Project management for instructional designers


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Project management for instructional designers

  1. 1. PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNERS Presented by: Kimberly McKee and Kimberly Klotz University of Central Arkansas Graduate School, ITEC Program
  2. 2. Kimberly Klotz  Introduction information
  3. 3. Kimberly McKee  Bachelor of Arts „11 (English, Writing, Journalism)  Master of Science „13 (Instructional Technology/Distance Education)  17 years of technical writing experience for a technology company  Grant writing contractor  48 hours of Project Management professional development  Employed in the Division of Outreach and Community Engagement, University of Central Arkansas
  4. 4. Project Management Institute (PMI) “PMI is one of the world‟s largest not-for-profit membership associations for the project management profession, with more than 650,000 members and credential holders in more than 185 countries.” ~ PMID PMI Offers Two Certification Levels: Project Management Professional (PMP) Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM) – Entry Level Certification
  5. 5. Project Management Certification Requirements 1. Bachelor‟s degree 2. 3 years of Project Management experience 3. 4500 hours of leading projects 4. 35 hours of Project Management education 5. Pass the test OR 1. High school degree 2. 5 years of Project Management experience 3. 7500 hours of leading projects 4. 35 hours of Project Management education 5. Pass the test 1. High school diploma or equivalent 2. 1500 hours of Project Management experience 3. Pass the test OR 1. High school diploma or equivalent 2. 23 hours of Project Management instruction 3. Pass the test Project Management Professional (PMP) Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM)
  6. 6. What is Project Management?  The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements. (PMI)  To determine project success, we must also include the client. (Meredith & Mantel) Applying Project Management principles increases the success of a project.
  7. 7. Project Management Defined as Objectives Cost Schedule Specifications Expectations of the Client Meredith & Mantel
  8. 8. What is a project?  Developed to achieve the purposes and goals of an organization, institution or business.  Purpose and goals are defined by key stakeholders (those who have a share or interest of an organization, institution or business).  Initiatives to increase organizational effectiveness or efficiency (such as incorporating new technologies and updating/improving processes).  Major activities outside the normal work of an organization‟s department or functional units or major activities that cross functional boundaries.
  9. 9. Project Characteristics  Temporary – defined beginning and end  Create a product, service or result that is unique
  10. 10. Who can manage a project?  Outside contractors  Internal group in a Project Management Office (PMO)  Internal team  Instructional Designer
  11. 11. Key Skills of the Project Manager  Develops a plan to meet project goals  Monitors plan to ensure project stays on track  Energizes the team around the success of the project  Maintains organization  Establishes priorities  Communicates clear goals & expectations A Project Manager is goal directed and milestone oriented!
  12. 12. Project Management & ADDIE Instructional Design Model  Training need  Learner  Setting  Task and content  Objectives  Test development  Sequencing  Learning strategy selection Analyze Design
  13. 13. Project Management & ADDIE Instructional Design Model  Prepare materials  Develop manuals  Test prototype  Roll out initiative Develop Implement Evaluate  Measure learning outcomes throughout the course  Generate and analyze evaluation reports Cox
  14. 14. ADDIE: Analyze Initiating Phase:  Recognizes a project or the next phase of an existing project  Recognizes that resources should be committed to the project Project Management Activities:  Conduct Needs Analysis  Develop Project Charter  Identify stakeholders
  15. 15. Step 1: Conduct Needs Analysis  Feasibility study to determine performance gaps at the individual and business levels  Presents alternatives and possible solutions  Prepared by the designer, team, outside agency  Approved by the leadership
  16. 16. How to Conduct a Needs Analysis  Answers Who, What, when, where, why, how questions  Locates the root cause of the performance gap  Compares what is expected to what is actually being achieved  Understands the learner (job experiences, motivation, aptitude,  Conduct a survey  Walk thru current processes  Talk to customers, if possible and needed  Review previous training efforts  Review sales records and customer feedback forums  Conduct interviews  Facilitate focus groups  Facilitate workshop sessions  Conduct group brainstorming  Observations  Prototype – working model to obtain feedback before proceeding with project REPORT OVERVIEW HOW?
