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Chapter 7
Behavioral
Learning
Theory:
Operant
Conditioning
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 2
Overview
• Operant Conditioning
• Educational Applications of Operant
...
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 3
Operant Conditioning
• Major Theorist
 B. F. Skinner
• Basic View
 V...
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 4
Basic Principles of Operant
Conditioning
• Basic Principles of Operant...
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 5
Basic Principles of Operant
Conditioning – Cont.
• Basic Principles of...
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 6
Operant Conditioning – Generalization
and Discrimination
• Basic Princ...
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 7
Operant Conditioning Concepts
• Basic Principles of Operant Conditioni...
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 8
Schedules of Reinforcement
• Schedules of Reinforcement
 Fixed Interv...
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 9
Educational Applications of
Operant Conditioning Principles
• Basic Ap...
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 10
Educational Applications of
Operant Conditioning Principles - CBI
• C...
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 11
Educational Applications of
Operant Conditioning Principles –
Researc...
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 12
Behavior Modification
• Behavior modification
 Shaping
 Token econo...
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 13
Shaping
• Behavior Modification
 Shaping
– Select the target behavio...
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 14
Token Economies and Contracting
• Behavior Modification (cont’d)
 To...
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 15
Extinction and Punishment
• Behavior Modification (cont’d)
 Extincti...
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 16
Punishment cont.
• Behavior Modification (cont’d)
 Punishment
– Corp...
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 17
Should You Use Behavior Modification?
• Behavior Modification (cont’d...
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PSY 263 401 CHAPTER 7 SLIDES

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Transcript of "PSY 263 401 CHAPTER 7 SLIDES"

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Behavioral Learning Theory: Operant Conditioning
  2. 2. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 2 Overview • Operant Conditioning • Educational Applications of Operant Conditioning Principles
  3. 3. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 3 Operant Conditioning • Major Theorist  B. F. Skinner • Basic View  Voluntary responses are strengthened or weakened as a result of their consequences • Original Research  Rats in Skinner boxes
  4. 4. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 4 Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning • Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning  Positive Reinforcement – Strengthening a behavior (increasing the probability that it will reoccur) by presenting a positive stimulus immediately after the behavior has occurred  Negative Reinforcement – Strengthening a behavior (increasing the probability that it will reoccur) by removing a negative stimulus immediately after the behavior has occurred
  5. 5. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 5 Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning – Cont. • Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning  Presentation Punishment (Type I) – Weakening a behavior (decreasing the probability that it will reoccur) by presenting an aversive stimulus immediately after the behavior has occurred  Removal Punishment (Type II, or time-out) – Weakening a behavior (decreasing the probability that it will reoccur) by removing a positive stimulus immediately after the behavior has occurred  Extinction – When a previously reinforced behavior decreases in frequency and eventually ceases altogether because reinforcement is withheld
  6. 6. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 6 Operant Conditioning – Generalization and Discrimination • Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning  Generalization – When an individual learns to make a particular response to a particular stimulus and then makes the same or a similar response in a slightly different situation  Discrimination – When an individual learns to notice the unique aspects of seemingly similar situations and thus responds differently
  7. 7. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 7 Operant Conditioning Concepts • Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning  Shaping – Reducing complex behaviors into a sequence of more simple behaviors – Reinforcing successive approximations to the complex behavior
  8. 8. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 8 Schedules of Reinforcement • Schedules of Reinforcement  Fixed Interval Schedule – Reinforcement of a desired behavior occurs only after a specific amount of time has elapsed  Variable Interval Schedule – Reinforcement of a desired behavior occurs only after variable intervals of time have elapsed  Fixed Ratio Schedule – Reinforcement of a desired behavior occurs only after a specific number of those responses are made  Variable Ratio Schedule – Reinforcement of a desired behavior occurs only after variable numbers of responses are made
  9. 9. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 9 Educational Applications of Operant Conditioning Principles • Basic Approach  Know exactly what you want students to know and be able to do  Teach basic ideas first, then more complex ones  Present material in small, logical steps  Let students learn at their own pace
  10. 10. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 10 Educational Applications of Operant Conditioning Principles - CBI • Computer-Based Instruction (CBI)  Drill-and-practice programs Tutorial programs Problem-solving programs: simulations and games  See Online Video Case “Integrating Technology to Improve Student Learning: A High School Science Simulation”
  11. 11. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 11 Educational Applications of Operant Conditioning Principles – Research on CBI • Research on the Effects of CBI  CBI can produce higher levels of learning than conventional instruction, but the effect is usually moderate  CBI should be used in moderation as very high (as well as low) levels of use are associated with lower achievement  CBI should never be seen as a substitute for high-quality teaching
  12. 12. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 12 Behavior Modification • Behavior modification  Shaping  Token economies  Contingency contracts  Extinction, time-out, and response cost  Punishment  See Online Video Case “Classroom Management: Handling a Student with Behavior Problems”
  13. 13. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 13 Shaping • Behavior Modification  Shaping – Select the target behavior – Obtain realistic baseline data – Select potential reinforcers (e.g., Premack Principle) – Reinforce successive approximations for the target behavior each time they occur – Reinforce the newly established target behavior each time it occurs – Reinforce the target behavior on a variable reinforcement schedule
  14. 14. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 14 Token Economies and Contracting • Behavior Modification (cont’d)  Token Economies – Use of items that have no intrinsic value but can be redeemed at some future time for valued items or activities to shape and reinforce desired behavior – More flexible than traditional reinforcers  Contingency Contracting – A written or oral agreement in which the student agrees to exhibit certain behaviors under particular conditions and the teacher agrees to provide an acceptable form of reinforcement
  15. 15. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 15 Extinction and Punishment • Behavior Modification (cont’d)  Extinction, Time-Out, and Response Cost – Extinction involves ignoring an undesired behavior – Time-out involves placing a student in an environment in which he or she cannot obtain reinforcement after an undesired behavior has occurred – Response cost, which is usually used with token economies, involves taking away a certain amount of previously earned tokens after an undesired behavior
  16. 16. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 16 Punishment cont. • Behavior Modification (cont’d)  Punishment – Corporal punishment is controversial because: * Parents believe it works but lobbying groups oppose it on moral grounds and because research support is lacking * Researchers disagree about meaning of existing research * Much of the research is correlational, from which cause & effect conclusions cannot be drawn
  17. 17. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 | 17 Should You Use Behavior Modification? • Behavior Modification (cont’d)  Should You Use Behavior Modification? – Many students will eventually catch on to the fact that they get reinforced only when they do what the teacher wants them to do – Behavior modification methods, because of their potential power, may lend themselves to inappropriate or even unethical uses
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