The Shift Begins in Kindergarten“rigorous and based on college- and career-ready expectations”http://www.all4ed.org/
Shifts in teaching and learningTransmission of knowledge è Active construction of knowledge Step-by-step è Exploration Individual è Collaborative End-on assessment è Integrated assessment Decontextualized è Authentic One source of truth è Multiple perspectives Rigid è Flexible Contained è Lifelong, lifewide
Shifts in learning and technologyLearning from technology è Learning with technology Immobile è Mobile Alone è Social Tethered è Wireless Institutional è Personal Local è Cloud based Fixed resources è Open educational resources Set and forget è Learning analytics
Shifts in teacher role The following are roles teachers play in networked learning environments: 1. Amplifying 2. Curating 3. Wayfinding and socially-driven sensemaking 4. Aggregating 5. Filtering 6. Modelling 7. Persistent presence (George Siemens - http://www.connectivism.ca/?p=220)Teacher is now just one of many input channels.
What is Social Media?“UGC needs to fulfil three basic requirements inorder to be considered as such: first, it needs tobe published either on a publicly accessiblewebsite or on a social networking site accessibleto a selected group of people; second, it needsto show a certain amount of creative effort; andfinally, it needs to have been created outside ofprofessional routines and practices”(OECD, 2007).
Student Expectations/Experience UWA’s first year cohort are predominately school leavers and survey results show that they are enthusiastic adopters of social media in their private lives, to stay ‘connected’. Cluett, L. & Skene, J. (2011) Trends and outcomes from five years of surveying first year university students about ICT and social media at an Australian university. FYHE Conference.
Student feedback• 2011 - A more central, easier to use discussion board in real time would be beneficial and allow students the opportunity to use the board more as they would use Facebook• 2011 - A pop-up on the Blackboard home page would make checking discussion boards much easier• 2011 - All units should have online discussion boards. It is frustrating when there isnt one! You dont have any feedback from fellow students.• 2011 - An open chat facility incorporated into Blackboard that archives chat to engage further with students enrolled in the course.• 2011 - Blackboard could definitely stand to be upgraded in terms of design and web tools. I.E. Social, collaborative etc.• 2011 - Blackboard is still too clumsy and the system for at least the art area requires a Facebook level of interaction to be able to share work more readily and comment etc.• 2011 - Blackboard needs to be upgraded to be an instant chat service not a stale email type system. A chat room would be much better as people are able to view who is online when they are online. A lot of students are looking to Facebook groups instead.
Student feedback• 2011 - Communication tools are not as fast as Facebook therefore i prefer to use other options for discussion• 2011 - Create a Facebook page controlled by Curtin to update any latest happenings. We hangout in Facebook very frequently• 2011 - People have begun to set up Facebook groups for those in your semester in your course. These are generally better than the discussion boards because it notifies everybody and is more social.• 2011 - While conducting BLW14 there was a strong community of discussion amongst students, with various tutors also weighing into discussions with their feedback on others viewpoints as well as their own, even on weekends.• 2010 - All units should come equipped with a chatroom available 24/7 for students to use, and tutors and lecturers should have staff twitter accounts to make them more accessible to off campus students.• 2010 - Further involvement from tutors on Twitter would be very useful as many students use Twitter to communicate with each other.