  17. 17. Needs Analysis Format 1. Job, task and content analysis constructed around the learning objectives 2. Identification of the performance gap 3. Proposed training content 4. Benefit of the training 5. Evaluation measures linked to the learning objectives 6. Time required 7. Expected performance measured against actual performance
  18. 18. Step 2: Develop a Project Charter  Provides structure to the Project Plan  Justifies the project  Documents the need being addressed  Includes a description of the project  Documents proposed result of the project  Includes input from key stakeholders  Leadership responsible for obtaining sign-off by the project sponsor (person financing the project), senior management, key stakeholders
  19. 19. Project Charter Format 1. Purpose 2. Description of work 3. Business objectives 4. In-scope deliverables (what project includes) 5. Roles and responsibilities 6. Approvals NOTE: The Project Charter Report does not include out- of-scope deliverables. This includes: project success, milestones, major known risks, assumptions, constraints, external dependencies, summary budget and types of vendor assistance.
  20. 20. Stakeholders  Includes practitioners or groups of people with specialized knowledge or skills in a particular area  Interests should be considered throughout the project Document for each Stakeholder:  Role  Department  Interest  Knowledge level  Expectation  Level of influence
  21. 21. ADDIE: Design  Objectives specification  Test design  Sequencing  Learning Strategy Selection
  22. 22. ADDIE: Design Phase  Develop Project Management Plan  Collect requirements  Define scope  Create work breakdown structure  Define activities  Sequence activities  Estimate resources  Estimate duration  Develop schedule  Estimate costs and budget  Develop Quality Management Plan  Develop Human Resources Plan  Develop Risk Management Plan  Develop Procurement Plan Project Management Activities
  23. 23. Step 3: Develop Design Document  Outlines the framework of the plan  Provides high-level overview of the product content and how it will be treated  Enables key stakeholders to validate the program‟s objectives, architecture, content and concepts before development  Select learning strategies (learning styles and adult learning principles)
  24. 24. Design Document Format (3-column report) Product information, concepts and criteria to be covered in the respective modules Learning Objectives Key Points Content/Concept  Describe what the learner is expected to achieve when performing the task  Task statement  Conditions under which the task is performed  Standard to describe how well task must be performed Process and Activity  Summary of the types of learning activities that will be completed in the respective modules  Instructions used to measure learning through the training program including criteria, review and post-course follow-up  Describe how presentation and application methods are distributed throughout the learning program
  25. 25. Test Methods  Assess if the objective is achieved during training  Test may be performance or nonperformance (knowledge only)  Administer at the end of each sub-task based on task analysis  Measure to determine the extent to which subtasks are learned  Can be performance or nonperformance based Criterion Review
  26. 26. Test Methods  Activities performed to ensure that on-the- job performance objectives are achieved  Success determined based on the extent learner‟s activities during training mimic performance required on the job Presentation:  Lecture, discussion demonstration Application:  Practice exercise, simulation, peer review, role play, case study, game, feedback Instructional Methods Post Course Follow Up
  27. 27. Step 4: Develop Project Plan  Overall approach used to plan and manage a project  Consists of subsidiary plans that detail how specific areas of the project will be addressed  Documents cost, time, quality, risk, and resources to complete the project Input:  Project charter  Process outputs that will be used for the project  Environmental factors outside the organization  Specific information about what may influence success, organizational policies, guidelines, procedures, plans, and/or standards for conducting work  Stakeholder input, if skills and knowledge warrant
  28. 28. Components of the Project Plan  Project Scope Statement  Work Breakdown Structure  Schedule Management  Project Resource Management  Issues Management  Change Management  Quality Management  Human Resource Management  Procurement Management 40% of time allocated to complete the project should be spent in planning Size and complexity of project determines the processes to be included
  29. 29. Project Scope Statement  Documents initial planning efforts for the project  Used to reach agreement among managers, stakeholders and teams before resources are allocated
  30. 30. Project Scope Format 1. Project purpose and justification 2. Product description 3. Business objectives 4. Project description (Includes: deliverables breakdown. Do not include: completion criteria, external dependencies, assumptions, constraints.) 5. Project milestones and target dates 6. Project approach (describes the plans included, scheduled meetings, scheduled status reports, issues management, change management, communications plan, procurement plan, resource management) 7. Authorizations 8. Version history
