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chapter  15 Speaking to Persuade
Persuasion <ul><li>Creating, reinforcing, changing people's beliefs or actions </li></ul>
Ethics & Persuasion <ul><li>Ethical goals </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical methods </li></ul>
Degrees of Persuasion
Mental Dialogue with Audience <ul><li>Mental give & take between speaker and listener </li></ul>
Target Audience <ul><li>Portion of audience speaker most wants to persuade </li></ul>
Persuasive Speeches <ul><li>Questions of fact </li></ul><ul><li>Questions of value </li></ul><ul><li>Questions of policy <...
Question of Fact <ul><li>Truth or falsity of assertion </li></ul>
Question of Fact Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that an earthquake of 9.0 or above on the Richter scale will hi...
Question of Fact <ul><li>California is overdue for a major earthquake. </li></ul><ul><li>Many geological signs indicate th...
Question of Value <ul><li>Question about worth, rightness of idea or action </li></ul>
Question of Value Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that capital punishment is morally and legally wrong.
Question of Value <ul><li>Capital punishment violates the biblical commandment “Thou shalt not kill.” </li></ul><ul><li>Ca...
Question of Policy <ul><li>Whether course of action should or should not be taken </li></ul>
Speeches on Questions of Policy <ul><li>Passive agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate action </li></ul>
Passive Agreement <ul><li>Convince audience policy is desirable  </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t encourage action to support polic...
Passive Agreement <ul><li>“ To persuade my audience there should be stricter safety standards on amusement-park rides.” </...
Immediate Action <ul><li>Convince audience to act in support of policy </li></ul>
Immediate Action <ul><li>“ To persuade my audience to become literacy tutors.” </li></ul>
Basic Issues of Policy Speeches <ul><li>Need </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Practicality </li></ul>
Need <ul><li>Is there a problem that requires change from current policy? </li></ul>
Plan <ul><li>What is speaker’s plan to solve the problem with current policy? </li></ul>
Practicality <ul><li>Will speaker’s plan solve problem?  </li></ul><ul><li>Will speaker’s plan create new problems? </li><...
Organizing Policy Speeches <ul><li>Problem-solution </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-cause-solution </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative...
Problem-Solution Main Point I: Documents existence of problem. Main Point II: Presents solution to problem.
Problem-Solution Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that the use of antibacterial chemicals in household products i...
Problem-Solution <ul><li>The use of antibacterial chemicals in household products is a serious problem. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Problem-Cause-Solution Main Point I: Documents existence of problem Main Point II: Analyzes causes of problem Main Point I...
Problem-Cause-Solution Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that the age for full motor-vehicle driving privileges sh...
Problem-Cause-Solution <ul><li>Accidents and death involving teenage drivers is a serious national problem. </li></ul><ul>...
Comparative Advantages <ul><li>Each main point explains why speaker's solution is preferable to other solutions </li></ul>
Comparative Advantages Order Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that automakers should emphasize developing hydroge...
Comparative Advantages Order <ul><li>Unlike hybrid cars, hydrogen cars run entirely without gasoline. </li></ul><ul><li>Un...
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence <ul><li>Five-step sequence for organizing speeches that seek immediate action </li></ul>
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence Attention: Gain attention Need: Show need for change Satisfaction: Provide solution to need
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence Visualization: Intensify desire for solution by visualizing its benefits Action: Urge audience...
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Chapter 15 - Speaking to Persuade

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Transcript of "Chapter 15 - Speaking to Persuade"

  1. 1. chapter 15 Speaking to Persuade
  2. 2. Persuasion <ul><li>Creating, reinforcing, changing people's beliefs or actions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ethics & Persuasion <ul><li>Ethical goals </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical methods </li></ul>
  4. 4. Degrees of Persuasion
  5. 5. Mental Dialogue with Audience <ul><li>Mental give & take between speaker and listener </li></ul>
  6. 6. Target Audience <ul><li>Portion of audience speaker most wants to persuade </li></ul>
  7. 7. Persuasive Speeches <ul><li>Questions of fact </li></ul><ul><li>Questions of value </li></ul><ul><li>Questions of policy </li></ul>
  8. 8. Question of Fact <ul><li>Truth or falsity of assertion </li></ul>
  9. 9. Question of Fact Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that an earthquake of 9.0 or above on the Richter scale will hit California in the next ten years.
  10. 10. Question of Fact <ul><li>California is overdue for a major earthquake. </li></ul><ul><li>Many geological signs indicate that a major earthquake may happen soon. </li></ul><ul><li>Experts agree that a major earthquake could hit California any day. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Question of Value <ul><li>Question about worth, rightness of idea or action </li></ul>
  12. 12. Question of Value Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that capital punishment is morally and legally wrong.
  13. 13. Question of Value <ul><li>Capital punishment violates the biblical commandment “Thou shalt not kill.” </li></ul><ul><li>Capital punishment violates the constitutional ban on “cruel and unusual punishment.” </li></ul>
  14. 14. Question of Policy <ul><li>Whether course of action should or should not be taken </li></ul>
  15. 15. Speeches on Questions of Policy <ul><li>Passive agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate action </li></ul>
  16. 16. Passive Agreement <ul><li>Convince audience policy is desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t encourage action to support policy </li></ul>
  17. 17. Passive Agreement <ul><li>“ To persuade my audience there should be stricter safety standards on amusement-park rides.” </li></ul>
  18. 18. Immediate Action <ul><li>Convince audience to act in support of policy </li></ul>
  19. 19. Immediate Action <ul><li>“ To persuade my audience to become literacy tutors.” </li></ul>
  20. 20. Basic Issues of Policy Speeches <ul><li>Need </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Practicality </li></ul>
  21. 21. Need <ul><li>Is there a problem that requires change from current policy? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Plan <ul><li>What is speaker’s plan to solve the problem with current policy? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Practicality <ul><li>Will speaker’s plan solve problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Will speaker’s plan create new problems? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Organizing Policy Speeches <ul><li>Problem-solution </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-cause-solution </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Monroe’s motivated sequence </li></ul>
  25. 25. Problem-Solution Main Point I: Documents existence of problem. Main Point II: Presents solution to problem.
  26. 26. Problem-Solution Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that the use of antibacterial chemicals in household products is creating health and environmental problems.
  27. 27. Problem-Solution <ul><li>The use of antibacterial chemicals in household products is a serious problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Solving these problems requires a combination of government and consumer action. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Problem-Cause-Solution Main Point I: Documents existence of problem Main Point II: Analyzes causes of problem Main Point III: Presents solution to problem
  29. 29. Problem-Cause-Solution Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that the age for full motor-vehicle driving privileges should be raised to 18.
  30. 30. Problem-Cause-Solution <ul><li>Accidents and death involving teenage drivers is a serious national problem. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four main causes of the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>We can solve these problems by raising the age for full driving privileges to 18. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Comparative Advantages <ul><li>Each main point explains why speaker's solution is preferable to other solutions </li></ul>
  32. 32. Comparative Advantages Order Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that automakers should emphasize developing hydrogen fuel-cell cars more than gas-electric cars.
  33. 33. Comparative Advantages Order <ul><li>Unlike hybrid cars, hydrogen cars run entirely without gasoline. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike hybrid cars, hydrogen cars do not emit any air-polluting exhaust. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence <ul><li>Five-step sequence for organizing speeches that seek immediate action </li></ul>
  35. 35. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence Attention: Gain attention Need: Show need for change Satisfaction: Provide solution to need
  36. 36. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence Visualization: Intensify desire for solution by visualizing its benefits Action: Urge audience to take action in support of solution
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