Are changes occurring?“I kluged together a wiki, ablog a message board andasked students to join freepublic social media serviceslike De.licio.us, Flickr,Youtube, and Twitter.Again I was surprised…they were overwhelmed…” Howard Rheingold “Social Media Classroom Screencast” Aug 19, 2008 http://socialmediaclassroom.com/index.php/using-the-smc Photo by Joi Ito http://images.cdn.fotopedia.com/flickr-2121488118- hd.jpg
Networking from student to professional“Interestingly, researchers found that very fewstudents in the study were actually aware of theacademic and professional networkingopportunities that the Web sites provide.Making this opportunity more known tostudents, Greenhow says, is just one way thateducators can work with students and theirexperiences on social networking sites.” University of Minnesota study into Educational benefits of social networking. http://www1.umn.edu/news/features/2008f/UR_191308_REGION1.html
Spaces for Learninghttp://www.army.mil/article/59175/Officials_seek_input_to_modernize_DoD_schools/ http://www.topboxdesign.com/space-for- personalised-learning-west-hill-pilot-in-london- united-kingdom/
Personal TechnologyPersonal Learning Environmenthttp://www.flickr.com/photos/adesigna/3923138328“Personalization cannot take place at scale without technology.”Culture Shift: Teaching in a Learner-Centered Environment Powered by Digital Learninghttp://www.all4ed.org/
Students12.18 HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS - 2008
Staff-Student Relationship“Teacher’s self-disclosureon Facebook can promoteclassroomatmosphere, teacher’scredibility and student–teacher relationship”Qiyun Wang, Huay Lit Woo, Choon Lang Quek, Yuqin Yang and Mei LiuUsing the Facebook group as a learning management system:An exploratory study(British Journal of Educational Technology 43/3 p 428-438 May 2012)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2011.01195.x
Matters of TrustSocial media has not, and willnot, change the fundamentalsof learning, but will rathercomplement and supplementits dynamics by creating newchannels of communication.Social media will also createnew channels of trust as theglobal reach of the Internetexposes learners to newsources of learning, be thosesources, people or repositories.Rasmus, D. Social Media in Higher Education: Time to take the plunge.http://danielwrasmus.com/Documents/Rasmus%20-%20Social%20Media%20in%20Higher%20Education.pdf
Shifts in academic authority“While student-centredpedagogies are by nomeans new and longpredate the Internet,Web 2.0 technologiesthrow issues such asacademic authority intosharp relief.” Chang, R., Kennedy, G. & Petrovic, T. (2008). Web 2.0 and user-created content: Students negotiating shifts in academic authority. In Hello! Where are you in the http://www.all4ed.org/ landscape of educational technology? Proceedings ascilite Melbourne 2008. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/melbourne08/procs/chang.pdf
Perceived “authority”• Students may presuppose that materials created by the academic are superior• Ignoring that student generated content reflects a creative learning processChang, R., Kennedy, G. & Petrovic, T. (2008). Web 2.0 and user-created content:Students negotiating shifts in academic authority. In Hello! Where are you in the landscapeof educational technology? Proceedings ascilite Melbourne 2008.http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/melbourne08/procs/chang.pdf Photo: http://farm6.staticflickr.com/5283/5334413714_a909540f16_b.jpg
Social media usershttps://www.google.com/adplanner/?hl=en_GB#siteDetails?uid=domain%253Afacebook.com&geo=AU&lp=false
Social media usershttps://www.google.com/adplanner/?hl=en_GB#siteDetails?uid=domain%253Alinkedin.com&geo=AU&lp=false
Social media usershttps://www.google.com/adplanner/?hl=en_GB#siteDetails?uid=domain%253Atwitter.com&geo=AU&lp=false
Raising student awareness• “so much of social networking is free.”• “Engagement is another important reason to use social networking.”• “Lastly, social networking lets you incorporate real-world experiences into your classroom. You can teach students how to collaborate online, adhere to acceptable-use policies, and develop best practices for networking before they stumble through on their own.” Getting Smart blog http://gettingsmart.com/blog/2011/12/developing-a-social-media-strategy-for-your-classroom/
Seeing teachers in contextOne of the overlookeddimensions of socialmedia is the ability forstudents to see theirteachers interactingwith the world – thiscan includeprofessional andpersonal interactions. http://www.thenetworkedteacher.com/
Content or Relationships “In a nutshell, bitlys research reveals that generally, links3 hours shared on Facebook, Twitter, and via direct sources like email or instant message have a shelf life of about 3 hours.” Read more: http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/245 07/Shelf-Life-of-Social-Media-Links-Only-3-Hours- Data.aspx#ixzz1x4RNvKWG
Possible actionsRevisit the First Year Experience – this is wherethe expectations for new undergraduates can bemost readily aligned with quality teaching andlearning.The expected behaviours and attitudes can beestablished if all teaching staff have aligned theirapproaches.Ongoing reinforcement throughout subsequentyears is also required.
Australian Higher Education Students Source DEEWR: Student 2010 Full Year: Selected Higher Education Statistics http://www.deewr.gov.au/HigherEducation/Publications/HEStatistics/Publications/Pages/2010StudentFullYear.aspx
Active Online Learners• Students are a diverse population• Generalisations are difficult.• Research is limited – with various findings, often contradictory.• Teachers are also a diverse population.
Learning NetworksLearners learn, really learn Socialwhen they engage with Peersclassmates, when theyconnect, share, communicate and collaborate with eachother. Learning from and Inclass Tea Learner Other Peers Expertthrough peers is a sdimension of learning bothin the class and online thatis often negated. Teachershttp://onlinelearninginsights.wordpress.com/tag/active-learning/
Active Online LearnersThere is a growing body of scholarlyresearch suggesting that, when usedproperly, social media can boostboth learning outcomes and studentengagement. The key phrase in thatsentence is “when used properly.”The problem is that research in thisarea is still relatively limited, andmost of what is being done inclassrooms is experimental. No onehas figured out definitively whatdoes and does not work.http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/for-social-media-in-the-classroom-to-work-instructors-need-best-practices.php
Curtin Online Courses in 2012All Curtin fully online Courses• 8 Undergraduate Courses with 18 Majors• 39 Postgraduate Courses offered as either: Graduate Certificate, Graduate Diploma or Masters (71 in total).