  31. 31. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)  Comprehensive review of the project scope  Subdivides major project deliverables and project work into smaller, more management components called work packages  The lowest level tasks should have durations between 2 and 22 days and effort should not take more than one person more than one week to complete
  32. 32. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Input:  Project scope statement  Organizational policies, guidelines, procedures, plans and or standards for conducting work  Activity Lists (outlines all the scheduled activities to be performed for the project within the scope of work description of each activity and identification code or number)  Activity Attributes (characteristics of the activities)  Milestone Lists (major accomplishments that signal completion of a major deliverable)  Requirements documentation that describe the connection between individual requirements and the business need for the project
  33. 33. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Output:  WBS in deliverables  WBS dictionary that includes details for work attached to each component, milestones, person responsible, etc. Scope Baseline:  Approved project scope statement  WBS, and WBS dictionary  Updates to project documents to track change requests that result from the WBS
  34. 34. WBS Steps to Define Project Deliverables 1. Define scheduled activities to complete project 2. Define tasks for scheduled activities 3. Sequence activities and tasks 4. Identify related dependencies 5. Estimate resources needed/available 6. Estimate duration resources will be required 7. Define milestones and expected target dates 8. Document details for the WBS dictionary
  35. 35. WBS Sequencing Methods Precedence Diagramming Method  Finish-to-start (FS): predecessor activity must finish before successor activity can start  Start-to-finish (SF): predecessor activity must start before the successor activity can finish  Finish-to-finish (FF): predecessor activity must finish before the successor activity finishes  Start-to-finish (SS): predecessor activity must start before the successor activity can start
  36. 36. WBS Sequencing Methods Dependency Determination  Mandatory dependencies: inherent to the nature of the work being done  Discretionary dependencies: established based on best practices within a particular industry or aspect of the project where an unusual sequence is desired Appling Leads and Lags  Lags delay successor activities and require time to be added to start or finish date. Leads speed up successor activity and require time to be taken off either start or finish date of scheduled activity.
  37. 37. Analyzing activity sequences, duration, resource requirements and schedule constraints to create the project schedule. Approved schedule becomes the baseline for the remainder of the project. Project progress is monitored and tracked against the baseline, which determines if the project is on track. Schedule Management
  38. 38. Input:  Project scope statement  Activity list  Activity attributes (characteristics of activity, assumptions, constraints)  Diagram of project activities and dependencies  Activity resource requirements  Resource calendars  Activity duration estimates Output:  Project schedule  Schedule data  Schedule baseline  Project document updates Schedule Management
  39. 39. Schedule Management Scheduling Methods  Schedule Network Analysis Calculate early and late start dates, and early and late finish dates for project activities.  Critical-Path Method Identifies tasks that must be completed on time for the project to be completed by the end date. This data keeps project on track.  Schedule Compression Using mathematical calculations to shorten the schedule without changing the scope. Allows related activities to be accomplished sooner than estimated.  What-if Scenario Analysis Series of what if questions to present activity assumptions to determine project duration.
  40. 40. Schedule Management Scheduling Methods  Resource Leveling Under-allocated resources can be assigned to multiple tasks.  Critical-Chain Method Schedule high risk tasks early in project so problems are identified and addressed as soon as possible.  Applying Leads and Lags Start and finish dates are adjusted.  Automated Scheduling Tools Speeds up scheduling process based on data input.
  41. 41. Cost Estimates Cost of the resources needed to complete project activities Input:  Scope statement  Work breakdown structure  Defined activities  Sequenced activities  Resource estimates  Schedule  Risks Output:  Cost baseline
  42. 42. Project Resource Management
  43. 43. Issues Management A log to document the issue, the owner, resolution and status. Includes how issues will be:  Tracked  Assigned  Prioritized  Resolved  Communicated
  44. 44. Change Management Log to documents how requests for changes will be managed, reviewed, and tracked.  Will all change requests be reviewed to determine possible alternatives and costs?  Who will approve changes?
