Representation

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OCR A2 media exam revision

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Representation

  1. 1. CriticalPerspectivesExam: Section 1b
  2. 2. RepresentationExam: Section 1b
  3. 3. Related key concepts…• Media Language(how the representation is created/mediated,denotation and connotation)
  4. 4. Related key concepts…• Media Language(how the representation is created/mediated,denotation and connotation)• Institution and audience(who is doing the representation andwho it is aimed at?)
  5. 5. What we need to know?Who is being represented?• In what way?• By whom?
  6. 6. What we need to know?Why is the subject beingrepresented in this way?• Is the representation fair and accurate?• Is there an opportunity for self-representation?
  7. 7. MediationEvery time we encounter amedia text, we are not seeingreality, but someones version ofit.This may seem obvious, but it is easily forgottenwhen we are enjoying a text.
  8. 8. MediationThree things to look for…
  9. 9. MediationThree things to look for…• SELECTION
  10. 10. MediationThree things to look for…• SELECTION• ORGANISATION
  11. 11. MediationThree things to look for…• SELECTION• ORGANISATION• FOCUS
  12. 12. MediationSelectionWhatever ends up onthe screen much morewill have been left out.
  13. 13. MediationOrganisationElements will beorganised carefully inways that real life is not.
  14. 14. MediationOrganisationElements will beorganised carefully inways that real life is not.This organisation willresult in…
  15. 15. MediationFocusThe audience is pushedtowards concentratingon one aspect of thetext and ignoring others.
  16. 16. This is mediation.Mediation
  17. 17. This is mediation.Reality has been changedMediation
  18. 18. This is mediation.Reality has been changedThis may not always be obvious butit is always and inevitably the caseMediation
  19. 19. Think of examplesof how you havechanged realityin yourproductions…Mediation
  20. 20. Society,the individualand representationRepresentation theory
  21. 21. Representation TheoryThree ways of looking at it…
  22. 22. Representation TheoryThree ways of looking at it…• REFLECTIVE
  23. 23. Representation TheoryThree ways of looking at it…• REFLECTIVE• INTENTIONAL
  24. 24. Representation TheoryThree ways of looking at it…• REFLECTIVE• INTENTIONAL• CONSTRUCTIONIST
  25. 25. ReflectiveThe representation takes thetrue meaning and tries tocreate a replica of it in themind of the viewer.Representation Theory
  26. 26. ReflectiveThe representation takes the true meaningand tries to create a replica of it in the mindof the viewer.This is the view that many people have ofhow news works - news producers take thetruth of news events and simply present it tous as accurately as possible.Representation Theory
  27. 27. Reflective• objective• no bias• no point of viewRepresentation Theory
  28. 28. IntentionalThe representation isstructured and clearly aimsto project a specific idea ormeaning decided by theproducerRepresentation Theory
  29. 29. Intentional• focused• subjective• persuasive• has an intentionRepresentation Theory
  30. 30. ConstructionistA representation can never just be the truth(reflective) or the version of the truth thatsomeone wants you to hear (intentional)since that is ignores your ability as anindividual to make up your own mind andthe influences of society on the way you doit.Representation Theory
  31. 31. Any representation is shaped by…Representation Theory
  32. 32. • the thing itselfAny representation is shaped by…Representation Theory
  33. 33. • the thing itself• the opinions of the producerAny representation is shaped by…Representation Theory
  34. 34. • the thing itself• the opinions of the producer• the reaction of the audienceAny representation is shaped by…Representation Theory
  35. 35. WHATPERCEPTIONHOWRepresentation Theory
  36. 36. whatwe areshownwhatwe seeis not necessarilyRepresentation Theory
  37. 37. whatwe seeis shaped byeducationexperiencescultureclassprejudicesetc.Representation Theory
  38. 38. DominantIdeologyRepresentation Theory
  39. 39. Dominant IdeologyThe way most people think and the codesthat most people live by in any given society.This is not static but constantly changing asnew ideas and attitudes develop andbecome predominant.Representation Theory
  40. 40. Dominant IdeologyOver the years representations are graduallyaccepted (or rejected) by the majority ofpeople and in this way the dominantideology is gradually changed. A processcalled negotiation.The “establishment” tends to reinforce thisideology while others will attempt to “pushthe boundaries”Representation Theory
  41. 41. Dominant Ideologyis reinforced every time a text ispresented which represents theopinions and beliefs of themajority of the peopleRepresentation Theory
  42. 42. StereotypesRepresentation Theory
  43. 43. StereotypesRepresentation TheoryA stereotype is a standardised and usuallyoversimplified, mental picture or attitudethat is held in common by members of agroup.
  44. 44. StereotypesRepresentation TheoryA stereotype is a standardised and usuallyoversimplified, mental picture or attitudethat is held in common by members of agroup.It is a simplification used to make sense of areal person or group (or place) which, inreality, is much more complicated.
  45. 45. Reality is complex anddifficult to fully understand….STEREOTYPINGSimplifies and speeds upcommunicationStereotypes
  46. 46. WE “GET IT” STRAIGHT AWAYStereotypes
  47. 47. StereotypesStereotypes are potentiallyhighly dangerous but stereotypingitself is impossible to avoid.It is a natural function of the human mind.
  48. 48. Stereotyping is something that weall do in order to survive mentallyin the confusing worldaround us.Stereotypes
  49. 49. We should also be aware thatjust as with the process of mediationstereotyping involves the selection,organisation and focusing of thecomplicated reality.Stereotypes
  50. 50. A media stereotype is constructed from…Representation Theory
  51. 51. A media stereotype is constructed from…Representation Theory• appearance
  52. 52. A media stereotype is constructed from…Representation Theory• appearance• behaviour
  53. 53. A media stereotype is constructed from…Representation Theory• appearance• behaviour• media specific factors
  54. 54. A media stereotype is constructed from…Representation Theory• appearance• behaviour• media specific factors• comparison with the norm
  55. 55. Appearance and behaviourThese are not media specific and arewhat we use everyday to judge(and stereotype) people.Stereotypes
  56. 56. Media specific elementsOur expectations as an audience for anygiven genre and its conventions are wellknown to producers.So they will build stereotypes to satisfy usStereotypes
  57. 57. Comparison with normality.This is how we judge stereotypesStereotypes
  58. 58. Comparison with normality.This is how we judge stereotypesBUTWhat is normal?Stereotypes
  59. 59. Are you normal?
  60. 60. the endAre you normal?Are you a stereotype?

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