Impact of iPad Initiatives• Mobile Learn – platform well received by students – instructional design of units could leverage it more.• Yammer/Lync trials for staff – similar staff- student interactions yet to emerge.
Social Media InitiativesIn a blogging case study, the educators foundthat knowing more about the student’srequirements through the blogs saved time andwas beneficial, as they were able to better planthe face-to-face tutorials to directly addressstudents’ needs. In the Twitter case study, theeducator mentioned that use of Twitter enabledbetter understanding of the students’needs, and other interactions (face-to-face or ine-mail) could be accordingly adjusted. Minocha, Shailey(2009) A case study-based investigation of students experiences with social software tools, New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 15: 3, 245 — 265 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13614560903494320
Social Media InitiativesIn the case study which employed Second Life, a 3Dvirtual world, the students felt that avatar-basedrepresentation in Second Life resulted in thembeing more sociable with their tutors. Also, in thiscase study, students shared their Facebook profileswith the tutor. The tutor mentioned to us about thisincreased level of familiarity with his studentsthrough Second Life and Facebook. There weresimilar sentiments expressed in three other casestudies involving Facebook, blogs andTwitter, respectively. Minocha, Shailey(2009) A case study-based investigation of students experiences with social software tools, New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 15: 3, 245 — 265 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13614560903494320
Social Media InitiativesIn my syllabus, at the start of the semester, I share my course policyabout extra credit. There is a maximum amount of extra credit that anystudent can earn (20 points) through completing activities I havedesigned for them. However, there is one way students are eligible toearn an extra 10 points (or a max of 30 extra credit points) — and thatis by earning a Masterpiece Blog Award.A Masterpiece Blog Award is earned throughout the semester by a fewselect students and is intended to be a prestigious symbol of bloggingexcellence. But it is not I, their professor, who decides who will receivethe award(s) — or how many of them will be distributed — it is thestudents themselves. Students have an opportunity to nominate twoof their peers who have demonstrated a consistent effort to post blogson time, share thought-provoking and relevant content in theirposts, and engage their peers in meaningful dialogue. Students knowabout this special designation from day one of class, and it’s up tothem to set the tone and live up to this standard during the class. Michelle Pacansky-Brock (2012) Motivating College Students with Social Media and Web 2.0 URL: http://getideas.org/getinsight/motivating-college-students-with-social-media-and-web-2-0/
MOOCs and Badges Opportunities to study in informal settings are becoming more popular and there seem to be systems developing that will acknowledge learning. These systems tend to be heavily driven by social media and the portfolio approaches for assessment are driving user generated content.
Further readingBohlinger, B. The beauty of an online conference: night and day, my pacehttp://britbohlinger.wordpress.com/2010/04/28/the-beauty-of-an-online-conference-night-and-day-my-pace/Pingdom Study: Ages of social network users http://royal.pingdom.com/2010/02/16/study-ages-of-social-network-users/Allen, M. New Challenges in Education: Online learning, knowledge networks, ‘edgeless’ universitiesKeynote lecture, Institute for Global Initiatives, Kennesaw State University October 6 2011.http://www.netcrit.net/wp-content/uploads/2011-newchallenges.pdfChang, R. Kennedy, G. and Petrovic, T. Web 2.0 and user-created content: Students negotiatingshifts in academic authority http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/melbourne08/procs/chang.pdfElaine Tay & Matthew Allen (2011): Designing social media into universitylearning: technology of collaboration or collaboration for technology?, Educational MediaInternational, 48:3, 151-163 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09523987.2011.607319Waycott, J., Bennett, S., Kennedy, G., Delgarno, B., and Gray, K. Digital divides? Student and staffperceptions of information and communication technologies Computers & Education 54 (2010) 1202–1211Davis III, C.H.F., Deil-Amen, R., Rios-Aguilar, C., & González Canché, M.S. Social media and highereducation: A literature review and research directions. Report printed by the University of Arizona andClaremont Graduate University. January 2012. http://works.bepress.com/hfdavis/2/
