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PSY 263 401 Chapter 9 SLIDES
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PSY 263 401 Chapter 9 SLIDES

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  • 1. Chapter 9 Social Cognitive Theory
  • 2. Overview • Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy, and How They Affect Learning • Helping Students Become Self-Regulated Learners • What Research Says About Social Cognitive Theory • Using Technology to Promote Self-Regulated Learning © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9|2
  • 3. Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy, and How They Affect Learning • Social cognitive theory assumes:  People are the main cause of their own behavior (personal agency)  Personal agency due to self-regulation and self-efficacy © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9|3
  • 4. Self-Regulation • Self-Regulation  Altering behavior in consistent and appropriate ways to various task demands without being directed to do so – When applied to classroom learning, it means using the right set of learning techniques for a particular task © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9|4
  • 5. The Role of Self-Efficacy in SelfRegulation • The Role of Self-Efficacy in Self-Regulation  Self-efficacy beliefs affect many aspects of selfregulation – – – – Optimistic or pessimistic thoughts Approach or avoid tasks High or low motivation Persevere for long or short periods when tasks are difficult – Use of more effective or less effective learning skills – Motivated or demoralized by failure  Students with high self-efficacy more likely to use selfregulating learning skills than students low in self-efficacy © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9|5
  • 6. The Role of Self-Efficacy in SelfRegulation Cont. • The Role of Self-Efficacy in Self-Regulation  Factors That Affect Self-Efficacy – Performance Accomplishments – Verbal Persuasion – Emotional Arousal – Vicarious Experience © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9|6
  • 7. The Role of Self-Efficacy in SelfRegulation Part 3 • The Role of Self-Efficacy in Self-Regulation  Types of Behaviors Affected by Self-Efficacy – Selection Processes – Cognitive Processes – Motivational Processes – Affective Processes © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9|7
  • 8. The Components of a Self-Regulatory System • The Components of a Self-Regulatory System  Forethought Phase – Planning  set goals  formulate a strategy to achieve those goals – Self-motivational beliefs  self-efficacy beliefs  outcome expectations  intrinsic interest  goal orientation  epistemological beliefs © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9|8
  • 9. The Components of a Self-Regulatory System – Performance Phase • The Components of a Self-Regulatory System  Performance Phase – Self-control  focus on task, ignore distractions  think about the steps involved in completing a task – Self-observation (self-monitoring)  track performance  try different approaches to learning © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9|9
  • 10. The Components of a Self-Regulatory System – Self Reflection Phase • The Components of a Self-Regulatory System  Self-Reflection Phase – Was the result acceptable?  evaluate performance in one of four ways: mastery of teacher’s objectives, comparison with past performance, comparison with classmates, contribution to group effort  attribute outcomes to effort, ability, task difficulty, luck – Decide whether and how to improve  See Online Video Case “Performance Assessment: Student Presentations in a High School English Class” © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9 | 10
  • 11. Helping Students Become Self-Regulated Learners • How Well Prepared Are Students to Be SelfRegulated Learners?  Many, perhaps most, do not self-regulate systematically or consistently  Rote rehearsal, simple organizational schemes, and various cueing devices account for tactics most use  Most students will require several years of systematic instruction to become proficient self-regulated learners © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9 | 11
  • 12. The Nature of Learning Tactics and Strategies • The Nature of Learning Tactics and Strategies  Learning Strategy – A general plan that a learner formulates for achieving a somewhat distant academic goal  Learning Tactic – A specific technique that a learner uses to accomplish an immediate learning objective © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9 | 12
  • 13. Helping Students Become Self-Regulated Learners – Types of Tactics • Types of Tactics  Memory-Directed Tactics – Techniques that help produce accurate storage and retrieval of information  Comprehension-Directed Tactics – Techniques that aid in understanding the meaning of ideas and their interrelationships © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9 | 13
  • 14. Helping Students Become Self-Regulated Learners – Memory-Directed Tactics • Memory-Directed Tactics  Rehearsal – Rote rehearsal – Cumulative rehearsal  Mnemonic Devices – Rhyme – Acronym – Acrostic – Method of Loci – Keyword © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9 | 14
  • 15. Why Mnemonic Devices are Effective • Why Mnemonic Devices are Effective  They make information easier to encode and retrieve because they. . . – provide a context in which items can be organized – allow familiar and more meaningful items to be associated with new items – provide retrieval cues – force the learner to be an active participant © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9 | 15
  • 16. Why You Should Teach Students How to Use Mnemonic Devices • Why You Should Teach Students How to Use Mnemonic Devices  They reduce the amount of time spent looking up facts  Effective problem solving requires ready access to an organized and meaningful knowledge base  Students learn that the ability to store and recall large amounts of information is an acquired capability that anyone can acquire © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9 | 16
  • 17. Comprehension-Directed Tactics • Comprehension-Directed Tactics  Self-Questioning and Peer-Questioning – Question stems help students ask appropriate questions about ideas and their interrelationships.  Concept Mapping – A technique for identifying, visually organizing, and representing the relationships among a set of ideas © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9 | 17
  • 18. Self-Questioning Stems • • • • • • • • • What is a new example of …? How would you use … to …? What would happen if …? What are the strengths and weaknesses of …? What do we already know about …? How does … tie in with what we learned before? Explain why… Explain how… How does … affect …? © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. • What is the meaning of …? • Why is … important? • What is the difference between … and …? • How are … and … similar? • What is the best …, and why? • What are some possible solutions to the problem of …? • Compare … and … with regard to …? • How does … cause …? • What do you think causes…? 9 | 18
  • 19. Conclusions Regarding Learning Tactics • Conclusions Regarding Learning Tactics  Students will not learn about tactics and become skilled at using them on their own--they need to be systematically taught.  Tactics should not be taught in isolation, but as part of a broad learning strategy.  See Online Video Case “Metacognition: Helping Students Become Strategic Learners” © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9 | 19
  • 20. Supporting Students’ Strategy Use • Supporting Students’ Strategy Use  Remind students to formulate new strategies whenever the task situation changes (for example, type of information, teaching method, exams, and motivation level)  Give students feedback about the nature of the strategies they create and how well they work  Tell students that they are capable of becoming selfregulated learners  Give students all the task information they need to become strategic learners © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9 | 20
  • 21. What Research Says About Social Cognitive Theory • Most results are positive and consistent with what the theory predicts. For example . . .  Self-efficacy, epistemological beliefs, and self-regulation are positively related to each other and to higher levels of achievement  Letting students watch classmates solve math problems, produces higher scores on a test of similar problems and higher levels of selfefficacy for math problem solving than letting students watch an adult or follow written instructions  Learning about and watching a classmate use a self-regulating strategy for writing leads to higher quality essays than normal writing instruction  A reciprocal teaching strategy produces better reading comprehension than standard reading instruction  See Online Video Case “Modeling: Social Cognitive Theory in a High School Chemistry Lesson” © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9 | 21
  • 22. Using Technology to Promote Self-Regulated Learning • Modeling  Characters in a computerized simulation can serve as effective problem solving models • Providing Cognitive and Metacognitive Feedback  Computer programs can help students improve their summarizing and problem solving skills by providing opportunities for practice and feedback • Providing Scaffolded Instruction  Computer programs can provide students with the supports they need to acquire and refine new skills © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9 | 22

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