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  • 1. Remember the last time you waited for customer support?
  • 2. Control in User Interface DesignControl is often an extremely crucial factor in design,and it’s pretty well-recognized in HCI and UI design.But what about service design?
  • 3. ...and in service designControl issues are magnified in services.Control is split amongst a huge number of stakeholders.Intense amount of constraints (TSA).User doesn’t always want full control.
  • 4. Our Work: Understanding Control Perceptions1 Literature Review 2 Control Framework prior psychological research understanding types of control3 “Design Lenses” for Control 4 Case Study (Airport) tools to frame design problems surfacing design opportunities
  • 5. Our Work: Understanding Control Perceptions1 Literature Review 2 Control Framework prior psychological research understanding types of control3 “Design Lenses” for Control 4 Case Study (Airport) tools to frame design problems surfacing design opportunities
  • 6. Literature Review Prior Control Typologies Averill (1973) Thompson (1981) Lewis (1987) Miller (1965) Behavioral Behavioral Existential Potential Cognitive Cognitive Processual Instrumental Decisional Informational Contingency Self-Administration Retrospective Behavioral Cognitive
  • 7. Our Work: Understanding Control Perceptions1 Literature Review 2 Control Framework prior psychological research understanding types of control3 “Design Lenses” for Control 4 Case Study (Airport) tools to frame design problems surfacing design opportunities
  • 8. Our Proposed Framework Cognitive control intellectual management Perceived Control sense of control gained by... Behavioral control Decisional control capability of action capability of decision
  • 9. Behavioral ControlCapacity for direct action. CognitiveExamples: earlier phone support, tapping or clinching tosignal pain to your dentist.Speculated retrospective effects (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) Behavioral Decisional
  • 10. Cognitive ControlIntellectual management of an experience. CognitiveWe separate it into two halves:Information: sense of control gained fromobtaining necessary information. Behavioral DecisionalAppraisal: personal interpretation of experience.Includes cognitive strategies used to cope withnegative experiences: avoidant (focus your mindoff of the event) and nonavoidant (focus on theevent or impose meaning) strategies.
  • 11. Cognitive ControlIntellectual management of an experience. CognitiveWe separate it into two halves:Information: sense of control gained fromobtaining necessary information. Behavioral DecisionalAppraisal: personal interpretation of experience.Includes cognitive strategies used to cope withnegative experiences: avoidant (focus your mindoff of the event) and nonavoidant (focus on theevent or impose meaning) strategies.
  • 12. Cognitive ControlIntellectual management of an experience. CognitiveWe separate it into two halves:Information: sense of control gained fromobtaining necessary information. Behavioral DecisionalAppraisal: personal interpretation of experience.Includes cognitive strategies used to cope withnegative experiences: avoidant (focus your mindoff of the event) and nonavoidant (focus on theevent or impose meaning) strategies.
  • 13. Decisional ControlCapability of decision and availability of choice. CognitiveChoice between alternatives and decisions: the timingof the service, whether to partake at all, which course ofaction to take... Behavioral DecisionalToo many choices, of course, can be overwhelming orundesirable.
  • 14. Our Work: Understanding Control Perceptions1 Literature Review 2 Control Framework prior psychological research understanding types of control3 “Design Lenses” for Control 4 Case Study (Airport) tools to frame design problems surfacing design opportunities
  • 15. Design Lenses What is a design lens? Jesse Schell and The Art of Game Design Each lens concisely encapsulates a principle, with: • title • picture • brief description • related questions aimed to raise new perspectives and design opportunities
  • 16. Design Lenses
  • 17. Design Lenses A Quick Glimpse
  • 18. Our Work: Understanding Control Perceptions1 Literature Review 2 Control Framework prior psychological research understanding types of control3 “Design Lenses” for Control 4 Case Study (Airport) tools to frame design problems surfacing design opportunities
  • 19. Case Study Control Issues in the Airport ExperienceQuick user research to frame a design problem with control.Directed storytelling sessions with 40 students; focused on control perceptions duringthe airport experience and surfaced design opportunities accordingly.
  • 20. Conclusion & DiscussionControl beliefs contribute to perceived service quality.Nevertheless, just a starting point. Some other considerations:• What is the “right” amount of desired control in a service?• Individualistic approaches to control perception (Rotter’s locus of control, etc.)
  • 21. Q&A(thanks!)