Further readingTapia, W. (2010) An Exploratory Case Study On The Effectiveness Of SocialNetwork Sites: The Case Of Facebook And Twitter In An Educational OrganisationMBA Dissertation Graduate Business School, Griffith College Dublinhttp://gcd.academia.edu/WendyTapia/Papers/326720/An_exploratory_case_study_on_the_effectiveness_of_social_network_sites_The_case_of_Facebook_and_Twitter_in_an_educational_organisationUMNews July 10, 2008 Educational benefits of social networking siteshttp://www1.umn.edu/news/features/2008f/UR_191308_REGION1.htmlWinkler, T. Facing up to Facebook: social media and universities The Australian(April 18, 2012) http://www.theaustralian.com.au/higher-education/opinion/facing-up-to-facebook-social-media-and-universities/story-e6frgcko-1226330591529Copeland, D. For Social Media In The Classroom To Work, Instructors Need BestPractices. ReadWriteWeb May 2, 2012http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/for-social-media-in-the-classroom-to-work-instructors-need-best-practices.php
Further readingJames Schirmer, (2011),Fostering Meaning and Community in Writing Courses ViaSocial Media, Charles Wankel, in (ed.) Teaching Arts and Science with the NewSocial Media (Cutting-edge Technologies in Higher Education, Volume 3),Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 15 – 38 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/S2044-9968(2011)0000003005Linda Wilks, Nick Pearce, (2011),Fostering an Ecology of Openness: The Role ofSocial Media in Public Engagement at the Open University, UK, Charles Wankel, in(ed.) Teaching Arts and Science with the New Social Media (Cutting-edgeTechnologies in Higher Education, Volume 3), Emerald Group Publishing Limited,pp. 241 – 263 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/S2044-9968(2011)0000003015Tham, D. (2009). Generative Audiences and Social Media. In Papandrea, F., &Armstron, M. (Eds.) Record of the Communications Policy & Research Forum 2009,(pp. 216-235). Sydney, N.S.W.: Network Insighthttp://www.apo.org.au/node/19820
Further readingBabbitt, M. Has Social Media Become Our Higher Education? January 20, 2012http://balancedworklife.com/blog/has-social-media-become-our-higher-education/Dunn, J. How Students Can Use Social Media To Actually Learn Real World SkillsEdudemic April 24, 2012 http://edudemic.com/2012/04/how-students-can-use-social-media-to-actually-learn-real-world-skills/Priego, E. How Twitter will revolutionise academic research and teaching. TheGuardian Higher Education Network September 12, 2011.http://www.guardian.co.uk/higher-education-network/blog/2011/sep/12/twitter-revolutionise-academia-researchAnyangwe, E. Your Twitter tips: using social media to enhance studentexperience. Guardian Higher Education Network September 27, 2011.http://www.guardian.co.uk/higher-education-network/blog/2011/sep/27/social-media-in-higher-education-tips
Further readingPage, Ruth. Social media savvy: the universities and academics leading the way.Guardian Higher Education Network March 14, 2011.http://www.guardian.co.uk/higher-education-network/higher-education-network-blog/2011/mar/14/social-media-best-practice-in-higher-educationWaycott, J., Bishop, A., Kennedy, G., Delgarno, B., and Waycott, J. ImplementingWeb 2.0 technologies in higher education: A collective case study Computers &Education 59 (2012) 524-534Charles Wankel, (2011), New Dimensions of Communicating with Students:Introduction to Teaching Arts and Science with the New Social Media, CharlesWankel, in (ed.) Teaching Arts and Science with the New Social Media (Cutting-edge Technologies in Higher Education, Volume 3), Emerald Group PublishingLimited, pp. 3 – 14 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/S2044-9968(2011)0000003004Rasmus, D. Social Media in Higher Education: Time to take the plunge.http://danielwrasmus.com/Documents/Rasmus%20-%20Social%20Media%20in%20Higher%20Education.pdf
Further readingMangan, K. Social Networks for Academics Proliferate, Despite Some Doubts.The Chronicle of Higher Education. April 29, 2012http://chronicle.com/article/Social-Networks-for-Academics/131726/Schaefer, M. Social media pioneer says technology will transform education.November 13, 2011. http://www.businessesgrow.com/2011/11/13/social-media-pioneer-says-technology-will-transfom-education/Teras, H. & Myllylä, M. (2011). Educating Teachers for the Knowledge Society:Social Media, Authentic Learning and Communities of Practice. In S. Barton et al.(Eds.), Proceedings of Global Learn Asia Pacific 2011 (pp. 1012-1020). AACE.Retrieved from http://www.editlib.org/p/37292.