  45. 45. Quality Management  Identifies the quality standards adopted for the project  Describes how the quality will be implemented and managed Input:  Customer definition of quality  Overview of schedule, cost, scope  Quality assurance activities (testing, audits, reviews)  Measurements (within scope, budget, schedule) Output:  Quality Management Plan
  46. 46. Human Resource Management  Process for organizing and managing the team  Size of team influenced by duration of the project  Input:  Factors outside the project that influence project success  Organizational policies, guidelines, procedures, plans and/or standards for conducting work  Activity resource requirements  Output:  Human Resource Plan that documents roles, responsibilities and reporting relationships
  47. 47. Communication Plan  Processes required to ensure timely and appropriate collection, retrieval and dissemination of project information  Ensures that stakeholder needs are met Input:  Factors outside the project with significant influence  Organizational policies, guidelines, procedures, plans and standards for conducting work  Project Charter  Procurement documents Output:  Communication Plan
  48. 48. Communication Plan Format 1. Project purpose 2. Business need 3. Communication principles (ensure consistency in messages and tone in communication) 4. Communication objectives 5. Target audience 6. Key messages (who, what, when, where, why, how) 7. Change implications (impact of the organizational changes as a result of the project) 8. Challenges and opportunities (factors that help or hinder – past situations, rumors, trust, etc.) 9. Sign off
  49. 49. Risk Management Plan  Processes necessary to increase the probability and impact of positive events and decrease probability and impact of negative events Input:  Factors outside of the project that influence success  Organizational policies, guidelines, procedures, plans and/or standards for conducting work  Scope statement  Cost Management plan  Schedule Management plan  Communications Management plan Output:  Risk Management plan
  50. 50. Risk Management Plan Template 1. Risk identification (based on discussions with key stakeholders) 2. Risk categorization 3. Risk probability and impact assessment 4. Risk prioritization 5. Risk response planning 6. Risk management strategy 7. Risk monitoring (build reviews into project schedule) 8. Risk control 9. Assumptions with significant impact on project risk 10. Roles and responsibilities unique to the risk function 11. Risk management milestones 12. Risk rating score technique 13. Risk thresholds (high, medium, low – based on impact and probability) 14. Risk communication 15. Risk tracking process 16. Sign off
  51. 51. 1 Risk identification (based on discussions with key stakeholders)
  52. 52. Procurement Management  Process of documenting project purchasing decisions, specifying the approach and identifying potential sellers.  Identifies project needs that must be met by purchasing products, services or results outside the organization Input:  Factors outside of the project that impact success  Organizational policies, guidelines, plans and/or standards for conducting work  Scope baseline  Requirements documentation  Teaming agreements  Risk information  Activity-resource requirements  Project schedule  Activity cost estimates  Cost baseline Output:  Procurement Management plan
  53. 53. Procurement Management Plan Template 1. Procurement statement (products or services being considered) 2. Estimate cost 3. Vendor selection (RFI/RFP/etc.) 4. Procurement definition (what items will be procured under what conditions) 5. Selection process criteria 6. Procurement team with contact information and roles 7. Contract type and actions required to initiate 8. Standards for each contract 9. Vendor management (steps to ensure everything received) 10. Sign off
  54. 54. ADDIE: Development and Implementation  Objectives specification  Test design  Sequencing  Learning Strategy Selection
  55. 55. Communication Process
  56. 56. Reviewing Content
  57. 57. Validating Content
  58. 58. ADDIE: Evaluate  Direct and manage project execution  Monitor and control project work, integrated change control
  59. 59. Web 2.0 Tools for Project Management
  60. 60. Overview of PM Reports Using ADDIE 1. Needs Assessment 2. Project Charter 3. Project Design 1. Project Management Plan 2. Scope Statement 3. Work Breakdown Structure 4. Schedule 5. Quality Management Plan 6. Human Resources Plan 7. Risk Management Plan 8. Procurement Plan Phase 1: Analyze Phase 2: Design
  61. 61. Overview of PM Reports Using ADDIE Phase 3: Develop Phase 4: Implement
  62. 62. Overview of PM Reports Using ADDIE Phase 5: Execute
  63. 63. References