• Designers facing the increasing need to work in collaboration – system diagram as a shared structure to support group work.• Need for high-level thinking to foster different modes of thought.
  54. 54. Thank you. Any questions? Photo by Manuel.A.69, Flickr

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